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ASSIMILATION


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ASSIMILATION Assimilation is the alteration of a speech sound to make it more similar to its neighbours. Two words are combined. The first ends with a single final consonant (C f) and the second starts with a single initial consonant (Ci). Between these two words, there is the word

boundary. -------- Cf Ci --------

word boundary Regressive Assimilation: the phoneme that comes first is affected by one that comes after it. -------- CI Ci --------

Progressive Assimilation: the second phoneme is affected by one that comes before it. -------- Cf CF -------There are three kinds of Assimilation: a) of place of articulation, b) of manner of articulation and c) of voicing.

Regressive Assimilation of Place of Articulation / t / changes to / p / before / m /, / p / or / b / / ðæt məʊʃn /  / ðæp məʊʃn / / ðæt pɜːsn /  / ðæp pɜːsn / / laɪt bluː /  / laɪp bluː /

/ t / changes to / t / before / ð / or / θ / / get ðəʊz /  / get ðəʊz / / ðæt θɪŋ /  / ðæt θɪŋ /

/ t / changes to / k / before / k / / ðæt keɪs /  / ðæk keɪs / / braɪt kʌlə /  / braɪk kʌlə /

/ d / changes to / b / before / m /, / p / or / b / / gʊd mɔːnɪŋ /  / gʊb mɔːnɪŋ / / bæd peɪn /  / bæb peɪn / / həʊld bæk /  / həʊlb bæk /

/ d / changes to / d / before / ð / or / θ / / aɪ peɪd ðəʊz /  / aɪ peɪd ðəʊz / / ɒd θɪŋz /  / ɒd θɪŋz /


3 / d / changes to / g / before / g / / ən ɒd gaɪ /  / ən ɒg gaɪ / / ə mæd gaɪ /  / ə mæg gaɪ /

/ n / changes to / m / before / m /, / p / or / b / / ɒn mɪ /  / ɒm mɪ / / tɪn pleɪt /  / tɪm pleɪt / / kwiːn biː /  / kwiːm biː /

/ n / changes to / n / before / ð / or / θ / / ɒn ðɪs /  / ɒn ðɪs / / faɪn θɪŋ /  / faɪn θɪŋ /

/ n / changes to / ŋ / before / g / or / k / / faɪn greɪd /  / faɪŋ greɪd / / ɪn kæmrə /  / ɪŋ kæmrə /

Regressive Assimilation of Fricatives / s / changes to / ʃ / before / ʃ / / ðɪs ʃeɪp /  / ðɪʃ ʃeɪp / / hɪ ɔːlweɪz ɑːsks ʃærəm /  / hɪ ɔːlweɪz ɑːskʃ ʃærəm / / wɒts ʃɪ duːɪŋ /  / wɒtʃ ʃɪ duːɪŋ / Here we find assimilation of place of articulation between two fricatives. If the second word is a stressed content word or there is grammar involved, i.e. third person signular, plural noun, genitive case or a verb; we cannot elide (drop, omit) any sound. If the word is an unstressed function word or there's no grammar involved, we can. Look at the following example: / ənles ʃɪ gəʊz /  / ənleʃ

ʃɪ gəʊz /  / ənleʃɪ gəʊz / Coalesced sound — Elision of / ʃ /

Assimilation of place (longer period of friction)

(shorter period of friction)

/ s / changes to / ʃ / before / j / / ðɪs juːnɪt /  / ðɪʃ juːnɪt /  / ðɪʃ ʃuːnɪt / / ɑː ðəʊz sɒks jɔːz /  / ɑː ðəʊz sɒkʃ jɔːz /  / ɑː ðəʊz sɒkʃ ʃɔːz / / wɒts jɔː neɪm /  / wɒtʃ jɔː neɪm /  / wɒtʃ ʃɔː neɪm / Firstly, the / j / influences on the / s /, producing an assimilation of place = / ʃ / . Then, the / ʃ / influences on the / j / and changes as a result of an assimilation of place, manner and voicelessness to / ʃ /. If the second word is a stressed content word or there is grammar involved, i.e. third person signular, plural noun, genitive case or a verb; we cannot elide (drop, omit) any sound. If the word is an unstressed function word or there's no grammar involved, we can. Look at the following example: / ɪz ðɪs jɔː bʊk /  / ɪz ðɪʃ jɔː bʊk /  / ɪz ðɪʃ ʃɔː bʊk /  / ɪz ðɪʃɔː bʊk / Assimilation of place

Assimilation of place, manner and voicelessness (longer period of friction)

Coalesced sound — Elision of / ʃ / (shorter period of friction)


4 / z / changes to / ʒ / before / ʃ / / ðiːz ʃuːz /  / ðiːʒ ʃuːz /  / ðiːʃ ʃuːz / / ʃɪ ɒfn gəʊz ʃɒpɪŋ /  / ʃɪ ɒfn gəʊʒ ʃɒpɪŋ /  / ʃɪ ɒfn gəʊʃ ʃɒpɪŋ / / ɪz ʃɪ ɔːl raɪt /  / ɪʒ ʃɪ ɔːl raɪt /  / ɪʃ ʃɪ ɔːl raɪt / Firstly, the / ʃ / influences on the / z /, producing an assimilation of place = / ʒ /. Then, the / ʃ / influences again on the / ʒ / and changes as a result of an assimilation of place and voicelessness to / ʃ /. If the second word is a stressed content word or there is grammar involved, i.e. third person signular, plural noun, genitive case or a verb; we cannot elide (drop, omit) any sound. If the word is an unstressed function word or there's no grammar involved, we can. Look at the following example: / tə rɪəlaɪz ʃɪ wəz /  / tə rɪəlaɪʒ ʃɪ wəz /  / tə rɪəlaɪʃ ʃɪ wəz /  / tə rɪəlaɪʃɪ wəz / Assimilation of place

Coalesced sound — Elision of / ʃ /

and voiclessness (longer period of friction)

(shorter period of friction)

/ z / changes to / ʒ / before / j / / az juːʒl /  / aʒ juːʒl /  / aʒ ʒuːʒl / / ðə θɪŋz jʊ nəʊ /  / ðə θɪŋʒ jʊ nəʊ /  / ðə θɪŋʒ ʒʊ nəʊ / / ɪf ʃɪ telz jʊ /  / ɪf ʃɪ telʒ jʊ /  / ɪf ʃɪ telʒ ʒʊ / Firstly, the / j / influences on the / z /, producing an assimilation of place = / ʒ /. Then, the / ʒ / influences on the / j / and changes as a result of an assimilation of place and manner to / ʒ /. If the second word is a stressed content word or there is grammar involved, i.e. third person signular, plural noun, genitive case or a verb; we cannot elide (drop, omit) any sound. If the word is an unstressed function word or there's no grammar involved, we can. Look at the following example: / əz jʊ siː /  / əʒ jʊ siː /  / əʒ ʒʊ siː /  / əʒ ʊ siː / Assimilation of place

and manner

Coalesced sound — Elision of / ʒ /

Progressive Assimilation of Place of Articulation In English this applies only to syllabic / n /, changing it to syllabic / ŋ / or / m /. bacon / beɪkn /  / beɪkŋ / ribbon / rɪbn /  / rɪbm / up and down / ʌp n daʊn /  / ʌp m daʊn / This Assimilation can operate only if the words are said without a phonetic / ə / between the plosive and the nasal. Furthermore, it cannot apply if the sound after the nasal is a vowel. happens / hæpənz /  / hæpnz /  / hæpmz / happened / hæpənd /  / hæpnd /  / hæpmd / happening / hæpənɪŋ /  / hæpnɪŋ /  IT CANNOT BE ASSIMILATED


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‘Coalescent’ Assimilation or Yod Coalescence Coalescense means the fusion of two sounds in order to become a new one. It is the process which changes / t / plus / j / into / tʃ / and changes / d / plus / j / into / dʒ /. It may happen withing the word or at word boundry. / t / + / j / = / tʃ / attitude / ætɪtjuːd /  / ætɪtʃuːd / what you want / wat jʊ wɒnt /  / watʃʊ wɒnt / / d / + / j / = / dʒ / education / edjʊkeɪʃn /  / edʒʊkeɪʃn / I haven’t paid yet / aɪ hævnt peɪd jet /  / aɪ hævnt peɪdʒet / Coalescence within the word is said to be substandard when the stress falls on that syllable. Coalescense may be partial if the second word is a content stressed word (for example, that yellow dress) or complete if the second word is a function unstressed word.

Assimilation of Voicing (=Devoicing) Assimilation of voicing is a hard topic to consider. That is the reason why we will take into account only a few phrases which are devoiced. have to / hæv tə /  / hæf tə / has to / hæz tə /  / hæs tə / used to / juːzd tə /  / juːst tə / supposed to / səpəʊzd tə /  / səpəʊst tə / of course / əv kɔːs/  / əf kɔːs / as a matter of fact / əz ə mætər əv fækt/  / əz ə mætər əf fækt /

Note: Assimilation does not occur when there is a syllabic consonant. For example:


6 a sudden movement / ə sʌdn mu:vmənt /  / ə sʌdm mu:vmənt /

ASSIMILATION 2  

ASSIMILATION 1 Assimilation is the alteration of a speech sound to make it more similar to its neighbours. / d / changes to / b / before / m...

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