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Arms and flag of San Marino – recently redefined Marcus E. V. Schmöger 1. Introduction Although of ancient origin, neither the arms nor the flag of San Marino had been properly defined by law until 2011. This resulted in a great variety of versions of the arms as well as the flag. The Sammarinese government thus decided to standardize the design of the arms and the flag, and the respective law was adopted this summer. In addition to discussing this new law I want to give an overview of the history of the arms and the flag, in particular focussing on a few frequently cited facts and dates that look a lot differently, if considered in more detail. 2. San Marino San Marino is a small republic with only about 30,000 inhabitants on a surface of 61 km². Totally surrounded by Italy, it is situated in north central Italy close to the Adriatic Coast. The official name is Repubblica di San Marino (Republic of San Marino), sometimes also used is Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino (Most Serene Republic of San Marino).
Although the legend says, that San Marino was founded by a certain stonecutter Marinus (later Saint Marinus) in 301,1 historical evidence for a first community dates to much later centuries.2 Having achieved political autonomy in the Middle Ages, the laws (including constitutional ones) were codified in 1600 as Leges Statutae Sancti Marini (Statutory Laws of San Marino).3 3. The arms The coat-of-arms of San Marino first appears in three seals of the 14th and 15th century surviving in the State Archive of San Marino (fig. 1). The two older seals already show the main elements of the Sammarinese arms, namely on a mountain three towers topped with feathers; the third seal shows a more comprehensive view of the city.4 A seal from 1560 for the first time shows the contents of the arms in a shield topped with a crown; later seals differ in the crown and other stylistic details, e.g. the seal of 1824 showing the points of the crown as feathers like on the top of the towers (fig. 2).7 The Dizionario shows a lot of seals of various
Fig. 1: The three earliest surviving seals of San Marino, dating to the first half of the 14th century (left), and to the 15th century (centre and right).5
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Fig. 2: Later seals: from 1560, about 1824 and about 1850 (from left to right).6
Fig. 3: Several depictions of the Sammarinese arms after 1862: drawing by Francesco Azzurri, about 1885;14 from the Dizionario 1898,11 from Flaggenbuch 1939,12 and from the official plate 1963 (from left to right).13
eras, without dating them, though.8 On 6 April 1862 finally a decree established the current arms, in particular describing the crown in detail: “that the arms of the republic must have the closed crown, symbol of sovereignty, with two rays, and topped with a big pearl and a cross above, and that all the seals of the state have to change in this way”9 (my translation). However, the first legal definition of the whole arms appears in the 1892 Law on the Consular Corps (Legge pel Corpo Consolare): “In the arms of the Republic the shield has a field of Azure, three mountains of Vert, the towers of Argent, windowed, embattled and masoned Sable, topped with ostrich feathers Argent. The two branches, crossed in saltire under the shield, are Vert, with berries and acorns of Or. The scroll is white with the motto LIBERTAS in Azure letters. The crown is Or with pearls.”10 (my translation). NFK 53-H11.indd 16
It seems that the architect of the new government palace (Palazzo Pubblico), Francesco Azzurri, designed the drawing of the arms as we know it now in 188514 (fig. 3). A lot of stylistic details, however, differed in the depictions over time, mainly affecting the crown, the scroll with inscription LIBERTAS and the two branches of laurel and oak. The most official drawing was published in Rossi’s book of 1963,15 but also on a plate issued by the government and reprinted in The Flag Bulletin.16 A lot of versions of the arms, either historical or recent, can be found in the government brochure issued for the exhibition in summer 2011.17 Several others, photographed by me, are shown in fig. 4. Many different variants are also displayed by the police forces, as exemplified in fig. 5. Italian and foreign books on flags and coatsof-arms sometimes showed rather strange depictions of the arms (see below). 16.10.2011 14:08:55
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Fig. 4: Post-1945 usage of the Sammarinese arms: official plate on the Honorary Consulate in Munich;18 car plate mod. 1976;19 car plate mod. 199320 (from left to right).
Fig. 5: A few emblems used by the Sammarinese guard and police forces: cockade with arms on bicorne of the Guardia del Consiglio Grande e Generale; helmet mod. 1960 of the former Vigili Urbani; older version of the badge of the Gendarmeria; sleeve patch of the Corpo Guardia delle Milizie21 (from left to right).
4. The flag 4.1. The 1465 flag The relevance of a flag for the Sammarinese community is shown by the mention of it in the rules for the inauguration procedure of the Capitani Reggenti, the two heads-ofstate, in the Leges Statutae Sancti Marini: “same Captains, having received from the predecessors the flag and seals of the Republic, together with the keys of the gates and the fortresses of the aforementioned country, ascend, under the protection of the Lord, to the bench and assume their office”22 (my translation). Before the current white-blue bicolour, there is some, although rather vague, evidence NFK 53-H11.indd 17
for a different flag. The source is a receipt in the Sammarinese State Archive regarding the purchase in 1465 of an assortment of taffeta and other material for making a flag.23 The flag variously called “stendardo” (standard) or “pennone” (pennon) is not described with its design. The only sure things that we know about the flag are, that there was payment for: – 1.24 pounds of “taffetà di grana” (crimson taffeta) – 1.03 pounds of “taffetà giallo e bianco ed alessandrino” (yellow and white and, alexandrine taffeta); Malagola explains the colour “alessandrino” as “paonazzo” (a kind of violet), whereas it might be more close to blue, “perhaps with a metallic reflexion or tending to a blueish violet”.24 16.10.2011 14:09:05
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Fig. 6: Modern reconstructions of the 1465 flag: Gonfalone in the Palazzo Pubblico;31 standard on the painting by Emilio Retrosi in the Palazzo Pubblico.32
Fig. 7: Various modern allusions to the 1465 flag: hanging flags on the Piazza della Libertà;33 trumpet banner of the Guardia del Consiglio Grande e Generale;34 trumpet banner of the crossbow archers’ federation35 (from left to right).
– 0.02 pounds of “seta di grana da cucire” (crimson silk for sewing) – 0.79 pounds of fringe – a certain amount of different yellow and red cloth for making a flag pouch – sewing of the flag by a certain Christofano di Chalvano – painting on the flag by a certain Giovanni di Ser Giovanni (a.k.a. Lo Scheggia), a renowned painter in Florence at the time,25 for three large florins and 52 solidi. “The price of the San Marino banner is handsome and would indicate an important commission.”26 From the amounts of differently coloured cloth Malagola has derived a (to me somewhat unconvincing) reconstruction of the flag. This written reconstruction employs the crimson
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cloth for the fly of the flag and the other colours for three stripes on the hoist, the white in the centre containing the painting either of the Sammarinese arms or of an image of Saint Marinus. One flag roughly corresponding to this reconstruction is a hanging flag (gonfalone) in the government palace (Palazzo Pubblico), of uncertain date, but certainly not much before 1900: this shows three stripes of violet, white and orange; a version of the arms in the centre, together with the inscription LIBERTAS / TERRAE S. MARINI (Liberty / Lands of St Marinus) (fig. 6). Reconstructions as a horizontal flag of modern format can be found at Roberto Breschi’s website27 and on Wikipedia.28 A flag of more renaissance
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Fig. 8: Sammarinese flag in the Legge pel corpo consulare (appendix).10
design and more according to Malagola’s reconstruction is shown on the painting by Emilio Retrosi in the Sala del Consiglio of the Palazzo Pubblico (1894), showing the legendary apparition of Saint Marinus to his people;29 the standard shows three stripes of red, white and yellow, the swallowtailed fly is red, on the three stripes there are three shields, the central one being the Sammarinese arms (fig. 6) (interestingly, the original draft of the painting showed a blue-white bicolour30). The three-striped flag of red/purple-white-yellow has become popular for historizing flags in San Marino: three other instances are shown in fig. 7. 4.2. The white-blue flag The exact introduction date of the current white-blue flag cannot be pinpointed either: the usually cited years 1797 and 1862 are definitely not correct, at least if the flag is meant. The year 1797 sees the official introduction of a cockade, not really surprising, as cockades were very important and popular in the times of French revolution: “that our national cockade has to be white and dark blue”36 (my translation). If this cockade was based on an already existing flag, or if the flag was made after the cockade, is not known. What is worth mentioning, is the NFK 53-H11.indd 19
fact, that the term used in 1797, “turchino”, is usually translated as dark blue; whereas the term used later for the flag,10 “celestino”, is usually perceived as light blue. The first evidence for a flag can then be found in 1829, when a flag donated by a certain Adaucto Diotallevj was hoisted, probably for the first time, on the first tower (Guaita). In 1854, a formula was instituted for the oath of allegiance of Sammarinese soldiers, including the sentence “and not to have any other colours than only the two of the flag of our republic” (my translation).37 1862 is the introduction year of the modified arms with the closed crown as discussed above. Of course this would mean a slightly changed flag design, at least after the old flags would be worn out. One should mention, however, that the 1862 decree does only regulate the modification of the seals; the flag is not mentioned at all. There are a few late 19th-century depictions of the flag: the first available legal text on the flag is the law from 1892, referring to the Consular Corps, where the flag is mentioned: “§ 49. – Every consular office must also be furnished with the flag of the republic, that will be hoisted on the Sammarinese national holidays, i.e. 5 Februar (day of St Agatha), 1 April (inauguration of the regency), 3 16.10.2011 14:09:22
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Fig. 9: Flag plate from the Dizionario.39
September (day of St Marinus), 1 October (inauguration of the regency), and on the national holidays of the states where the consuls are accredited.”38 (my translation). In particular the flag is shown in the appendix of the law (fig. 8), with the description: “Sammarinese flag. (Staff striped, wrapped with light blue and white velvet; cloth white in the upper part and light blue in the lower, overall painted in colour the arms of the republic; white and light blue fringe; streamers: one light blue and one white; cords, with two tassels, Argent; finial and ferrule in gilded metal)”10 (my translation). Slightly later the flags are shown in the Dizionario (fig. 9): the flag plate shows the “flag of the Sammarinese government
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offices” (with arms and yellow fringe), the “flag of the Republic of San Marino” (flag without arms) and the cockade. Both flags are shown on flagstaffs with spearhead finial and cravats.39 Later foreign publications show a wide variety of versions of the flag (fig. 10). For instance, the image shown in the German Flaggenbuch of 1926,40 displays a rather simplified drawing of the arms with a strange crown; interestingly, very similar images appeared in the 1934 National Geographic issue41 and in the Italian flagbook of the same year.42 A very detailed and realistic version is shown in the German Flaggenbuch of 1939.12 The most official drawing was published
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Fig. 10: The Sammarinese flag in several flagbooks: National Geographic 1917;43 German Flaggenbuch 1926;40 German Flaggenbuch 193912 (from left to right).
Fig. 11: Sammarine flag on the official plate 1963.17
in Rossi’s book of 1963,15 but also on a plate issued by the government and reprinted in The Flag Bulletin16 (fig. 11). 4.3. Usage and ratio of the flag There are a few open questions regarding the Sammarinese flags: one is of course the variation of the arms on the flag, as evidenced by a few photographs of real flags (fig. 12–14): this was one of the reasons for the recent flag legislation. Even official flags, as shown in fig. 12, did deviate from official descriptions, for instance by including a red cap in the crown and displaying the letters on the scroll in yellow. A different question is the ratio of the
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flag (see table): although many post-1945 flagbooks show it as 3:4, this ratio is far from being the obviously correct ratio. The first legal text gives a square image (fig. 8), the Dizionario gives different ratios for the civil flag and the government flag (fig. 9), and the 1963 official plate gives a 4:5 ratio (fig. 11). De facto most flags are in about 2:3 anyway (fig. 12–14), so the draft of the new law was rather pragmatic in prescribing this ratio. However, the final version settled with 3:4 as the main official ratio (see below). Finally, the relationship between the flag with arms and the simple flag without arms is definitely not clear. On the one hand there are of course publications like the Dizionario that show a differentiation roughly between
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Fig. 12: The Sammarinese flag in use: flying on a government building;44 flag bought in a souvenir shop in San Marino45 (from left to right).
Fig. 13: Several recent variants of the Sammarinese flags: on a shop in San Marino;44 from ebay.de;46 from ebay.it (from left to right).
Fig. 14: Usage of different display versions of the Sammarinese flag: parade flag with arms;47 hoisted flag without arms;48 hanging flag without arms49 (from left to right).
a usage as government flag and as civil flag (fig. 9). This is, rather unsurprisingly, taken up by most vexillological publications (e.g. Flaggenbuch 1939 in fig. 10). However, neither the official plate of 196313 nor the current flag legislation even mention the flag without arms.50 Current practice also shows no real differentiation: the only instances
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for a flag without arms that I could find, are one display of flags near the Italian border and the ceremonial use of hanging flags, particularly during the inauguration of the Capitani Reggenti twice a year (fig. 14). Another, different question is the civil ensign of San Marino, as shown in the 1917 National Geographic issue43 (fig. 10), being a flag of
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Nordisk Flaggkontakt Table: Ratio of the flags shown in different publications Year
1892 Legge pel corpo consolare 1898 Montalbo: Dizionario bibliografico iconografico 1917 McCandless & Grosvenor: Flags of the World 1926 Reichs-Marine-Amt: Flaggenbuch 1934 Grosvenor & Showalter: Flags of the World 1934 Ministero della Marina: Raccolta delle bandiere 1939 OKM: Flaggenbuch 1950 Ministero della Difesa: Raccolta delle bandiere 1958 Kannik: Farbiges Flaggen-Lexikon 1963 San Marino: bandiera ufficiale, stemma ufficiale 1963 Rossi: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino 1972 Louda: Flaggen und Wappen der Welt von A-Z 1975 Smith: Die Zeichen der Menschen und Völker 1990 Herzog: Lexikon Wappen und Flaggen 1992 Hesmer: Flaggen und Wappen der Welt 1999 Znamierowski: World Encyclopedia of flags 2000 SHOM: Album des pavillons 2011 Progetto di Legge costituzionale, bandiera e stemma ufficiale 2011 Legge costituzionale, bandiera e stemma ufficiale
seven stripes, alternating blue and white. I have not found any other evidence for this flag and I seriously doubt it ever existed. My tentative explanation would be that it is in one way or another (transmission or translation error, for instance) derived from the multiply-striped ribbons and sashes of the Ordine al Merito Civile e Militare (Order for civil and military merit),51 for instance worn by the Capitani Reggenti for ceremonial occasions. 4.4. Municipal flags The nine municipalities of San Marino, called castelli (castles), traditionally have their own coats-of-arms.11 With the decree of 1997, these were newly defined; in addition, flags and gonfaloni (Italian form of processional banners) were introduced.52 The flags follow a common pattern, namely the white-blue flag with the municipal arms instead of the state arms, and the name of the municipality along the hoist (sometimes this inscription is ommitted). The gonfaloni show the arms NFK 53-H11.indd 23
Type of flag
Flag with arms Flag with arms Flag without arms Flag with arms Civil ensign (multi-striped) Flag with arms Flag with arms Flag with arms Flag with arms Flag with arms Flag without arms/flag with arms Flag with arms Flag with arms Flag without arms/flag with arms Flag without arms/flag with arms Flag without arms/flag with arms Flag with arms Flag without arms Flag without arms/flag with arms Flag with arms
1:1 2:3 3:4 1:1 1:1 3:4 2:3 4:5 2:3 2:3 5:7 4:5 4:5 3:4 3:4 3:4 3:4 3:4 3:4 2:3
Flag with arms
on an orange field bordered maroon, over the arms the name of the castello in yellow characters.53 5. The new law As we have seen, the flag was not really defined in laws and other accessible legal texts. Except for the Legge pel Corpo Consolare, it was mentioned only passingly a few times, never properly defining it. For instance, in 1936, flag days and a few rules for flying flags were prescribed;54 the guard and police forces have to salute and honour the flag, as written in their 1990 regulations.55 However, it was the wide variation of designs of the arms (including the arms on the flag) in our times of strict adherence to Corporate Design, that obviously was unbearable to the Sammarinese authorities: the idea was to clearly define it like a trademark.56 A text from the Ministry of the Interior57 explains a little bit the history of legislation on arms and flag in San Marino, but also the historical sources for 16.10.2011 14:09:54
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REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO We, the Captains Regent the Most Serene Republic of San Marino According to art. 4 of the Constitutional Law no. 185/2005 and art. 6 of the Organic Law no. 186/2005; we promulgate and mandate the publication of the following Constitutional Law approved by the Great and General Council during its session of 20 July 2011 with 45 votes in favour, 2 votes against and 1 abstention: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 22 July 2011 No. 1 FLAG AND OFFICIAL ARMS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO INTEGRATION INTO THE LAW OF 8 JULY 1974 NO. 59 Art. 1 To the Law of 8 July 1974 no. 59 the following article is added: “Art. 2a (flag and arms) The flag of the Republic of San Marino consists of two fields, divided horizontally, the upper one white, the lower one light blue, in the center showing the official arms. The official arms of the Republic is surmounted by a closed crown, symbol of sovereignty. The shield is Azure with three mountains Vert, three towers Argent, windowed, embattled and masoned Sable, topped by ostrich plumes Argent. The shield is decorated by two branches Vert, crossed in saltire under the shield, the one of laurel, the other of oak, fructed Or. On a ribbon Argent the motto LIBERTAS in capitals Sable.”. Art. 2 (flag) The flag of the Republic of San Marino is defined by the graphical model that forms the appendix A of the present law. Art.3 (official arms) The official arms of the Republic of San Marino is defined by the graphical model that forms the appendix B of the present law. Art. 4 (Provisos) The usage of the official arms is regulated by ordinary law. The regulation of the usage of the flag is assigned to executive order. Art. 5 (Entry in force) The present law comes into force the 15th day following its legal publication. Given at Our Residence, on 22 July 2011/1710 since the foundation of the republic THE CAPTAINS REGENT Maria Luisa Berti – Filippo Tamagnini THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INTERNAL AFFAIRS Valeria Ciavatta
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Nordisk Flaggkontakt the redrawing of the arms; it also describes that many countries mention the symbols in their constitution, so San Marino should do likewise. The bill (Progetto di legge) was introduced into the legislative procedure on 27 May 2011.58 After the first reading (9 June 2011) the government submitted modified drawings,59 mainly by changing the original ratio of the flag from 2:3 to 3:4 and including colour definitions in Pantone in addition to CMYK. The law was then adopted by the parliament (Consiglio Grande e Generale) after second reading on 20 July 2011;60 it is dated 22 July 2011, was published 25 July 2011, and came into force on 9 August 2011. This constitutional law50 basically regulates two things: how the arms and flag have to look like, and that the legal definition of the symbols is integrated into the constitution of 1974.61 It includes construction sheets and definitions of the colours. The new drawing of the arms mainly differs from former official patterns in the following details: the towers in the shield appear as hills instead of separate steep mountains; the gems in the crown are not coloured; the writing on the scroll is in black; the laurel fruits are golden. The new drawing of the flag defines the size and position of the arms; the ratio is set to 3:4, but allows a 2:3 ratio “for international uses and/or when specifically envisaged”. A different bill, regulating the protection of the arms,62 is still in the legislative process (as of 9 October 2011).
Notes 1 Donati (2010), pp. 197ff. 2 Centro di Documentazione (1985), vol. 1, p. 77ff. 3 Leges Statutae Sancti Marini (1600). 4 Malagola (1981), pp. 190–191. 5 Rossi (1963), p. 19. 6 Montalbo (1898), pp. 292, 179. 7 Malagola (1981), pp. 52–54. 8 Montalbo (1898), pp. XXVI, 104, 106, 116, 120, 179, 187,
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243, 263, 284, 292, 295, 319. 9 Malagola (1981), p. 52. 10 Legge pel corpo consolare 1892, table with explanation. 11 Montalbo (1898), table I. 12 Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine (1992), p. 153. 13 San Marino (1963), collection Jos Poels; similar in Rossi (1963), p. 95–96. 14 Zucconi (1995), p. 106. 15 Rossi (1963), p. 95–96. 16 San Marino (1963). 17 Michelotti & Rossi (2011). 18 Photographed 6 October 2011. 19 Photographed 2 June 2008; according to Decreto 1976 20 Photographed 2 June 2008; according to Decreto 1993 21 http://www.polizeisammler.de/berichte/san-marino/s-m-guardia.html. 22 Leges Statutae Sancti Marini (1600), rubrica XIV. 23 Malagola (1981), pp. 154–156. 24 Battaglioli (2010), p. 65. 25 Bellosi & Haines (1999); Strehlke (2004), pp. 379ff. 26 E-mail from Margaret Haines, 4 October 2011. 27 http://www.rbvex.it/sanmarino.html. 28 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_San_Marino. 29 Zucconi (1995), pp. 110ff. 30 Buscarini (2001), p. 20. 31 Centro di Documentazione (1985), vol. 1, p. 284. 32 Buscarini (2001), p. 54. 33 http://www.globopix.net/foto/emiliaromagna/piazza-liberta-palazzogoverno.jpg. 34 Guardia del CGG (2003), p. 12. 35 http://www.federazionebalestrieri.sm. 36 Malagola (1981), p. 54. 37 Casali (2008), p. 211. 38 Legge pel corpo consolare 1892, §§ 48–51. 39 Montalbo (1898), plate after p. 12. 40 Reichs-Marine-Amt (1926), p. 100. 41 Grosvenor & Showalter (1934). 42 Ministero della Marina (1934). 43 McCandless, Byron & Grosvenor, Gilbert (1917). 44 Photographed 2 June 2008. 45 Bought 2 June 2008, now in collection Schmöger. 46 http://www.ebay.de/itm/220381947460. 47 Rossi (1976). 48 Photographed 2 June 2008, at Dogana near the border to Italy. 49 Centro di Documentazione (1985), vol. 2, p. 492. 50 Legge costituzionale n. 1 (2011). 51 Montalbo (1898). 52 Decreto n. 40 (1997). 53 http://www.giuntedicastello.sm. 54 Legge n. 10 (1936). 55 Legge n. 15 (1990). 56 http://www.interni.segreteria.sm/on-line/Home/Comunicazione/Risp osteainterpellanze/articolo25001636.html. 57 http://www.interni.segreteria.sm/on-line/Home/documento250436 47.html. 58 http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/on-line/Home/La voriCon siliari/VerbaliSedute/documento17043612.html. 59 http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/on-line/Home/Lav oriCon siliari/VerbaliSedute/documento17044304.html. 60 http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/on-line/Home/La voriCon siliari/VerbaliSedute/documento17045463.html. 61 Legge n. 59 (1974). 62 http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/on-line/Home/La voriCon siliari/Dettaglidelleconvocazioni/documento17043609.html.
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Nordisk Flaggkontakt Literature Battaglioli, Annarita (2010) Pupattole e abiti delle dame estensi: ricerche di Luigi Alberto Gandini. Modena (Mucchi Editore). Bellosi, Luciano & Haines, Margaret (1999) Lo Scheggia. Firenze (Maschietto & Musolino). Buscarini, Cristoforo (2001) Retrosi: Antologia di una tempera, con brani sulla storia della Repubblica. Milano (Silvana Editoriale). Casali, Verter (2008) La bandiera sammarinese. In: Pivato, Stefano & Ridolfi, Maurizio (eds.) I colori della politica – passioni, emozioni e rappresentazioni nell’età contemporanea, pp. 207–213. Quaderni del Centro Sammarinese di Studi Storici no. 27. San Marino (Guardigli Editore). Centro di Documentazione della Biblioteca di Stato della Repubblica di San Marino (ed.) (1985) Storia illustrata della Repubblica di San Marino (3 volumes). San Marino (Edizioni AEIP). Donati, Andrea (2010) San Marino tra storia e leggenda; da Omero a san Pier Damiani; edizione critica della Vita Sanctorum Mariani et Leonis; fonti, documenti, manoscritti, incunaboli. San Marino (Lucio Amati Editore). Grosvenor, Gilbert & Showalter, William J. (1934) Flags of the World. National Geographic Magazine Vol. LXVI, No. 3, pp. 338–396. Guardia del CGG, Comando della (ed.) (2003) Istituzione, storia, evoluzione della Guardia del Consiglio Grande e Generale della Repubblica di San Marino. San Marino (Guardia del CGG), see http://www. guardiadelconsiglio.sm/libro/libro_GCGG1k2.pdf
Herzog, Hans-Ulrich (1990) Lexikon Flaggen und Wappen. Leipzig (Bibliographisches Institut). Hesmer, Karl-Heinz (1992) Flaggen und Wappen der Welt. Gütersloh (Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag). Kannik, Preben (1958) Das farbige FlaggenNFK 53-H11.indd 27
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Lexikon. Gütersloh (C. Bertelsmann Verlag). Louda, Jiri (1972) Flaggen und Wappen der Welt von A–Z. Gütersloh (Bertelsmann Lexikon-Verlag). Malagola, Carlo (1981) L’archivio governativo della Repubblica di San Marino. San Marino (AIEP editore). Reprint of 1891 edition. McCandless, Byron & Grosvenor, Gilbert (1917) Flags of the World (Our Flag Number). National Geographic Magazine Vol. XXXII, No. 4, pp. 281–420. Michelotti, Francesca & Rossi, Silvia (eds.) (2011) Tributo allo stemma – la sovranità della Repubblica di San Marino nei suoi emblemi. San Marino (Segreterie di Stato), see PDF at http://www.interni.segreteria.sm/on-line/Ho me/documento25044139.html. Ministero della Difesa – Marina (1950) Raccolta delle bandiere in uso presso le diverse nazioni. Spoleto (Arti Grafiche Panetto & Petrelli). Ministero della Marina (ed.) (1934) Raccolta delle bandiere, fiamme e insegne in uso presso le diverse nazioni. Roma (Ministero della Marina). Montalbo, Luigi de (1898) Dizionario bibliografico iconografico della Repubblica di San Marino. Paris (Macon, Protat frères Imprimeurs). Reprinted 1986, San Marino (Analisi Trend). Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine (ed.) (1992) Flaggenbuch (Flg.B.). Zwickau (Mauritius Buch Verlag). Reprint of 1939 edition. Reichs-Marine-Amt (ed.) (1926) Flaggenbuch (Fla. B.). Berlin (Reichsdruckerei). Rossi, Giuseppe (1963) La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino – guida ufficiale. San Marino (Editrice Vogarte). Rossi, Giuseppe (1976) Die Republik von San Marino. Cornate d’Adda (Industrie Litografiche ed Affini UNILITO). San Marino (ed.) (ca. 1963) Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino – bandiera 16.10.2011 14:10:16
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ufficiale, stemma ufficiale. Also part of: The Flag Bulletin III no. 2 (1963/64) Service hydrographique et océanographique de la marine (ed.) (2000) Album des pavillons et des marques distinctives. Paris (S.H.O.M.). Smith, Whitney (1975) Die Zeichen der Menschen und Völker. Luzern (Reich Verlag). Strehlke, Carl Brandon (2004) Italian paintings 1250–1450, in the John G. Johnson Collection and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia (Philadelphia Museum of Art). Zucconi, Guido (ed.) (1995) Un palazzo medioevale dell’ottocento: architettura, arte e letteratura nel Palazzo Pubblico di San Marino. Milano (Editoriale Jaca Book).
Legal texts Leges Statutae Sancti Marini (8 October 1600), 1st book, Italian translation see http:// www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/contents/instance18/ files/document/16469leggi_-1.pdf
Legge pel corpo consolare (12 January 1892), see (without plate) http://www.consiglio
grandeegenerale.sm/contents/instance18/files/document/ 16518leggi_49.pdf, printed with plate as: Legge
pel corpo consolare della Repubblica di S. Marino. Bologna (Tipografia Fava e Garagnani). Legge n. 10 (25 August 1936), che regola l’uso della Bandiera nazionale e di quelle estere, see http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/ contents/instance18/files/document/17397leggi_928.pdf
Legge n. 59 (8 July 1974), dichiarazione dei diritti dei cittadini e dei principi fondamentali dell’ordinamento sammarinese, see http://www.
Decreto n. 49 (13 September 1976), modifica dell’art. 11 del Regolamento sulla circolazione dei veicoli del 6 marzo 1922 n. 13 e abrogazione del Decreto 28 gennaio 1963 n. 13, see http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.
Legge n. 15 (26 January 1990), regolamento organico e disciplina dei corpi militari, see
Decreto n. 109 (29 September 1993), modifica disposizioni sulle targhe per veicoli, see http:// www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/contents/instance18/ files/document/21492leggi_5027.pdf
Decreto n. 40 (28 March 1997), istituzione dei nuovi stemmi dei Castelli della Repubblica di San Marino, see http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.
Progetto di legge costituzionale (2011), bandiera e stemma ufficiale della Repubblica di San Marino, integrazione alla Legge 8 Luglio 1974 n. 59, see PDF at http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/on-line/Home/ LavoriConsiliari/VerbaliSedute/documento17043612.html
Legge costituzionale n. 1 (22 July 2011), bandiera e stemma ufficiale della Repubblica di San Marino, integrazione alla Legge 8 Luglio 1974 n. 59, see http://www. consigliograndeegenerale.sm/contents/instance18/files/ document/17044475L.C.001-2011+All.pdf
Progetto di legge ordinaria protezione ed utilizzo dello ufficiale della Repubblica e di altri segni ed emblemi pubblici, see
(2011), stemma stemmi, PDF at
http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm/on-line/ Home/LavoriConsiliari/Dettaglidelleconvocazioni/ documento17043609.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_San_Marino http://www.consigliograndeegenerale.sm http://www.ebay.de http://www.ebay.it http://www.federazionebalestrieri.sm http://www.giuntedicastello.sm/ http://www.globopix.net/foto/emiliaromagna/piazza-libertapalazzo-governo.jpg http://www.interni.segreteria.sm http://www.polizeisammler.de/berichte/san-marino/s-mguardia.html http://www.rbvex.it/sanmarino.html
NFK 53-H11.indd 28
Articolo di Marcus E. V. Schmöger sul Nordisk Flaggkontakt, importante rivista di vessilologia