OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE NOTE PEACE AGREEMENTS THAT FACILITATE IMPLEMENTATION
The quality of a peace agreement is usually only reveled in the implementation process. In other words, the strengths and weaknesses of an agreement will rarely show until it is implemented. A good peace agreement seeks to establish the minimum requirements necessary to facilitate implementation. Peace implementation that begins without the basis of a sound agreement is more likely to face greater difficulties, including the political challenge of having to renegotiate some provisions in subsequent processes. Adequate resources and the political will of the parties and the international community are also fundamental for successful implementation of peace agreements. Achieving a sound agreement, therefore, can help prevent such challenges and facilitate implementation. Based on the United Nations experince in implementing peace agreements, agreements that facilitate implementation have been found to:
Meet international standards;
Be acceptable to the majority of constituents;
Resolve all major conflict issues;
Contain sufficient detail and specificity;
Provide clear guidelines about implementation priorities and contain realistic implementation timetables;
Define a clear lead role for an appropriate organization to monitor and facilitate implementation;
Provide clear division of responsibilities for relevant actors in implementation;
Set forth an effective mechanism for resolving disputes during implementation or regarding interpretation of the agreement;
Set forth effective conflict resolution mechanisms that can promote the peaceful resolution of future conflicts;
Ensure adequate resources to support implementation;
Questions for the Peacemaker: 1. What are the major issues of the conflict and how have they been addressed in the agreement? 2. What international norms and standards can help transform the major issues of the conflict? How can these standards be incorporated into the agreement? 3. What are the technical issues that need to be addressed in the agreement (i.e. ceasefires, DDR, etc.)? What specificity is needed for the implementation of this technical issue? How has this specificity been defined in the agreement? 4. Who are the actors that need to be consulted and brought on board for successful implementation? How have these actors been included in the process? How have the roles and responsibilities of these actors been identified in the agreement? 5. What type of implementation monitoring is required? How has this mechanism been established in the agreement? 6. Who are the most suitable actors to assist in implementation? What are their roles and responsibilities in the agreement? 7. Who is the lead international actor who will facilitate and monitor the peace implementation process? How has this reponsibility been defined in the agreement? 8. What are the priorites for implementation? How have these priorities been established in the agreement? 9. What type of dispute resolution mechanism can be envisioned for this country to resolove future conflicts peacefully? How has the agreement made provisions for such a mechanism? 10. What are the resource requirements for implementation? How will implementation be financed? 11. What further actions are required to ensure that the provisions of the agreement match the requirements for implementation?
Date of Issue:
20 June 2006
Sources and Citation: This Operational Guidance Note has been prepared by the Peacemaking Databank Team based on content derived the book "On Being a Special Representative of the Secretary-General", by Dr. Connie Peck and interviews with UN Peacemakers.