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HOW VIRTUAL BECOMES REAL MSD Studio 20 Sebastian Song 815652

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Journal Brief This folio presents the work undertaken in Studio 20, How virtual becomes real, Semester 1 2017. The folio is generally arranged in a chronologically record the weekly learning outcomes. This studio is aim to choose lightweight structure to interpret architectural design by exploring various materials and computer software to make it into practical construction. Through the semester we have experimented with both physical and parametric form generation and analysis methods. The initial 2 to 5 weeks of the studio we learn the general design and fabrication. Week 2 is the exploration of the timber grid-shell using the paper, laser cut box-board and steel wires. Week 3 is the exploration of RC shell using the plastic and vacuum machine. Week 4 is the exploration of the precedent example Savill garden grid-shell within an architectural and structural context. After this initial exploratory phase, work has focused around the design. The folio includes the mid-semester design proposal which is based on the previous study of the shell character and the research of the France Pavilion. Then it comes to the initial design response.

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To achieve this, the key lies in “Finding and developing the intelligent structural form”. To be “as light as possible” is a principle which every brilliant structure design pursues, and that depends on the ratio between a structure’s dead load and the supported live loads —— the smaller, the lighter, then the better. Additionally, there also lies a tie and balance between design and material, which means efficient and optimized material option could make the design perform better in aspects of sustainability and cost&labor intense.


Acknowledgment

I also appreciate the guidance and knowledge from my studio leader Alberto Pugnale and Alessandro Liuti who inspired me to develop sense of design and fabrication. I’d thank her for her expertise and contribution to this project which contributed to the success of this project over the 3 months. Finally, my fellow studio mates who have been wonderfully supporting us every step of the way. A wonderful studio environment was a major factor in the success of this semester.

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Hi, I’m Sebastian. Before starting the university, I am influenced by my father who is also an architect. I decided to chase my dream to be an architect. I felt like I was reborn. Everything was different after I start studying architecture. I like tasting, thinking and sketching ideas both in graphics and in logical thinking. Having a year studying electronic engineering before changing my major to architecture have helped me to have a different idea about architecture. I tend to solve thing using scripting and create variations rather than just speculation. NOW, I’m second year of master of architecture. I can see myself in one of the well-known firms even before I finish my degree and I think Melbourne University has given me this confidence. I like to explore architectural things rather than just architecture, robotic fabrication, electronic device and scripting and animation of rendering are all the area I am passioned in. I described myself as a well-rounded person who good at architecture, model making, robot and arduino programming, after effects and animation making. Ciao!

N Sebastian Song T +61 449937088 @ jianfengs@student.unimelb.edu.au FB https://www.facebook.com/Sebastianenriquesong INS https://www.instagram.com/sebastianenriquesong/ VIMEO https://vimeo.com/sebastiansong ISSUU https://issuu.com/sebastiansong9

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Add Sebastian Song on facebook to learn more about the project.


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HOW VIRTUAL BECOMES REAL MSD Studio 20

Melbourne School of Design Semester 1 2017 SEBASTIAN SONG 815652 0.0 Introduction

Scan QR Code for Video Link ID

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CONTENT

1.0 Timber Gridshells Form-finding and Construction 1.1 Precedent / Dermoid 1.2 Digital mock-ups & Pre-design mock-ups 1.3.1.1 Model Collapsar — Fabrication & Detail & Digital model 1.3.1.2 Model Collapsar — grasshopper definition & Form Analysis 1.3.2.1 Model Jointed Metaball — Fabrication & Detail & Digital model 1.3.2.2 Model Jointed Metaball — grasshopper definition & Form Analysis 1.3.3.1 Model Hyperbolic Paraboloid — Fabrication & Detail & Digital model 1.3.3.2 Model Hyperbolic Paraboloid — Grasshopper definition & Analysis 1.3.4.1 Model Cat Ear — Fabrication & Detail & Digital model 1.3.4.2 Model Cat Ear — Grasshopper definition & Analysis 1.4 Feedback 2.0 Reinforced Concrete Shells 2.1 The Precedent Example 2.2 The Grasshopper General Generation 2.3 Fabrication Method 2.3.1.1 The model of hexagonal Dome — Fabrication & Application 2.3.1.2 The model of hexagonal Dome — Analysis 2.3.2.1 The model of mickey mouse — Fabrication & Application 2.3.2.2 The model of mickey mouse — Analysis 2.3.3.1 The model of Splinter Cell — Fabrication & Application 2.3.3.2 The model of Splinter Cell — Analysis 2.3.4.1 The model of orchid — Fabrication & Application 2.3.4.2 The model of orchid — Analysis 2.4 Feedback 3.0 Case Study Fabrication — Savill Gardens Gridshell 3.1 Research 3.2 Structure Detail / Construction Methods 3.3 Structure Optimization 3.4 Dimension 3.5 Form-finding


HOW VIRTUAL BECOMES REAL MSD Studio 20

Melbourne School of Design Semester 1 2017 SEBASTIAN SONG 815652 3.6 Grasshopper Definition 3.7 Structure Analysis 3.8 Diagram 3.9 Gridshell Refinement 3.10 Dissection 3.11 Finished Model 3.12 Gridshell Assembly 3.13 Exterior Glazing Assembly 3.14 Gridshell Refinement 3.15 Supporting Columns Assembly 3.16 Rendering 4.0 Design Brief France Pavilion 4.1 History and Brief 4.2 Concepts 4.3 Geometry Analysis 5.0 Initial Design Response

CONTENT

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7

Site Plan Site and Function Analysis Hero-shot Plan Section Exterior Rendering Interior Rendering

6.0 Design Development 6.1 Design Response 6.2 Generation Process 6.3 Plans 6.4 Sections 6.5 Exterior Rendering 6.6 Interior Rendering 7.0 Appendix- Glossary 9


0.0 Introduction FORM - FINDING: It is the core of this course, “In architecture and structural engineering, ‘form-finding’ identifies the process of designing optimal structural shapes by using experimental tools and strategies (physical models) to simulate a specific (expected) mechanical behavior. “(MSD Studio 20 SEM1 2017 - Lecture 01 Form-Finding, Alberto Pugnale, Alessandro Liuti).

Beam

A classic form-finding technique is “The reverse hanging method”, which has been widely used to build arches and shells. It acts as an inverted model of the real mechanical compression-only situation. This model consists of elastic cables or membranes without any rotational stiffness. Therefore, it only bear the gravity and present “a structural state of pure tension” without any shear force on each section’s contacting surface. Furthermore, apart from the reverse hanging method, another form-finding techniques – Pneumatic or inflated hill method is also introduced. Based on these techniques, we are taught to conduct different structural and configuration models, including computerized and physical models. Therefore, it needs some software to establish and analyze, such as rhino, grasshopper, karamba, Kangaroo, weaverbird, ect. Apart from softwares, the physical plays a more important role in finding and researching forms.

Shell and membrane

Gridshells and cable nets

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Computerized model

Physical model


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Timber Gridshells Form-finding and Construction

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1.1 Precedent / Dermoid velux Guest Professirship I CITA & Mark Burry, SIAL RMIT University, Melbourne 2009

Fig1.Dermoid Source: 12 ‘Dermoid Australia’, The royal Dnish Academy of Fine arts, School of Architecture, design and Conservation, <http://kadk.dk/en/case/dermoid-australia


Fig2.Dermoid , After Structure Algorithms ,Source: ‘Dermoid Australia’, The royal Danish Academy of Fine arts, School of Architecture, design and Conservation, <http://kadk.dk/en/case/dermoid-australia>

Computerization has caused architects themselves from compositional techniques which have categorized traditional geometry, to the programmatic and experiential thinking.

Although computers can produce countless design and find ultimate solution for specific design. Computational technologies are broadly used nowadays that greatly impact on our design process and way of thinking, including algorithmic thinking, scripting.

Fig2.Dermoid , Structural Analysis of Dermoid Source: ‘Dermoid Australia’, The royal Danish Academy of Fine arts, School of Architecture, design and Conservation, <http://kadk.dk/en/case/dermoid-australia

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This is good example of generation design process. This project shows a very insight concept in the process of generating from. This design agent firstly is scripted to have a series of attributes to control their behavior. Then those responses determine the movement and add the architectural insertion.

Fig1.Dermoid Source: ‘Dermoid Australia’, The royal Danish Academy of Fine arts, School of Architecture, design and Conservation, <http://kadk.dk/en/case/dermoid-australia

Dermoid looks at reciprocal frame systems aiming to develop large span architectural structure from short timber members. Designed as aggregates of double beams, the material flex is designed into individual elements creating a complex layered weave for an architectural installation. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

Fig2.Dermoid Source: ‘Dermoid Australia’, The royal Danish Academy of Fine arts, School of Architecture, design and Conservation, <http://kadk.dk/en/case/dermoid-australia 14

Fig3.Dermoid, Installation Source: ‘Dermoid Australia’, The royal Danish Academy of Fine arts, School of Architecture, design and Conservation, <http://kadk.dk/en/case/dermoid-australia


Fig1.Dermoid Source: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Dermoid Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, The royal Danish Academy of Fine arts, School of Architecture, design and Conservation, <http://kadk.dk/en/case/dermoid-australia>

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1.2 Digital mock-ups & Pre-design mock-ups

Cut out

Cuts

Plan View

Perspective View

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PRE DESIGN MOCK-UPS

The first idea is to create a shell that one side is solid and one side is transparent. Spaces with a range of entrances for this light weight structure. The second idea is to create a space with two entrance and a top window.

Plan

Material Paper

Material Pin Wire mesh

Perspective View

After the paper making, we use the wire mesh to seek the form-finding. We created the shell with 4 entrances, the shell like a rotating flower and the shell distorted in two different directions.

Elevation

Elevation2 Reflection In reality, the gridshell canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be easily distort the idea shape because it canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been compressed or extend. 17


1.3.1.1 Model Collapsar â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Detail & Digital model

Fabrication

We start to making the 20x20 quad grid by using plastic strip lock to go through all the holes. Detail

We start to making the grid by using plastic strip lock to go through all the holes.

Anchor points curved for strength

Existing Wall

We join the holes with two sides of nuts and trim them which allow it to rotate both sides.

Cuts and openings

We trim the grid into the target shape.

We bend and tape the grid shell to ensure it has the right geometry.

Compression

Finish the model.

Tension

Digital model

Idea

Cut out

The initial idea of the model is Materials a collapsar which has a initial opening in the ground and it connect the opening in the roof. 18

Anchor Points 1mm laser cut Box Board 290GSM 5mm strips 2x8mm bolt and nut

Plan 2.5mm cable ties Tape & pins Styrene board and MDF sheet

Perspective Comments Limitations: First attempt with 1mm Box-board is lack of the roof support so it need to fix with a wall.

Elevation Opening are created with additional cuts.


1.3.1.2 Model Collapsar â&#x20AC;&#x201D; grasshopper definition & Form Analysis

Computer Aided Design

Force simulation applied to the geometry

Model: c. Length: 0.7[m] Nodes: 334 Elements: 622 Materials: 2 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 334

I get a matrix of points by using series and construct point. Then I draw a boundary in Rhino and input it.

I get the points within the boundary and interpolate them.

I define the grid line strength and load in kangaroo and reset the solver to blow up the gridshell.

Point-masses: 0 Mesh-loads: 0 Gravities: 1 Load-cases: 1 Supports: 28 BeamSets: 0

36.046

Edge Length Analysis

24.937

Max Displacement: 3.49 cm Elastic energy: 0.27 KNm

Structure Optimization/Analysis

1.00e+00

Displacement Analysis

I define the grid line as beam, define its section and material, load.

7.00e+00

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1.3.2.1 Model Jointed Meta-ball â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Detail & Digital model

Fabrication

We start to making the 20x20 quad grid by using bolts and nuts to go through all the holes. Detail

Anchor points curved for strength

Joints material: bolt characteristics: high level of elasticity and high level of strength in joints

We trim the grid to get a certain boundary condition.

Cuts and openings

We bend and tape the diagonal corner to ensure it has the right geometry. They malleable but prone to breaking under tension

Compression

Digital model

Cut out Idea The initial idea of the model is a jointed semi-sphere. The opening created along the boundary of the geometry. 20

Anchor Points Materials

1mm laser cut Box Board 290GSM 5mm strips 2x8mm bolt and nut

Plan 2.5mm cable ties Tape & pins Styrene board and MDF sheet

We bend and glue the corner to ensure it has the right geometry.

We bend and glue the corner to ensure it has the right geometry.

Tension: complex with areas of low tension and areas of extremely high tension

Perspective Comments Limitations: The 1mm Box-board is not stiff enough and tend to bend abruptly. Opening are created with additional cuts.


1.3.2.2 Model Jointed Metaball â&#x20AC;&#x201D; grasshopper definition & Form Analysis

Computer Aided Design

Force simulation applied to the geometry Model: c.Length: 0.7[m] Nodes: 356 Elements: 660 Materials: 2 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 349 36.000

I get a matrix of points by using series and construct point. Then I draw a boundary in Rhino and input it. Rendering

I get the points within the boundary and interpolate them.

I define the grid line strength and load in kangaroo and reset the solver to blow up the gridshell.

I define the grid line as beam, define its section and material, load,

Point-masses: 0 Structure Optimization/Analysis Mesh-loads: 0 Gravities: 1 Loadcases: 1 Supports: 16 BeamSets: 0 Edge Length Analysis 2.73e-2

25.134

Displacement Analysis

2.34e-01

Max Displacement: 0.29 cm Elastic energy: 0.09 KNm

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1.3.3.1 Model Hyperbolic Paraboloid â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Detail & Digital model

Fabrication

We start to making the grid by using bolts and nuts to go through all the holes. Detail

Anchor points curved for strength

Joints material: bolt characteristics: high level of elasticity and high level of strength in joints

Cuts and openings

We bend and tape the diagonal corner to ensure it has the right geometry.

Compression

Tension

We fix the other diagonal corners to the elevated rulers to make a hyperbolic paraboloid.

Top View

Digital model

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Cut out

Anchor Points

Plan

Perspective

Elevation


1.3.3.2 Model Hyperbolic Paraboloid â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Grasshopper definition & Analysis

Computer Aided Design

Force simulation applied to the geometry

Model: Point-masses: 0 Structure Optimization/Analysis c.Length: 0.7[m] Mesh-loads: 0 Nodes: 400 Gravities: 1 Elements: 760 Loadcases: 1 Materials: 2 Supports: 4 Cross sections: 3 BeamSets: 0 Point-loads: 400 28.251 Edge Length Analysis 2.01e00 Displacement Analysis

I get a matrix of points by using series and construct point. Then I draw a boundary in Rhino and input it.

I get the points within the boundary and interpolate them.

I define the grid line strength and load in kangaroo and reset the solver to blow up the gridshell.

I define the grid line as beam, define its section and material, load, 25.010 Max Displacement: 6.3 cm Elastic energy: 3.11 KNm

5.47e00

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1.3.4.1 Detail

Model Cat Ear â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Detail & Digital model

anchor points curved for strength

Joints material: cable tie characteristics: medium level of elasticity

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Cut out

Anchor Points

Anchor point masking tape malleable but prone to breaking under tension

Cuts and openings

Compression

Tension

Plan

Perspective


1.3.4.2 Model Cat Ear â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Grasshopper definition & Analysis

Computer Aided Design

Force simulation applied to the geometry

Model: Point-masses: 0 Structure Optimization/Analysis c.Length: 0.7[m] Mesh-loads: 0 Nodes: 400 Gravities: 1 Elements: 760 Load-cases: 1 Materials: 2 Supports: 4 Cross sections: 3 Beam-sets: 0 Point-loads: 395 77.026 Edge Length Analysis 2.01e00 Displacement Analysis

I get a matrix of points by using series and construct point. Then I draw a boundary in Rhino and input it.

I get the points within the boundary and interpolate them.

I define the grid line I define the grid line as strength and load in beam, define its seckangaroo and reset tion and material, load, the solver to blow up the gridshell. 12.472

Max Displacement: 16.1 cm Elastic energy: 5.83 KNm

5.47e00

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1.4 Feedback

Force simulation applied to the geometry The timber gridshells are simulated in Grasshopper with Kangaroo as particle-spring systems, whose essential components are particles, springs, forces and anchor points.

The image shows the edge length which implicit the extension and compression of the gridshell. We can read from the image that the grid shell have its maximum edge length on the edge of the shell but with the maximal length in the top.

Structure Optimization/Analysis

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The image shows the Structure of the gridshell. We can read from the image of karamba 3d that the maximum displacement happened in the edge of shell.


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Reinforced Concrete Shells

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2.1 The Precedent Example The revonation of shell experienced several technological modification and improvement: from tree house in rehistoric period to domes in ancient Roma, such as pantheon,from pendentives in the Renaissance to themodern glass-steel dome of the German Parliament Centre, and the amazing concrete curve Teshima Art Museum.

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Prehistoric Pattern tree house

https://www.treehousepoint.com/lodging.phtml

Historic Pattern pantheon

https://www.treehousepoint.com/lodging.phtml

Modern Pattern â&#x20AC;&#x2030;German parliament Centre

Modern Pattern Teshima Art Museum

http://180dfo.com/2015/10/the-rich-and-thefamous-germanys-iconic-reichstag-dome-bynorman-foster/

http://www.archdaily.com/151535/teshima-artmuseum


Pneumatic Framework/ History In 1941, Neff was the first to invent a technology for building cost-efficient houses using pneumatic formwork. In this method, a desired form membrane, which is tied down with ropes at edges and the bottom to prevention from lifting off the ground, is produced first. Next, the reinforcement is mounted and the concrete is sprayed onto the membrane in multiple layers until the required thickness is obtained. Subsequently, the membrane is deflated and removed. Finally, the windows and the door are cut out. In 1969, another construction method for the production of cost-efficient houses was patented by Heifetz in Israel. Similarly to Neffâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s method, a pneumatic formwork is inflated, reinforcement is mounted on the outside of the membrane, and shotcrete is applied. The difference is that Neff used a pressure of 0.5-2.0 kN/ m2 in the pneumatic formwork and Heifetz used a higher pressure (4.0-10.0 kN/m2) to minimize the deformations during concrete spraying. Dome create construction method by Heifetz (1969)

Bini invented an alternative construction method for shell houses in 1969 and also for the form-finding process for humpback shells, in which a balloon served as pneumatic formwork to build earthquake-resistant houses later on in Iran in 1977. Nowadays, pneumatic formwork systems are used frequently. Several systems are categorised as shown in the diagram below. Classic pneumatic formworks are suitable for building thin shell structures. Here, the pneumatic formwork is used to actively shape the structure. However, the tensile force in the membrane is always directly dependent on the internal pressure of the pneumatic formwork and the radius of curvature. Pneumatic structures generally have small radii of curvature and do not have to resist large loads. Kromoser, B. and Huber, P. (2016) Pneumatic Formwork Systems in Structural Engineering. Institute for Structural Engineering, TU Vienna, Austria

Categorisation of pneumatic formwork systems

Binishell Concrete Dome by Dante Bini (1969)

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Eden Project Nicholas Grimshaw Cornwall , England, United Kingdom 2001

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Fig1. Eden Project by Nicholas Grimshaw. http://www.edenproject.com/


As described in the Wikipedia webpage of the Erden Project, the complex is dominated by two huge enclosures consisting of adjoining domes that house thousands of plant species,[3] and each enclosure emulates a natural biome. The biomes consist of hundreds of hexagonal and pentagonal, inflated, plastic cells supported by steel frames. The largest of the two biomes simulates a Rainforest environment and the second, a Mediterranean environment. The attraction also has an outside botanical garden which is home to many plants and wildlife native to Cornwall and the UK in general; it also has many plants that provide an important and interesting backstory, for example, those with a prehistoric heritage.

Fig2. Eden Project by Nicholas Grimshaw. http://g-ec2.images-amazon.com/images/G/01/wiley-ems/Buildingstructures._V368161012_.png

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As described in the Wikipedia webpage of the Erden Project, the covered biomes are constructed from a tubular steel (hex-tri-hex) with mostly hexagonal external cladding panels made from the thermoplastic ETFE. Glass was avoided due to its weight and potential dangers. The cladding panels themselves are created from several layers of thin UV-transparent ETFE film, which are sealed around their perimeter and inflated to create a large cushion. The resulting cushion acts as a thermal blanket to the structure. The ETFE material is resistant to most stains, which simply wash off in the rain. If required, cleaning can be performed by abseilers. Although the ETFE is susceptible to punctures, these can be easily fixed with ETFE tape. The structure is completely self-supporting, with no internal supports, and takes the form of a geodesic structure. The panels vary in size up to 9 m (29.5 ft) across, with the largest at the top of the structure. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eden_Project

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Fig3. Eden Project by Nicholas Grimshaw. http://www.archilovers.com/projects/175795/the-eden-project.html

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Fukuoka Project TOYO ITO Cornwall , England, United Kingdom 2001

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Fig6. Fukuoka Project by Toyo Ito http://architizer.com/blog/profile-toyoito-2013-pritzker-laureate/


As described in the Blog of the link below, this "Island city" sits on a broad artifical island on the eastern side of Hakata Bay. A large central park (15 hectares) and a green belt (100m x 7.7km) will be installed in the middle of this new site. To superimpose an image of circles - ripples - spreading out from Central Park to cover the entire island. The large circles become craters and mounds that subtly alter the topography of the Green Belt surrounding Central Park. Here, the complex is the core facility of the park, with a total area of 5000 m2 including three 900-1000 m2 greenhouse. These spaces are not simply intended for appreciating plants, but also for reading books and eating lunch. Harmonizing workshop space with green space was also intended too. Fig5. Fukuoka Project by Toyo Ito http://el-croquis.com/el_croquis_123_ toyo_ito_2001.2005/index.html

http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com. au/2013/03/toyo-ito-grin-grin-park-fukuoka.html

Fig4. Fukuoka Project by Toyo Ito http://el-croquis.com/el_croquis_123_toyo_ito_2001.2005/index.html

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Construction Process: As described in the Blog of the link below, a unique design method called "Shape Analysis by Optimization" was utilized in order to achieve this structure method. In order to creat optimal shapes as incremental alterations, computer simulaton was used to study the bend stress andthe enveloping energy in the original forms, with as little warp as possible. Repeating and advancing from this architectural and structural design process, a free-form reinforced concret shell structure with 400mm thickness is used. http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2013/03/toyo-itogrin-grin-park-fukuoka.html

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Teshima Art Museum Ryue Nishizawa Teshima, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan 2010

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Fig6. Fukuoka Project by Toyo Ito http://architizer.com/blog/profile-toyoito-2013-pritzker-laureate/


The Teshima Art Museum designed by Tokyo-based architect Ryue Nishizawa and Japanese artist Rei Naito opened in 2010 for the Setouchi International Art Festival that was held in the Takamatsu Port area of Japan. The open gallery space features 25cm thick concrete shell with two elliptical openings that are open to elements. lwan Baan shows on his website a great photo set of the art museum which can be viewed here. More of lwan Baa n's photographs following the break, as well as a video of the Teshima Art Museum while under construction.

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2.2 The Grasshopper General Generation

Computer Aided Design Structure Analysis

Form Finding

ANCHOR POINTSBASIC GEOMETRY CREATE HE MESH FOR FORM-FINDING HEXAGONAL DOME

MICKEY MOUSE

SPLINTER CELL

ORCHID

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FORM-FINDING

ANALYSIS WITHOUT ENTRANCE

ANALYSIS WITH ENTRANCE


2.3

Method 01

Fabrication Method

Inflated membrane and claps

1. rewrap the intersection between the membrane and jet head, to make sure there is no leakage of pumping air.

2. inspect whether there is problem in the jet head.

3. measure the diameter of the air intake head

4. measure the diameter of the jet head

5. wrap the air intake head of the membrane to fit the jet head.

6. pumping air inside, but due to the air intake head suddenly broke, we could not continue this method.

Method 02 Vacuum forming machine

1. Here comes our saviour: the vacuum machine. And it has two modes â&#x20AC;&#x201D;â&#x20AC;&#x201D; air inflation (pre-sketch) and vacuum simulation

2. Firstly, we try the vacuum simulation. We put the MDF board with our boundray shape on the machine, then put a platic sheet on the top of the MDF board. Then we heat the platic to make it soft enough and ready to deform.

3. Afterwards, we hit the START VACUUM butom to begin processing vacuum until the material has been pulled down onto the tool. When the platic cool down becomes hard status, the model is perfectly done.

4. Another method is PRESTRETCH. Firstly, we put the platic on the mechane and heat the material soft.

5. When the plastic get soft enough, we place the MDF board on top of the platic sheet and stable it and the material togather.

6. Hit the PRE-STRETCH butom to begin processing air inflation until the material has been pushed up onto the tool and build up a shape.

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2.3.1.1 The model of hexagonal Dome â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Application Physical Model Flat Plan View

Top View

Axonometric NE

Dimension Front View

Life Scale Physcial model is flater than expected,with a height of 65 mm.It is due to the fabrication using negative vacuum method

Architecture speculation Rendering

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In real life, 67.29 m in height (highest point), 275.20m in length (entire length), with an area 49191.3515[m2]

Conditon A - Restricted Straight Edged Hexagon


Shell Displacement Without Entrances

2.3.1.2

1.00e+00

The model of hexagonal Dome -Analysis

Curvature Analysis Without Entrances

Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:59468.1256[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-0.12)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-5902.96)[kN] Result force of gravity: 148670.31 KNm Shell Displacement With Entrances

4.00e+00 Max Displacement: 62.82 cm Elastic energy: 35282.75 KNm Point-masses: 0 Model: c.Length: 370.2[m] Mesh-loads: 1 Gravities: 1 Nodes: 497 Loadcases: 1 Elements: 904 Supports: 88 Materials: 2 BeamSets: 0 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 497 1.45e+02

-0.1629048

Curvature Analysis With Entrances

0.152894

-0.152894

Curvature along one curve is constrained by the other; Red area are the area abruptly changed of curvature and thus more stress

Area Analysis Without Entrances

Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:66463.308[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-0.12)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-5902.96)[kN] Result force of gravity: 166158.27 KNm

0.1629048

Area Analysis With Entrances

1.81e+03 Max Displacement: 1199.39 cm Elastic energy: 8476402.82 KNm Model: c.Length: 384.7[m] Nodes: 497 Elements: 904 Materials: 2 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 497

Point-masses: 0 Mesh-loads: 1 Gravities: 1 Loadcases: 1 Supports: 13 BeamSets: 0

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2.3.2.1 The model of mickey mouse â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Application Physical Model Flat Plan View

Top View

Axonometric NE

Dimension Front View

Physcial model is flater than expected,with a height of 25 mm. It is due to the fabrication using positive pression method Architecture speculation Rendering

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Life Scale In real life, 25m in height (highest point), 345m in length (entire length), with an area 45946.7247[m2] Conditon B - Relax Curvy Edge- Jointed circles


Shell Displacement Without Entrances

1.00e+00

2.3.2.2 The model of mickey mouse — Analysis Curvature Analysis Without Entrances

Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:45946.7247[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-0.25)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-11032.55)[kN] Result force of gravity: 114866.81 KNm Shell Displacement With Entrances

0.152894

1.00e+01 Max Displacement: 198.6 cm Elastic energy: 124254.61 KNm Point-masses: 0 Model: c.Length: 481.2[m] Mesh-loads: 1 Gravities: 1 Nodes: 468 Loadcases: 1 Elements: 809 Supports: 125 Materials: 2 BeamSets: 0 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 468 1.00e+00

-0.152894

-0.152894

Curvature along one curve is constrained by the other; Red area are the area abruptly changed of curvature and thus more stress

Area Analysis Without Entrances

Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:50392.9666[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-0.25)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-11032.55)[kN] Result force of gravity: 125982.42 KNm

0.152894 Curvature Analysis With Entrances

Area Analysis With Entrances

1.00e+01 Max Displacement: 1335.32 cm Elastic energy: 259454.41 KNm Model: c.Length: 483.6[m] Nodes: 468 Elements: 809 Materials: 2 Cross sections: 3

Point-loads: 468 Point-masses: 0 Mesh-loads: 1 Gravities: 1 Loadcases: 1 Supports: 73 BeamSets: 0

45


2.3.3.1 The model of Splinter Cell â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Application Flat Plan View

Top View

Physical Model

Axonometric NE

Dimension Front View

Life Scale Physcial model is flater than expected,with a height of 52 mm. It is due to the fabrication using negative vacuum method Architecture speculation Rendering

46

In real life, 52.85m in height (highest point), 315m in length (entire length), with an area 82258.4792[m2] Conditon C - Relax Curvy Edge- Jointed circles


Shell Displacement Without Entrances

1.00e+00

2.3.3.2 The model of Splinter Cell — Analysis Curvature Analysis Without Entrances

Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:82258.4792[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-0.32)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-23372.52)[kN] Result force of gravity: 205646.2 KNm Shell Displacement With Entrances

1.00e+01 Max Displacement: 319.11 cm Elastic energy: 218574.64 KNm Point-masses: 0 Model: Mesh-loads: 1 c.Length: 483.6[m] Gravities: 1 Nodes: 762 Loadcases: 1 Elements: 1338 Supports: 184 Materials: 2 BeamSets: 0 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 762 5.00e-01

0.152894

-0.152894

0.152894

-0.152894

Curvature along one curve is constrained by the other; Red area are the area abruptly changed of curvature and thus more stress

Area Analysis Without Entrances

Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:50392.9666[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-0.25)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-11032.55)[kN] Result force of gravity: 225199.96 KNm

Curvature Analysis With Entrances

Area Analysis With Entrances

2.00e+01 Max Displacement: 453.4 cm Elastic energy: 1151855.15 KNm Model: c.Length: 487.3[m] Nodes: 762 Elements: 1338 Materials: 2 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 762

Point-masses: 0 Mesh-loads: 1 Gravities: 1 Loadcases: 1 Supports: 114 47


2.3.4.1 The model of orchid â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fabrication & Application Flat Plan View

Top View

Physical Model

Axonometric NE

Dimension Front View

Life Scale Physcial model is flater than expected,with a height of 63 mm. It is due to the fabrication using negative vacuum method Architecture speculation Rendering

48

In real life, 63.95m in height (highest point), 305m in length (entire length), with an area 45926.5647[m2] Conditon D - Relax Curvy Edge- Jointed circles


Shell Displacement Without Entrances

1.00e+00

2.3.4.2 The model of orchid — Analysis Curvature Analysis Without Entrances

Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:45926.5647[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-1.4)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-51870.64)[kN] Result force of gravity: 114816.41 KNm Shell Displacement With Entrances

1.00e+01 Max Displacement: 21.58 cm Elastic energy: 2395.52 KNm Point-masses: 0 Model: c.Length: 442.3[m] Mesh-loads: 1 Gravities: 1 Nodes: 410 Loadcases: 1 Elements: 669 Supports: 149 Materials: 2 BeamSets: 0 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 410 1.00e+00

0.152894

Curvature Analysis With Entrances

-0.152894

0.152894

-0.152894

Curvature along one curve is constrained by the other; Red area are the area abruptly changed of curvature and thus more stress

Area Analysis Without Entrances

Area Analysis With Entrances

1.00e+01 Material: Concrete 'C20/25' E:3000[kN/cm2] G:1250[kN/cm2] gamma:25[kN/m3] alphaT:1.0E-5[1/C°] fy:1.33[kN/cm2] Shell-crosec: height:10[cm] Area:52907.2912[m2] Mesh-load: Load(0/0/-1.4)[kN/m2] Resultant:(0/0/-51870.64)[kN] Result force of gravity: 132268.23 KNm

Max Displacement: 1335.32 cm Elastic energy: 259454.41 KNm Model: c.Length: 444.8[m] Nodes: 410 Elements: 669 Materials: 2 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 410

Point-masses: 0 Mesh-loads: 1 Gravities: 1 Loadcases: 1 Supports: 46 BeamSets: 0

49


2.4 Feedback

POST-FORMED GRIDSHELLS WITH PNEUMATIC METHODS Concrete shells construction using Binishell system The structure is built by sandwiching concrete between two layers of membrane, when the membrane inflated the structure is generated, membrane will be removed after the concrete has set, openings then created. Timber gridshell construction A timber gridshell is pre-formed and lifted to desired height by an inflated membrane. Concrete shells can be designed and optimised using form-finding method, either through physical modelling or computational simulations. It is usually result in simple and elegant forms that span across a large distance.

BACARDĂ? RUM FACTORY, ARCHITECT: FĂŠlix Candela, LOCATION: Mexico City, Mexico

50

Deitingen Service Station, Solothurn Switzerland, 1968

Wyss Garden Center, 1961, Solothurn, Switzerland

the Teshima Art Museum, Ryue Nishizawa & Kazuo Sejima


Case Study Fabrication

3

Savill Gardens Gridshell

51


Savill Gardens Gridshell Windsor, England 2006

Architect: Glenn Howells, Howells Architects Engineers: Haskins Robinson Waters Structural System: Timber Gridshell Structural Material: Timber, Steel Roof Cladding: Plywood Panels, Aluminum Weather Proofing, Oak

52


53

Figure0. savill garden gridshell http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/savill-gardens.html


3.1

Site

Research Form The forming finding of the gridshell is defined by the intersection area of two circles. The midline between the circles is the curved centerline on plan which is generated by a sine curve. The cross section is a series of parabolic curves by cut through the sinusoidal centerline. The plan of the gridshell is defined by the area of intersection subtended by two intersecting circles. With this sophisticated method of form finding, the design team collaborated and adjusted dimensions while considering aesthetics and construction practicalities.

Figure3. Site of the savill garden

http://www.botanicalgardenphotography.com/uploads/9/1/6/3/9163233/8027007_orig.jpg

54

Figure7. Timber Gridshells: Architecture, Structure and Craft. John Chilton , Gabriel Tang.2016. P66, figure 3.26.

A gridded pattern was then projected onto this surface to construct a grid net. Upon completion of the form finding precess, structural analysis was carried out with ROBOT 3D.


3.2 Structure Detail / Construction Methods Main Structural Elements: • Reinforced concrete foundation and footing • Steel perimeter tube edge beams and legs • Timber gridshell roof structure

55


3.2 Structure Detail / Construction Methods • Materials: Larch lathes,Plywood Panels, glass wall,Steel ring beam and steel support column. • Span: 90m x 25m • Roof height: 8.5--4.5m • Roof depth: 544mm • Grid shell lay out: 1m x 1m grid spacing

Lower quality length

Higher quality length

https://glennhowells.co.uk/wp-content/uploads//2014/10/savill-building-10-600x450.jpg 4-layer timber Gridshell 20mmOak Rain 200mm Rockwool insulation

2x12mm birch plywood

400mm tubular steel ring beam

80x50 mm larch lath

The Savill Garden gridshell: design and construction. Prof. Richard Harris .(18 May 2008).P28,2

56

The Savill Garden gridshell: design and construction. Prof. Richard Harris .(18 May 2008).P30,8.


3.2 Structure Detail / Construction Methods

The gridshell is constructed from 80 x 50 mm Larch lathes. These were produced from Larch grown in Windsor Great park itself. This timber was cut, graded and finger jointed into 6m lengths off-site. The high quality lengths were then scarf jointed in an onsite workshop to make the main structural lathes that are up to 46m in length. The lower quality lengths were used as shear blocks and packing pieces to reduce overall wastage. The lower two layers of the grid were set out at 1m intervals on an adjustable â&#x20AC;&#x153;Peri Scaffolding Systemâ&#x20AC;?. Simply bolted together at the node points, the height of the scaffolding was lowered by varying degrees at 200 points across the plan to manipulate the grid into the desired form and lower it into the supporting structure.

Timber Gridshell base Frame

Timber Gridshell base Frame

57


3.2 Structure Detail / Construction Methods Two layers of 12mm birch plywood were applied to this surface to provide stiffness to the form. The butt joints of these panels were strengthened with steel strips to transfer tensile forces in the shell. The upper two lathes were then fixed on top of this form, bolted together at the node points and packed to give an even top give an even top surface. In fact these layers create an interlocking grid of curved beams approximately 300mm deep. The roof was finished with a vapor control layer, 200mm Rockwool insulation, an Aluminum Standing-Seam Roof and an Oak rain screen made of 100x20mm boards at 135mm centers.

Roof Cladding Under Layer

58

Roof Cladding Outer Layer


3.3 Structure Optimization To connect the timber gridshell to the steel, fingers of Kerto were used. This dimensionally stable laminated timber lumber (LVL), chosen for its high compressive strength. it was screwed and blocked into the lathe and bolted to 160 galvanized steel plates around the ring beam. Problems: One potential problem was the junction between the glazed wall and the timber gridshell, which can naturally deflect 100mm up, 200mm down and exert outward pressure on the glass. to overcome this movement a bespoke mullion system was required. The edge of this gridshell canopy is supported on and undulating 400mm diameter tubular steel ring beam, which is supported at intervals along the edge by quadruped steel leg that transfers the upward forces to the ground.

Combination

Edge Beam Detail Edge Beam Detail

Edge Support Detail

59


3.4 Dimension 90m

1m

4.5m-8.5m

Figure6. Longitudinal Section of savill garden gridshell- not in scale 60 http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2011/07/The-Savill-Building-Glenn-Howells-10.jpg


3.4 Dimension

Plan - not in scale

Longitudinal Section

Cross section

- not in scale

- not in scale

Figure4. Cross section of savill garden gridshell - not in scale

http://hughpearman.com/wp-content/gallery/2006/WindsorVisitorCentreSection_01a.jpg

61


3.5 Form Finding

1883

1385

2688

539

1. GENERATING B-REP BOUNDARY LIMITS DEFINING THE FORM

2. IDENTIFYING THE FOOTPRINT THE INTITIAL SURFACE AREA OF GEOMETRY

3. EXTRACTING U - V GRID 1 X 1m SPACING

4. FINAL 2D GRID REPRESENTING THE SURFACE AREA

62

SCALE 1 : 50

0 10 20

50

m 100mm


3.5

4. EXTRUDE CURVE REPRESENTING ROOF DEPTH

<10m>

Form Finding

3.GRID SHELL BEHAVIOUR RESPONDING TO APPLIED FORCES AND EDGE SUPPORT

<8.5m>

GRAVITY

2. APPLYING UPRIGHT FORCES TO CREATE 3D FORM

<4.5m>

LOAD

1. INITIAL 2D FORM

SCALE 1 : 20

0

10

20

50

m

100mm

63


3.6

100mm

Grasshopper Definition

Circle A

0 10 20

50

1 Draw two different radius circle and get the intersected part as the initial boundary.

SCALE 1 : 50

Foot Print

AL 2D GRID ESENTING THE SURFACE AREA

64

ENTIFYING THE FOOTPRINT INTITIAL SURFACE AREA EOMETRY

Circle B

2 Create the initial uv grid.


3 Firstly I extrude the traced edge beam from the elevation. Secondly I extrude the boundary of the footprint to intersect the extrusion.

6 get the trimmed extended laths

4 Firstly I extrude the traced edge beam from the elevation. Secondly I extrude the tween line from the boundary.

5 get the extended laths split.

7 Reorder the sequence of the original laths segment

Computer Aided Simulation & Design

65


8 Define the grid bendness and stiffness in kangaroo

11 Define the crown curve constraint

9 Define the general load in kangaroo

12 Get all the elements defined and then run the simulation.

10 Define the edge beam in the kangaroo

I used to use counteract forces to manipulate the shape of the gridshell but the shape is difficult to reflex the actual shell. So I use a crown line as constraint to get the ideal shape.

Force simulation applied to the geometry 66


13 Structure Analysis definition

14 The Karamba Structure Analysis

I learn from this precedent model that we can define specific displacement to force the gridshell to the certain shape rather than naturally it should be.

Structure Optimization/ Analysis 67


3.7 Structure Analysis Displacement Analysis

1.00e-01

Max Displacement: 1.36 cm Elastic energy: 38.85 KNm

We can read from the structure analysis that the convex part of the gridshell has the least displacement. In the meanwhile, the concave of the gridshell has the largest displacement.

1.00e+0 Mesh Length Analysis

68

Model: c.Length: 98.1[m] Nodes: 1965 Elements: 3566 Materials: 1 Cross sections: 3 Point-loads: 1965 Point-masses: 0 Mesh-loads: 0 Gravities: 1 Loadcases: 1 Supports: 255 BeamSets: 0 Material: Wood '(VH)III' applies to elements: 'laths'; E:800[kN/cm2] G:270[kN/cm2] gamma:6[kN/m3] alphaT:5.0E-6[1/C°] fy:0.7[kN/cm2] Section: Trapezoid: height:45[cm] Flange-width:15[cm] zs:22.5[cm] A:675[cm2] applies to elements: 'laths' Area:45926.5647[m2] Applied load Point-load: Load(0/0/-2)[kN/m2] Result force of gravity: 19056.33 KNm


3.8 Axometric

Diagram Ground Floor plan

Roof plan

Long Elevation

Side Elevation Short

69


3.9 7. Extend the gridshell to the edge boundary.

Gridshell Refinement

6. Extract 3D Orthogonal Gridshel from Nurb

5. Project 2D orthogonal Grid on Nurb 1. INITIAL GRID NOT ORTHOGONAL

2. CUT IN HALF FOR FABRICATION

3. GENERATE MESH FROM LINES

4. GENERATE NURB FROM MESH

4. Nurb from Mesh

3. Mesh from Gridshell

2. Cut in half

5. PROJECTE ORTHOGONAL GRID LINES ON NURB

7. EXTEND THE EDGE LATHS TO THE BOUNDARY LINE

6. EXTRACT THE PROJECTED ORTHOGONAL LATHS FROM THE NURB

1. Oblique Gridshell 70

SCALE 1 : 20

0

10

20

50

100mm m


<8.5m

2. APPLYING UPRIGHT FORCES TO CREATE 3D FORM

LOAD

3.10

<4.5m>

Dissection

1. INITIAL 2D FORM

Refined Gridshell

SCALE 1 : 20

0

10

20

50

100mm m

Extract Elements

71


3.11 Finished Model

72


Material: • Box-board 1mm tick 600x900mm • Mirror 3mm tick 500x 300mm • PVA Rod 6mm • Bamboo Stick 4.5mm

A stiffer and lighter material should be chooses next time to make the gridshell less likely to be flat due to the gravity.

If there’s a notched edge beam it will be easier and stiffer to fix the gridshell to the edge beam.

73


3.12 Gridshell Assembly

First failure Attempt The first attempt we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get the ideal grid. We put the U-V direction in a wrong way. We realized it later after realizing the curvature of the roof looks weird.

1.

Second Attempt

2.

3. We adjust the shape by reverse it on the foam and super-glue the nodes of gridshell to reinforce it.

The second attempt we refer to the 3D model to ensure the U-V direction is correct. The model is successful and good-looking.

1.

74

2.

3.

4.

5.


3.13 Exterior Glazing Assembly

1.

3.

2.

4. We glued the gap between the two base board. Then we put glass wall both side on the base.

5. Put a mirror in the preset notch at the back of the glass wall.

The reflection of the mirror makes the half model becoming a completed shell.

6. We glue some reinforcement to reinforce the stiffness of the edge of both glass walls to the mirror.

7. We glue a curve beam on the mirror to support the gridshell roof. 75


3.14 Gridshell Refinement

2.

3. Interior view of the model

1. We put the gridshell on the top of the glass wall and glue them to the edge beam with super-glue. 5. We attach the beam at the edge of the roof using superglue.

6.

4. We use a hairdryer to make it easier to dry and then Leave it until dry.

76

We Reinforce the attachment of the gridshell to the beam

7. We lift the gridshell using foams and join the two beams together


3.15 Supporting Columns Assembly

Finally we identify the location of the column and stick them to the base. We then put the V shape column attached to the beam

77


3.16 Rendering

78


Design Brief

4

France Pavilion

79


4.1 History and Brief The theme is "Tree of Life - Design of a better life" Architect: Jean Le Couteur, B. Sloan(Basic Design), Year: 1970 Display Designer: Yamamoto Shunsuke Height: 32 meters Floor Area: Area: 1113.891 (+/- 0.0023) square meters The original design of the exhibition hall was a first prize winning work that was recruited for a prize in France and was a collection of spheres with four air dome. However, at the implementation stage, this original design was remarkably modified, and it was changed from air dome structure to steel frame hemisphere combination. Figure1. Left View of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo

http://www.gettyimages.com.au/photos/osaka-worlds-fair?excludenudity=true&sort=mostpopu lar&mediatype=photography&phrase=osaka%20world%27s%20fair

Figure5. Site of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo https://au.pinterest.com/strscheme/expo-70/

80

Figure2. Right View of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo

http://www.gettyimages.com.au/photos/osaka-worlds-fair?excludenudity=true&sort=mostpopular&mediatype =photography&phrase=osaka%20world%27s%20fair

Figure4. Left View of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo

http://www.gettyimages.com.au/detail/news-photo/the-french-pavilion-and-the-australian-pavilion-with-the-newsphoto/104405845#the-french-pavilion-and-the-australian-pavilion-with-the-connecting-picture-id104405845


4.2 Concepts

Figure1. Flyer of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo http://nabesan.webcrow.jp/o1shiryo1.html

Figure3. 1970 Official Souvenir Map Expo â&#x20AC;&#x2122;70 by Tadashi Ishihara http://www.flickr.com/photos/mstoll/6225881086/in/photostream

Figure3. Flyer of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo http://nabesan.webcrow.jp/o1shiryo1.html

Concepts The exhibition was broadly promoted France, which represent its autonomy in international cooperation, science and technology, land development plan, youth education, and leisure utility of social life centering on culture. Each theme is considered to be related to each other, suggesting contribution to French living and progress of mankind of France, to utilize audio-visual exhibition technology, to express lively, centering on humanity. Panels attached to the dome consist of about 2,700 triangular panels with a thickness of 14 mm sandwiching foamed polyurethane between the front and back using polyester resin reinforced with fiberglass and each intersection of the triangle There were 1,235 strobe lamps installed in the camera. The exterior of the pavilion flashed a sharp light at night and a white paint gave an elegant and neat impression at noon.

Figure4. Night view of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo Osaka Expo 70 Flyer

81


4.3 Geometry Analysis

Figure2. Plan and elevation of the France pavilion in Osaka Expo

Four white spheres are lined up

Three of spheres are interdigitated hemispheres

The West sphere adjacent to the plaza and Germany Pavilion is a perfect sphere

The east sphere and the stage of the Pavilion is facing to the tower of sun. The lower part of the east sphere is buried under the ground.

Osaka Expo 70 Flyer

Features and design intent: • 3 coloured figures to promote expo theme ‘Progress and harmony for all mankind’ • 1500 flash lamps om exterior for night illumination • To showcase the latest technology of the country • To beat the other countries! • Less dominating than USSR • Spces of inner reflectiveness space to bring people together • Bubbles uniting • Scientific

82


Initial Design

5

Response

83


5.1 Site Plan 84


5.2 Site and Function Analysis Building Program

Site Surrounds

Site Context

6

4 3

2

Site Movement

5

1

1

France

3

Sun Statue

5

Australia

2

USA

4

Plaza

6

Canada

Speciation

Gift Shop

Directed View

Gallery

Entry/ Exit

Movement

Audition

Spine — Ventilation — Metal

Muscle — Transparency — Glass

Skin — Structure — Membrane

Cytoskeleton — Connection — Truss

85


5.3 Hero-shot

86


5.4 Plan

PLAN 1:500

87


5.5 Section

Section 1:500

88


5.6 Exterior Rendering

89


90


5.7 Interior Rendering

91


Design

92

6

Development


93


6.1 Design Response

Ground floor connection to the sun tower, Germany pavilion and Canada pavilion.

94

Lift top floor to get better view of the sun tower, Germany pavilion and Canada pavilion.


6.2 Generation Process

95


Ground Floor Plan 1:100

6.3 Plans

96


Second Floor Plan 1:100

97


Third Floor Plan 1:100

98


Forth Floor Plan 1:100

99


Fifth Floor Plan 1:100

100


Sixth Floor Plan 1:100

101


Seventh Floor Plan 1:100

102


6.4 Section A-A 1:100

Section

103


Section B-B 1:200

104


6.5 Exterior Rendering

105


106


107


6.6 Interior Rendering

108


7

APPENDIX- Glossary

Typology:

The definition of a type. If something is different in geometry. It is a different typology. For example, distortion doesn't change topology but change typology

Static scheme:

An arrangement that allows for no movement.

Form finding:

The process of finding the optimal shape. Usually defined by force, material, and the element's character using a structure analysis software or plugin.

Boundary conditions:

Refers to the boundaries of a surface. They can be fixed or distorted.

Catenary curve:

A curve defind by gravity. Similar but different from parabolic curve.

Funicular:

Rope in a curved state of tension

Reverse hanging method:

Using gravity to find a form that can be reversed later for optimal gravitational structure

Minimal surfaces:

Minimal surfaces are created via a soap bubble and use the least amount of surface possible

Pneumatic or inflated:

Finding form of a gridshell via pneumatic methods

Continuity of tangency:

The same direction of tengency promotes a stable form

Sinclastic:

Curved towards the same side in all directions

Anticlastic:

Curved two different ways

Modulus of elasticity:

The unit of measure for the elasticity of a material

Hinge:

A hinge has a fixed position but variable rotation

Roller:

A roller is fixed in one directon but can move in the perpendicular direction

Fixed:

No rotation or movement

D.O.F.:

Stands for the degree of freedom

109


Sebastian Song

110

2017 - Sem 1 Melbourne School of Design

Studio 20 How virtual becomes real  

A studio withdrew in week7

Studio 20 How virtual becomes real  

A studio withdrew in week7

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