3 1111 01836 7936
the Sea 26 step-by-step demonstrations in all mediums!
the Sea Every marine
the sea in a personal way. This
book shows artists
and pen and In
express their unique visions
and 15 mini-demos, these seasoned artists pass on many tips and techniques that they've pertions
fected over the years
wavy and rough
—from dramatic clouds
colorful twilights •
achieve a variety of marine textures, including the translusails, rust on painted wood, sand and sea shells paint ships, sailboats and other
— including how to
the boat into the water
add figures and sea marine paintings
between sky, water and sails The artists also offer valuable advice on gathering source material, painting on location, and choosing materials and tools. Painting Ships, Shores and the Sea is a complete guide to marine painting, as well as a magnificent showcase of the talent, diversity and passion in the art today.
BEL-TIB 758.2 Wolf 1997 Wolf,
Painting ships, shores and the sea 31111018367936
1 6 liiub 2 3
'W±_ Printed in
Painting Ships, Shores
and the Sea
Shores and the Sea RACHEL RUBIN WOLF
ZEPHYR OFF EDGARTOWN LIGHT Charles Raskob Robinson, Oil on Canvas
NORTH LIGHT BOOKS CINCINNATI, OHIO
ABOUT THE AUTHOR r^ggg^^
Rachel Rubin Wolf
ter ar>d editor.
North Light Books
and has the privilege of working Wolf
project editor for the Splash series as
well as The Best of Wildlife Painting, The
Best of Portrait Painting
North Light's Basic Techniques paperbacks. She
the author of The
Book of Styles and
a contributing writer
News." Wolf studied painting and drawing
for "Wildlife Art
the Philadelphia College of Art
University of the Arts) and
Kansas City Art
ues to paint in watercolor and
SO'TH'ARD OF NANTUCKET SHOALS
Ohio with her husband and
Charles Raskcb Robinson, Oil on Canvas
three teenage children.
Painting Ships, Shores
the Sea. Copyright t 1997 by Rachel Rubin Wolf. ManufacNo part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in a review. Published by North Light Books, an imprint of F&W Publications. Inc., 1507 Dana Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45207. (800) 289-0963. First edition. tured in China. All rights reserved.
North Light Books are available from your
bookstore or direct from the
METRIC CONVERSION CHART 1
Librarv of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wolf. Rachel. Painting ships, shores p.
Rachel Rubin Wolf.
ISBN 0-89134-787-9 I.
Painting ships, shores and the sea
Edited by Joyce Dolan
Production Edited by Katie Carrol and Michelle Kramer Sq. Yards
Interior designed by Sandy Kent Cover designed by Brian Roeth
North Light Books are available
promotions, premiums and fund-raising use.
book excerpts tan also be treated to specification. For details contact: Special Sales Manager, F&W Publications, 1507 Dana Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45207. Special editions or
The permissions on pages 140-141 constitute an extension
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS After working on scores of books for
in various capacities
to think of myself as
hand." Well, deal.
spent a part of
of others in great
especially to Carolyn
ASMA, who was
at a loss as to
"expert read" of the manuscript
the undisclosed details of production editing,
and Sandy Kent and Brian book and cover
for the beautiful
and keyboarder for decoding we got from
of the artists (no easy feat!
draft of the
second and the biggest thanks to
of the contributing artists for
(All that sea air
able to rest until
Charles Raskob Robinson, Oil on Canvas
must be good
heard some wonderful
for preparing the
deadline without you.
and even excitement about
the project, and sent
and Michelle Kramer
you, you all responded with warmth and professionalism, and for the most part were very mindful of deadlines.
hard work. Despite
idea to her artist friends, raising
my first deadline,
book: Joyce Dolan for ber
to start, she enthusiastically
ruthless content editing
finished putting the
what to include were very helpful, and their patience with my poor vocabulary when it comes to sailing and boat terms was greatly appreciated. Thanks to artist Marc Castelli for helping to "spice up" the section titles. Thanks also to Rob Miller for his
compile names of potential
other panel of experts. Their sugges-
pieces of the puzzle together to
the handwritten captions
dispensable at the beginning of this project.
any "landlubber" mistakes that I may have missed. Thanks to Barb Richards, my faith-
measure. Mizerek, wife of
the ocean and even have an
on the expertise
uncle who resides on the Chesapeake and builds boats, in taking on this project I had to admit that I knew little about the subject. Therefore, I had to rely
love the outdoors, all
ages of catalogs and other material to
way and I
will not be
(Anybody give sailing lessons?) hope you enjoy this book.
TASlz op Contents
shore breezes blowing eggshell sails,
the open seas and the ships
world of the marine
You may be an ply an artist
loves the smells
and sounds, the inspiring fects, that
avid sailor, or sim-
are found near water.
In either case, this
The twelve wonderful
graciously contributed their
talents to this project are each in-
spired by the sea
excitement with you, and pass on
only an experienced pro could
Whether your sea
HANDUNC THÂŁ UN& Tups
affinity to the a
beach, an off-shore
Water Surface Wave Spacing Hull Angles Drawing Details
Sailboats in Action
lihood or the promise of great adventure, this book will help you create art that expresses your special
fascination for the sea
the vessels that
PITTING 0\JTYO\JZL PAINTING Skies
Using Drybrush to Enliven Shorelines
Grasses and Grass Clusters Painting on Location
Build Water in Layers Shells
tFFtcn Painting the Translucence of Sails
Ambient Light and on Water
Color Harmony: Sky, Water and
Achieving Luminosity with Transparent Glazes of Oil
A fE/A WORTHY PAINTING
Settling the Boat in
Interest with Surface Texture
Painting Turbulent Seas
Colorful Texture to Coastal Scenes
Combining Boat and Beach
Painting a Historic Scene
HANDLING THÂ£ LINB Tups
BOAT Leonard Mizerek, Watercolor
Tips for Drawing Boats,
Water and Perspective PETER EGELI
The most important thing about drawing and painting
come an almost see things as c^nd not as
universal tendency to
you "know" them
they actually appear to you.
with pinched ends or oblongs with
one or both ends pointed, just
examples. You have to find your
The following diagrams are designed to help you see objectively. There are many ways to visualize
the shapes of boats. Picture watermel-
near the horizon
"8" can be used as
L?0A7T in P^Of=fLE Boats in profile are almost the
shape of arrows, so be careful
frequently view boats from eye
FROM A PRO
the shapes understand-
a flat figure
where you place them since they can point the eye in any direction. â€”LEONARD MIZEREK
traditional hull shapes.
ons with cutoff tops, half-cylinders
Boat Shapes This illustration
was once found
boats. (A) Start with the (B)
to refine the shapes of
the various lines or curves.
Here are more "8" boats.
Determine where the stem, keel and
many parts of the world is used in many modern
HORIZON LINE when expressed accurately, shows our relawhat we observe and our position in the environment. With an understanding of perspective, only bare essentials need be shown to present a good, clear picture. Perspective, tion to
In representational paintings, the horizon line, seen or unseen, is
essential to the
placement of elements and
also be a crabber, of boats.
We know this
in skiffs looking for crabs, the observer could
about the same height as the
because the horizon line passes through the
middle of both standing men's heads, and the horizon line
In the tidewater regions of
built close to the water's edge. Rivers
objects. In this
termined by the eye level of the observer.
feet (6.4m). This er's
about 21 to 22
controls the apparent size of an object
at right Its
which The horizon
that the horizon line can be outside of the picture plane,
can be any height or width line height
completely dependent on the eye height of the ob-
up or down ture.
a picture, the horizon line
change the character and composition
The picture plane remains
angles to the observer's
Line-of-sighl to the center of the area to be pictured.
the picture plane
not necessarily parallel to vertical objects.
because of that, the reflection of the piling (which of the piling)
of the pic-
from the observer and thus appears
smaller (shorter) on the picture plane surface.
an extension to be
6.5m) above sea
â€” hence, about 21
would be the approximate height level. The distant crabber seems
eye above sea
an imaginary transparent surface
152.4cm) to the crabber's eye line above
closer to the horizon, but
to arrive at that figure: 1-foot (30.5cm) height
height from the boat's waterline to the horizon
angles to the observer's line of sight to the viewed object.
above the crabbers' heads and reveals that the height of
the observer's eyes
boat deck = 6 feet (182.9cm). Notice that
The "picture plane"
those houses making a sketch of the scene before you. The hori-
LINE OF SIGHT TO PICTURE PLANE
and creeks acted
of the observto be relatively
proportionately the same distance
WATER SURFACE It's
important to understand the behaviors of these three
types of water surfaces
— calm, wavy and rough —because
they affect the color of the water so much. Calm
r-,<lett.,f Sorf-ncc CJaTet)
WAVE SPACING Wave
important to the scale and
larger the waves,
the greater space each will occupy be-
tween the foreground and the horizon. shows a typical way to space
waves. The space between the
distance from the nearest crest to the horizon.
ond and any
about one-third the (first
The space between the secwave is about one-third lor
fraction) the distance
to the horizon,
from the second
and so on
too small to measure.
sea can be portrayed by spacing the
from two or more different points on the horizon.
PRIDE OF BALTIMORE
The water here shows
22"X30" (55.9cm X 76.2cm)
James Drake lams, Watercolor
the water reflects the variations in the turbulent sky.
confused sea affected by storm winds blowing
in several direc-
seen both in the multidirectional waves and in the color changes where
HAMILTON 22"X30" (55.9cm X 76.cm) James Drake lams. Watercolor
Here the wavelengths from front to back nearly follow the
idealized version in the diagram at left.
Drawing Sailboats in Action YVES PARENT don't need Youyou're not
be a sailor to be
son will help you avoid some It's
the direction of the
you see the
One Boat B
wind from the
view, position of your eye).
are almost per-
profile of the hull. is
To avoid mistakes, make an
with the position of the boats and the direction of the wind noted, as well as your location in the scene (the point of
pendicular to the wind. From
of the sailboats.
determines the profile and silhouette
A takes the wind from the
familiar with handling a sailboat, this les-
form an open angle with
the wind (about 70 to 80 degrees).
You see the boat coming
and her bow. The boat
one says she
The boat always heels
toward the same direction the
wind blows. Boat C too.
to the sails
wind. The angle of the
with the wind are more
open. You see hex stern. Boat sails in
the opposite direction
but receives the wind from the
same angle as Boat C. You see her bow. Boat E is sailing against the wind. Her angle to the wind cannot be smaller than 30 or 45 degrees. You see her heeling more than the Others, and you just see her Boat F the wind
side opposite to the wind.
with the same angle to
each boat would look Iroin the
But you see the side that receives the
says Boats E
the closest to the wind direction.
the wind on the
that the angle ol their
to sail against the wind.
point ol view.
F are dose-
made by the pressure of A sailboat cannot sail
completely against the wind. Always re-
YVES PARENT TIP
FROM A PRO
there are several sailboats in
your painting, always check that they are sailing properly, consis-
wind direction. The diwind affects the shape oi boats and sails and de-
tently with the
rection of the
termines the shape and direction of the clouds,
and motion to
your picture. â€”YVES PARENT
of the boat at left
exactly in the diagram at
EDGARTOWN, MASS. X40" (63.5cmX
76.2cm), Yves Parent. Watercolor
101.6cm), Yves Parent, Watercolor
NEWPORT. CASTLEHILL 22"
between Boat A and the dotted below Boat A marking the 60-degree fit
course similar to Boat B
viewpoint directly opposite
but seen lrom the
Sailboat in Action: Hull Angles YVES PARENT Painting
her mooring basically
the waterline. Things are cult
the sailboat's in action: The
wind makes complex
curves, the underlying angles
sailboat with correct
The assignment here is to paint a A aft from leeward in a stiff breeze. This is the most spectacular
to avoid these
the axis or the topsides not
angle for sailboats, so
enclose the hull in an easv-to-draw
figure the proportions of the boat's
perspective, such as the mast stepped
Draw the horizon
shape: a simple box. This will help you
a sailboat's design
perpendicular to the yacht's beam.
the boat's lines will
and two vanishing points <VP1 and VP2).
Using lines traced to your vanishing points, build sailboat's hull. Surface
the side, B
the deck and C
for the is
Once the box diagonals.
determine the boat's center axes by using
Determine the shape and axis of the
line of the
transom. Line C shows the
shape of the transom, adding appropriate curves.
Once the transom
line using the planes
you can add the deck
and center axes you have already
All that's left lar to
keep the mast perpendicu-
the deck and located at the point where the length/width
axes of the hull meet.
OLD SAYBROOK: BREAKWATER 25"
5cm X 50.8cm)
Yves Parent, Watercolor
Capturing Light in Pen
MARC CASTELLI Light
an essential component to
black and white
Ienge and train your eye to see tonal
any outdoor painting especially when water is involved. Drawing with
the Eastern Shore.
hauled out for
maintenance on this one.
dark interior of the
shed framing the
opening with the boat centered.
streamed between the boards that to
do the planks
black set up too
of lines ori-
ented to different directions indicate different surfaces
HAULED AT COCKEY'S. TILG H M AN CREEK
4"X6" ( 10.2cm X
ing the areas.
Pen and Ink
foggy morning, raced out to a
vorite work dock to draw the boats as
the fog burned
What wonderful light! A minimum ol line
the light bright. Using stippling lor the
opposite shore soft-
ens the background
without sacrificing light.
pilings in the fore-
ground anchor the larger surfaces ol
water and the planes
More drawn on
5"x#" (12.7cmX20.3), Mure
Pen and Ink
Understand Details by Drawing
seventeenth-century collector of
Rembrandt drawings called them "thoughts" and they were highly prized. It's the quickness and immediacy of drawing that delights the eye in studies of details. The next four drawings are such studies. In or-
draw and paint boats convincphotograph, sketch
ingly, study, read,
and carefully render them, in parts or in total, up close and far away. This intimacy over time will bring
your work and eliminate
of truth" to
any nagging doubts of incompleteness. Focusing on small details gives you confidence, even when painting a larger view. Try making a list of each component of a boat you are unsure about, and then devote a sketchbook to drawing each one in detail until you
SECURED â€” ISLAND BIRD
4>/"X6" (ll.4cmY.15.2cm). Marc
This drawing, despite
12.1cm X 16.5on)
Pen and Ink
of a rac-
ing log canoe. Island Bird; she old.
The hoard box
a boxlike affair, at
the top to allow
the centerboard to he raised
liked the con-
trasting textures of sail,
the box and smooth-
ness oJ the board. Using differeni directions of lines selves to
Pen and Ink
a sail stop to its
very detailed rendering of a flaked
tied alongside the
a racing log
MORE DETAILS UNTITLED (
10 2cm X 1 6.5cm)
Pen and Ink
also a study of the centerboard, fo-
cusing on three elements
board and box. The centerboard occupies a
majority of the space.
and lower the centerboard
how much can you get away with by using the minimum of technique. Making each stroke serve as many Again, the rule
functions as possible keeps the drawing bright
ISLAND BIRD OX THE WING T (U.4anX 17.8cm) astelli.
Pen and Ink
and not overworked.
This drawing called for fluid lines building water surfaces in a contour maplike arrange-
ment. The edges are the focus. There weren't opportunities for multifunctional groupings of to lose shapes. Planes of totally
bright areas, but there
blackening your darkest value,
these near abstractions,
must be played against others. Rather than building layers of fine lines. This way you can
maintain control and keep from overworking
MARC CASTELLI Abstract details
paintings too. This
the net bag part of
an oyster dredge used on I
the spaces between the lines, the function implied
shovel, the contrast of metal
age. All of these
speak about a time-
honored, yearly peated labor.
Nothing cosmic here,
no deep mes-
to record the cold
morous by the peated eyes.
have composed the image solely of but
chose to conby
tain the action
including the hardline
the box. There
sport here, just
honest hard work.
The boats and
plied by the subject.
Caste Hi, Watercolor
Sketchin on the Dock o the '
To complete ones
sketches and photographs on site and then completes a finished drawing in the studio.
He uses three
BETTER DAYS PAST '.m/ George
McWilliams. Pencil on Bristol
B. All tones are of the
pencil through cross-hatching
other strokes. He uses no burnishing or rubbing.
These two abandoned boats had been King up on shore- at Knapps Narrows on Tilgh-
for as long as the
can remember. The Lorraine Rose
accomplished with the point
DAY OFF 12"
This pier, which
McWilliams, Penal on Bristol Board
was wiped mil by
seen from the hack door
Thompson's Seafood, where the artisi has enjoyed fresh oysters and crabs brought right in off the boal at this location. St.
as in Better Days Past.
CATAMARAN'S. PINE POINT
MAINE George Guz:i. Acrylic. Collection of Dr.
Mrs. Gordon Bennett
JAMES DRAKE IAMS
marine painting and establishes the time of and clear or overcast, calm or blustery),
day, the conditions (whether bright possibly even the time of the year. Visualize the sky as a glass
defining aspect of the finished work.
or ceiling. Generally, the lower part
and the higher the sky goes, the more intense the colors become. Distant clouds are soft, and as they come nearer and higher, they become stronger and more defined. horizon
Use 140-lb. hot-press paper. Wet the entire sky area with a 2-inch nylon brush. briskly, taking care that there are dles.
mixture of Gamboge and Ceru-
lean Blue, just a
the horizon line
and work up. Then, continuing up the
some Payne's Gray, then
more, and so on, so the sky becomes stronger toward the top,
the time leav-
ing white areas of the paper to form the
dry, use a
some straight Cerulean Blue to show where the clear sky breaks through the clouds.
Threatening Sky This watercolor, on hot-press paper, shows a
storm front moving
Payne's Gray for the threatening sky,
working from the horizon up. The storm several miles away, so keep the
the sky darker on the hori-
zon and gradually
a bit lighter as
upward. Then show the white top rain cloud
the clear sky.
Cerulean Blue for
SIGSBEE MAKES A LICK 24"
X 8 1.3cm)
Peter Egeli. Oil
similar to the
page 26, showing ust a
at the top.
26"X40" (66.0cm X 101.6cm).
Peter Egeli, Oil
dark sky with clouds climbing
from the horizon nearly
to the top of the
painting. This time, a night scene
Cumulus Cloud Formations
LEONARD MIZEREK, WATERCOLOR
with to be bold.
to skies, things
a series of
quickly. Because you're
Beginning with the sky allows you to
minimize worry about ruining
â€” some overlapping, some blendingâ€” you need a
try different treatments
doesn't work, just start
To paint complete
a cumulus cloud formation, start with a large wash without drying or running out of color.
brush that will
of cloud formations to consider.
Before painting, sketch
desirable shapes. Using a combination of
Cobalt Blue and Ultramarine Blue, load
your brush with paint. Make sure you
have enough paint on the palette so you don't run out. at the top
The color should be stronger as it goes down. To
strong color and, starting at
the top on dry paper, overlap broad strokes,
adding more water as you work
that dries, apply Aureolin Yel-
low, which has a good transparent quality,
while the blue mixture
blend with the blue. Be sure to paint
around the cloud areas
remain white. This gives
top edge of the cloud formation. quickly, apply a
While the paper
wet, create the bot-
of the cloud using
and Alizarin Crimson to give a light purple tint. A no. 6 round sable is good for this. The edges become color.
you apply the
working wet on wet, add Aure-
Yellow with Alizarin Crimson
warm up the center of the clouds and create new formations over the existing larger clouds. Use a paper towel to to
lighter cloud areas.
Now let every-
LEONARD MIZEREK STEP
At this stage, add sides to give
areas on the
dimension and form
cloud shapes. Darken and overlap more clouds using horizontal strokes to create the feeling of depth.
You can add more
cloud bottom shapes and lighten the clouds as they recede.
Dimecr thÂŁ Eve
With Clouds Cloud formations can be used in a painting to direct the
viewer to the focal point or to balance
your composition. Let
a sky set the
mood, atmosphere, time
MONHEGAN LIGHT 11"
Leonard Mizerek, Watercolor
sometimes use clouds used
m u lus
as a directional device to
clouds to help
The painting was too broken up without the addition were no clouds,
a void in a sky. In
the area between the buildings
Invented some to do the
these clouds. Even though there
Painting Cirrostratus Clouds YVES PARENT,
Cirrostratus clouds are not as dramatic as cumulus clouds in shape or contrast. You can design a good background with them because they provide color and interest while remaining subordinate to the main boat subject. direct
Use the shape of the cloud
to the action.
a layer of well-diluted Light
a large brush.
layer dries, apply
loose strokes of
Phthalo Blue. Dry with a
build the cirrostratus clouds, giving
them the of the
Phthalo Blue and
must be delicate.
to color the
The strokes light
â€” DEMO N'frMFiON
Use Cirrostratus Clouds as a Background YVES PARENT,
Over the has
last fifteen years.
from the water, an angle people
see unless they're boating.
play of light on the water attracts people;
an open door
start a painting,
nail-size sketches in the
have already enjoyed while
but also appealing to nonboaters. The
tion as the painting he
This gives perspective, deepness
a feeling of space to the painting.
For a marine scene, this can be refers to
trying to rebuild scenes they
on scene, he develops several thumb-
of his sketches.
paint scenes that will interest people sail,
escape and imagination.
same proporto make.
a dock, a bird,
someone rowing a
The small sketch is important. It gives you a vision of the final picture and will be your guide while boat, etc.
Crimson Bluish Green
Cadmium Yellow Indigo Light English
Oxide Red Oxide Yellow
Rembrandt Blue Terre Verte
Draw and Mask Alter paint
making the thumbnail sketch, begin to draw. Always use a good paper. usually on Arches 260-lb. cold-press paper. Remember that an accurate drawing is the I
MAfK/WC PloiO Don't overuse masking liquid,
key to correct work. Don't hesitate to spend more time than you expected on drawing. It'll
easier later, permitting
or your painting will look arti-
on brushstrokes. ficial.
Save time by using masking liquid to cover details you want allows you to
features of the
the sky and water with
background as shown here.
keep white. This
more freedom. Mask the boats and
for lines, sails, hulls, masts.
anything you want
sharp. Immediately rinse your brush
with soap and water. Masking liquid quickly ruins brushes.
FITTING OUT YOUR PAINTING
Sky and Water
Before applying any colors, lightly soak the surface of the paper with a sponge. The
paper must be damp, not wet. Paint the sky
Start the first layer
with a combi-
color and tone
nation of reds. Use the for the
water as you did
for the sky.
reflects the sky, the clouds, the
sun and the
Paint the second layer on both sky and
water while the
not soaked. For this layer, use blues. For a
more Ultramarine; more Phthalo Blue.
cooler sky, use
Work with in if
brush, controlling the water
your brush with necessary.
a piece of
Keep the brushstrokes
direction of the wind. Don't paint in the opposite direction.
important part of your composition.
Adding the Third Primary Until
Glazing now, you've used only two primary
result gives a
but lacks luminosity. To ob-
tain a natural luminosity, the painting
needs yellow as well. "Glazing"
keep the necessary transparency Glazing
overpainting the whole painting with a diluted coat of yellow.
the former layers and
so the yel-
mix with them! Your paper must be Use
Yellow, very diluted.
warmer tone, use Oxide Yellow or Gamboge. Yellow must be used carefully
or you risk a too-greenish sky.
Now apply a
layer of Oxide
the brick buildings of Annapolis. For the layer of the foliage, use a diluted
ide Yellow. Paint the other buildings.
Brown to build the mark the separation be-
Sepia or Oxide
tween the water and the shore. When the layer of the background is finished,
wait for the paper to dry and then
YVES PARENT STEP
More Foreground Layers Apply
series of layers
to control the
darks and the
balance between the
Oxide Yellow. Develop the shadows on the schooner's hull and the buildings with a layer ot Light Ultramarine
ANNAPOLIS, LATE AFTERNOON
18"X24" (45.7anX6lan) Yves Parent. Watercolor
Darken the ot distance,
the schooner stands out against the background, to give the feeling
space and perspective. Suggest details
against light and
are drying, suggest details on
Paint the flags with their shadows, the rigging
Draw with your a.nd yellow
small brush. To give
the foreground to emphasize the
against cool. While the
small brush or
and the masts
as simply as
anil sparkle, cuk\ small dots ol blue, red
on the background and scratch the paper with
to suggest glints ol light.
sharp instrument where
Reflections JAMES DRAKE IAMS Think
about images you see
â€” you'll see yourself.
back from the reflective surface.
Influence of Light These two examples show the influence light
peake Bay waterman's workboat. first
hull. This lights
as bright as the hull
(Bi, the reflection
shining on the
the second example
dark, often darker
than the color on the hull. In both instances, notice that the reflections are not
simple upside-down duplications of the
workboat. The quiet movement ter creates subtle crests
miniature waves, and only part of each
viewer. Like shadows, reflections in watercolor
should be transparent.
they resemble cut paper. Unlike shadows,
however, reflections always come directly
toward you, regardless
coming from. As we see in these examples, the light on the hull affects the char-
acter of the reflection, but not
you don't see youris beyond it. you see on water.
but rather the mirror image of whatever
picture the mirror
remarkably good mirror. But
in a mirror.
on the wall a vertical Your image bounces directly
directly at a mirror
of waves, the reflection
on seeing it
interrupts the reflection,
there's the slightest
there will be no reflection at
want Broken water
sea, "I don't
Really rough water provides
appear to be
You must look
JAMES DRAKE IAMS
DOGWOOD COVE 14"X30" (35.6cm X 76.2cm) James Drake lams, Watercolor
water. In between the reflections of the skipjacks, the blue sky reflects brightly, telling us of the
good weather even more
clearly than the bit of sky
Notice that the chain (support for sprit)
on the left-hand
eye of the viewer, reflects in
vertical to the
with almost no disbetween object and reflection. However, be careful to get the angle of rea direct straight line,
flection right for linear objects that at
an angle, such as the
wood moldings on
of the angle
HIGH AND DRY 22"X
James Drake lams, Watercolor
Here's an interesting comparison
ows and lower sand.
reiki. ling in the
pool of water, as well as casting
The small dinghy at casting a shadow on the
Building Water in Layers JAMES DRAKE IAMS, Early Morning Arrival of a tug
and the (
a freighter artist's file.
the tug and tanker,
from a photograph in The paper is a 14"X20"
35.6cm X 50.8cm) block
keeping the colors
on the tug strong
Lanaquarelle, cold-press. The dark red of the tug
Deep Vermilion and
Paint in the sk\
the main colors on
Water Layer One: Lightest Value Water a
cloudy sky. Paint the
in tbis case
layer, the light-
color of the water, using a 1-inch
brush and neutral
the lightest part of the wave.
Water Layer Two: Form It's
the second layer, or coat, thai begins
form to the waves. You must
determine the direction from which the
waves are coming. They usually come from the direction composition.
determined that the waves
were from the southeast, coming from the direction of the incoming freighter.
JAMES DRAKE IAMS Water Layer Three: Height Use Cobalt Blue and Ivory Black
the height of the waves. The top of the
the darkest in value.
in layering, to
continue with the same
you begin with. Darken the top
wave appears Water cated
to roll into the
heavy and should look
from the tug
painting, but there usually aren't
discernible reflections in broken water.
EARLY MORNING ARRIVAL
Using Opaque White mixed with
James Drake lams, Watercolor
and s,.me loam formed by the how wash the stern flag ami the
ivory Black, add the as the tug
moves forward. Add deck
the tug lights,
Painting Rigging JAMES DRAKE IAMS Painting
the rigging on a sailing
ship should be
often as possible.
straight line can look
the action of a ship in
the lee side of a ship, the shrouds
whereas on the windward
they will be taut.
Painting a freehand straight line, using a ruler as a guide but not as a straightedge, is
easy. Tilt the ruler
hut not quite, perpendicular to the painted 1
surface. Place the brush so that the metal
2 Forestay 3
against the edge of the ruler, but
the brush hairs are about an inch or so 4 Mainsail 5
9 Spreader 10 Sheet I
12 Tiller 13
the brush fer-
rule along the ruler edge for straight "free-
8 Halyards (used to hoist the
6 Mizzen (furled)
ger works best.
small round brush or
Leave White for Rigging For this painting of
a two-sail (left) sail
McWilliams painted around the
white areas, using
no masking or
ished with the
came back and plied color
then shading to the rigging.
CHESAPEAKE HERITAGE 21"x27"
Painting Rust on Painted GEORGE
"Box-Stern Dory" developed on the Potomac River.
the boal and then do
rust patterns will
marks. Erase the pencil
Save darker parts
because dark colors are more apt
lightly paint details such as cracks in
hoards, peeling paint, etc.
wet the area and build the color Don't overwet. let
the paper begins to dry,
dry completely before applying an-
other wash. The water will push the paint.
to build the
ing sequence: 1.
Yellow Ochre and
Cadmium Orange. Use
the direction of the
streaks ol rust to accentuate the shape of the boat. 2.
Burnt Sienna, Brown Madder, Sepia.
Save the darkest color rust
such as nails or cracks.
where the source
Now you can
put in the waterline color and other darker areas,
such as the gunwales and cabin.
over the waterline color. Alter
completely dry, erase the pencil
lines using a solt eraser.
sure to continue the rust
part of the rust
seeps out from the nail heads.
PUDDIN AND EUNICE X 48.3cni)
Keep the color value light on newer boats.
for rust that
SALMON TOOLE. WATERCOLOR
coastal scenes include
an up-close view
sand texture, based on sand
of the beach.
few whites. Wet the paper and
undulations with very dilute Yellow Ochre.
toothbrush to pick up slightly diluted Yellow Ochre, and
with your forefinger, spatter
Sandy Hook Beach.
grainy texture following the vague
Next, spatter Burnt Sienna. Easy does blot the excess with a tissue, or
an overdose and blot with
once the paint
paper towel. The earth colors and
transparents here are relatively easy to
to cover areas
brown. Cut or tear shapes from
whe.e you want
Do this some spatterKeep in mind that
ing soften the edges to avoid an artificial look.
to preserve highlights.
judiciously. Reposition the shapes as
Keep building contours using Cobalt Blue. Concentrate spattering on the shadow sides using smooth, gradual transitions. If necessary, lift excess pigment or add some with the point of a round brush. Use a coarser toothbrush to randomly scatter softened Sepia followed by Cadmium Red. With a gum eraser, uncover the whites and sketch in the shell and pebble for contrast using Cobalt
Cadmium Orange. Shadows Cadmium Orange for reflected light.
Blue, Alizarin Crimson and balt
Painting Grasses in
SALMON TOOLE, WATERCOLOR
LOIS Colors: Alizarin
Crimson Antwerp or Ultramarine Blue Aureolin Yellow
Cadmium Yellow Cobalt Blue
The focus here Quickly lay
rag paper 1-inch no.
and valleys over
in Blades of Grass
a no. 6 or no. 8
of the blades of grass, as
more and then some Burnt Sienna. While
Mask out white
the base, bringing in Vi-
on the upward stroke
to the tip.
a no. 10 brush, starting
Yellow Ochre ridian
couple of blades in one upward
sand patterns (not
textures) suggesting rises
wet, bring in
of Viridian, lay in
the greens to indicate curve and highlights.
each with one long basic stroke blending
Complete the shadows on the sand
over the masked areas.
or light areas to be high-
lighted against the darks later.
Always keep the source lightly
of light in
mind. Lay shadow
Leaves bend and curve, catching highlights
with a Cobalt Blue mix, following the contour of the sand.
Darken the shadows with more cobalt adding Crimson
continuous, blending into one another.
ing elsewhere, sometimes casting highlights,
a little Alizarin
where they originate the end. The shadows are
the base, tapering and fading off
Shade and Contour Grass Blades
shadows on each
and darkenother. For
wet the whole blade, and leaving the highlighted area
white, lay Aureolin Yellow next to that, then a mix of Viridian
and Cadmium Yellow, then Viridian followed by Antwerp or Ultramarine Blue. For a very dark green, mix Burnt Sienna and Winsor Blue, but use
SALMON TOOLE, WATERCOLOR
Here are two different approaches to
achieve lights against dark. is
one on the
used on the grass cluster on is
Cadmium Red Cadmium
used on the
Yellow Olive Green Sepia
Set the Stage
Though the background then with
a no. 6
the right clump, and
lay in a base of
highlights on the
against a simple left
Yellow Ochre leaves on
Viridian-Olive Green mix on the
no. 6 round left
Continue the Leaves
Follow the base colors with Burnt Sienna. For the group on the
but not wet, use the
to scrape blade lines in the
green revealing the lighter colors be-
Then continue with
the dark green mix on the left-hand
mix Viridian and Cadmium Yellow, then
Green and then darken with Ultramarine Blue, can use any stav
ors that siav
greens or green mixes. For
stainers such as
the paper and spread.
some Olive strong blue. You
Winsor Blue. Stainers sink
You want transparents
on the surface)
or "opaques" (col-
dark green mix to the right group. While the paint
group, but don't scrape
of the small
Group Masked Highlights Remove the masking to reveal highlighted
Here you see the aquarelle brush scraping green of the bush on the
lines out of the
Once the masking
lighted blades with lighter greens tour.
blades on the
Comparison and Inset With
Now you If
can compare the two techniques.
you want stark white highlights,
the group at
ing cold-press paper. In a
(rather than a demonstration), be consistent,
choosing one method or the other or
possibly a combination of both to be used
over the whole painting. The paper surface
you choose press,
the texture, soft edges and
you choose hot-press
where the paint tends ing
which has some tooth and captures
in the inset), sit
wet brush are
mirror to help paint the reflections. For these greens,
mix Olive Green and Burnt Sienna, smudging some with a wet flat.
removed, go back into parts of the high-
of the lines
Shell Study SALMON TOOLE, WATERCOLOR
Sandy Base and Lay-In Draw shell shapes- and then mask lines.
Cut the shell shapes out of
towel and cover them. Secure the paper towel with a small piece of masking tape.
page 42 to
on the with
set off the shells.
Cadmium Yellow, Cadmium Red and
Start With the Brights with the brightest hues
and shade with
touch of Alizarin Crim-
The bright part
of this shell
Alternating Cobalt Blue with
Blue, trace in the fine lines to form the
Red, Burnt Sienna
Swirl the Tip of the Shell
to the tip of
the shell. Follow the striations to the
a taint line of
on the underside sand.
shade the barely perceptible undulations
shadow. For the
tums lengthwise and
centrated on one shell,
tipped the shell up to capture the
translucency thin outer
across. Soften as
into the less reflective surface.
around. The sand
inside curve of the shell
while paying attention to the subtle
Cobalt Blue. Don't overdo.
of the shell reflects
the shell. The shell in turn reflects onto the
charging in colors for smooth transition stria-
the shell in the cast
shadow, use Cobalt
Cadmium Orange and Cadcharged
in for reflected light.
Soften the outer edges of the shadow.
Gull Study LOIS
SALMON TOOLE, WATERCOLOR
Gulls come in all sizes,
some even larger than chickens, and range from white through all shades of gray to black. Sometimes they're neat, sometimes mottled and
marine paintings, usually suggested and not
grungy. But mostly they are a gregarious familiar part of
than a gull usually appears in a maritime painting,
to suggest gulls
the sea, graceful in
Gulls are often an incidental part of the larger picture in
fun to watch and paint.
a no. 6
Yellow Ochre on the underside curve of the belly and the beak to light
from the sand. Trace
Tackle the wing feathers
to paint a stroke of dilute
Move down and you see
shadow contour. minds you the body
feather pattern. Continue the
Reflected light reis
that the reflected
Continue Modeling Charge in Antwerp Blue and Burnt Sienna, wet-in-wet, for the underbelly. Lift
darken the feathers, moving the paint
a line of Cobalt
Blue/Burnt Sienna Gray into the wet paint for
the top with Antwerp for reflected light
moist brush for lighter spots.
feathers are Burnt Sienna
overlaid with blue.
same proand head. Keep in light beneath and
on top defines the contours.
STEP Start With Reflected Light
specimen. The following demonstration shows, on
mind how the
emerge from the body. Run
Cadmium Yellow under belly, softening all the
a line of
the chin and
edges after model-
ing the head.
% STEP Smaller Flying Bird Add a smaller backlit flying bird
with dilute Antwerp Blue, charging
shape the whole
Cadmium Orange on
the belly and contouring beneath with a touch of Burnt Sienna.
Even Smaller Birds
Burnt Sienna on the wings, adding blue lor darks.
These two smaller birds are simply small shapes and color patterns done in one slip, charging in color. Where they catch the light
depends upon the sources.
For this exercise, vary the light
to Enliven WATERCOLOR
Your choice of technique determines much about the of is
your painting. Dry-brush technique a
of applying a drier consis-
tency of watercolor paint with
effectively used over a paler color. In the watercolor
Mizerek used drybrush in the
wild grass in the foreground.
brush on a paper towel until
damp, then load your brush with color. When you skim the brush across rough paper, only the peaks
developing more detail and pro-
darker and sharper edge.
stippling. Different papers affect the
To use drybrush, dab your wet
brush. Dry-brush technique produces
the textured paper will be colored. Ex-
periment with different stroke pat-
stroke works great for creating
distant water reflections.
While on location,
washes using broad
Crimson Burnt Umber Hooker's Green
blend together and
Raw Sienna Ultramarine
joy letting ette
the details later using dryhrush.
Studio Finish I
the foreground un-
touched so the
smooth rocks would add contrast
in layers of
small dry strokes of color, letting details
overlap to keep the feeling of depth.
also used drybrush to
skim over the overturned boat, adding a
ON THE BAY 13"X21"(33cmX 53.3cm) Leonard Mizerek. Watercolor
DUSK ON THE CAPE
11"X14" (27.9cm X 35.6cm)
and the weathered boathouse. Some strokes are drawn
Leonard Mizerek. Watercolor
across the surface.
FROM A PRO
Limited Palette By keeping your palette somewhat limited, it is possible to li\
specifically the quality oi light
time of day.
used drybrush to achieve the detail
lobster cages, the grassy area in
and others just skimmed
Painting on Location LEONARD MIZEREK Watercolor
work with outdoors. You don't have
backup solvents, and watercolor dries
to carry tons of
Len Mizerek suggests pack-
ing the following tools
watercolors outdoors: 1
Usually there are two
hours of sunlight before the
that you'll be paint-
Time your drawyou don't use up the good lighting. Use the optimum lighting to begin painting. As you paint, the sun moves and shadows lengthen or shorten; colors change. Try to memorize the effect you want to stick with. Within the two hours, photograph ing a different scene.
the scene with color slide film.
though sunglasses change the
Pike's (or similar) palette.
to the conditions.
hot, arid climate
makes your paper dry quickly and dries your washes forces you to work that
Bright days can turn into misty,
you have one.
small watercolor block
for small color notes
times creates brilliant miniatures
water bottles (one for
clean water and one for cleaning
or three brushes: a
round no. 4 and a wide 2-inch flat for washes are usually
enough brushes care.
of watercolor tubes kept in
the car to freshen up your palette.
easy to lose brushes
outdoors while immersed in your
A 35mm camera detail
way you found
untouched was lor you.
for the next
must when near the
water, and bring along sunblock
Painting on Location Have someone take your A view
picture while painting, lor your
the artist painting the subject
empty solvents, dirty water or litter on the ground or in the water. Leave the spot as
Leave the spot where you've
helpful to take
a Good Citizen
to be a
that later can be sold.
You should be comfortable while working outdoors, but too.
foggy days, so be prepared to adapt
the best for shading if
in the bright sun, al-
most outdoor situations
Sunglasses or a visor for looking at
Packing tape for mounting paper.
ing in highlights.
mount. Be careful that the wind doesn't blow your paper or palette
quick studies you don't need to
to return to
palette with a rock in the center
complete the painting
12.7cm X 17.8cm) sketch pad.
moves or the weather changes, work from the photos and color notes
including a white
Smaller sheets of 300-lb. paper for
ditions are the
useful for hori-
the subject in
Weigh down the lightweight
same the next day, try the same spot. If your sub-
away! Always secure the paper
Several sizes of
eraser, a no. 2 pencil, a small
or cardboard. 2.
a piece of
zons and some rigging.
cold-press watercolor paper
MISTY MORNING XI 7".
Len Mizerek began Misty Morning outdoors
a different idea in
the final outcome. The air turned moist, and the painting, of
Leonard Mizerek, Watercolor
wet-on-wet watercolor. As the paper got wetter, he changed
meet the conditions. The painting and softened almost
he was experiencing. He
FROM A PRO
usually a strong hori-
challenge to use elements creatively to
break up the space so part
ing isn't cut off. Use compositional devices to break thai line
to direct the
viewer's eye, such as people looking at
your subject, clouds thai connect
land masses or each otber. masis,
mind than became a
misty feeling. The colors blended
â€”duplicating the very mood that
of the great experiences of the
the effect that the weather can have on your work. This leads to
experiences that break the
way one normally works. The reward
some challenging is
there for anyone."
Direct the Viewer's
LEONARD MIZEREK, WATERCOLOR Sometimes
the time or
opportunity to fully record scene. it
The important thing
he saw a story unfolding would make a great painting. He had to work quickly, so he took some slides and did a small loose sketch to this scene,
record important elements.
Sketch on Site This small sketch done on lish
values and composition. While sketch
ing, decide what view you like and what would make the best angle.
Position Elements Carefully
the studio, experiment with full-size sketches from your
notes and photo references. Use layers of vellum and
sheet so you can
you're satisfied with the figure
and the boy are
and composition. The main
same direction. device pointing toward the main sub-
â€”the model boat. The placement
things around until
to the right looking in the
This creates a directional ject
Alter finalizing the drawing, carbon the back with a no.
and transfer the main elements
medium-rough watercolor paper
board or Masonite.
onto the 140-lb.
stretched onto foam-
â€” First Wash
large, so start
to lay in the
with large Chinese watercolor brushes
establish overall color. At this stage,
paint on dry paper, keeping the
and picking up the same
Winsor & Newton colors
figures in the foreground are kept
in the reflections.
colors at the points of interest helps focus attention
an otherwise cool painting. The reflections also
give vertical balance to this horizontal painting.
will intensify the colors.
absorbed into the paper.
but carefully in
order to leave white paper showing for highlights and strategic areas, such as the sails.
LEONARD MIZEREK Increase Values Slowly increase the values. Cool
water and darken the reds
in the jackets.
-^K fL-^*e Using Directional Elements This simplified sketch of the composition
shows how you can place your elements to point toward your center of interest and also (see the boathouse)
keep the viewer's
eye inside the frame.
FIRST SAIL 22"
30" (55. 9cm
Leonard Mizerek. Watercolor
wasn't satisfied with the background, so
boat shed in the distant background to
increase contrast at
point ol interest.
compete. The overlapping of depth.
of the sail
added another layer
color off the lobster cages
side of the painting
lighter in value than the figures so
and the stack
of lobster cages increases the sense
washes, especially to increase the intensity
water. This added stability and weight to the bottom of the painting.
Importance of People in Marine Art ROBERT
your boat paintings can keep
them from being a
well as add identify
You can broaden your audience
base by telling
that will interest the general viewer,
and not just the boat enthusiast.
on, a specific vessel will clearly iden-
can help you establish
perspective and proportion.
figure placed next to, or
usually seen as sec-
marine paintings, figures
there's a boat in the background, plac-
can even be the main subject, as in
ing a figure in the foreground can help
Their Trick at the Wheel.
placement and action of the figures
your viewer perceive
THEIR TRICK AT THE WHEEL
This painting depicts cadets of the U.S.
weather was turning
18"X24" (45.7anX61cm), Robert
Coast Guard training barque Eagle during
C. Sentler, Oil
on the Delaware
primarily a "people
rainy, with a
figures in vel-
rain slickers provided a compelling
rain slickers, the
painting" with a maritime theme showing
compass, the wheel and
the intensity of the cadets under the
were painted using the glazing method shown on the following page.
ot their sailing
Developing a 'Seaworthy
ods of painting. The face, pipe and
compass are underpainted and then Umber and
glazed. Semler uses Burnt
hat are painted in the traditional
mixing the proper colors as you go.
This demonstration uses two methof
and the brass
with a contour line drawing of the
general shape and features.
use a soft
paint these items to
keep the yellows clean and
you mix "as you go." By un-
Use a small sable brush
pure pigment, the painted subject
shows through the pure color and has its own.
a special brightness all
to paint in the
darkest areas with a Burnt
derpainting and then glazing with
the large areas oi the
monotone underpaintingâ€” -dark,
graphite pencil because I'm painting on a
combination. Paint the dark hat using Ul-
clay-surfaced art board.
tramarine Blue and Burnt Umber.
portrait colors for the face.
and compass, completed
ready for the glaze.
The underpainting must be dry before applying the glaze, and each additional glaze layer
must dry completely
softening of the previous gla/e.
to avoid I
gla/e beautifully and
thinned with Liquin. Apply
for the glazes, a thin layer
fan brush. This evens the color. Paint the face, hat I
in a traditional
used four separate yellow glazes to gel
the desired saturation of yellow!
The finished figure Paint the piping, insignia
after the lour separate glazes are dry.
the compass with Yellow Ochre.
\C X 18" I
X 45. 7cm)
The Independence Seaport Museum
Philadelphia purchased this yacht as a flagship and charter vessel.
shows her at Philadelphia with some local vessels in the
the figures standing on the docking pier,
realism to the scene.
the composition and add to the depth of the painting. I've linked the figures and the primary subject to give the composition unity.
Tossing the Line tion.
shows working tugs
could have painted this scene
in acol tugs
pulling the battleship Wisconsin out of the
without the figures and with only the
taut lines showing, but tossing the line
an important part
brings a certain tension to the story.
TOSSING THE LINE I2"x
the line misses?
times does this
more personal and
PIER PRESSURE 40"
XW (10l.6cmX76.2cm), Robert
Collection of Harbour League,
was commissioned from
turn-of-the-century black-and-white pho-
tograph showing the construction of piers in
Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania.
family-owned company, and the
wanted a lasting portrait The main challenge
of his father's crew.
was painting multiple
coming up with real
portraits, as well as
scheme. These are
to look like
were. Research into the condition of the water, which
from coal and
was very oil,
dirty at the time
This painting depicts a nostalgic re-
ther and his grand-
son watch as the
cursion steamer. Pilgrim Belle, arrives
from Philadelphia at
1948. His white shirt
and arm form
an important part ot
BELLE OF RIVERVII. 22"X28" (55.9cm x
71.1cm). Robert C. Semler, Oil
LIGHTING EFFECT* use
Leonard Mizerek. Watercolor
Painting the Translucence of Sails MARC CASTELLI, WATERCOLOR
of the painting featured
paper screens and walls used
The translucence of these screens matches the quality of light that fascinates artist Marc Castelli about sails.
seen from the opposite side of
sunlight have a glow.
glow framed by the masts, spreets and clubs that reminds one of shoji. Shoji panels slide open to reveal views to other rooms or to the outside world, and the opening between the sails represents It's
The dark water
across the bottom of the picture plane
anchors the boat and indicates wind strength and direction.
angle of indicating speed.
now complete, must be conaccomplished by painting
the spreets, clubs and mast. Here Castelli is
painting in the mast on his angled paint-
ing board in his studio.
Drawing. Complete before any color
major shapes and their proportions are correctly relieves
concerns for correctness.
Sky. The sky was painted 12
with a no.
Simmons White Taklon brush
onto dry paper with
a lot of
small section of sky serves as an escape to a greater distance,
front studying the
Flemish painters of the
Northern Renaissance. Sails.
shapes are painted second. The
powerful shapes and should
confidence and strength; so throw paint,
drop water and
competes with the
Racing log canoes bring to light in the sails, so
mind crude dugouts paddled
important to tone everything around
them, and throughout the painting, value darker than the
by rough types. In
a racing log
rellective surfaces. Their darker color
gives the sails
freeboard. These elegant
Chesapeake Bay, are
scendants from traditional workboats. in stages
from skin tones
Figures. Figures are established starting
they are small
clipper-bowed sharp-sterned boats sails.
canoe are usually varnished and thus be-
are in fact over
years old. years
have raced on them collecting stories,
and photographing, and painting them has become a passion. There are few sensations akin to riding on the spring-
boards of a canoe beating to windward.
SHOJI 22"x30" Marc
of the cockpit interior
mast, club and spreet, PHOTO BY JOHN MICHAEL
of the darkest masses. Since
darker than the
returns light to those areas. The waves around the boat are
waves work out into the boat's wake and then even farther out. Since this boat is on a windward leg, the leeward rail is close to the water. The boat isn't only riding on the water, but it's forced into the water and pushes water away causing a wake. The low angle of perspective only gives the viewer glimpses of of detail.
detail lessens as the
tops and troughs. These angular slashes
also impart action.
sky. In increasingly darker values ot Indigo Blue,
about the wind and hull speed
These qualities play against the calm area
the water are established.
mix of Purple Lake and French Ultramarine Blue these strokes must suggest form and volume and be active.
areas, a pale
Look, see, all
get wet, breathe the
of the sails
Antwerp Blue and Burnt Sienna, the
white. Into these
See into your painting with
The Effect ofAmbient Light on Water PETER EGELI, OIL
The reflective surface of water makes
interest to the flects
wonder and marine artist. Water re-
a source of
the source of light and
ent light with amazing precision infusing
above and below and requires only that artists observe carefully.
points to note about painting light.
In Approaching Storm, the
20"X42" (50.8cm X
106.7cm), Peter Egeli, Oil
water surfaces revealing
the source of light but brighter and
a variety of
shown only by
neutral. There's also a combination
Key the values to the bnghtest
ARK OF MARYLAND
Ark of Maryland
the horizon, so the low clouds and sky
101.6cm), Peter Egeli, Oil
overhead sky Reflection of lower
Local color of water
Color of sky
Color of sky hull
Bow wave Bow wave
Sky color permeates sky and water
the ship that brought the
colonists to Maryland.
become the immediate source
The yellow and red clouds become the reason for yellow and red on the water. The blue and violet in the sky become the reason for the cool colors on the sails. Notice that very distant vessels appear to sit on top of the water or "hull down." These effects are the consequence of a relatively low observer height and the curvature of the earth. of light.
PETER EGELI, PASTEL Still water
the best subject for
studying the principles that govern the appearance of water surface.
As the diagrams on page
the water farthest from the ob-
server reflects the lower sky unless surface
broken by wavelets or
wake. The surface closer
to us reflects
nearer, the water begins to local color. Finally,
can see the bottom,
and what lies there. In The Creek there is no visible light source, just a soft ambient light reflecting in the still color
Drawing and Mark
the major shapes on
medium-gray Canson paper using medium or soft vine charoff the excess, there's sufficient left on the paper to
blowing and wiping
Complete the drawing and "search out" your darker areas, Leaf Green on the right
distance. Sennelier Light Ultramarine
(no. 22) in the
Schmincke Cold Green
and Chrome Oxide
middle and Schmincke English Red
Sky Color You need
for the sky.
good intermediate base color I
found Sennelier Violet (no.
335) works well. The upper and lower right side
Sennelier Ultramarine Blue
(no. 137). Things are
working well so load
of the earlier colors into
the sky and water. Whatever goes above the water's surface also goes into the reflection.
now. Use Schmincke Olive
Green on the
side of the trees
some Schmincke Neutral Gray in the shore and some Schmincke Chrome
Green on the middle-left
Shore on Right Side Refine the shapes of the trees
"punch holes" through them
to the sky
with English Red. Develop the shore on the right as sunlit with Schmincke Green-
Umber. To bring some
sphere around the right-hand bank of trees, give
of Sennelier Blue-
Violet (no. 335). Carry English
the sky with Schmincke Permanent Red
(no. 42). Also use
in the center
Load on the colors to
in the flatter areas
in the voids
quently use the back of the Canson paper).
symmetry of mounting the picture to use a reducing glass and
Also, at this stage, check the
the reflections by vertically.
a mirror, too, to critique
Log Canoe The
Poquoson model and converted from sail to low power adds a sense of scale, depth and presence to your view of noe
evolving scene. To place
profile of the boat
cut oul a
a scrap of
gray Canson paper, and using the principles of perspective discussed earlier, hold it
of a divider
mark the place with charcoal. The base color is Schmincke Gray Blue (no. 91), Neutral Gray (no. 98) and Permanent Red (no. 42) for the light part.
Gray (no. 94)
the reflection to show the
water's local color.
THE CREEK I6"x24" (40.6cm X
61.()aii), Peter Egeli, Pastel
few more holes
Chrome Oxide Green
foreground trees and the middle trees with Schmincke
(no. 84), just to
Schmincke Olive Green (no. 85) to the near show the local color of the water.
dense. Give a
faces of the foreground
THE ICE LETS OUT 16"X24" (40.6cm X 61cm),
The theme here Peter Egeli, Pastel
FROM A PRO
live somewhere long enough and really see where you are, the light will become specific II
is an act enhanced by drawing, painting
to the locale. "Really seeing"
and photography. These three used
mersion light to
conjunction with constant subin
will give the
your paintings. - MARC CASTELLI
similar to that of The Creek with
the darkest part of the sky
somewhat of a reversal of color. Here it gets warmer and brighter a bit
the horizon, while
Color Harmony: Sky, Water and Sails LEONARD MIZEREK, Though rific
you can certainly create
Crimson, Cerulean Blue,
lated colors. Skipjacks at Sunrise uses
Ultramarine Blue and white. The pal-
offers a ter-
only one dominant color through-
ette for Twilight at Tilghman's
opportunity for a monochromatic
become tone on tone
reflects the sky,
take on the surrounding col-
by nature, marine paintings can
complement and ad-
jacent colors are used to create form
same with the addition
Aureolin Yellow, Alizarin
SKIPJACKS AT SUNRISE 13"XIV/" (33cm
Leonard Mizerek, Oil
was painted wet-on-
wet. Here, I'm not that
concerned with I
one color domi-
nate. All the objects
are bathed in the
light of the sun;
values are close. The distribution of light
and dark shapes is key. The dominant color is
colors in the painting.
Even the shadow colhave been warmed
TWILIGHT AT TILGHMAN'S ll'A"
X 33cm), Leonard
Twilight skies are similar to sunrise skies but often contain Mizerek, Oil
than yellow dominance. Here the clouds on the horizon early evening. Notice that the water
case, reflects the sun's light yellow, rather
painting the mast ol
boat, observe the subtle
oyster boats thai are
seen sailing on the Chesa-
these vessels date back to the 1800s.
They dredge the bottom of the Chesapeake for oysters while under sail. They lie gracefully low in the water and are one of the last wooden working vessels ol their kind.
than the red-violet clouds on the horizon.
reflect the red-violet rays of
see the shrinking fleet of skipjacks and their hardworking
on the Chesapeake.
in color as
Sienna and yellow
reflects the color ol the
use a stronger mix
Cadmium Red and some
the base ol the mast and add color as
Evening Skies Add Color to
LEONARD MIZEREK, Evening
OIL glowing sunset too intense. Even
skies vary with every
painting. In addition to individual variations, different seasons
you see one
EvEn//n/c Sky Colons
Mizerek uses these colors
has the best colors and
you use the strong colors you actually see. Keep your col-
strongest contrasting skies. However,
ors in close relationship with the over-
Yellow, Ultramarine Blue
have different thai early
to take care not to paint
FELL'S POINT 9"X
(22.9anX 30.5cm). Leonard Mizerek, Oil
tone of the painting.
Harbor was painted using the sanu sk\ treatment as
kept the edges of the sky darker to frame the piece.
harbor scene because of the
paint evening skies: Alizarin
cast of light
particularly like to
do an evening
on the redbrick buildings and the water.
ANNAPOLIS HARBOR 9"
30.5cm), Leonard Mizerek. Oil
painted Annapolis Harbor in evening light that kept changing.
on subsequent evenings
for further observation.
Photos didn't capture the
subtleties ol the lighting.
skies are generally
warm. After beginning with
low, Alizarin Crimson and Ultramarine Blue, adding white for the right value,
Cadmium Yellow mixed
used the red of the sky
paint with Liquin
to finish covering the sky area in
the buildings and water to harmonize
medium ami began
layering thin layers of
Ultramarine Blue and Alizarin Crimson over some clouds. This gave the translucent effect of lighter I
sky showing through
dries quickly, so
add several layers
wanted the warmth of the sunset to spill onto the surrounding buildings and water reflections. The sky was streaked with low clouds overlapping the setting sun. desired effect.
To create depth,
deepened the lower pan nearest the horizon by adding Ultramarine
situated directly in front of the light source to
mast almost dissolves into the color color.
the sun and then,
at its top,
a local point.
lakes on the skv
Portraying Luminosity in Oils CHARLES RASKOB ROBINSON, OIL Luminosity
fascinated with light,
cult that pursuit
ing; emitting light; bright; brilliant;
Before showing some of Robinson's paintings, a
two about the
technique he uses to produce luminosity are in order. For suit of
him the pur-
best described as
trying to capture the brightness clarity of
the difference between
from your painting frequently and look
a film trans-
(like a slide) verses a
vas and returns ("outgoing light")
applied, the process can take
the light as
or something similar, do the
drawing and then stretch the
to say, lay a transpar-
ent yellow glaze over a transparent
blue to create an apparent green.
of the basic
to the viewer's
what may be
colorful fashion but a relatively
dries over the
also allows the paint-
ing to be professionally photographed
flections or the darks going dull. After
space plane of the painting.
couple months or more of drying, a damar varnish can be applied for fur-
"Put on the Miles!" Walk back
of the "Fitted
drawing wind into
and, one can assume, unexposed reefs. a severe line squall
speeding toward an approaching thunder-
course requires them to round a marker
without worrying about high gloss
Cools recede and
keep the proper locations
to full richness
a light coat of
the painting while
Paint from dark to light.
painted opaque surface and reflect back
darks that have gone dull. This brings
in all of his oil paint-
and signed (with
luminosity as opposed to merely hav-
BASIC TECHNIQUES Here's a
stretched canvas to a foamboard
degree you can "mix" your
provide. So tape or pin the un-
passes through the layers of films. In
of pressure the
needed than stretched canvas can
slightly different in color,
a richness to
a lot of loose car-
leads require, a firmer backing
prima," or opaque, approach.
bon dust as with softer leads. However, in order to get the
good deal more time than the popu-
through the same layers to meet the
ing the incoming light strike the
ings in this book:
to capture the
a pencil with a rather hard
drawing on canvas. The drawing
layers, or "films," of
viewer's eye. The goal
translucent layers of thin
a greater distance
working and what
lead (7H or 8H) to do the initial
must be painted one at a time. In other words, the whole picture must be painted several times. Since each layer must dry before the next
colors in these layers instead of
fact, to a
The approach Robinson uses is time and labor intensive. He seeks to modify the light that falls on a canvas "in-
LAYER UPON LAYER
watercolor paints while re-
taining the brilliance
can one capture these qualities
tionary describes luminous as "shin-
clear." Well, easier said
growing thunderhead, but the race
the immediate proximity of several exposed
once crewed on
square rigger that was
with winds over sixty miles per hour. To the extent one could
sky and the entire atmosphere around the ship turned an unnatural green,
while the sea
windblown and beaten by the heavy
of white foam. In the foreground, the
shining and the waters are shallow, so the famous
Bermuda aqua blue-green waters should be quite in evidence. However, as one goes out toward the horizon, the sunlight gives way to the storm and the bright aqua bluegreens give way to blue-green-grays. Less and less light is hitting the sandy bottom and reflecting back to the surface, and more and more of the light seen on the water is reflected
from the dark gray sky.
CHARLES RASKOB ROBINSON
SPINNAKER RUN 14"X18" (35.6cmX45.7cm) Charles Raskob Robinson, Oil on Canvas
Achieving Luminosity With Transparent Glazes in Oil CHARLES RASKOB ROBINSON, OIL Sketch In Sketch
the sailboats on a Burnt Sienna toned canvas, a ground
The toning serves
to "fix" the pencil
drawing; however, take care not to remove or wash
the pencil drawing
with the mostly turpentine wash.
Once the canvas
stretched, only the jib of
the boat on
the right will be evident to
convey the com-
sphere of the setting.
Block in With Paint: Block
the sky and the land features, as well as the
of the sails
on the principal boat (with no.
is mixed very think', using mostly turmedium. On the palette, the paints diluted in this fashion look more like watercolors than oils. Since they are so thin, they could be easily affected by solvents in sub-
in these layers/glazes
pentine but also
sequent layers/glazes, so
important that one layer
oughly dry before the next one
Sometimes even the diluted film/glaze is too much, and in is allowed to sit for a few minutes before it is
case, the paint
rubbed very gently (more
dragging motion) with
pled-up paper towel. This has the of the
Block in With Paint: The Water and the Boats Work "back to front." Paint the ill-defined water at the horizon, and move forward
to the better defined
water of the middle and
foregrounds. Reinforce the pencil outlines of the waves with a
Ultramarine Blue, Burnt Umber, Viridian and Winsor
colors used for the rest ol the
sunny day, and the famous blue-green color the water should be evident to a degree. Some white mixed it's
with these halftones gives interesting colors for breaking water at
or in the
the boat, houses on land.
to help adjust the value to the
surrounding painted areas.
Use additional washes to shape up arms and legs
complement the warm
Sienna and Cerulean Blue, which are found
where more white was used than
Note the beginning ness of the
colors of Burnt in
the skv (the tor-
the horizon and the latter higher up in the sky) and in the
on the tooth
canvas whatever tone or underpaint appears below. This
approach was used
effect of revealing
—developing the round-
the whited underpainting of the
toward the mast.
come through where
CHARLES RASKOB ROBINSON
Layers of Glazes Once blocked in, the
Charles Raskob Robinson, Oil on Canvas
odyssey begins: painting the same work another half-dozen
times or more. But in these glazes of different colors and hues
Each session should lead to
applied and allowed to dry thoroughly before the next layer of glaze
This technique of painting thin layers each slightly different five
continued three to
times more. These glaze layers gradually add a depth and richness, but
than just one more glaze.
apparent, especially in the
not until the
and signed with
layers are painted that the detail
and crew members.
a fine pen,
a light coat of
recapture any darks that have gone dull. This brings them back to protects the painting while
completed additional veneer or layer of paint, thinly
dries over the next
Retouch Varnish lull
also allows the painting to
be professionally photographed without worrying on the one ham) about high gloss reflections or the darks going dull. Alter a couple
months or more
of drying a
Varnish can be applied for further protection.
HOMEWARD BOUND. BERMUDA 1
primarily a sunset scene,
complicated sky anchored by distant
and middle-ground land masses. Alizarin Crimson combined with the intensity of the Cadmium Yellows gives a strong underpainting for the warmest part of the sky. The
Charles Raskob Robinson. Oil on Canvas
layers of glazes described in the
depth and space
are particularly important in creating luminosity,
sunset sky. In the far distance, the water
reflected sunlight; there
the middle and foregrounds, the other colors of the sky play a the individual waves take on character.
The "Fitted Dinghy" of Bermuda, as seen in Spinnaker Run, Homeward Bound and Across Mangrove Bay, is a small 14 feet in length) craft. They are overmanned (a crew of five) and overcanvassed (carrying as much sail as a 40-foot sloop). As a result they, along with the Chesapeake Bay Sailing Log Canoes and the Sydney (
Harbor Racing Dinghies limit,
and then some. From an
even the way the
epitomize pushing crew, canvas and
combine with the dynamic action
the race to provide interesting painting material.
craft to the
point of view, the geometry of the sails (and
are seamed), the color ol the crews' uniforms, the great variety
of sky-sea combinations
dominated by the
definition of the individual waves. As
CHARLES RASKOB ROBINSON
SAFE HARBOR 19"X30" (48.3cm X
Charles Raskob Robinson, Oil on Canvas
proaches behind the Edgartown Light (lighthouse), which light.
seated observer watches a "Doughdish"
into port in
Dip the brush of
a sable bright (the
better than smaller ones; a no.
side across a paper towel
the turpentine and then apply the Hat side of the brush to the
Keep the angle
you should know how paint can be removed from an area without
area to be cleaned. of
a local gaff-rigged sailboat
often used in watercolor painting). Larger ones
the blotting, dragging and repeated painting this technique in-
endangering the veneers 8 to no. 10
by low afternoon sun-
of the storm.
PA/WT FfLOM A
as a is lit
the brush less than 45 degrees to the surface
the brush from side to side once or twice,
turpentine and blot
Hat edge ol the brush to the towel. Repeal as needed.
paper towel, holding the
C I VIT
Charles Raskob Robinson Oil on Canvas
Portraying Traditional Wooden
Working Boats DEE KNOTT,
WATERCOLOR nent, she's able to quietly and
Dee Knott's paintings
portray traditional working
The boatbuilders who labored over them and the fishermen whose livelihood depended upon them are
important parts of history.
one can reach on
â€” as when the sun
when one hears wooden spritsail
sions of hers.
wind, colors and sounds reveal
masted schooners, are great pasLiving in a coastal
the inner beauty and feeling of the
from working Core Sound
the sea, or
the sounds of a
rocking back and
calm day as the sea makes
gurgling sound beneath the hull.
wooden fishing boat Banks
flat-bottomed sailboats, about 16 to 20 feet in length,
were developed before
engines came into use. Their
toms were useful fished the
to the fishermen
in that area.
loose sketch on 100 percent rag
shapes and their placement of
shallow marshes and
canals of the Outer Banks and are
native to the Outer
also a traditional
premium watercolor board (Crescent), concentrating on the Wet the surface with a 3-inch hake brush leaving the white
the boat and reflections in the water.
the sheen of the wet paper
almost gone, use hake brushes
sky and water horizontally using wispy strokes with a mixture of Alizarin Crimson, Cadmium Yellow Pale and a touch of Payne's Gray. Leave the whites untouched. When dry, deepen the sky mixture
to stroke the
Sienna and put
shapes of the rocks using
no. 6 round brush.
Background Color Re-wet the sky and water, and with
Blue, Payne's Gray
and Alizarin Crimson,
then use Winsor Violet
to build of
the rocks. Be
careful to leave the
Layer Glazes Slowly
up the rocks
sun. Use to begin
a little to
work on the masts and I
the absorption of the evening
Cadmium Red and
reflected rigging, using very louse
like a painterly quality
Repeal several layers on the
rigid ruled stroke.
waiting until each layer dries,
alternating French Ultramarine Blue
a translucent quality ol the soft twilight reflected
dry. use Alizarin
to define the
was unhappy with the sky so re-wet the sky and water a hake brush to streak more colors across the skv I
again ami used
and water, also laying
the reflections of the hull.
SEAWORTHY PAINTING STEP
Get the Hull Right
and Alizarin on the hull,
you have the
the trim and
deepen the schooner's reflection
adding more Payne's Gray to the hull mixture.
rigging at this time
and Cobalt Blue.
EDGE OF THE SEA 20" X 28'
8cm X 7 LI an)
Bring the Painting
Dee Knott, Transparent Watercolor
The painting was
the previous step, but
knew the problem was still the sky. didn't know exactly what to do, but as in so many other paintings, you go get some fresh water and take a deep breath knowing all your hard work could go right out the window. So wet the entire sky, made a mixture ol French Ultramarine Blue and Cadmium Red and, leaving some ol the previous blue I
Put final touches
areas behind the schooner to help push the hull to the foreground.
get the feel of
just telt the sky. wasn't sure where to put each stroke (no. 12 brush); was so excited when the painting finally said what felt. Taking a risk I
the reflections in the water, indicate the
important shadows and rigging. Don't to duplicate exactly
when saw I
wasn't the technical
ging that inspired me. Using
a fine point, put in line loose rigging,
quality of light here.
The schooner was see.
doesn't get too dark. is
what's most important
mind, put a wash
low Ochre over the and the schooner's
and wood trim
60233220223 WOODEN/ L?OATf W'hen painting wooden boats with watercolor, alternately paint every other hoard to keep
from running into the other. GEORGE
Depicting a Tugboat ROBERT
Diamond Swells study depicts a Bay tugboat, Cape
color scheme, a bright horizon against
the blue-green of the water.
Railings, antennas, lines of
Hatteras, cruising the waters ol the
Chesapeake Bay tinctive blue
The painting has the appearance of but a good deal of it is
was a familiar sight in days gone by. The line is now owned by Moran Tug, and the remaining vessels carry the white M on their black stacks. stack
tographs Semler took
background, he decided on
transparent or opaque paint depend-
However, comes to the sky and never uses gouache there. The sky should be well planned and painted
more than is actually One thing that makes paintings
of vessels accurate tification, that
their proper iden-
the name. Also,
pencil in a relatively detailed
the tug on 140-lb. pa-
painting specific vessels in watercolor,
best to get
die correct placement and proportions penciled in before applying paint.
Should you have too it's
portholes, or doors in the
nol easily corrected later.
the water, having already
added now. Use gouache
add the portholes, emphasize the bumpers on the hull and generally
emphasize the darks and
especially nice lor line lines
viously painted dark areas.
painted with washes
Burnt Umber, drying thoroughly between each application, and then washed with greens ^\m\ blues to indicate age. Scumble colors over the hull with a dry brush.
haven't tone lied the water
vet except lor the base coat. Establish the subject
place die boat in the water. Alter the boat's painted, you tan
overlap the water ^nd place the waves to establish clear location.
on the desired
he's a purist
sure your identification colors
painting small de-
may be put in this way. Semler decides whether to use
implied. In small places, a spot of light
the tug and
color next to a darker shade will cause-
one's eye to see
Using several black-and-white pho-
a lot ol detail,
diamond on the
try using a
Paint in the basic tones
on dry paper with watercolor. No
scheme. Transparent watercolors give work.
base colors to establish the overall value a
to the finished
ROBERT C. SEMLER ^mm step 5 To put
such as the
the vessel or small using a mag-
nifying glass helps a lot.
you can be assured it
put in the darker blue-green tone to the overall area of
find that a small hairdryer shortens the drying time
and keeps the paper and
thoroughly dried, use dark
add waves and highlights
water. Pure white gouache with a touch of yellow used sparingly places sparkles from the sun
Use pure white
the small details,
such as the
ing vibrate with
VMOND SWELLS STUDY
12"X18" (30.5aiiX45.7aii) Robert
Here are some important points to
sure your horizon line and the view oi the tug are on the
importam when combining
And remember add
at a distance.
and can cover mistakes.
Tugboat hulls are loaded with browns, blues and
important to collectors. rust colors.
working vessels. People don't like tugs brighl and shiny. E.
Pay close attention
to the reflections, not
surrounding sky. Using the skv colors
over the boat,
the rule of aerial perspective: The foreground subject will be sharper
and brighter than the background B. Gulls
several photographs to create a specific scene.
and add small highlights
only from the boat
research the color scheme.
the painting together.
identities vessel lor collectors.
Add figures lor Make sure you
but from the
sure the water
35.6cm X 45.7,ni)
ANTICIPATION 14"x24" (35.6cmX.61cm) Robert
The SS United States luxury liner was moved to a temporary berthing in Philadelphia in August 1996. There's not only anticipation of what lies in the future, but anticipation from all concerned as to whether she will clear the approaching Walt Whitman Bridge.
STEAM TUG BALTIMORE /5"X20" (38.
James Drake lams Watercolor
This historic steam
tug was built
ding out to meet a freighter circa the
1930s. This tug still
Baltimore and can occasionally be
Painting a Morning Fog SALMON TOOLE, WATERCOLOR
and disappear, and out
demonstration explores the
influences of a
mospheric occurrence: ing fog that
about to be burned
by the sun. The entire painting
of the void will
range of values and color. The
ward, the monochromatic fog reluc-
water and horizon
the shapes advance diagonally for-
permeated with the shrouded aura fog. Sky,
begin to emerge illusory shapes. As
to reveal form, detail, still
moves the water.
Basic Drawing and Miniature
quality oi the
ship of the
miniature painting as a guide.
to save. Eventually the
be softened with skyglow
quickly on mostly wet paper to keep edges soft for all
edges, particularly in the distance.
start to paint.
Establish the Light
from the upper
concentrate the highest
the hake brush, wet the entire paper. Then
apply Aureolin from the upper right grad-
from the upper the paper to a
mix and achieve
gradual transition to fade-out
Let the paper dry completely.
smaller ones of Cobalt, French Ultramarine, a Cobalt/Alizarin
a bit oi
mixture, and Cobalt
Burnt Sienna. With
hake brush, wet the entire paper, then start
applying Antwerp from the upper
fading to the right. flat
and add Cobalt and Ultramarine
to blend. Finally,
lor the ripples.
hairdryer, then re-wet the
thing and continue. Hear
repeat this step.
stroke in the Cobalt-
the paper starts to dry. stop. Let
into the darker water.
Keep tipping the paper with a 1-inch
you may even have
Bring on the Elusive Images Using round brushes and Antwerp start to reveal
the line of boats at
where vague shapes begin to emerge from the fog, working right to left, gradually bringing in tones of Burnt Sienna and some Cobalt Blue as more detail is revealed. It should be soft and flowing, no hard edges, so keep the whole area wet. It's easy to go too dark. Masking leaves a hard edge to soften.
Shore Grasses and Background Sketch some of the masts and pilings behind the boats with very dilute Antwerp Blue to give
value against which to begin
the grasses. With a 1-inch
marsh area and light
lay in grass
Blue. As the grasses
advance, overlay with Burnt Sienna, adding
Antwerp-Burnt Sienna mix
tilmy misty look, keep
don't go too dark.
Float the Boats
Antwerp Blue is to remember
the colors in the boats.
not too detailed and not too
The darkest values
and the hardest edges are the objects and reflections at the right foreground. Intro-
duce some light
and Indian Red
uncover the masking
for the flags. Try to
soon as possible
because you'll have to play with softening the edges.
as they be-
assume vague form. To maintain
You can always add
From Boats to Mudflats and Pilings
Continue the boats
start laying in
Antwerp Blue and mauve,
a base of
some Burnt Sienna.
the time to
wet each shape with dilute Ant-
werp Blue and other
knobby, barkstripped tree
area of darkest values.
Before painting the
your values. What is
ues of the reflections. in
ample color mixed on the palette and a no. 10
good point. Keep the tones soft so
you can add more color or value
21"x28" (53.3cmX71.lcm) Lois
Make Adjustments and Finish Now use your trusty mirror: Looking gives
a different perspective.
the painting backward or even upside
boat were too dark, out of sync with the reflections of
masking and tone
extend some of the embankment
When satisfied, remove the remaining strand my miniature, floated a box as another object to
for a better line.
in the ropes. In
that the reflections of the foreground
the fog, but after positioning a cutout shape in various places in the water,
decided to eliminate
Boat Into the Water
MARC CASTELLI. WATERCOLOR here are people fantastic
paint wonderful boats. is
water and those
convincing water that the
boat not only rides on, but with which the boat
a full participant.
Sky and Water Do the sky tirst. Complete
drawing and then mix Antwerp Blue with lots ot
water and paint around whites and
over the areas that
so the excess water
the paper to one corner
and paint run
corner. Use horizontal applica-
do the water, leaving some white
areas between strokes. Reflections are
white for now. The cover
deck and engine
are pale blue.
Shoreline Willi a no. 8 brush, fairly wet, use
and Winsor Red
ing color." This technique
Blue. Burnt Sienna,
shed by dropping
wash. This can be repeated with
across the shape with "change-ups." a
color into a previous in color,
MARC CASTELLI STEP
Water Work over Use
the water with a second layer. in
the background in and
around the boats and
and smaller strokes with
foreground, change to
the distance create a depth of
using an active and informed brushstroke. I
use Indigo Blue here, which
Paint the boat
conjunction with each other. Working
colors into the water creates the variety oi surfaces
into the surface with the
Boat Into the Water
ues that indicate an active surface. The the
agitated the surface,
surrounding strokes. Draw
and around the
values, build a very active surface using a no. 4
Brush on the
reflection of the
side of the boat in sections.
the boat to keep visual unity. Reflections in the
hull are gla/ed layers of
Blue, Burnt Sienna
in the areas ol boat receiving direct sunlight.
Water and More Details You'll continue to
work on the water
time to add some
shafts, culling board,
such as tong
tong heads, win-
dows, waterlines (boot interior. Here's
you'll realize the
importance of "palette grays" made from the main colors
French Ultramarine Blue, Burnt Sienna,
Sienna, Purple Lake, Payne's Gray.
Using the "palette grays" for the details is
important to the integrity
serve as the viewers path into the ot
the picture. To capture the air between
shahs and transom, make use
shadows. The transom reflection receives a
few pale glazes
Sienna to build the swell.
the distracting white unpainted
areas up to their appropriate values
contrasts. Leave the white
tion for the
as the light in
be properly adjusted
whites are resolved.
There are subtle indicators tide
boat has a swell
stern. This reveals
cresting along the port
the boot top
and bottom paint on the starboard
The boat man's
to the right
to starboard (slightly), the opposite direction. This difference in
boats reinforces the activity of swells and tides,
keeping the picture torn being too I
Willi the take-up posts painted in, the
boat's retreat into the picture plane
hanced. The figures become posts eye to wander
between. Bring up the
water with small brushstrokes. This busy texture
against the rel-
ative calm ol the boat's larger shapes.
MARC CASTELLI STEP
Finishing the Details I
leave the reflection of the nearest tran-
the light specific to early morning on the
Chester River. Using pale washes of Payne's Gray and
Sienna, shape the
passing swell. Reflections of the shafts and their
shadows help give this water some Work a thin wash of Burnt Sienna
out from under the shafts on the right,
thinning this wash toward the waterline.
Taking the same brush load, stroke
22"X30" (55.9cm X 76.2cm) Marc
Finish Tighten up the water with strokes of Phthalo Blue and
with French Ultramarine Blue. Carefully scan the painting
and paint them out. This tightens the image.
areas ot Purple Lake mixed for
unwanted while spaces
Tips: Settling the
IN YOUR FACEâ€” TEAM NEW ZEALAND 22"
in this painting
and the water
FROM A PRO
THÂŁ WATF/L Boats
ai resi sit in
-ml high. Hea\ y boats "dis-
water, and deep bonis
such as "fixed keel" sailboats are said
"draw" much water, regardless ol whether they are heavy or light. Make to
pictures. PETER EGELI
to the air.
tape or masking fluid
interaction with the water
intensity of the hull, the
implication of the port side being underwater
angle ol the mast ami
Lightweight boats appear to float lightly
the darkness of the hull,
of the figures
device for settling the boat into the water
on the bow, the spray against the sky are elements both tain surface integrity
use, doesn't a
on the angle
reinforced by the starboard side's
the hull, while the
angle to the deck dramatizes the heel and the boat's
STUDIED INDIFFERENCE 22"
30" (55.9cm Castelli,
painted racing yachts for nearly twenty years. Over the years, I've received commis-
sions to paint the last several America's
boats used by photojoumalists covering the event. This close to the contestants
race. This painting deals
to gain access to the
opportunity to get
with the dogfight-like
maneuvering while each tries to gain the best side of the starting line. The lirst race of the '95 Cup was run in very rough conditions of huge swells with towering chop, giving
work through some very rough
conditions. Fitting the boats to the
waves, painting the hull graphics through sheets of water and the
maneuvering were challenging
in this painting.
FROM A PRO
Build Depth Into
Keep darker values up the water
zenith, while farther
reflecting the sky's
away, the graying
effect of distance softens contrasts.
Painting the Wind: Willard Bond's Painting Process Willard
realism c\nd (2) placing the graphite
pigment on the
out there." For thirty-five
dered from the lumberyard. These but
must be inserted into the cut edges. The resulting panels are light and won't warp. After applying
a description ol his
used lor the three diptychs shown on
usually a discarded
horn the tubes (200ml).
he simply turns
â€” jumbo tubes
coffee can of "gar-
it to tell him what to do next. Most of the work is done from this point on with 2- and 3-inch brushes. The pigment is laced on impasto with some loose mixing done on the palette directly.
ACHIEVING A NONOBJECTIVE REALITY Bond
soaking brushes during the
The work must
to attack the
of the accidents ol this process
the pencil lines remain as an an-
of the graphite
class racing sailor
to the paint-
says, 'Willard, that's the
painting the wind!"
over! He uses pigment Winsor b Newton.
A Lee! Bond works out the expression
Drawings for Hard
often using up lour or five
ol his ideas in
to the abstraction not the subject
become new movement. The
window he lound
should not need the
the turpentine, softens and starts to initial
make complete. Bond explains, "II some world-
subject matter to
inspire the rest of the painting;
of the process at this point
bage," old paint and turpentine from
these lines in the next pro-
building she or junkyard, and
the subject matter in implied space
though he knows he
Bond completely uses up four or five 2B pencils laying in his initial feelings about the painting. The entire draw ing (and painting) process exists on two
painting and waiting lor
pencil drawing with a 4-inch house-
DEVELOPING THE PAINT
with fresh gesso. He gets quite de-
He usually has
ATTACKING THE PAINT WITH "GARBAGE'
works from marine scenes forwarded to him by some ol the world's best ma-
starts to paint itself.
watching and waiting; watching the
the following pages. For reference he
As he works with
concept gives way as the painting
backtracks by partly painting out lines
coats of gesso, he's ready
construction "flush doors" or-
doors can be cut to any
realism and nonobjective abstraction
been painting on hol-
side creating a third large painting).
LEE! 3' X 6'8' (9 1. 4cm X 203. 2cm) Total painting 6' X 6' 8' (182.8cm X 203.2cm) panels
Willard Bond, Oil on
of a series of diptychs (two complete paintings displayed side by
Photography for all of Wcllaro Bond':
complete demonstration of another follows.
was OONE 6Y Hank Schnieder
WILLARD BOND, DIPTYCH, OIL ON MAHOGANY
Defining the Drawing Draw (Hi the gessoed "Hush doors" with aboui eight or ten pencils on
no. 2 pencils. this size, in the
wear out lower
as the painting prog-
work defines my thinkingand
WILLARD BOND details
shape and move-
ment. Too much detail
pointless, as lost in
Pull Ideas Together
housepainting brush, begin
to pull ideas together using the turpentine
and "garbage" from the sediment brush
These mix with the pencil
to give the effect
Color Ideas Begin to Gel This step introduces tentative color ideas. Paint to gel
half of the diptych gives
thinly diluted with turpentine as
color ideas hegin to gel only to he changed later.
you no idea
to lay in impasto
â€” color from the tube with
"Drawing" With Paint Sometimes ol a
straight lines are laid in by applying paint to the
long straightedge and pressing
into the semi-wet paint.
OS AT THE
(182.8cmX2032cm), Willard Bend.
Finished painting. Oil on
OFF DARIEN 6'
another from Bond's diptych
Willard Bond. Oil on
rR./4 r< o
Painting Turbulent Seas DEE KNOTT.
a pier in
boat in turbulent seas from
was enormous as she clung onto the
schooner approached. The u ind
pilings in order to
Paint the Sky and Water in One Wash Make a loose sketch and apply masking schooner,
fluid to parts of the
and whitecaps. Then wet the entire surface with a 3-inch hake brush, leaving the whites
boat. Just before
marine Blue. Alizarin Crimson and Ochre. Quickly drop top
the mixture starting
a no. 12
Toward the horizon, add more Ochre
the mixture, then continue with Ultramarine
toward the middle
paper, adding Ochre for reflections.
re-wet the entire surface
Payne's Green to the
previous mixture. With a no. 12 brush,
this into the
sky color, leaving some-
to parts of the water,
and deepen the
tom areas with more
marine, creating deep purples.
Deepen the Water Color Re-wet the water areas, and
just before the
shine disappears, deepen the color of the
water mixture, dropping to
form the waves. While
in certain areas
the base ol the paint-
ing with Ultramarine Blue
the masking liquid after the
Blue and Alizarin Crimson,
deepening the color toward the bottom the painting. Indicate the masts and trim,
and then put
over the entire water surface.
DEE KNOTT STEP
Build the Boat in Layers
down the first wood trim using Cadmium Put
mium Red and Ultramarine Blue. I
use a no. 8
Use Ultramarine Blue on the hull
the boat, which will
deep dark blue.
shape. Watercolor stays translucent
you gradually build in layers
underneath areas to
Consider the Location of the Sun
Add Ultramarine Blue Alizarin
Crimson and Ultramarine Blue
and carefully place strokes on the boat and mast. Add
to the hull, letting the
paper dry between each layer. Consider the
and where the shadows should be, then wet the sail. Create shadow areas with Ultramarine Blue, Alizarin Crimson and Payne's Gray, and use small strokes with a no. 8 brush to deepen the shadows on
location ol the sun
deck. Paint rigging with a no.
20"X28" <50.8cmX7l.lcm>. Dee
The foresail whipping in the wind is captured by leaving the
want more illumination from the evere-wet the sail. Now you can add more reflections and shadows to the I
ning sky so
paper along the
of the sail.
the background wa-
Cobalt Blue and finish the detail
on the wood trim.
The whites touched on vim
the strong sun on the
contrast of the whites along
with the strong brushstrokes
waves create the exciting image ol a wooden boat in turthe
20"X28" (50.8cm X
Another boat fighting turbulent waters. 71. Ian).
H UiHiMiliM I
Traditional marine paintings
generally are framed in gold. It's
show in its when frame will make a the art
best frame, so don't cut corners
framing so as not to interfere with the
interest ol the painting.
DE MO N$ TtLATi ON (EVEN
Add Interest With Surface Texture GEORGE GUZZI, ACRYLIC
With few Guzzi
down. So he devised
painting with a dark background. This background could be any mixture of Burnt Umber, black, Ultramarine Blue or any dark from his palette. Part of
the reason for using this underpainting
that with the painting knife
technique he uses,
small areas of the canvas, and he
heightens the brilliancy of the already
a physical texture
areas of the painting before adding the
The good news
Burnt Umber Cadmium
rather than waiting the three or four
paint of this
takes only minutes, or hours at the
show mind the dark
doesn't like any white to
through. He doesn't
thickness to dry (Guzzi has tried
easy to miss
ground showing through;
bining acrylic gel and paste, to lay
paints a scene with a large
The following demonstration of Port Clyde, Maine comes out of Guzzi's lifelong interest in marine subjects. He grew up in Maine one-half mile from Winslow Homer's studio, watching However,
with a pale wash instead of
Golden Ochre Hooker's Green
the fishermen go in and out with the
area of water, he'll cover the canvas his usual
after painting in
116, Positano Beach),
Guzzi likes the speed of painting in acrylics.
However, he found that he
couldn't get the built-up impasto texture that he
His acrylic brushstrokes
would smooth out
he liked "European colors" better
Raw Sienna Raw Umber
than the pervasive greens, grays and
England, and so he
uses his artistic liberty to add colorful roofs, etc., to the
Burnt limber Base Coat I
cover the stretched canvas with Burnt
Umber. The drawing is done with a Berol Verithin Black no. 734 (white) pencil. I
umber showing through lends
unifying presence and an intensification of the color.
â€” GEORGE GUZZI
Mix Paste and Gel for Texture Base To build an underlying texture for trees, grass, fields, etc.,
mix two parts ol Utrecht one part acrylic gel.
â€” add umber and black paint until
dark brown. Also mix an-
other batch with Viridian or Phthalo
Green, Ultramarine Blue and Ivory Black.
The dark brown mixture
applied to the
area behind the buildings
painting knife. The greenish
applied to the background tree a
the white mixture so
a certain part ol the paint-
ing heavily textured, such as a roof,
can mix the appropriate colors with
Brush on More Texture As soon
as the paste-gel-paint
applied, take a bottle brush (the kind used to
the mixture. Drag the brush vertically up and
and move sideways,
broader texture hours.
an angle, to impart the texture
needed, use a scrub brush. The texture needs to dry
be painted over, and
the trees. for a
for the II
the brush hits the raised areas ol the texture,
gives the perception ol grass or trees without painting each blade ol grass or each leal.
Sky and Water Apply the sky with
a large painting knife,
using a mixture of Yellow Ochre. Cerulean Blue. Phthalo Blue. Light
warm summer slightly
and white, giving the
Clouds are applied with paint
feeling of a
The water is painted grayed-down version of the sky sky.
also reflected in water.
Color to the Trees
Paint trees using a no. 4 bright bristle
brush, dragged across the texture. Colors are
Green, Hooker's Green. Yellow Ochre and white.
grass in the
by dragging a no.
10 filbert across the tex-
more European, warmer
ture to impart a
palette. Colors are
Yellow Light, Burnt Umber and white; Naples Yellow
Yellow Ochre and umber. Us-
ing a no. 8 and no. 10 bright bristle, drag a
Cadmium Orange and white
over the grass. detail
Knife in the Buildings Using a :" x 2" 1.3cm x 5.1cm) painting 1
knife, apply a
white on the
Burnt Sienna and
of the door;
the door, mixtures of Burnt Umber. Na-
and white. Yellow Ochre,
Gray. Ultramarine Blue, and Dioxa/ine
Purple are added to the above mixture for the
Other buildings are white
and Cadmium Yellow side.
background color the painting.
on the sunny
make no attempt
Cardboard Paints the Roof Use painting knives and pieces
tion board cut into various sizes to paint
the roots, again using ette
â€” Cadmium Orange and white, Cad-
mium Red and white. Cadmium Red Medium and white. Make sure separations ol umber are left in the root when you apply the paint with the cardboard sections, thus
enriching the colors.
Rocks and Reflections Paint the rocks us-
knife with Burnt
Umber, ochre and white, with Dioxazine Purple and Ul-
wetter rocks. Reflections are loosely
marine Blue and white
Apply Highlights With Cardboard Using large pieces
cardboard for straight
and Cerulean are used to the
to paint the top of the pier lat left). for the pilings
to paint in the
white window frames. Also paint
the green shutters and traps with varying sizes of cardboard.
side of the pilings with painting knives
board sections. Naples Yellow, white and
Raw Umber are
with cardboard to the light side of the pilings (shown).
Developing the Boats Put in reflections from pilings with a no. 2
small boat with a knife
Gray and white
round brush. Paint the
white or yellow on sunny
also used to paint the
side of the large boat.
Boat Details White and Cadmium Yellow of the cabin with cardboard.
looks wrong, so of the
water on the side
Light are put
by taking of
4 bristle and no. 2 round. Put ol
floor. Paint a reflection
the boat with white. Pax ne's Gra\ and
Yellow Ochre. Paint the reflection
on the front windows
The white house
the boat in water with no.
side of the boat with
GEORGE STEP More
Lobster traps on the boat are done with the
cardboard, using Naples Yellow
and white, Burnt Umber and white, and Payne's Gray and white. Add splashes ol white, orange and ochre in the boat, am\
these colors as well as
the cabin. Also paint
torn part ol the reflection ol the
large boat because
no. 2 brush
and cardboard, paint the radar
equipment on top
the cabin. The
tenna on the large boat
22"X28" (55.9o>iX71.Io)i) George Guzzi. Acrylic
finish oil the painting,
a little rust
(wet the side
the boat ami run
the antenna, the
some Burnt Sienna
Add a lew tall posts, cutting into the some blue streaks, reflecting the sky.
add the reflection ol
numbers on the in
grassy area. Take a piece ol
Add Colorful Texture to
GEORGE GUZZI, ACRYLIC
Guzzi observed the Maine coasl where he lived and was also
introduced to the colors and textures
Beach and decided
He has since village.
the Italian coast through vistas
He saw a photo ol Positano would Ik- his lirsi stop in Europe, which indeed it was. painted upward ol seventy-five paintings ol this coastal Italian village built on a ciill with wonderful Moorish architecture con-
Venice painted by an
trasting with the jagged edges ol the rocks
above the town. On the beach,
elaborately colored fishing boats are always seen.
The whole composition
Underpainting and Sky
cam as brown-black
Paint a til.
then draw the scene using white pen-
modeling paste and one
textured paste, then add Phthalo
Green, Hooker's Green and Ultramarine Blue. Apply to the canvas in areas a bottle
trees will he.
brush while the mixture
a painting knife.
Apply pure white
Apply texture with
wet. Apply the sky color with lor the clouds,
Indo Orange Red, Burnt Sienna plus white. Spread the
color with a painting knife.
mixture and add the colors as you go, giving the beach
For the mountain rocks, use cooler mixtures and spread these
color into the bottom ol the clouds.
Laying in Beach Color The beach has grayish blue pebbles, but choose to warm it up with mixtures ol Raw Umber, Ultramarine Blue, a little of the sky
brush to apply
texture, indicating trees.
green mixture over the paste-gel
GEORGE GUZZI Here's the whole
painting to this point.
The Net Apply the dark
side ol the net with a knife
using a mixture of Burnt Sienna and Dioxazine Purple. The light part ol the net
ready painted) Sienna,
Cadmium Orange and Cadmium
Church Paint the church with a knife using a mix-
Cadmium Yellow Medium, white, Raw Umber. Add
Dioxazine Purple and
tor shadows shadow sides.
under the eaves and
the buildings on the
â€” applied with
using Indo Orange Red and
Yellow Light and
under the windows.
Boat Under the Arch
Cardboard for Straight Lines l.a\
highlights with cardboard on
buildings, giving a
There are three boats forming
pretty straighi edge. Use ibis technique throughout the painting.
midtones. The boat on the
other buildings (such as the gray one), drag
to give the texture of flaking stucco.
knife across the
the painting. This boat
a triangle in
the right foreground
the farthest back and
point of the triangle
painted with the brightest colors c\m\ most contrast.
GEORGE GUZZI detail
Adding Notes of Interest As you approach the
with bright and dark mixtures based
on Turquoise Deep. Then work on the small details that add interest to busy
For these details, use
4 sable brush, knives and cardboard. For the pink building on the
brush in the
shades, then use cardboard for the areas
above the windows and the
sides ol win-
dows. Indicate hanging laundry with knife
a no. 6 bright
to put in loliage.
Big Picture Use
Cadmium Red Medium
to finish the
azine Purple and Ultramarine Blue for
window frames with cardboard
coming from the
This boat was redraw n and cardboard used to lay in the scat with
Cadmium Orange and
Add white canvas and
to the right-hand
boat with a knife.
Add some rocks shadow
POSITANO BEACH 30"X40" (76.2cm x 101.6cm), George
FROM A PRO
Objectivity To determine
where you will see days. Another technique
to place the painting
period ol several
in a mirror.
to create a
to look at
— one about which you can be
—JAMES DRAKE IAMS
More Coastal Scenes GEORGE GUZZI These
paintings oi the Mediterra-
nean coast are done with the
same techniques shown
Collection of Mr.
and Mrs. Vahan Martirosian
PRIMAVERA A PORTOFINO 24"X48" (61cmX
121. 9cm), George Guzzi. Acrylic. Courtesy of Shaw Gallery. Naples. Florida
HARBOR VIEW, PORTOFINO 24"x36" (6lcmy.9l.4cm). George
Guzzi. Acrylic. Collection of Mr.
and Mrs. Ron Carrighan
Painting a Rocky Coast LEONARD MIZEREK, TRANSPARENT WATERCOLOR This painting
was done on location
painting the rocks, to get the color
particularly liked the contrast
would be used throughout the painting. He looked (or a strong compositional theme and
between the still water in the foreground and the turbulence of crashing
that the paint
chose rock formations that directed
angle format adds drama and empha-
the eye inward toward the crashing
sizes the horizontal concept.
Mizerek usually begins
so windy was drying too last tor he wanted. He began by
the sky treatment, but
Basic Color Block In After the
ors using a '/2-inch
in basic col-
brush with angular
strokes of diluted Alizarin Crimson and
Sienna, blended while wet. In addi-
blend Ultramarine Blue with Alizarin
and some Winsor Green Light
the reddish color. Let
blend, and apply
to give biting
edges to the rocks. Try to paint tion of the grain of the rocks
and add dark
cracks and dots to solidify them.
Adding the Water Add more rocks to the left to fill out the painting. iMask the main wave and the distant breakers, and then add a wash of Viridian and U 'ramarine Blue for the body of water. want the
strokes of Alizarin
look of a freehand stroke versus a
physically ties the water to the sky. Let the small distant roiks to
use a large
ruled line for the horizon,
Crimson mixed with Ultramarine Blue
variation to the water, darkening the outer areas to help keep the
focus on the wave.
actually breaks the horizon and
blend with the white foam
brush, being careful not to
(bui not shiny), blend light
Shoreline rocks have cooler colors to reflect the sky
base to suggest runoff.
LEONARD MIZEREK N
Getting the Sky Color Right Here's a quick
the right sky. Cut strips oi watercolor pa-
per (Arches 140-lb. cold-press), and paint
different sky treatments
on them. Tape
different skies look.
Keep the sky low-key here
compete with or draw attention away from the sea. Skies don't have the same value across the horizon.
When you the
Carefully remask the edges of the breaker
and other water areas
to right, you'll see
the intensity of the
light. It's lighter
Adding variety to your sky helps make your painting more closer to the sun.
more detailing on the rocks. more accurate brushstroke and
moist and workable yet
which remain have full value
applied to the paper. Continue to
wave strokes using a no. 6 round. Wipe out some color in the rocks at the
best to break
up an area and concentrate only on one two large rocks, studying their mass,
and how they protrude
This gives a in
above the surface. Then work on the
adding another wash. Use dry-brush
intensity to the painting. left
can't help but
main white, and then darken the water by
one spot where you can see the horizon, and look
over your painting. Step back
and see how several
FROM A PRO
ensure you'll have
point ol contact on the large gest mist
areas around that starting point it
Study the contrasts.
isolate smaller areas
plicated subject like rocks.
UILDING A SEAWORTHY PAINTING
8'A"X21" (21.6cntX53.3cm) Leonard Mizerek, Transparent Watercolor
Even out areas that are too light with another wash of Raw Sienna and Alizarin Crimson on the rocks. The sky should he in harmony with the sea, so use some of the same colors as in the
water and keep the sky suhtle. Put
Crimson along the
Define the contrast
patterns closer to shore and apply a
hetween the top
to the sky to increase the
the breaker and the sky. detail
X-acto Knife, go into the painting
where you want
heighten the contrast
areas with the edge of the knife to bring
back the white
the paper. In this case, create the
distance with this
A Rocky New England Shoreline LEONARD MIZEREK, WATERCOLOR Certain elements are common to New England coastal scenes. These include New England-style architecture,
small boats and rocks.
All of these
used to the
designing a painting.
that can be
On-Site Start With the wind blowing,
applied the sky
color quickly so not to leave
edges. Blot cloud areas with a paper towel to suggest that wind and Hag blow the same way as the clouds. Lay in the land mass and shrubs keeping the grass\ sunlit area lighter. Leave some paper areas untouched. This "painting skeleton" was done in about two hours. The goal is to
the elements with it
Studio Finish Use
brush to paint the rock surfaces
or cooler, depending on the direc-
some inKeep and use some sky
tion of the light. Later, drybrusb
dividual rocks for surface textures.
the water's edge white,
and rock colors the windows,
shallow water. Vary
some with half-drawn
shades and slightly opened curtains. For the boats in the foreground, light
and one dark, pointing
make one into the
14"XI7" (35.6cmX432cm) Leonard Mizerek Watercolor
Combining Boat and Beach SALMON TOOLE, WATERCOLOR
narrow sandy pen-
an extension of the coast
Xe\\ Jersey south oi
other. For centuries,
location at the entrance to
shipping and defense until late
strong currents, tides
storms have changed
Soak 300-lb. Arches rag cold-press paper staple
to a board. After
tew whites to
We're lacing west so create an
noon skyglow with Yellow Ochre. With
3-inch bake brush, wet the paper from the
top to the beach and grade a Yellow Ochre
wash from the
beach, tipping the paper vertically. As the
base wash into the foreground sand area
the sides and
Base Coats for Sea, Sky and
Background Wetting the paper
to the shoreline,
Antwerp Blue down the
tip oi a
-inch brush, stroke in
you approach the shore.
tant horizon waterline. dry, re-wet the
into the water.
These can he augmented
area. and. add-
ing Cobalt Blue to the Antwerp, brush in
the Highlands, lilting
there to suggest buildings.
Gateway National Recreation Its development for recreational in
recent years has
ecology even more vulnerable.
this strip are
dense holly stands
and fauna indigenous
3-inch and 1
brushes -inch and
1-inch Hats no. 4, no. 6
no. 10 rounds a small rigger
only that area. There are protected
Composition and Afternoon Glow and
toric lighthouse, the oldest original
Over time, and battering
Near the end
1972 Sandy Hook became part of
accessible only to the military,
miles (8.1km) long, with the
Ocean on the
from the sea.
bay on one side and the Atlantic
paint here c\m\
Form Dimes and Boulders Using "sand" colors (Yellow Ochre, Burnt Sienna. Van
Dyke Brown, Mauve and
Alizarin Crimson/Cobalt Bine
boulder patterns ing a
broad strokes, alternat-
hake brush and
The gentle sloping
leads to the "path,"
turn directs the eye toward the
schooner. Painting sand like
form dune and
painting snow, with
some ways and found
Define Hull and Masts Belore yon get much further, define the boat hull and masts with a Cobalt Blue/ Sienna Gray mix using â€˘
a no. 10
Check on the values and when comfortable with them, continue the dunes and start
For the grasses,
with Yellow Ochre and
Burnl Sienna and cobalt
dabbed on with the
or side ol the brush. Suggest most leaves in masses,
lew. Use- a small rigger lor the line twigs. Gradually build the color
Yellow and introduce Viridian,
various brush pickup mixes. For narrow leaves, use
quick upward and curving strokes. Use a no.
the tree clumps on both sides to frame the schooner, and contour
dunes with stroke and value
to lead the
eye toward the schooner.
The Schooner Belore removing the masking, put oi
beside the ropes and
with a sharp pointed no. 4 or no. 6 round,
run a brushload of Cobalt Blue-Sienna
Gray down each rope freehand. Sketch
the figures and glaze another layer of
Cobalt Blue-Sienna Dark Gray over the
masts and haul. At the waterline, run
ing the mask,
Burnt Sienna. After remov-
the gray. Use the
colors in the boulders
Dunes and Grasses Even the it
trees reach out
toward the schooner. Paint up the trunk
the tree, and keeping
wet, extend the main branches in a continuous How. charging the
Antwerp Blue and Burnt Sienna,
trunk and branches. Shade the darker tones
from which limbs emerge. Darken broad leaves at the base, then remove the masking, wet the white areas and daub Viridian to shape leaves or form
to suggest the direction
brown mix and follow the fallen twigs and some shadow lines with Cobalt Blue belore removing
outline keeping white highlights. Pick up a
branch masked shapes. Then the masking.
dull the fresh
a little yellow,
Cobalt Blue or
and Dunes on Right
a lot ol
Cadmium Yellow, Viridian Burnt Sienna, Cadmium Yellow
halt Blue; pick
with with Co-
up Antwerp Blue with any
these or each other whatever works. Shade with Cobalt Blue and continue shaping the dunes with Burnt Sienna.
mauve. Cobalt Blue and Yellow Ochre. Paint the blades in one long quick stroke from the bottom up to the
Fill in the Fill
masked blades with Yellow Ochre, Cad-
foreground, shaping with greens and
Burnt Sienna. Now
add more shading to grass areas
finish the ship
ON THE TIDE
21"X28" (53.3anX71.1o>i) Lois
In the total theless.
of things, these are
touch more green to
minor adjustments, subtle but important nonefoliage, more crags to boulders, lifted depres-
sand areas; put Light Antwerp Blue on the base
grass blades, preserving highlights to suggest curves.
the sand, keep in soft (lost
mind the source
and put the shadow opposite,
NofTAl,C/A Sandy Hook has been an important anchor are geographically dispersed,
Day when the family reunites
a tradition that
Now that we New Year's
Sandy Hook. gun emplacements and the Holbrau Haus on the top oi the
trek over to
hike the dimes, climb over the crumbling bunkers and
walk the beaches.
by heading up to
Highlands to share some libation and watch the sun
on the Twin Trade Towers
and lower Manhattan across the bay.
t(la r o i
Painting a Historic Scene ROBERT
SEMLER, OIL celebration on the Delaware.
painting, Twilight on the
Pennsylvania Reading Railroad (PRR) Ferry Terminal ing toward
terial for this project
Line steamer, Twilight, passes the ferry slips
heading north on
battleship, South Carolina,
docked on the Camden side of the river for the upcoming .July Fourth
a night like this, there's a lot
of gray in the colors. He's carried these
challenge and requires
even using some
the mixture in the redhrick huildings
hours of research to get the view as
accurate as possihle. Visits to the Phila-
delphia Independence Seaport
Payne's Gray helps neutralize the color.
with the vessel of
same name. Painting
scheme of Cerulean Blue, Payne's Gray and white throughout the painting. The moonlight casts a greenish light, and the
contrasty photograph of the era.
and early photographs ol the area and the vessels. The scene is based on a
across the Delaware River with the Ferry slips visible.
seum's library aided
Semler's sources of reference ma-
Delaware, depicts a scene circa
the foreground. This helps in
the color scheme.
Reference Material Here's
the reference material used
ideas for the painting: books, etc.
Finding the right ma-
terial for a historic subject
be more challenging than executing the
nished painting. Special-interest
seums and lor
good sources. Look
the area the event
you're painting took place.
Finished Sketch After doing several thumbnail sketches,
complete this in
a detailed pencil
an opaque projector and enlarge
onto the stretched linen canvas.
as a basis lor the watercolor
study on the next page.
Enlarging your finished sketch
can save you hours
using an opaque projector
methods, such as
uncorrected photos as
an easy copying method. Used properly,
brushes and pencils.
purchase one, get
a tool as
good one. The
cheap, inexpensive brands tend to distort
the image, which will drive you to
Watercolor Study I
any color to my canvas. work out the scheme as well as the values in this sketch. If you do intense work up front, sa\es time and makes the final painting much easier to complete.
paint a small watercolor study before applying
basic color i;
Using thin vine charcoal drawing. Although
satisfied in place.
drawing from the projection
use the opaque projector for most of the work, there's
preler the vine charcoal over pencil because
with the drawing,
a lot to
easy to correct.
with two or three coals of fixative to
SEAWORTHY PAINTING STEP The
using mineral in
of the sky,
applying large areas
color with a no. 10 or no. 12 filbert bristle
brush and then blending the colors with large fan blender. At this stage
the skyline buildings, almost entirely
painting with Cerulean Blue, Payne's Gray
and white with
of Burnt Umber. mix with Payne's Gray, Cerulean Blue and a touch ol Burnt Umber) in the skyline are rather muted. Pure black would look like holes in the
The blacks (which
and the color
completed on the I
paint the stack
tacky. For the
load up the brush with lor the
some Payne's Gray
side, get rid ol
paper towel and drybrush the
smoke into the tacky background paint. Then use my linger to push in and smooth out. It blends into the backit
smoke would. A
gray on top would be where the moonlight strikes
steamboat. This vessel's
detail to the
shadow underneath. to dry paint the shadow first, allowing thoroughly and then mix some Winsor red with a drop
Red and Payne's Gray it
to paint the actual
brush while painting
very small sable watercolor ol detail;
strokes and the alter uie
paint the small
session, concentrating specific details.
anyway. Here I'm shaping the curve
but a combination of hairs.
and dark shapes rather than
details at this distance sail
not pure sable,
like a bristle, but
layer oi paint, instead of streaking.
The battleship Oregon river. It's
docked on the New Jersey
side ot the
with the basic color scheme with no attempt
at detail. This vessel
adds "flavor" to the overall scene.
darkened and some
your viewer away from the main
much. You don't local point; just
places to browse.
paint the steamship, sailing
schooner and battleship before
work on the water
can paint the water "over the hulls," making the vessels appear to several things at this stage.
bring the water up close to the value ami colors thai
further emphasizing the bright moonlight area over
and above the main subject
Raw Sienna (nearer the moonlight). Burnt used to help show the dirtier effects ol the Dela-
steamship. Cerulean Blue, Payne's Gray,
Umber and some Ultramarine Blue ware's water
in their basic Hat
in its history.
roofs antl buildings are painted
color prior to adding the bricks and roofing materials.
SEAWORTHY PAINTING detail
paint in the details, such as the
bricks in the fore-
ground buildings. Bricks
be as fun as they can be tedious. Using VVinsor Red and Viridian Green (these are
and the green
darken the red without changing the hue), I
paint in the
color ol the building,
up but not dry completely,
very fine sable watercolor brush to in
the lines ol the bricks (the
green mixture with
added). Right below this
Gray and white
then use a
to stripe in the mortar, do-
ing the horizontal as well as the vertical
this paint sets
use a Ian brush and ever so
lightly soften the
your perspective and vanishing points. In this painting, the
the battleship. ing
position near the all
that point, or the buildings won't
appear as they should.
paint in the clockfaces
resize the decorative finials at
the tower's corners. Don't hesitate to redo
an object case,
feel it's right. In this
correct for perspective. Continuing
have ruined the look
area of the
Research the water as carefully as the rest ol the painting. In
the turn ol the century,
a lot ol oil, coal dust
water using Cerulean Blue, Payne's
Gray and Raw Sienna
(closer to the
moonlight) and even Burnt
some Ultramarine that the ripples
nished and with
also see the star lines in the street-
lamps and pier lighting illusion
the interior lighting,
paddle wheel equipment,
showing the steamship
FROM A PRO
certain that small details,
and smoke from
the factories and ships, are in the
small details that
ference in a professional piece
ol art. C.
TWILIGHT ON THE DELAWARE 24" XU" (6lcmY.9l.4cm) Robert
Semler, Oil on Canvas
Always keep the
The center below above,
center, in it
lighting in mind.
appear as bright as they would be
the steamship, so
an area known
vessel, a light to
makes the all important you were standing there.
the direci moonlight. This
place that at a position just to the right and
"golden section." With the
draws your attention immediately
to the central
About the Artists To
touch with any
American Society i
willing to approach
please contact the
Sec page 142.)
whose works hang
state offices, court-
rooms, as well as
fellow of the
American Society ol Marine He began his training at the
Institute of Chicago, going to school at
night while in the navy.
spent two years
the Art Students
tures the action familiar to
has focused his
painting and drawing on the environ-
water, wind, light and their
on boats for the last twentytwo wars. His work has appeared in Sailing Magazine, American Society of Marine Artists publications, Splash 3, Splash 4, Nautical Quarterly and Scow Slants. He is a racing sailor, and his etfects
receiv es national
national recognition and
sented in galleries and private collections.
paying close attention to details of all kinds necessary to do a good portrait a great asset for successful
painting as well.
paintings are widely
throughout the country, and she's ceived
Lee A. Iacocca, Chairman
Chrysler Corporation, presented Knott's paintings as
ranking government leaders in China and Japan. Chairman Iacocca also presented a series of her paintings to
GEORGE GUZZI versity,
attended Tufts Uni-
graduating premed in 1956.
various government officials of
She has been honored as an elected of the American Watercolor
Instead of continuing his medical education,
told him art was his true calling. He went on to the Art Institute of Boston,
graduating in 1959. Guzzi has been awarded commissions for
Society, the National Watercolor Soci-
and the American Society oi Marine Artists among others. Her waety
tercolors are included in sev eral per-
different types of
work as and the air
paintings including extensive
homes, he has a special interest in marine art and is a charter member, fellow and past president ol the American Society of Marine Artists. Egeli feels that achieving precision by
League ol New York. As night pier master at New York's South Street Seaport, in 1976 Bond found himself occupying a ringside seat at the Bicentennial "Operation Sail." "I had always loved ships, but watching the ships from all over the world turned me around. Ships and the sea had always been in my repertoire but not like this!" There is something about the movement, the power and speed in his work that cap-
as a portrait
he's painted historic
collections, including those at
General Motors Corporation, Walt Disney Corporation, and Marriott Corporation.
and state-of-the-art aircraft, Desert Storm images, shuttle launches and landings, astronauts and pilots. Using
nated by the water and the people
mostly acrylics, Guzzi also paints ma-
rine scenes, especially the coast of
ing force behind his work.
Maine and small towns
and work on
it; it is
rooted in his family history. In the early 1800s, George's family
JAMES DRAKE AMS I
has painted the
the Potomac River's mari-
time history and maintained a constant presence on the river through-
Chesapeake Bay has given him a unique approach to the genre ol workboats, watermen and
Chesapeake Bay and sailing cralt since the mid-1950s. Having sailed the rivers and tributaries ol the Eastern Shore, he combines his observations, sailor's knowledge and the eye of an artist. The result is paintings and
the seasons as they exert their influ-
ral at a local
both to those familiar with the scenes and to waterscape lovers outside the
views ol racing sailboats appeal to the experience of sailors. Taking this inti-
macy with Shore
his subject to the
h:> subjects. His wile. Phyllis,
their three children
astern Shore', close to
the activities, subjects and
Indiana University, lams holds gradu-
out the 1900s. In the early part of the century, they sailed everything from
schooners to dories. McWilliams completed enteen.
illustrator. In 1987,
University and the Maryland Institute College ol Art. lams is a member of the
a family ol artists
on or near peake Bay.
and has always
American Watercolor Society, the American Society of Marine Artists and more Watercolor Society. i,
the University ol
U.S. Naval Air Test Center at Patuxenl
ate degrees from Pennsylvania State
EGELI was born
Maryland and in 1980 received a B.A. In 1981, George went to work at the
enjoy there. E.
his art lull-time.
well received and
private collections try.
over the coun-
He's twice placed in the top
ABOUT THE ARTISTS twenty for the Maryland Duck Stamp Competition and has won awards that include the President's Choice Award at the Chesapeake Bay Foundation Art Show and the Mystic Seaport Museum Purchase Award. He is an artist member of the American Society of Marine Artists.
Old Saybrook, Connecticut. He's
several Atlantic crossings,
were single-handed, and has been
the nearly twenty-year
history of the society. His most recent
exhibitions were at the
involved in extensive cruising and racing. In 1982, Parent was part of the
crew with the Whitbread Round the World Race. His knowledge permits him to paint yachts and the sea with the eye of an experienced sailor. Recently, Parent decided to com-
bine his experience in watercolors
Arts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
with the challenge and pleasure of
ted with a B.F.A. from Virginia
painting yacht portraits. These unique
Since 1987, he has been conducting
portraits, set in the
classes in portrait painting at Glouces-
delphia, Pennsylvania, presently lives in
owner's favorite an affordable and
University and studYork Art Students League under Nelson Shanks. Mizerek is an officer and Signature Artist
CHARLES RASKOB ROBINSON
ied at the
Artists. He's also
of the Northeast
His primary interest subjects. For years,
is maritime he has traveled
along the eastern coastline of the United States, as well as around the world, looking for places to paint. Past exhibitions
First Place in
the Sea Heritage Marine Exhibition,
The American Society of Marine Artists Exhibition and numerous national exhibitions.
ing America's top watercolorists.
as a finalist in The Artist
Magazine's Competition 95. He's also featured in the book
Watercolors Look Professional, published
by North Light Books, and Colored Pencil 3, by Rockport Publishers. born
Brandywine Valley where he was exposed to the art and influence of Howard Pyle, the Wyeths and others of the Brandywine School. His bent for marine subjects can be traced to the summers he spent on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay and in the waters off the Maine coast. He obtained a B.A. from Haverford College and an M.A. at the Johns Hopkins University. He moved to New York City in 1965 and attended the Arts Students League for a number of years and is now a life member of the raised in the
he founded the Colonial Arms Foundry, a company that manufactured model operational reproductions of U.S. Naval cannon of the 1812 vintage. His
tions, including the
B. Forbes, Sr. He's
in several publications,
including Nautical Quarterly, Sea Architectural Digest. His
displayed his paintings in the most
featured in the large-format book
prominent galleries of France, England and the East Coast of the
Yacht Portraits: The Best of Contemporary Marine Art (Sheridan House). The artist has been active in the National Maritime Historical Society
member of the American
Besides being a full-time
an experienced sailor. Sketches from the deck of his own is
of the Fine
Yankee Magazine and
and the South Street Seaport Museum and is an officer and director of the American Society of Marine Artists. Robinson is one ol the few fellows in the
and is active with the Guard art program. Through this program, he travels extensively throughout the country Artists
painting coast guard activities.
the coveted "George Gray" coast
guard award twice for his contributions and support of the Coast Guard's art program, having a total of eight paintings in the guard's
His maritime paintings and prints are represented by several galleries,
including Mystic Seaport Gallery, Mystic, Connecticut;
Deck the Walls,
New Jersey; The
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Lim-
B.A. in Fine Arts from Douglass Col-
Born and on the coast of New Jersey, she draws inspiration from the fishing docks of her Bay Shore hometown and the moods of the nearby ocean. The picturesque falls of her adopted Ohio hometown and nearby Lake Erie waterways also provide plenty of marine subject material. She is an award-winning signature member ol National Watercolor Society; Rocky Mountain National Watermedia Society; The Midwest, Ohio, Kentucky, New Jersey and Pittsburgh Watercolor Societies; Salmagundi Club; National lege of Rutgers University.
number of collecrenowned collec-
tercolors since the age of fifteen. He's
studied at the
ited Art Associates, Chantilly, Virginia.
France, in 1941, has been painting wa-
United States, including the prestigious Mystic Maritime Gallery. He's an
president of the American Society of
of landlocked Pennsylvania,
Watercolor Society and the International Society of
Historical Society in Balti-
more, Maryland, and the Schaeffer
In 1994, the Society
sloop are the basic materials he uses to
him the "Iron Man" Award,
paint his watercolors in his studio in
senting only the third time the award
and Coast Guard Art Program. She has work feature Artists of America;
Best of Watercolor c\nd
Near the stern
Racing log canoes are
small clipper-bowed sharp-sterned
Standing rigging from
sharply raked mast, stepped right
the mast to the stern (rear) oi a
forward and another nearly amidship.
BALLAST the hull to
Weight placed in or on improve stability. French for boat, used in
areas for a vessel like a skipjack.
Long light narrow strips wood or long narrow metal slats.
Greatest width of a vessel.
cross timbers that
span the sides oi a vessel horizontally and support the decks.
exterior hull at the waterline. 2.
Thin boards that can be lowered through the keel, used to counteract the
of a sail-
on booms, they have ol
ing side of a quadrilateral
which the horizontal one end. (See log
where oysters are dumped
the "keepers" from the trash.
Small open boat often car-
small platform, sometimes with a
Standing rigging from
of a sailboat.
Distance between the
waterline and the top
spar holding the upper side.
to the lee side.
order to put the
Toward the lee, the diaway from which the wind is
used to steer the
boat used in
harvesting oysters and clams, which
skin of a boat
1. On deck. 2. The sidebetween the waterline
and the deck. Flat area across the
Mechanical device used
the shrouds and give better support to the mast.
that serves the function of a
from the mast.
or the history of marine
lew leet is
and the club
the other end.
and introduces the
racing craft like log ca-
to the public
national exhibitions. The society also
publishes a quarterly newsletter written
and edited by members. For more
information about the
the artists in this hook, contact
an educational and informational
from a running along
foot of the sail.
in that instead of
the loot of the
in 1978, the
welcomed the membership and participation of anyone interested society has
profit organization, die
canoe, holding the
dedicated to the advancement and
and nonartist mem-
appreciation of marine art in the United
and poles used
bers in forty states, the
to the sides of a sailboat.
Lines used to control a
Fixed rigging from the
single headsail. a triangular
on the headstay. The main longitudinal the hull, the body of the
lever attached to the rud-
der post that
to six masts, foremast
or spar aloft.
increase the pull on a line or chain.
Upper edge ol the side ol a boit. pronounced gun'l. HALYARD A line used to hoist a sail
Inclined at an angle to the
the bow, normally consisting of a
a larger boat.
the mast to the
shorter than main.
upright post of the bow.
are gathered with long-handled tongs.
An extension forward
able lines used to control spars
on wooden boats the main member. SWELL Long large wave
and holding the sail out from the mast. With only a centerboard instead of a keel, there are springboards with crew for movable ballast. MIZZEN Fore and aft sail set on the mizzenmast. MIZZENMAST The aftermost mast, or third mast from forward.
extended by a sprit Permanent stays and shrouds used to hold up the Sail
the extreme leading edge of the hulk-
canoe, a vertical piece
spreet connecting the club to the mast
Confused water action found where tidal currents meet or due to In a log
called a club fitted to the trail-
Instead of carrying the fore
ple sitting on the springboard over the water to balance the boat. SPRIT Small boom or gaff used with
1461 Cathys Lane
North Wales. PA 19454
Clouds breaking up, 26 cirrostratus, 30-33 cumulus, 28-29 directing eye with, 29 Color
adding, to trees and grass, 112 adding, with evening skies, 70-71 additional background, 81 basic, blocking in, 124
Mangrove Bay, 75
Acrylics, 24-25, 110-123
on water, 62-63
reflection of, 64-67 American Society of Marine (ASMA), 142 America's Cup, 97
harmony, 68-69 introduction Artists
Annapolis Harbor, 71 Annapolis, Late Afternoon, 33
Approaching Storm, 62 Ark of Maryland, 63 Ayes Have It, The, 2 1
Harbor scenes, evening skies Harbor View, Portofino, 123
mast, 69 sky,
86 of water, deepening, 106 Creek, The, 66 Cross-hatching, 22-23
sky exercises on, 26 vs. cold-press,
understanding, 19-21 using magnifying glass
color, laying in, 116 II,
Belle of Riverview,
defining, 129 layering, 82 for,
wind, 14-15 See also Viewer's eye, directing Directional elements, 53 of
Dogwood Cove, Drawing
lams, James Drake, 140
building, in layers, 107
developing, 114 in profile, 10
92-97 traditional working, 80-83 water and perspective, 10-13 wooden, technique for painting, 83 See also Hulls; Log canoes; Sailboats; Schooner; Skipjacks; Spritsail, wooden; Tugs; Yacht Bond, Willard, 98-105, 140 settling, into water,
Boulders, 129 Boat, J.C.
Your Face— Team New Zealand, 96
applying highlights with, 114 for straight lines, 118
Carly A. Turecamo, 86
Marc, 18-21, 49, 60-61, 67, 92-95.
Centerboard, focusing on, 20 Chaos at the Mark, 104 Charcoal, drawing with, 64 Chesapeake Heritage. V) II,
Island Bird on the Wing,
on "flush doors," importance of, 31 loose, 80
Jazz Man, 109 Jib
Knott, Dee, 80-83, 106-109, 140
with paint, 103 with soft vine charcoal, 64 Drybrush, on shorelines, 48-49 Dunes, 129, 132 Dusk on the Cape, 49
Layers building boat in, 107 building water in, 36-37 See also Glazes Light
capturing, in pen and ink, 18 Early Breakers, 126
Early Morning Arrival, 37 Edgar town, Mass., 15 Edge of the Sea, 83 Egeli, Peter, 10-12, 27, 62-67, 96, 140
Drewer d Long Cove, 18
Canoe. See Log canoe Canvas, toned, 74 Cardboard
Location, painting on, 50 Fell's Point
26, 34-38, 87, 121,
Ice Lets Out, The,
and beach, combining, 128-133 background, 94
basic color, 124
Birds. See Gulls
grasses and, 89
breaking, 5 Hot-press paper
Beach and boat, combining, 128-133
cirrostratus clouds as, 31-33
Bateau, 39 Bathed in Misty Light, 91
Homeward Bound, Bermuda, 76
adding, 94 128
applying, with cardboard, 114 masking to retain, 31, 44-46, 89
Hauled at Cockey's, Tilglunan Creek, 18 High and Dry, 3 5
of tug's hull.
underpainting and, 55 Gouache, 84-87 and watercolor, 56 Grasses, 43-45, 89, 130-132 Gulls, 47 Guzzi, George, 24-25, 110-123, 140
transparent, layer Glazing, 32
Figures. See People
Film. See Gla/cs First Sail,
Marine an. people Masking, 44-46
Fish Beach. 127 Fitted dinghy,
Masts, defining, 129 3 3
Matamaraus. Pine Point Maine, 24-25 McWiliiams. George F., 22-23, 39-41. 83, 140 Misty Morning,
Glazes slowly layering, 81
and softening edges. 89
Fog, morning, 88-91
Foreground, layering, Framing, 109 Freehand, 38
Mizerek, Leonard, 28-29, 48-53, 58-59, 68-71, 109, 124-127, 141
INDEX Mouhegau Light, 29 Monochromatic color scheme, 68-69 Morning fog, 88-91
Tugs. 36-37, 56, 84-87
Safe Harbor. 77
Sailboats, in action, 14-17 Sail
Twilight at Tilghman's,
Twilight on the Delaware, 139
Sails ol, 60-61 water anil sky, color harmony among, 68-69
Neighborhood, The, 95 New England shoreline, 127 Newport,
OffDarien, 105 Oils, 27, 54-55. 57. 62-63, 68-79, 134-139
Old Saybrook: Breakwater,
On the Bay, 18 Opaque projector, 135 Outdoor conditions, adapting
43-45 textures, 42 See also Dunes, Rocks Schooner, 3 3, 131 Scraping, 44
Parent, Yves, 14-17, 30-33, 141
22 draw on "flush doors," 98, 100
86 water and,
Picture plane, line ol sight
Pier Pressure, 57
Port Clyde, Maine, 115
Positano Beach, 121 Pride of Baltimore.
Profile, boats in,
Projector. See I'addiit
adding, 124 boats and perspective, 10-13 building depth into, 93, 97
Shoreline, 92 rocky, 127
building, in layers, 36-37
settling boat into,
evening, 70-71 with knife technique, 112
one wash, 106
Rigger, building cirrostratus clouds with
30 Rigging, 38-39
and gouache, 56 skies, 26 study, 135 tools lor, 50
transparent, 80-83, 124-
Robinson, Charles Raskob, Rocks,
liquid to retain, 31
Texture adding colorful, 116-121 sand, 42 using brush to create, 111 Their Trick at the Wheel, 54 Toole, ois Salmon, 42-47, 88-91, 128-133,
linting watercolors outdoors,
in the Sunset,
Wood as canvas, 99-10 5
painting rust on, 40-41
as rellci ii\e surface,
Yachts, 56 racing,
See also Boulders
Rider, using, as guide. 38
Wet-in-wet, 47 Whites
See also Sea,
Watercolor, 13, 15, 17, 21, 29, 30-33, 35-37, 39-53, 58-61, 84-87, 97, 106-109, 127-133
painting knife, 110-123
basic, for oils,
and values, 90 with lugs. 86
miniature, 88 watercolor, 135 Sun, location of, 107
Reference material, 134
Steam bug Baltimore, 87
with knile technique, 112 researching, 138
Spinnaker Ran, 73
deepening color of, 106 effect ol ambient light on, 62-63
Primavera a Portofino, 123 Principia, 56
sky and water, 32
and underpainting, 116 and water, 92 water and sails, color harmony among, 68-69 See also Clouds Skipjacks, 69 Skipjacks at Sunrise, 68 Sloop Rebecca T. Roark, 21 Snowbound, 41
painting sky and water in single, 106
Viewer's eye, directing, 52-53 with clouds, 29
for, 48-49 Beach Sigsbee Makes a Lick, 27 Sketch. See Drawing Skies, 60
Paper Fabriano Artistico, 96 See also Hot-press paper
rel lections and, 90 Varnish, 72, 75 Vellum, sketching on layers
Shapes, of hoats,
"garbage," 98. 101 removing, from glazed painting, 77 Painting, historic, 134-139 Painting knife technique, 110-123
increasing, 5 3
Water Sender, Robert C, 84-87, 54-57, 134-139, to,
Oyster Macrame, 21
Sea hase coat
on mahogany, 99-105
dark, 110 U.S. Coast
Ocean. See Sea, Water
ABOUTTHE AUTHOR Rachel Rubin Wolf
writer and editor. She acquires edits fine art
in this capacity,
working with many who paint a wide range
privilege of fine artists
of subjects in a variety of styles.
the project editor for the
Splash watercolor series
Techniques series paperbacks, as well
books The Best of Wildlife Mrt and The Best of Portrait Painting. fhe is the author of The Acrylic as for the
Book of Styles & Techniques. Wolf studied painting and drawing at the Philadelphia College Painter's
and Kansas City Art
of the Arts)
continues to paint in watercolor
as time permits.
resides in Cincinnati, Ohio,
with her husband and three teenage children.
Painting Ships, Shores and the Sea f
you are moved by the many moods and book
speak to you.
tains paintings so vivid
of the sea, this
you can almost smell the
and hear the
lapping of the waves. Inside,
of the American Society of Marine Artists, share their secrets for creating paintings that take sunlit shores
seas. You'll find instructions for painting bil-
TWILIGHT ON THE DELAWARE Oil
sparkling waves, early
and many other elements
the sounds, smells and drama of the sea.
on canvas, 24
by Robert C. Semler
x 36 " (61cm x 9 1. 4cm)
This painting depicts a scene circa 1912 from a viewpoint just
above the Pennsylvania Reading Railroad Ferry Terminal Philadelphia. Semler used this project, including
sources ot reference material for
books and early photographs of the area
Turn to pages
39 for step-by-step
EARLY BREAKERS by Leonard Mizerek Watercolor, 11"
(27.9cm x 50.8cm) this painting on He wanted a strong compositional theme and chose
rock formations that direct the
eye inward toward the crashing surf.
See the step-by-step
on pages 124-126.
$2A T1 â€˘
Mizerek uses a no.
knife to bring back the white
the paper for heightened contrast.
He uses the same for the
Published on Jan 30, 2018