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Edited by Sebastian Song

CONTEMPORARY PARAMETRICISM AND BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE


CONTEMPORARY PARAMETRICISM AND BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE

WRITTEN AND DESIGNED BY

JIANFENG SONG (SEBASTIAN)


CONTEMPORARY PARAMETRICISM AND BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE Jianfeng Song (Sebastian) First published 2016 by MSD, The university of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010 The right of Jianfeng Song (Sebastian) to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Parents Act 1988. All right reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, nnechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Eve r y effo r t h a s b e e n m a d e to co nta c t a n d acknowledge copyright owners. If any material has been included without permission, the publisher offers its apologies. The publisher would be pleased to have any errors or omissions brought to its attention so that corrections may be published at later printing.


Fig1. Studio Zoom

Rhinoscript Fragmentation Iteration by Jianfeng Song (Sebastian)


Tw e n t y - F i r s t C e n t u r y Architecture

Content

Melbourne School of Design Jianfeng Song (Sebastian 815652 Sem 2_2016 Tutor: Joshua Haddad


INTRODUCTION THESIS STATEMENT

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PART A. PROBLEM IN CURRENT ARCHITECTURE A.1.The Depreciation of Parametricism A.2. The Banal Architectures A.3. The Real Problems A.4. The Inertia of a Building �ndustry

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PART B. CONCEPTION

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PART C. REASON C.1.The Parametric Reason

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C.2. The Biomimetic Reason

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PART D. EXPLANATION D.1. EXAMPLE: ZAHA HADID UNIQUE-CIRCLE-YACHTS

PART E. ARCHITECTURE DRAWING DEVELOPMENT

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E.1. Development: From Sketch to CAD

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E.2. Development: From Analogous devices to Physical optimization

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E.3. Development: The Emergence of Primary architectural software

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E.4. Development: The Emergence of Parametric Design software

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E.5. Development: The Realization of Biomimetic Architecture

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PART F. FURTHER RESEARCH

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PART G. MY ORIGINAL PARAMETRIC PRACTICES

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PART H. MY ORIGINAL BIOMIMETIC PRACTICES

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PART I. CONCLUTION

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PART J. THREE-DIMENSION PRINT MODELS OF MY PARAMETRIC BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE

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PART K. REFERENCE LIST

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I INTRODUCTION From the first animation software to the more intricate CAD, the creation of architecture drawing changed significantly. Parametric technology became ubiquitous and it developed into a powerful tool to bring the realization of biomimetic architecture. Moreover, it became an international style in architectural design. Achim (2012, pp. 16) mentioned that “parametricism is a method of digital design and a catalyst for a complexity, it allows flexible models work with liberty”. I am strongly in favor of parametricism and biomimicry in contemporary architecture and think that both of them have the potential to create the future possibilities of architecture.

Fig1. The Origami-Inspired Folding Bamboo House by Ming Tang. http://inhabitat.com/origami-inspired-folding-bamboo-house-by-ming-trang/ Ming Tang’s beautiful origami-inspired Folded Bamboo Houses are intended to be used as temporary shelters in the aftermath of an earthquake. Brilliant in their simplicity, the geometric shelters are constructed from renewable materials and can be folded into a variety of structurally sound shapes. Their elegant design was recently honored as a notable mention in this year’s Construct competition.

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Fig1. Studio Zoom Rhinoscript Fragmentation Iteration by Jianfeng Song (Sebastian)

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II

THESIS STATEMENT

I am a proponent of parametricism and biomimicry in architecture. In the manifesto, I will begin with a critique of the conservative opponents of parametricism. Then, my essay will explicate the current practices and method in parametricism and biomimicry in architecture. After that, the paper will provide the reason for its generation and review the development of the architectural process. Moreover, I will include my original parametric and biomimetic practices in architecture. Finally, I will predict the future of the biomimetic architecture and parametricism in architecture.

Fig1.Non-Linear Architecture_Parametrics by Workshop 2010_Tsinghua University. http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2011/01/05/non-linear-architecture_parametrics-workshop/ 171 Students from around the world attended the one-week workshop in Beijing, China. In association with the AA summer school and sponsored by Gehry Technologies the workshop taught students how to generate, parametrically control, and fabricate complex geometry.

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PART A. PROBLEM IN CURRENT ARCHITECTURE A.1.THE DEPRECIATION OF PARAMETRICISM There are four problems in contemporary architecture. Firstly, the depreciation of parametricism: The critique is often due to these reasons. The opponent of parametricism thinks that parametric architecture is often variable. The final form disrespects the traditional values. Moreover, Achim (2012, pp. 17) mentioned that “ the parametric design tools are still considered as a secondary facilitator rather than generative. The reason of this situation is due to the predominance of the geometric symbol in most of the current design tool”.

Fig1.Parametric Geometry by Sébastien Perrault. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/advanced-master-computational-design-making-%C3%A9cole-des-perrault?articleId=6060805918688370689#comments-6060805918688370689&trk=prof-post

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A.2. THE BANAL ARCHITECTURES

Fig1.Hong Kong by Wang Ling. http://marysoul.tumblr.com/

Secondly, The monotonous architectures: Most contemporary architecture only provides the human with accommodation rather than aesthetic values. Architectural features are similar or lost, rendering the city monotonous and prosaic. Architecture should develop its own character responding to its environment, culture and urban context.

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A.3. THE REAL PROBLEMS

Fig1.Floating Skyscraper Assists Marine Coral Growth by Jia Yue, Shi Yuqing, Wang Haoyu, Li Zhibin, He Run, Yu Songqiao https://www.bloglovin.com/blogs/evolo-architecture-magazine-1978289/floating-skyscraper-assists-marine-coral-4896952345 To be eco-friendly, the project has to be self-supporting. The stability of the project needs height, which is also essential for OTEC generating systems. The steam travels up a pipe into a turbine, where it generates electricity. The steam then condenses back to water and travels down to another heat exchanger, this one cooling the liquid with cold seawater from lower depths. From here, a pump brings it back up to the first heat exchanger, and the system continues on.

Thirdly, the real problems: Arturo (2014, pp. 9) said that “the intricacy of a building, its subtle tie with the socioeconomic and political setting, the timeframe and expenses during construction all delay the arrival of parametric and biomimetic architecture�.

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A.4. The Inertia of a Building Industry

Fig1.The Hive: Drone Skyscraper by Hadeel Ayed Mohammad, Yifeng Zhao, Chengda Zhu http://www.evolo.us/competition/the-hive-drone-skyscraper/ “The Hive,” a project that imagines a skyscraper made exclusively for drones, providing urban dwellers with no residential benefits and serving only personal and commercial functions.

Fourthly, the inertia of a building industry: Sakamoto and Ferré (2008, pp. 2-3) mentioned that “a property market which avoids risk (and thus innovation) and the evolution of historic and semantic considerations in the evolution of discipline have been determinant factors in architecture’s sluggishness when compared to the progress made by other design-related practices”.

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Fig1.Hydrogenase by Vincent Callebaut. http://www.archdaily.com/59346/hydrogenase-vincent-callebaut/

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PART B. CONCEPTION

Fig1.Hydrogenase by Vincent Callebaut. http://www.archdaily.com/59346/hydrogenase-vincent-callebaut/

CONCEPTION Complexity distinguishes a parametric architecture from a traditional one. The parametric architecture is not made by the layered assembly. It is generated and differentiated by scripting. Complex forms can be made by the harnessing structure and patterned phenomena. Achim (2012, pp. 16) said that “computation as the core of emergence of natural systems and forms, just like the genetic code would be the critical determinant of the natural system. The physical rules guide it and stochastic evolution happens.�

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Fig1.Hydrogenase by Vincent Callebaut. http://www.archdaily.com/59346/hydrogenase-vincent-callebaut/ This is Callebaut’s radical idea for a vertical farm situated on the south edge of Roosevelt Island, New York. It is nice to see that Callebaut’s latest project, Hydrogenase still offers the same dynamic result, but this time, instead of addressing the food shortage issue, it aims to create a self-sufficient organic airship. This conceptual transport system would be comprised of airships that produce biofuel from seaweed. The project draws its inspiration from nature, as well as from the qualities of its materials and its self-manufacturing processes.

According to Javier Senosiain (2003), “biotic architecture is full of references to form and organic function.” I indicated that the form of biomimetic architecture is linked to the biological function and system. Synchronization among man and his environment always the deep purpose for architecture responsibilities. The criteria of a good architecture are the performance, function, sustainability, and the coordination of the script and spatial vision.

Fig2. Studio Zoom Bird view of Dragon Bio-hybrid Archotecture by Jianfeng Song (Sebastian)

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C.1.THE PARAMETRIC REASON

Fig1.Dynamic Surface by Reza Eslami. http://www.grasshopper3d.com/photo/dynamic-surface-02/

The consistency is the most profound goal of associative design. Arturo Tedeschi (2011, pp. 7-9) describes that “the parametric procedure keeps track of each step with a changeable result.� It will help the self-organization and morphogenesis. As an evolution analogical process and interactions, it enables the performative capacities by computational reconciliation.

Arturo (2011, pp. 11-12) summarized that the script gives a novel design with following advances: 1. Process automation 2. Geometry through algorithmic definition. 3. Huge and rapid changes of the original geometry. 4. The capability to swiftly obtain forms of great intricacy through repeated geometrical components.

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C.2.THE BIOMIMETIC REASON

Fig1.ICD ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 from ICD by University of Stuttgart http://www.treehugger.com/green-architecture/robotically-woven-carbon-fiber-pavilion-biomimics-beetle-shell-icd-itke-university-stuttgart. html

Working closely with biologists and paleotologists from the University of Tuebingen, ICD and ITKE researchers used 3D models of beetles to develop a robotic fabrication process for creating modular, double-layered fibre composite structures, in effect lessening the formwork needed, while also allowing for more freedom to create unconventional geometries. The result is a large but very lightweight structure covering 50 square metres (538 square feet) but weighing only 593 kilograms

The computational design, advanced imitation, and robotic fabrication can contribute to the architectural possibilities. They enable the biomimetic architecture development to a complex level. They can also build biomimetic responsive systems. The graceful spline made by the parametric tool is more similar to the shape in nature. The spline created by parametric design tool gives people aesthetic and harmonious feeling.

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D. EXPLANATION There is a revolutionary cycle of theoretical exploration and architectural practices. This circle is the mainstream of discovering novelty in the digital era. Different disciplines accelerate the development of architecture and activate the advanced architecture. Arturo (2014, pp. 10-11) indicated that the “parametric design starts with innovators using animatronic software to produce parametric shapes”. I assume that it will finally become scripting-based experimental biomimetic designs.The parametric tool fulfilled the pursuit for three-dimensional complication and innovation. It combines cooperative workflow, sustainability, and constructability together.

FIG:Cyrtoidea – Ernst Haeckel’s illustration of Clathrocanium reginae [top row, second left] and Cyrtoidea Pterocanium trilobum [middle row, far right]. Image via Wiki Commons

The immeasurable diversity of forms, colors, and species formed by nature is similar to the coding in parametric design. Javier (2003, pp. 123) believes that “the biomimetic architecture constructs space differently to the unfriendly previous survival. It is more suitable to human satisfaction, aesthetics, and spatial qualities”.

Fig 2: Visualization of city planning utilizing the five guidelines of Parametricism (www.patrikschumacher.com)

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D. 1. EXAMPLE

As a leader of parametricism and Pritzker Prize laureate, Zaha Hadid embraced parametric drawing and challenges the outdated ways of design architecture. Zaha Hadid has precisely investigated the potentials of parametric design, creating architecture as unified flows of dynamism.

Figure 2: Proposed birds-eye view of the Kartal Pendik master plan (www.zaha-hadid.com)

Figure 3: Rendering of proposed circulation pattern, created by Maya’s parametric programming (www.zaha-hadid.com)

Fig: unique circle yacht by Zaha Hadid http://www.zaha-hadid.com/design/unique-circle-yachts/

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PARTDEVELOPMENT: E.1. E. ARCHITECTURE FROM DRAWING SKETCH TO DEVELOPMENT CAD

The development of architectural drawing is from the outdated drawing to the parametric tools drawing. Initially, the traditional sketch is an additive procedure, lacking associative relationships and inside constancy, which is not a clever intermediate as a cipher based on standards. Afterward, typology and the tectonic system appear as new resolutions allow creators to discover and redefine variation of shape. It establishes associative relations amongst material, form, and tectonics. Analogous devices start to substitutes the sketch established. Moreover, dynamic forces morph the architectural shapes. Subsequently, physical optimization develops from gravity focused parameter towards multiparameter.

FIG: Munich Olympic Park by Frei Otto http://www.archdaily.com/608445/2015-pritzker-prize-winner-frei-otto-s-work-in-10-images/

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E.3. EMERGENCE OF PRIMARY E.2. DEVELOPMENT: THE FROM ANALOGOUS DEVICES ARTO CHITECTURAL SOFTWARE PHYSICAL OPTIMIZATION

Fig1: "Architettura Parametrica" research. Milan Triennale exhibition, 1960. Solution for a soccer stadium and diagrams drawn to generate the geometry.

Luigi Moretti defined the ‘parametric architecture’ in 1939. He made an instance of his stadium with optimization of every location. The methods offered by the field of logics, mathematics, and computers give more potentials than ever to express the architecture. The mouse turns out to be an extension of the brain instead of pens in design.

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E.3. DEVELOPMENT: THE EMERGENCE OF PRIMARY ARCHITECTURAL SOFTWARE

Fig1: Demonstration of Sketchpad software on a TX-2 Console at MIT in 1963

Followed by Moretti, the first application for design ’Sketchpad’ as the first CAD program invented. At that moment, CAD layers introduced to interpret the addictive logic within the computational domain. New software such as AutoCAD (1982) and pro-e (1987) developed with processes and associative sense.

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E.4. DEVELOPMENT: THE EMERGENCE OF PARAMETRIC DESIGN SOFTWARE

FIG1: Metaball 01 by Reza Eslami http://www.grasshopper3d.com/photo/uv-structure-surface/

The algorithm starts to replace traditional additive editing. It allows a human to achieve intricacy over human aptitude. Scripting such as Python, Autolisp, Rhinoscript, MEL leads to geometry revolutions. They can provide ultimate outputs as an interactive model that can reply to alteration in the input. Moreover, algorithm design permits the operator to design a procedure rather than an item. The new scripting tools will specialize for architects using node diagram called grasshopper. I think it will trigger more dynamic experimental practices in the future.

Fig2. Digital Design Application Sun Responsive Canopy Jianfeng Song (Sebastian)

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E.5. DEVELOPMENT: THE REALIZATION OF BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE

FIG1: Sagrada Familia by Andoni Gaudi

The biomimetic form derived since art nouveau and baroque. There are plenty of curvatures, curly surfs and biological ideas in decoration. Javier Senosiain (2003, pp. 103) mentioned that “the biomimetic architecture absorbed more in nature. It has rational and aesthetic forms. It creates a profound melodious atmosphere just like an oasis in the desert.” Nature as a super architect motivates architect like Gaudi to create the magic world. FIG2: BIO-ARCHITECTURE by Javier Senosiain https://biomimeticdesign.wordpress.com/2013/07/04/javier-senosiains-bio-architecture/

Organic architecture improved the value of local culture from the primitive nature. Paul Jacques Grillo (1975, pp. 210) said that “in order to learn from nature, we need to recognize that the direct distance between two points is not a straight line but a slalom”. Several years after, Javier (2003, pp. 123) referred Calatrava and indicated that “working with isostatic structures nearly unavoidably bring you to the diagram of nature”. Therefore, an organic building should be designed as a model of tempo and well-organized orders.

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PART F. FURTHER RESEARCH

oRN8 by Gerry Cruz [Mexico], Spyridon Kaprinis [Greece], Natalie Popik [Kazakhstan/USA], Maria Tsironi [ Greece] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-design-studies-on-novel-interiorities-for-existing-structural-systems-0rn8/

Algorithm stipulates a rational order of phases designed by human beings to get the negotiable solutions by computer. When a certain type of error occurs, the algorithm order gives a universal resolution to any problem of the type. Arturo (2014, pp. 24-25) indicates that “the parametric design is more a dynamic system of relative objects. It is unlike a three-dimensional static model created through primitive geometries.” The parametric outcomes are not the exact geometry, but the organization of the geometric association between input and output. The algorithmic architecture creates space and shapes of the rational agendas, typologies, and script. Terzidis (2006, pp. 67-68) mentioned that “parameters express three-dimensional things. These things can be kept as variables or formulas. By conveying diverse values to the variables, different items can be easily created. Moreover, lists can be used to iterate rules and formulas across a set of similar objects.”

oRN8 by Gerry Cruz [Mexico], Spyridon Kaprinis [Greece], Natalie Popik [Kazakhstan/USA], Maria Tsironi [ Greece] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-design-studies-on-novel-interiorities-for-existing-structural-systems-0rn8/

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oRN8 by Gerry Cruz [Mexico], Spyridon Kaprinis [Greece], Natalie Popik [Kazakhstan/USA], Maria Tsironi [ Greece] http://www.evolo.us/architecture/parametric-design-studies-on-novel-interiorities-for-existing-structural-systems-0rn8/

The associative modeling has the ability of the algorithm. It interlaces intricate relationships among items. Moreover, it makes reciprocally related geometries. Therefore, it will benefit the architectural future. Ming Tang (2014, pp. 12) described that “parametricism is a resourceful tool for achieving diversity and complexity in form generation and fabrication�. Following the parametricism, the experiments developed in the field of biomimicry. Specifically, the biomimetic structural shape can attain strength through the form. It associated movement, fluidity and resisting load to cellular and tissue organization.

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Pooer Machine by Luis Quinones http://www.complicitmatter.com/

Personally, the way a biomimetic architecture generation is just like the parametric architecture. It reproduces itself by meaningful iteration. The transpiration and photosynthesis in nature are similar to the ventilation and photovoltaic in architecture. The animated form with continuous, fluid body enables the architecture to optimize its function into a more dynamic system.

PARAPRAXIS by Luis Quinones http://www.complicitmatter.com/ PARAPRAXIS is a conceptual geometry study exploring the relationships between perception + mathematically driven computational geometry + human interference. It sets to destroy and mutate a rigid computationally driven geometric system to create a series of Rorschach studies.

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FIG:Madagascar Palm by Evaleung and Vivian Ho Joseph Lim. (2009). Bio-structural analogues in architecture, Amsterdam: BIS.

For example, the leaf shape agenda is to diminish self-shading to maximize photosynthesis. Leaf cell form was also considered as a transformable surface. Joseph Lim. (2009, pp. 20-21) mentioned his experiment that, “The development of tissue to permit both fluidity and firmness in plant stalks, twigs and vines helped as valuable design strategies in configuring perpendicular structures.” It will develop into the design which improved dynamic movement with the potential to lodge a variety of architectural agendas. Joseph Lim. (2009, pp. 22) said that, “the roots have a large-span, tapered growing form, and are gifted to resist the wind and side load. Its idea now developed into the architectural model for the space of 30m height.”

FIG2: Iran Pavilion in Iran Pavilion http://www.archdaily.com/455579/competition-entry-iran-pavilion-expo-milan-2015-new-wave-architecture

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PART G. MY ORIGINAL PARAMETRIC PRACTICES I am a formalist. and I like to use digital tool to generate some architectural iteration. The first is mainly parametric iteration. The second part is about biomimetic iteration. Greg Lynn in his book “animate form� defined the animation as the progression of a form. The new forms create values with stability, turning the old-style models from statics into the dynamics. The animation of a building provides innovation. Parametricism as an avant-garde new style rooted in digital animation techniques. Parametricism now claiming hegemony within avant-garde architecture practice. It has the superior capacity to articulate programmatic complexity. PART A PARAMETRIC ITERATION A 1 Distortion_Barcelona Pavilion A 2 Fragmentation_Pure White Cube A 3 Illution_Pure White Cube A.4 order and disorder_Pure White Cube A 5 Illution_Horizontal Rectangular Form A.6 transparent_Horizontal Rectangular Form A 7 Horizontal Rectangular Form A 8 order and disorder_pure white cube A 9 Jump cut_Horizontal Rectangular Form A 10 Fragmentation_Horizontal Rectangular Form A 11 Supergraphics_Horizontal Rectangular Form A 12 distortion Friedrichstrasse Office A.13 Jump cut_Pure White Cube A 14 Folding Rectangular form A 15 folding weave Rectangular form A 16 Fragmentation boxes A 17 distortion Rectangular form A 18 Blurring Rectangular Form Myth Path A 19 Fragmentation Rectangular Form A 20 Fragmentation Rectangular Form PART B BIOMIMETIC ITERATION B.1 Building as Landscape Waeve Curve Structure B.2 Building as landscape Breath skin and Serpetine Analogy B 3 Building as Landscape The Ripples B 4 Building as Abstract object B 5 Building as Abstract object Boxes Arch B 6 Building as biology skeleton and skin B 7 Building as Biology Plankton Invasion B 8 Building as Landscape Weave Ondulation B 9 Building as Diagram Point Cloud B 10 Building as Biology Mammuthus Rebirth B 11 Building as Landscape Roof Garden B 12 Building as Landscape CIty Forest


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PART G. CONCLUTION

FIG: ST. STEPHEN’S CATHEDRAL by Liu Chien-Sheng http://www.formakers.eu/project-271-liu-chien-sheng-st-stephenrsquos-cathedral-biostructural-system-ar

Scripting your own tools in contemporary architecture practice as a new method towards digital architecture design and obtaining a profound control of the reproductive procedure become the mainstream of the future architecture design. The derivative changes make the whole architecture respond and update consequently. In the meanwhile, biological architecture advises a method on natural values and coming back to history custom and traditional roots to realize the necessity to reorganize our building. The Biomimicry help architect develops the performance of architecture with the help of nature. The parametricism and Biomimetics are both decent editors of geometry, but excellent design includes an intricate interaction of concepts, relations, and intent.

FIG: ST. STEPHEN’S CATHEDRAL by Liu Chien-Sheng http://www.formakers.eu/project-271-liu-chien-sheng-st-stephenrsquos-cathedral-biostructural-system-ar

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PART J. THREE-DIMENSION PRINT MODELS OF MY PARAMETRIC BIOMIMETIC ARCHITECTURE

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PART K. REFERENCE LIST Javier, S. (2003). Bio-architecture. Oxford, England: Architectural Press. Auturo, T. (2011). Parametric Architecture with Grasshopper. Brienza, Italy: Le Penseur Publisher. Achim, M. (2012). Material Computation. Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design. Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley; Chichester: John Wiley [distributor]. Auturo, T. (2014). AAD Algorithms-aided design: parametric strategies using Grasshopper. Brienza, Italy: Le Penseur Publisher. Terzidis, K. (2006). Algorithmic architecture. Oxford: Architectural. Joseph, L. (2009). Bio-structural analogues in architecture. Amsterdam: BIS. Sakamoto, T., & FerrĂŠ, A. (2008). From control to design : parametric/algorithmic architecture. Barcelona ; New York : Actar. Paul Jacques, G. (1975). Form, Function, and Design, New York. Dover Publications, Inc. Ming, T. (2014). Parametric building design using Autodesk Maya, London : Routledge.

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Profile for Sebastian Song

CONTEMPORARY PARAMETRICISM AND BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE  

This is the final manifesto for the subject 2016 sem2 Twenty-first Century Architecture

CONTEMPORARY PARAMETRICISM AND BIOMIMICRY IN ARCHITECTURE  

This is the final manifesto for the subject 2016 sem2 Twenty-first Century Architecture

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