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2004-2008 Hurricanes Tracking

2008 2007 2006 Legend

1D

1S

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

2005 2004


in 2008 there were 8 hurricanes in the Caribbean 996 people were killed

aftermath of hurricane david in Dominica Hurricanes Gustav and Dean in Jamaica, The Dominican Republic and Haiti.

the destruction cost 39.2 billion dollars


Houston, USA [1,171,768]

New Orleans, USA [775,889]

Miami, USA [981,700]

Altamira, Mexico [209,961]

Bahamas [618,580]

Progresso, Mexico [66,331] Cayman Islands [44,304]

Veracruz, Mexico [551,461]

Puerto Rico [1,892,635]

Cuba [253,743]

British Virgin Islands Anguilla [40,599] [20,299] Haiti [73,266]

Puerto Barrios, Guatemala [198,633]

Dominican Republic [516,390]

American Virgin Islands St. Kitts-Nevis [37,643] [40,599]

Jamaica [902,222] Santo Tomas de Castilla, Guatemala [193,623]

Santa Maria, Columbia [53,426] Barranquilla, Columbia [76,173]

Container Handeling [Tens of Thousands]

Guadeloupe [105,228] Dominica [8256]

Martinique [143,877]

Aruba [72,563]

caribbean ports:

Antigua and Barbuda [44,522]

Cartegena, Columbia [551,865]

St. Vincent & Grenadines [40,599]

Curacao [72,015]

St. Lucia [45,810]

Barbados [72,649]

Grenada [40,599]

Puerto Cabello, Venezuela [629,282]

Trinidad & Tobago [303,393] La Guaira, Venezuela [125,604]


in the world ther are currently over 30 million shipping containers NOT being used Images from pports in New Jersey, New York and Los Angeles


Landfall points & Damage from 2008 Hurricanes

Hurrivcane

TS Laura

TS Cristobal TS Edouard

$ 0.25 millions 6 deaths $ 23 millions 6 deaths

Kyle

TS Marco

$ ∼ 180 millions 25 deaths Arthur

Fay

Dolly $ 1,520 millions

$ 78 millions 5 deaths

21 deaths $ 9.7 millions 9 deaths

Gustav $ 8,300 millions

TD Sixteen Paloma

$ 2,090 millions 1 deaths

Omar

101 deaths

Hanna

$ 160 millions $ 532 deaths

Landfall point

Arthur Ambergris Caye, Belize Bertha Bermuda (direct hit, no landfall) Cristobal Cape Hatteras, North Carolina (direct hit, no landfall) Dolly Cancún, Mexico South Padre Island, Texas Edouard Gilchrist, Texas Fay Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Cabo Cruz, Cuba Matanzas Province, Cuba Key West, Florida Cape Romano, Florida Flagler Beach, Florida Carrabelle, Florida Gustav Jacmel, Haiti Kingston, Jamaica Little Cayman, and CaymanBrac, Cayman Islands (directhit, no landfall) Isla de la Juventud, Cuba Pinar del Río Province, Cuba Cocodrie, Louisiana Hanna Providenciales Inagua, Bahamas (direct hit,no landfall) Northern Hispaniola (directhit, no landfall) Middle Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Islip, New York Connecticut/Rhode Island Border Ike Grand Turk Island Inagua, Bahamas Punto de Sama, Cuba Pinar del Río Province, Cuba Galveston Island, Texas Kyle Yarmouth, Nova Scotia Marco El Laurel, Veracruz Omar US Virgin Islands (direct hit, no landfall) Sixteen El Limón, Honduras Grand Cayman Island (directhit, no landfall) Paloma $ 31,500 millions Little Cayman and Cayman Brac, 126 deaths Cayman Islands Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba Ike TS Nana

3 deaths

$ ∼ 96 millions 1 deaths

Bertha

TS Josephine

Landfall Point Legend

1D 1D

1S 1S

A1 A1

A2 A2

A3 A3

A4 A4

A5 A5


Castries, St. Lucia

container surplus

The world’s introduction of the shipping container resulted in vast improvements in port handling efficiency. Lower shipping and freight charges helped boost trade flows. In today’s society, almost every consumer good spends some time in a shipping container. Today there are about 30 million containers in the world. At the same time, there are an estimated 700,000 sitting in U.S. ports alone due to the exploding growth of imports from China. This problem exist in many countries where their imports exceed their exports. It is cheaper to manufacture a new container in China, than transporting it empty back to where it originated. In port cities and areas around inland freight transit terminals hundreds of thousands of empty containers are piling up.


Houston, USA (2,200,000)

New Orleans, USA (239,124)

Miami, USA (409,719) Altamira, Mexico (162,628) Bahamas (307,451)

Cuba (11,423,952) Puerto Rico (3,958,128)

Cayman Islands (47,862)

Veracruz, Mexico (444,438)

Puerto Barrios, Guatemala (40,900)

British Virgin Islands (22,000) Anguilla (13,477) Jamaica (2,804,332)

Haiti (8,924,553)

American Virgin Islands St. Kitts-Nevis (109,840) [40,599]

Dominican Republic (9,507,133)

Antigua and Barbuda (84,522)

Martinique (402,000)

Guadeloupe (452,776) Dominica (72,514) St. Lucia (159,585)

St. Vincent & Grenadines (118,432)

Aruba (101,541)

Barbados (281,968)

Grenada (90,343) Puerto Cabello, Venezuela (154,000)

caribbean countries: Populations [Fifties of Thousands]

Cartegena, Columbia (1,240,000)

Trinidad & Tobago (1,047,366)


container

In 1956, trucking tycoon Malcom McLean invented a better, faster, and more economical way to transport goods. His new container could be lifted by crane from truck to ship to train. These new stackable containers spread rapidly through the United States and engulfed the world market shortly thereafter. Between 1968 and 1970 the container was finally globally standardized. The majority of containers used today comply with ISO standardizations, with 20’ and 40’-long containers being used predominantly.


caribbean-region Puerto Rico

U.K. virgin Islands Anguilla Antigua-Barbuda

U.S. virgin Islands New Orleans

Guadeloupe Dominica Miami

Martinique St. Vincent Grenadines Bahamas

Barbados Grenada

Cuba

U.S. virgin Islands

Antigua-Barbuda

Guadeloupe Dominica Martinique St. Vincent Grenadines

300 million

250 million

Barbados

population

Grenada

Trinidad & Tobago

200 million

150 million

100 million

50 million

brazil

Dominican Republic

mexico

Haiti

Trinidad & Tobago

Anguilla

france

Jamaica

U.K. virgin Islands

caribbean region

Puerto Rico

united states

Cayman Islands

0

The Caribbean is Heterogeneous, an

–David Boxer St. Andrew Jamaica

demographics

“The Caribbean is not a closely knit homogenous society. It is still very much a group of societies and those societies are different by…unfortunately, but this is how it is defined by the colonial past. In the English speaking territories we are closer we do deal with the same past. There are coming out is this the histories of the French Certainly and when and you think of Haiti and with the Spanish men you think of Cuba or Santa Domingo, but in each of the areas the French treated, for instance, their slaves differently, probably it accounts for the different personalities, the different racial personalities within the Caribbean, but we will always feel closer to those from Barbados and Jamaica here, we will feel close to those from Barbados, from Trinidad, from Antigua, from the English speaking territories then we do with those from the French, or those from the Dutch, or even the Spanish.”

303.8m

37.5m

65.1m

109.9m

191.9m

# of islands: 7,000 caribbean sea: 2,515,900 sq km government types: 13 sovereign states 2 overseas departments 14 dependent territories European Union or United States ethnicities: African (Kongo, Igbo, Yoruba, Akan) Native American (Arawak, Caribs, Taino) European (Spanish, French, English, Portuguese, Dutch) Asian (Chinese, Indian) The Caribbean and the Sea

land

export commodities

Artist, David Boxer

sea

Idiosyncratic series of independent islands and cultures, identified by local traditions and traits

country

KCHO (Alexis Leyva Machado) “I believe that for the Caribbean, the sea is everything. Our door, our enemy, our friend, our mom…And this, when you are far from the sea, you feel it. And you feel it is fundamental for you, and that your island is that way, and you feel that all your islands from the Caribbean are that way, and that the sea is in that direction. And you feel that the sea is your escape, and that though you are in the middle of the continent, you can smell it, and know in which direction you need to go.” - KCHO


haiti-port-au-prince

291 km land area = 27,600 sq km or 2.7 million soccer fields

haiti

4000000

2000000

Gordon 1994 killed1000

0

country city

demographics

Georges killed 400 destroyed 80% crops

11,423,900 5,600,000

government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

8,925,000 2,500,000

basseterre

Hazel 1954 killed 1000

6000000

st kitts & nevis

unnamed 1935 killed 2000

8000000

port-au-prince

Flora 1963 killed 8000

population

Jeanne 2004 killed 3000

havana

10000000

hurricanes

cuba

12000000

39,800 15,500

republic 95% black, 5% mulatto, white french, creole 80% roman catholic, 16% protestant

hazards: flooding, earthquakes, droughts, hurricanes GDP: (purchasing power parity): $12.15 billion GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $1,400 (U.S.: $45,800)

other (developed, rural)

industry labor service labor

27,600 sq km total

arable land

3.6 million total workers 2/3 unemployment

land use

permanent crops

agriculture labor

labor

export commodities

literacy: 52.9% (shortage of skilled labor) hiv/aids prevalence: 5.6%


poverty Haiti is by far the most poverty stricken country in the Caribbean. Most Haitians live in small, often remote, villages or isolated settlements, with no access to electricity, clean water, or social services. Some rudimentary education is offered by church and other charitable organizations, but the distances children must travel to school, the costs of books and uniforms, and the necessity for them to work from an early age means that illiteracy is estimated at over half of the adult population. Illness can often spell financial disaster, as meager savings or investments such as a pig must be sold to pay for medicines. In some areas large numbers of people are dependent on aid agencies for food supplies.

Aerial view of the flooding caused by Hurricane Hanna in Gonaives, Haiti's second largest city (pop. 300,000).


32 km

barbados-bridgetown

1895 just south; 110mph winds 1898 95mph; hundreds killed 1916 just north; 85mph

6000000

4000000

2000000

1955 janet; 120mph winds killed 35 people; damaged 1800 homes,20,000 homeless..

0

country city

demographics

1963 just north; 95mph winds 1979 david passes to the north with 140mph winds 1980 Allen; 125mph winds; 6 Million dollars in damage 1995 Marilyn to north; 75mph winds; minor damage

11,423,900 5,600,000

government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

282,000 96,500

39,800 15,500

parliamentary democracy 90% black, 6% asian, 4% white english 63% protestant, 28% angilican, 19% pentecostal

hazards: hurricanes, landslides, pollution GDP: (purchasing power parity): $5.7 billion GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $20,200 (Haiti: $1,300)

arable land other (developed, rural) agriculture labor industry labor service labor

431 sq km total

permanent crops

128,500 total workers 10.7% unemployment

Barbados has a comparatively high density at 1,561people per square mile.

land use

internet users: 160,000 maritime ports: 1bridgetown

labor

export commodities

8000000

barbados

population

1887 just north; 80mph winds

basseterre

10000000

st kitts & nevis

1831 killed 1,500

bridgetown

12000000

havana

1780 killed 4,326 in Barbados.

cuba

hurricanes

land area = 431 sq km or 43,100 soccer fields


chattel house- literally,

moveable property, a name given to a small, usually wooden house in the Caribbean. The term goes back to the plantation days when the home owners would build houses designed to move from one property to another. Chattel houses were set on blocks rather than being anchored into the ground. Some houses were built entirely out of wood and assembled without nails. This allowed them to be disassembled (along with the blocks) and moved from place to place. In some cases, the entire small house was moved by donkey or mule cart.

Sugar Cane With the industrial cultivation of sugarcane, the demand for laborers was not locationally constant. Therefore, a permanent structure for housing was incompatible with the need to move workers around the plantation or from on plantation to another, and a movable hut style was required..

Remnants of these chattel houses are commonly seen today, and are popular dwellings for lower class citizens of the Carribean. No longer being portable, many of the homes have been added on to, and modified to meet the needs of the owner.


Regional Tempreture

Bermuda

72.2

Anual Average Tempreture ( in F째 ) New Orleans 70.3

United States

Maiami 77.5

Bahamas 78.2

76.2 Cuba

78.7

Bermuda

83.2 Jamaica

Haiti

80.8 Dominican Republic

80.6 US Virgin islands Puerto Rico 78.8 80.9 St.Kitts and Nevis Antiqua and Barbuda80.6

Guadeloup 79.9 Dominica81.0 Martinique

St.Lucia 81.7

Monthly Tempreture ( in F째 )

째 F

St.Vincent and Grenadines 82.3

Aruba

90.0 85.0

80.5

Grenada81.6

84.4

81.8

Max 86.7

Jan Feb

Trinidad and Tobago 81.8

Mar

80.0

Apr

75.0

May

70.0

Jun

65.0

Jul

60.0 55.0

Barbados 81.4

Aug Min 54.5

Sep

50.0 New orleans Maiami

Bahamas

Cuba

Cayman Island

Jamaica

Haiti

Dominican Puerto Republic Rico

US Virgin St.Kitts islands and Nevis

Antiqua St. Vincent and and GuadeloupeDominica Martinique St.Lucia Grenada Barbuds Grenadines

Trinidad and Barbados Tobago

Oct Aruba

Bermuda


Electricity Consumption and Production by country United States

That is a really thin solar panel

Haiti

5,705 11,382,820 501 16,469

1,097 2,758,124 398 7,473

109 8,308,504 13 570

4,168 9,183,984 454 14,150

1,688 1,065,842 1,584 7,045

2,128,446 80,550 839,262 49,019 22,926 816,195 317686 16,581 15 550 26,676 0 2,196

0 15,920 0 455 0 0 94 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 7,201 0 106 0 0 166 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 299 0 0 0 0 271 0 0 0 0 0 0

1,901 9,519 1,293 29 0 0 1408 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 15 7,003 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

mechanical ventilation

night ventilation

Jamaica

1,351,520 298,444,215 4,529 4,300,100

artificial ventilation

evaportive cooling

free cooling

heavy construction lightweight construction

free heating

solar heating incidental heating insullation/permeability solar control/shading

60% of building-related co2 emissions are due to residential building

artificial lighting daytime

daylight

2

tropical

important

3

SOLAR

5

passive solar technologies take advantage of sunlight for useful energy without use of active mechanical systems. these technologies convert this energy into usable heat, water, air, thermal mass, and cause air movement for ventilation.

4

aerogel

4

consist of a sandwich of two layers of structural board with an insulating layer of foam in-between.

1

roll print solar cells are 1/100TH as thick as standare solar cells. It is the most cost effective, and can be rolled onto any surface. The panel, is constructed of light-weight solar-electric cell foil which can be cut to any size.

ceramic insulation

3

low-density solid-state material derived from gel in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with gas. are good thermal insulators because they almost nullify the three methods of heat transfer (convection, conduction and radiation).

sip panels nanosolar

passive

5

2

hollow microscopic thermal balls filled with air. it has the appearance of an off white powder becasue the balls are so tiny. - Thermal coating - Sound absorption - UV coating - Antiseptic and anti-mold - Anti-rust, corrosion - Fire Retardant

kennedy&violich

5

ENERGY HARVESTING TEXTILES THE DISTRIBUT RENEWABLE ELECTIRCAL POWER. GENERATE UP TO 16,000 WATT HOURS OF ELECTRICITY. TRANSLUCENT MOVABLE CURTAINS CREATE SHADE AND FORM AN INSULATING AIR LAYER FOR THE BUILDING ENVELOPE.

PASSIVE

active comfort measures

natural ventilation

not important

It only cost 99 cents per watt

Cuba

Trinidad and Tobago

ACTIVE

passive comfort measures

Residential [Gwh] Population Residential/p [kwh] Total Production [Gwh] Production from: - coal - oil - gas - biomass - waste - nuclear - hydro* - geothermal - solar PV - solar thermal - wind - tide - other sources

2006

Dominican Republic

active SOLAR

Regional Energy Production

1


Regional Rainfall

Rainfall means 1 square m

Domestis use water consumption each nation Population 283,230,000

United States of America

98,872,000

47000

12,416

30,757,000

157000

41,475

56,909,000

15000

3,963

170,406,000

93000

24,568

Argentina

37,032,000

67000

17,700

Chile

Brazil

1L

53,627

Mexico

15,211,000

66000

17,435

Other_South_America

97,261,000

49000

12,944

Three area’s Average

145,800,000

89000

23,511

=

=

1ft

1m 1m

1ft

1L/squ m =1/3.785 411 784gal/squ m

20ft

8ft

0.3048・0.3048L/squ ft =0.2642・0.3048・0.3048gal/squ ft

1L/squ m

160・0.3048・0.3048L/20 container =160・0.2642・0.3048・0.3048gal/20 container

3.92719.....gal/20’container

=

Anual Rainfall Average of these area 3,057.9L/year/squ m

12,009.0 gal/year/20’container

Anual Average of Domestis use water consumption in these area

Domestic use water consumption Shower

20’ Container 0.3048・0.3048L

gal/p/yr

L/p/yr 203000

Canada Other_North_Central_America

1 square ft

(2000)

Toilet

Dishwasher

Clotheswasher

0.5 person/year/20’container

23,511.3gal/p/year

1 person can live for two 20’× 8’ container !!

Toilet Shower

15.9gal per 5mini (60L)

4.0gal (15L)

5.3gal (20L)

Facewasher

Dishwasher 4.0gal

Clotheswasher

5.3ga (20L)

5.3gal

Anual Rainfall gal and alival number for one 20’ × 8’ container’s Roof

(person) 0.2 (million gal) 10.8

0.2 9.5

New orleans

Maiami

2.5 9.7 Bahamas

2.5 9.8 Cuba

2.8 10.9 Cayman Island

4.1 16.3 Jamaica

2.4 9.6 Haiti

2.7 10.8 Dominican Republic

1gal

15.9gal

3.3 13.0 Puerto Rico

US

2.3 9.2 US Virgin islands

1.9 7.7

1.9 7.6

St.Kitts and Nevis

Antiqua and Barbuds

6.1 24.1

3.6 14.4

Guadeloupe Dominica

3.7 14.5 Martinique

5.3gal

4.3 17.1 St.Lucia

North & Central America

4.5 17.9

3.0 11.8

St. Vincent and Grenada Grenadines

0.7 9.2

1.0 13.4

0.5 6.6

2.6 10.3

Barbados

Trinidad and Tobago

Aruba

Bermuda

South America

Monthly Rainfall ( in gal/squ ft ) 1200

Jan

Max 1137gal/squ ft

Feb

1000

Mar Apr

800

May

600

Jun Jul

400

Aug

200 0

Sep

Min 145gal/squ ft

(gal/squ ft)

New orleans

Oct Maiami

Bahamas

Cuba

Cayman Island

Jamaica

Haiti

Dominican Republic

Puerto Rico

US Virgin islands

St.Kitts and Nevis

Antiqua and Barbuds

Guadeloupe Dominica

Martinique

St.Lucia

St. Vincent and Grenada Grenadines

Barbados

Trinidad and Tobago

Aruba

Bermuda


3

agriculture - 82% low income industrial - 22% low income domestic - 8% low income THE AVERAGE 50 GALLON WATER HEATER USES 11 BARRELS OF OIL A YEAR

THIS HIPPO IS REALLY EASY TO PUSH

4

THIS BUCKET REALLY HURTS MY HEAD

passive

WATER

2

passive water technologies are notably in developing countries, are exerting tremendous and increasing pressure on the use of graound water resources. untreated human waste remainsthe biggest pollution threat to water resources. 1

A Product that enables anyone, in a most simple fashion, an independent, cheap and mobile solar potable water generation from sea water or brackish water on the base of condensation by solar still. The WATERCONE(r) is a long lasting UV resistant Poly Carbonate product and can be used up to 5 years daily. The WATERCONE(r) system can be referred to as a one step water condensation process with a 40% effectiveness degree

hippo

2

A Hippo Water Roller is a tool designed to transport water more easily and efficiently. Used mostly in developing countries, it carries 24-gallons (90-litres) of water - 5 times the amount possible using traditional methods. A full Hippo contains 200lbs (90 kg) of water, but because the weight is bourne on the ground, it only feels like 22lbs (10kg

cisterns

3

cisterns are built to catch and store rainwater. Rainwater harvesting is the gathering, or accumulating and storing, of rainwater. Rain water harvesting is essential when: Surface water is inadequate to meet our demand and we have to depend on ground water. -Due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into the sub-soil has decreased drasticallyand recharging of ground water has diminished.

solar water heating

4

a solar heating system can provide up to 85% of domestic hot water energy. The typical 50 gallon electric water heater uses 11.1 barrels of oil a year, which translates into the same amount oil used by a typical 4 door sedan driven by the average consumer.

fog harvesting

5

innovative technology is based on the fact that water can be collected from fogs. Full-scale fog collectors are simple, flat, rectangular nets of nylon supported by a post at either end and arranged perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind. extracts about 30% of the water from the fog passing through the nets. the droplets join to form larger drops that fall under the influence of gravity into a trough or gutter at the bottom of the panel, from which it is conveyed to a storage tank or cistern

PASSIVE

ACTIVE

1

water cone

active WATER

water conservation priorities, water use by sector


jamaica-kingston

228 km

land area = 10,800 sq km or 1 million soccer fields

3km

2km

1km

4km

0

demographics

country city

11,423,900 5,600,000

government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

2,804,300 96,000

basseterre

2000000

st kitts & nevis

4000000

kingston

6000000

jamaica

8000000

havana

population

10000000

cuba

12000000

39,800 15,500

constitutional parliamentary democracy 91% black, 6.2% mixed english 62.5 protestant, 14.2 unspecified

hazards: hurricanes, deforestation, pollution GDP: (purchasing power parity): $21.57 billion GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $7,700 (Haiti: $1,300)

other (developed, rural)

industry labor service labor

10,800 sq km total

arable land

1.26 m total workers 10.1% unemployment

land use

permanent crops

agriculture labor

labor

export commodities

terrain: mostly mountains, narrow-discontinuous coastal plain climate; tropical: hot, humid


container B

A

end frames

B

longitudinal rails

C

side panels

D

roof panel

E

bottom structure

F

doors

C

D A

A

B F E

C

End frames are provided at both the front and the rear of the container. These are welded assemblies of steel members which include the corner castings of standardized handling sockets (C). Heavy loads required for staking the containers require a thicker material in the end frames. 1/4-inch material formed into a box section is most commonly used.

Side rails running longitudinally along the top and bottom of the container join the two end frames together and are used to mount the side panels. The rails-to-frame joint is usually bolted.

Side panels are attached to the end frames and side rails, and are usually a corrugated sheet metal. Steel is most common but aluminum and corten steel can also be used for this construction. A typical side panel is made from a 18-gauge (.049in.) sheet stock with corrugations of about 1.5 inches depth.

The roof is generally the same material and construction as the side panels, however one-piece sheet material is preferred in order to maximize resistance to water. Adhesives are sometimes also used to minimize water infiltration.

The understructure and flooring transfer loads induced by deadweight and inertial reactions of the contents to the side rails. The cross members are formed channels or extruded shapes of steel or aluminum. The deck is usually a softwood floor board, shiplap jointed. Plywood is also used for flooring.

Doors are usually heavy plywood clad with metal faces, referred to as plymetal. Doors are usually generously proportioned for the further reason that when firmly engaged to the end frame, they significantly contribute to the container’s resistance to racking forces. Locking bars, sometimes one or two per door, are used for security and added strength.

handling provisions

Standardized fittings (C) located on the corners of the container, are used for stacking and moving the containers. The fittings have elongated sockets on the top of the containers to which are engaged connecting fittings of a crane or mobile handling unit. Similar sockets are on the underside of the containers to provide restraint when containers are on deck or on a land vehicle.


An empty 40’ GP container can withstand a 140 mph. wind before overturning, whereas a 20’ GP container can sustain winds up to 150 mph.

top 40’-0”

8’-6”

8’-0”

side

rear

40 GC

front

horizontal section

longitudinal section

external diminsions: internal diminsions: floor area: weight: internal volume:

40-0 x 8-0 x 8-6 (L x W x H) 39.6 x 7-8 x 7-10 (L x W x H) 304 ft² 8,300 lbs 2,378 ft³

external diminsions: internal diminsions: floor area: weight: internal volume:

20-0 x 8-0 x 8-6 (L x W x H) 19.4 x 7-8 x 7-10 (L x W x H) 149 ft² 6,460 lbs 1165 ft³

section

top 20’-0”

8’-6”

8’-0”

side

rear

20 GC

front

plan

longitudinal section

section


ornamentation

Cutout trim or fretwork can be seen on a majority of Caribbean houses. No two houses are the same and each detail is the personal expression of its pridefull owner.

Fret saw Traditional fretwork ornamentation designs were first hand-carved in wood. In 1865 the invention of the mechanical fret saw lead to even more decorative designs that could be mass-produced. American industries began producing the fretwork designs which could be bought by the yard. The detail became easier and more affordadble for the average Caribbean to puchase for their homes.


dominican rep.-santo domingo

380 km land area = 48,400 sq km or 4.8 million soccer fields

0

country city

Beulah. (Category 4) 1967

San Zenon. (Category 3) 1930

demographics

Inez. (Category 4-3) 1966

11,423,900 5,600,000

government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

9,507,000 2,253,000

basseterre

2000000

David. (Category 5-4)1979

Edith. (Category 2) 1963

4000000

st kitts & nevis

Emily. (Category 4-2) 1987

6000000

santo domingo

Gilbert. (Category 3) 1988

8000000

dominican republic

Hortense. (Category 3-1) 1996

population

Georges. (Category 3) 1998.

havana

10000000

hurricanes

cuba

12000000

39,800 15,500

democratic republic 73% mix, 16% white, 11% black spanish 95% roman catholic

hazards: water shortage, erosion, coral reef, deforestation GDP: (purchasing power parity): $83.3 billion GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $8,800 (Haiti: $1300)

other (developed, rural)

industry labor service labor

48,400 sq km total

arable land

4.1 million total workers 15.4% unemployment

land use

permanent crops

agriculture labor

labor

export commodities

urban populations total: 4,061,000 maritime ports: 5


Regional Sun/Daylight

How can we get the Energy og Daily Life?

Anual amount of Electrici Energy of Daily Life

Water 290-710kWh

Keeping foods in the Refrigerator 86F째: 180 days 54F째: 186 days

160-447kWh

Toilet Shower

Turning on the Airconditioner for 3.6 months

Clotheswasher

Facewasher

Dishwasher 4.0gal

5.3gal 15.9gal

1gal 5.3gal

Technology and Design 114-296kWh

Sun Light

Wind Energy

Turning on the Light for 5.5 hours everyday

Solar Energy

31-311kWh

Wind

Watching TV for 3.5 hours everyday

Monthly Sunlight and Daylight ( in Hour ) 16 14 12 10

Jan

Daylight Max 14H

Feb Mar

Sunlight Daylight Max Max 10H 10H

Apr May

8 6 4

Jun Jul

Sunlight Min 4H

Aug Sep

2 0

SunlightDaylight

(mi/h)

New orleans Maiami

Bahamas

Cuba

Cayman Island

Jamaica

Haiti

Dominican Puerto Republic Rico

US Virgin St.Kitts islands and Nevis

Antiqua St. Vincent and and GuadeloupeDominica Martinique St.Lucia Grenada Barbuds Grenadines

Trinidad and Barbados Tobago

Oct Aruba

Bermuda


puerto rico-san juan

175 km land area = 8,900 sq km or 890,000 soccer fields

demographics

St. Jeanne 2004

11,423,900 5,600,000

government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

3,958,100 433,700

basseterre

0

country city

Georges 1998

st kitts & nevis

2000000

Hugo 1989 category 5

TS. Olga 2007

4000000

san juan

San Cyprian 1932

6000000

puerto rico

San Felipe 1928 category 5

8000000

havana

hurricanes

population

10000000

cuba

12000000

39,800 15,500

common wealth U.S. 80.5% white (spanish origin), 8% black spanish, english 85% roman catholic, 15% protestant & other

hazards: erosion, droughts, hurricanes GDP: (purchasing power parity): $75 billion GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $18,700 (Haiti: $1,300)

other (developed, rural)

industry labor service labor

8,900 sq km total

arable land

1.3 million total workers 12%unemployment

land use

permanent crops

agriculture labor

labor

export commodities

urban housing: 182,100 units urban density: 3,517 per sq km


caribbean color


cuba-havana

1,100 km

land area = 110,800 sq km or 11.1 million soccer fields

3km

2km

1km

4km

cuba

12000000

The hurricane destroyed nerouns food sources making it very difficult to feed the 86,000 plus population that was hit.

0

country city

9,507,000 2,253,000

government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

11,423,900 5,600,000

basseterre

2000000

st kitts & nevis

4000000

havana

6000000

dominican republic

8000000

santo domingo

August 2008, Hurricane Gustav made landfall on western Cuba with winds of 150 mph destroying 100,000 homes.

demographics

hurricanes

population

10000000

39,800 15,500

communist state 65.1% mulatto, 24.8% mestizo, 10.1% black spanish 85% roman catholic

hazards: hurricanes, deforestation, pollution, biodiversity loss GDP: (purchasing power parity): $144.6 billion GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $12,700 (Haiti: $1,300)

other (developed, rural)

industry labor service labor

110,800 sq km total

arable land

4.96 m total workers 1.8% unemployment

land use

permanent crops

agriculture labor

labor

export commodities

internet users: 1.31 million cell phones: 198,300


aperture placement

AirX produces enough energy for both our houses!!

_

+

_

_

_

+

_ _

_

+

1

guide for landscape design based on built form

2 wind direction

wind east

wind north east

wind north east

wind north

wind east

reduced velocity area

plan

plan

plan

3

plan

plan

3 increased velocity area

Jan

25.0

Feb 20.0

Mar

Max 19.5 mi/h

Apr

15.0 10.0 5.0

Air-X Land 12V Wind Turbine Start up speed 8 mi/h

Jul Aug Sep Oct

passive

WIND

(mi/h)

there are two ways in which ventilation can improve comfort. one is a direct physiological effect; by letting in more wind through apertures or the useof wing walls. the other method is through nocturnal cooling, which cools the interior at night and transfers the cool air into the daytime.

airX

Jun

Min 3.2mi/h

0.0

passive wind technologies allow for natural ventilation to increase comfort, for health or for building cooling. natural means of ventilation utilise the motive force of air pressure differentials from external wind effects on the building.

May

Air-X Land 12V Wind Turbine 38kwh/month @12 mi/h

New orleans

Maiami

Bahamas

Cuba

Cayman Island

Jamaica

Haiti

Dominican Republic

Puerto Rico

US Virgin islands

St.Kitts and Nevis

Antiqua and Barbuds

Guadeloupe Dominica

Martinique

St.Lucia

St. Vincent and Grenada Grenadines

Barbados

Trinidad and Tobago

1

turbine can charge “any size battery bank from 25 to 25,000 amp hours or higher”. The internal charge controller periodically stops charging, reads the battery voltage, and decides on the spot whether to continue charging or stop completely. The result is longer battery life and no overcharging. the turbine is maintenancefree, and only has two moving parts.

green edges

2

planted areas can be as much as 10-15 F cooler than built-up areas due to a combination evapotranspiration, reflection, shading, and storage of cold. plants cool by both shading and evaporative cooling.

nano vent skin

3

sheathes structures with solar weave studded with micro-turbines. The concept takes advantage of a structure’s maximum available surface space. First, it soaks up sunlight via a photovoltaic layer, and transfers energy via nanowires to storage units at the end of each panel. Second, its tiny turbines employ “polarized organisms” to create chemical reactions, generating power each time the turbine makes contact with the structure. Third, the organisms present in the inner skin of each turbine soak up C02.

Aruba

PASSIVE

_

+ +

_

ACTIVE

_

_

+

+

_

+

poor

+ +

_

active WIND

+

poor

good

best


case houses

Unlike low-income housing in many developing regions, in the Caribbean there is an architectural form which shows remarkable consistancy. The Caribbean popular house or case, can be seen throughout the Islands. The majority of houses in the Caribbean are built by process of individual and extended community self-help. In St. Lucia, for example, this is referred to as coup-de-main, whereby friends, relatives and neighbors are asked to assist in the process of house construction, normally at weekends. In some cases where the resident might not own his land, a house might be built with light weight wood construction with no nails, so the houses can be easily disasembled, “flat-packed�, and moved to another location. Other types of modular construction can be seen in the design of these houses.


active LIGHT

1

2

summer sun

winter sun

exterior light shelf view window

1

passive

LIGHT

2

passive light technologies objective in ecological design is to maximize the use of daylighting and to decrease the need for energy-consuming artificial lighting. most techniques wor to control incoming daylight in order to minimise its potentially negative effect on visual comfort, glare, and reduce the building;s cooling load by reducing heat gain.

led

1

have a 50,000+ hour lifespan, in this same amount of time you will buy over 50 regular incandescent bulbs or 5 compact florescent bulbs! most powerful replacement bulb (XR-10) uses only 10 watts of electricity, yet it performs on par with a 100 watt incandescent bulb. One - 100 Watt bulb costs approximately $43 dollars to run per year at 12 hours per day. One - 10 Watt EarthLED XR-10 costs approximately$4.30 to run per year at 12 hours per day.

kennedy&violich

2

KVA Matx developed a Portable Light for developing countries, it can provide 10 hours of light with 3 hours exposure. Textile with embedded plastic photo-voltaics. KVA Matx developed energy harvesting textiles to provide light and electrical power for portable media and appliances in the home by using household textiles. the textiles used in the house, ranging from moveable textile curtains, translucent screens and luminous room enclosures are integrated with plastic photo-voltaics can generate up to 16,000 watt-hours of electricity, a little more than half of the average power needs of an average household.

PASSIVE

ACTIVE

ITS MADE FORM TEXTILES AND PHOTO-VOLTAICS

10 20 25 25 35 70 75 70 80 85

2

reflectance (%)

daylight reflectance of colors

color

KVARCH MADE A PROTOTYPE READING LIGHTS FOR CHILDREN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


united states-new orleans

236 km land area = 907 sq km or 90,700 soccer fields

2000000

$200 billion estimated damages 0

country city

1,2000 estimated deaths

11,423,900 5,600,000

303,824,640 96,500

basseterre

cuba

4000000

st kitts & nevis

80 percent of city flooded

6000000

new orleans

August 2005 - Katrina

8000000

havana

hurricanes

population

10000000

united states

12000000

39,800 15,500

302,000 housing units destroyed on Gulf Coast 142,000 housing units destroyed New Orleans 112,000 housing units destroyed were low income or affordable

demographics

Noteable Economic Losses government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

constitution based federal republic 67% black, 28% white, 2.3% asian english 51% protestant, 23% roman catholic

hazards: hurricanes, polluction, GDP: (purchasing power parity): $14.6 trillion GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $38,800 (Haiti: $1,300)

other (developed, rural)

industry labor service labor

data based on us sq km total

arable land

7.2% unemployment in new orleans 2006

land use

permanent crops

agriculture labor

labor

export commodities

avg household: 2.48 new orleans, density 2,684 people per sq mile avg family size: 3.23 new orleans


47 km

dominica-roseau

land area = 754 sq km or 75,400 soccer fields

3km

2km

1km

4km

0

country city

demographics

56,000 left homeless

11,423,900 5,600,000

government: ethnicity: language: relegion:

72,500 15,900

basseterre

2000000

5,000 injured

st kitts & nevis

37 killed

4000000

roseau

August, 1979

6000000

dominica

david

8000000

havana

hurrincane

population

10000000

cuba

12000000

39,800 15,500

parliamentary democracy 87% black, 8.9% mixed, 2.9% carib english, french patois 61.5% roman catholic, christian 7.7%

hazards: floods, hurricanes GDP: (purchasing power parity): $688.7 million GDP per capita: (purchasing power parity): $9,500 (Haiti: $1,300)

other (developed, rural)

industry labor service labor

754 sq km total

arable land

25,000 total workers 23% unemployment

land use

permanent crops

agriculture labor

labor

export commodities

terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin climate; tropical: northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall


History & Culture Native Dominicans: Caribs The original, non-European inhabitants of Dominica were a tribe named the Kalinago, part of the larger Carib nation which inhabited much of the Caribbean on the eve of Columbus’ voyage. Described by Columbus as a “warlike people�, they often engaged in acts of war with other tribes in an attempt to take future brides. They were skilled shipbuilders and fishermen whose diet was supplemented by hunting and gathering. Carib religion centered mainly on ancestor worship and the preservation of ancestral remains, leading many to believe the Kalinago tribe engaged in acts of cannibalism, although this is still disputed between anthropologists to this day. Prior to 1492 A.D., they numbered in the millions but in the three decades following Spanish colonization the Carib nation had been reduced to a few thousand. The mountainous terrain of Dominica and her impenetrable jungles offered refuge to those hoping to escape Spanish rule and led for the island to be uncolonized for over a century following European settlement. Today, Dominica is home to the only Carib reservation with a small 3,000 member populaton located on the northeast of the island. [Source]: The Washington Post, Lennox Honychurch.


Demographics Today Although the official Language is English, the “street language� is Creole. The island is very Catholic, as evidenced by having counties divided into Catholic Parishes, which number ten. Dominica is almost entirely black, although small Carib, Asian and white populations exist as the island being a crossroads of culture and history. There are only two major cities, which are the capitol: Roseau and Portsmouth located in the north. Until recently, there was no road connecting the two and the only way to reach each city was by boat. Two major airports also service the 72,500 population which proudly calls themselves Dominicans. [Source]: U.S. Department of State


Landscape Dominica is known as the “Nature Isle of the Caribbean,” with more than two-thirds of island covered in tropical rain forest. This exotic destination is home to approximately 1200 different plant species as well as the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in the eastern Caribbean. In addition, Dominica hosts regular geothermal activity from its active volcano. Economy Over 40% of the population works in some form of agriculture, with an overwhelming majority centered in banana production. Bananas are by far the predominant agricultural product of the isle, which brings in over a million dollars a week in export profits. The need to diversify this agricultural economy has been evidenced by 1979’s Hurricane David destroying over damaging over 70% of the island’s banana crop which brought the economy to a standstill. Market forces brought about by the European Union’s regulation of agricultural products have also recently caused banana prices to drop, further weakening the banana-dependant economy. Thus, there is a need to diversify bananas due to fluctuating markets and hurricanes. Solutions to this can be found in the world’s 1,200 varieties of bananas, some of which may be more hurricane-resistant than others. Other agricultural products need to be introduced to Dominican cultivation. Tourism development has been slow due to a lack of desirable beaches, yet the expanding eco-tourism industry has set the stage to reap huge benefits for Dominica. [Source]: Lennox Honychurch


Morne Trois Pitons National Park “Luxuriant natural tropical forest blends with scenic volcanic features of great scientific interest in this national park centered on the 1,342m-high volcano known as Morne Trois Pitons. With its precipitous slopes and deeply incised valleys, 50 fumaroles, hot springs, three freshwater lakes, a ‘boiling lake’ and five volcanoes, located on the park’s nearly 7,000 ha, together with the richest biodiversity in the Lesser Antilles, Morne Trois Pitons National Park presents a rare combination of natural features of World Heritage value.” - UNESCO.org

Among the Morne Trois Piton National Park’s most notable attractions are Boiling Lake, Middleham Falls, Trafalgar Falls, Valley of Desolation, Emerald Pool Nature Trail, Boeri Lake, Morne Nichols, Freshwater Lake, Breakfast River, and the Rain Forest Aerial Tram. These attractions contribute to Dominica’s tourist industry and demonstrate the diverse characteristics of the island’s landscape.


Fruits Peculiar to the West Indies - Oranges - Lemons - Limes - Citrons - Shaddocks - Water Lemons - Granadillas - Sappadillas - Pomegranates - Alligator Pears - Mountain Pears - Pineapples - Rose Apples - Star Apples - Sugar Apples - Custard Apples - Mamma Apples - Guavas - Sea-side Grapes - Cocoa Nuts - Conk Nuts - Soursops - Papaws - Cashew Apples - Tamerinds

Non-native Fruits of Dominica - English and American apples - Strawberries - Raspberries - Muscadine Grapes - Figs - Musk Melons - Watermelons - Cucumbers - Gourds - Pompions - English and American Beans - English and American Peas - Cabbages - Carrots - Turnips - Parsnips - Lettuces - Radishes - Horse-radish - Asparagus - Artichokes - Spinage - Celery - Onions - Eschallots - Thyme - Sage - Mint - Rue - Balm - Parsley


SEEDproject preliminary research