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GAMIFICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF HEALTHY EATING FOR COLLEGE MALES Sean D. Gardner Submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of master of graphic design North Carolina State University College of Design Department Graphic Design

MAY 2014


Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males ///


GAMIFICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF HEALTHY EATING FOR COLLEGE MALES Sean D. Gardner Submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of master of graphic design North Carolina State University College of Design Department Graphic Design

MAY 2014

DENISE GONZALES CRISP — PROFESSOR

Committee Chair

DR. DEBORAH LITTLEJOHN — ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

Committee Member

SCOTT TOWNSEND — ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

Committee Member


“In every job that must be done, there is an element of fun. You find the fun, and SNAP - the job’s a game!” MARY POPPINS Walt Disney’s Mary Poppins, 1964

Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males ///


Table Of Contents DIRECTION: 1

CONTEXT: 5

1.1 Abstract

5.1 Moments of Potential Contact Map

1.2 Key terms

5.2 Design Investigation

1.3 Research Questions

5.5.1 Introduction

1.4 Thesis Direction

5.2.2 Day In A Life

BACKGROUND: 2

STUDIES: 6

2.1 Justification

6.1 Summaries of Investigation Interactions

2.1.1 College Eating Habits

6.1.1 Challenge Me

2.1.2 Why Males as the Target Audience?

6.1.2 Face-Off

2.1.3 Technologies and Millennials

6.1.3 Face Timer

2.1.4 Gamification

6.1.4 Face The Facts

2.1.5 Gamification and Millennials

6.1.5 Meet Up

2.1.6 Badge Systems

6.1.6 Lights Out

2.1.7 Summary

6.1.7 Reflective Pool

2.2 Assumptions and Limitations

2.2.1 The Scope

STRUCTURE: 3 3.1 Framework

3.1.1 Personal Conceptual Food Model

3.1.2 Summary Of The Food Model

3.1.3 Food Environments

METHODS: 4 4.1 Case Studies 4.2 Case Study Analysis 4.3 Research Methods

4.3.1 Observations

4.3.2 Semi-Structured Interviews

4.3.3 Card Sorting

4.3.4 User Personas + Journey Map

6.2 Conclusion 6.3 Acknowledgments

APPENDIX: 7 7.1 Appendix

7.1.1 Bibliography

7.1.2 Interviews

7.1.3 Observations


DIRECTION

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Abstract 1.1

{ Gamification The making of real life activities more game like.

A common phrase heard by incoming first year college students warns of the

{ Quantified-Self “Freshman 15.” This term refers to the weight, in pounds, gained during a college Incorporates self tracking technology into visualized data. student’s first year. The transition year from high school to college offers newly independent students more eating decisions. Parents often send their children care packages that tend to be filled with sugary treats and sometimes-unhealthy options. Specific food behaviors lay the groundwork for long-term food habits. New studies examine the importance of intervening in these eating behaviors for different genders. New advances in technology offer great opportunities to

{ Freshman 15 The tendency of many college freshmen and sophomores to gain weight during their initial years at college.

manage food behaviors through gamification combined with Quantified-Self,

{ Pattern Recognition

providing players an intimate view into different parts of their daily life.

A gaming mechanic that uses humans ability to organize information.

In this thesis I investigate the value of gamification as a means to motivate college males to increase awareness about eating habits, with the hope that introducing better eating habits in college will result in ongoing healthconscious choices throughout their lives. Many new health interventions target females rather than males. Male eating behaviors are as yet untapped areas of concern. Gamification elements take learners through content. The primary focus is to motivate learners to go through the content and to engage them in the process of learning and rewards. A new movement such as “The QuantifiedSelf,” engage players in a way that is introspective allowing for behavior changes. Quantified-Self incorporates technology into visualized data on aspects of a person’s daily life. Gamification proponents are making real life activities more game like. Another component of gamification is pattern recognition, a dynamic player interaction that links personal awareness of the environment around individuals. This investigation demonstrates how gamification is utilized to encourage healthy and sustainable eating habits.

1.2 Keywords College males, Freshmen 15, Gamification, Interface Design, Interactions, Quantified-Self, Personal Conceptual Food Model, Dynamic Information, Food Environment, Motivation,

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Research Questions 1.3 Main Question

{ Gamification Mechanics Rules or parts that explain how to play. { Dynamic Information

How can an interactive design using gamification mechanics encourage healthy and sustainable daily decisions in college male’s food choices?

Information that changes over time or moves each time a user views. { Food Environments Physical presence of food that affects a person’s die.

Sub-Questions 1) How can design of dynamic information in an interactive platform be used with pattern recognition to help college males better understand their personal food environments? 2) How can an interactive competitive design encourage motivation for positive food behaviors in college males? 3) How can the design of a feedback loop link personal value systems and food environments to form critical thinking of healthy eating habits?

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Direction: 1


Thesis Direction 1.4 I quickly became aware of my food environment while attending Maryland Institute College of Art. Baltimore is more commonly known as a food desert. Not acquainted with the term, I soon found that the city lacked sufficient key food offerings and delivery systems for its local citizens. A public billboard I encountered there read: “Healthy food should not be a right.” This sentiment moved me to think about the importance of food to the very existence of each individual. Coupled with my acquired knowledge of food deserts and the social responsibility of providing food to individuals I was compelled to pursue a thesis about food.

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BACKGROUND

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Justification 2.1

{ Diuretics Increase in the volume of urine excretion.

2.1.1 College Eating Habits Poor eating habits and food behaviors are important public issues that have significant health and economic implications (Brunt, A.R. & Rhee, Y.S., 2008). The obesity rate in the United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. Obesity is directly related to many health conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and hypertension, which extend over the course of one’s life. Young adults between the ages of 18-29 years are increasingly experiencing weight gain and obesity (Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., Bailey, S., Fava, J. L., & Wing, R., 2009). Food preferences and independent eating decisions are important events as students transition to college. Evidence points to the so-called “Freshman 15,” which is a well-known reference to the tendency of many college freshmen and sophomores to gain weight during their initial years at college. Research indicates that young adults who enter college experience the “Freshman 15.” (Lloyd-Richardson, E.E., Bailey, S., Fava, S.J., Wing, R., 2009)

2.1.2 Why Males as the Target Audience? Research has found that male lifestyles and campus eating do not follow healthy eating guidelines. For instance, males do not drink the recommended eight servings of water per day. Males consume beverages containing caffeine and alcohol which act as diuretics, ultimately decreasing hydration (Riesenhuber, Boehm, Posch, & Aufricht, 2006). Males also drink significantly more alcohol (Davy, Benes, & Driskell, 2006). Males buy more lunch on campus and spend more money on campus, which may suggest that they have poor eating behaviors (Davy et al., 2006; Driskell et al., 2006). College students are likely to eat MALES FOOD BEHAVIOR PULLED FROM LITERATURE: TABLE 2.1

Males tend not think about their eating habits compared to females

Males tend to eat more fast-food than females

Do not eat the necessary vegetables/fruits than females

Tend to skip breakfast

Tend to eat more red meat

Do not like to give encouragement to other males

Do not care about if they gain weight

Eating disorder similar to females

Source: O’Dea, J., & Abraham, S. (2002). Eating and exercise disorders in young college men. Journal Of American College Health, 50(6), 273-278, Hatmaker, G. (2005). “Boys With Eating Disorders”. The Journal of School Nursing}, 21 (6), p. 329., Heatherton, T. F., & Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Binge eating as escape from self-awareness. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1), 86-108. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.86 ­{ 8 }

Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Background: 2


“outside” meals consisting of food that is higher in calories and fat content, and lower in dietary fiber (Li, K. et al. ,2012). The transition from high school to college is an important factor that affects future health and family lifestyle (Nelson, M.C. & Story, M., 2009). During this time, students make food choice decisions, often the first time they are living away from home, taking full responsibility for food intake. The population of postsecondary institutions is approximately 17 million, meriting evaluation of healthy food behaviors for this group. College campuses have Dining Halls that offer students an unlimited amount of food for each meal. Students receive care packages from home, which often consist of unhealthy snacks. In addition, meal plans do not always encourage portion control. This problem area suggests an opportunity to educate males on the importance of healthy food choices and to encourage healthy eating habits among males. According to an article entitled “An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students, (Li, K. et al., 2012)” asserts student groups are likely to experience different kinds of food behavioral challenges. In the study, male college students engaged in less healthy eating habits than females. Males were more likely to eat fast food and did not read food labels consistently, or do not eat breakfast, and do not prepare their own food (Li, K. et al., 2012). Regarding nutrient consumption, studies reveal that males consume more high-fat food. Males consumed less fruits and vegetables per day than females. These nutrient components are identified as key outcomes for healthy eating. Kin-Kit Le, PHD, researcher on the topic believes that specific intervention strategies are necessary because the areas in need of improvement in terms of eating habits and nutrient intake are different for males (Li, K. et al., 2012). Advice to male students might stress the importance of eating breakfast regularly, eating fewer fast-food meals, and paying greater attention to food labels in order to achieve healthy eating habits in a college food environment. In addition, few applications, food programs, and support groups exist to help guide males toward better eating habits. Identification of risk factors that influence college student food behaviors increases college students understanding of the issue, thus allowing for intervention and prevention of subsequent health issues. Specific food behaviors during an individual’s earlier years lay the groundwork for positive long-

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term lifestyle choices, while moving through the life course of the Personal Conceptual Food Model. The essay “Craving an Ice Cream Fix,” (Parker-Pope, Tara, 2012) indicates that poor eating habits are related to types of food consumed, namely, processed foods. Dr. Kelly D. Brownell, director of Yale’s Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, explains that the human body is biologically fitted to deal with foods found in nature, not processed foods. The article also notes that these “hyperpalatable” foods are created to tantalize taste buds by focusing on an enticing and satisfying combination of salty, sweet, and fatty ingredients, along with “mouth-feel.” Consequently, these foods lead to overeating, which in turn

{ Hyperpalatable Foods loaded with fat, sugar, and salt — stimulate the senses and provide a reward that leads many people to eat more to repeat the experience. { Millennials The population demographic where birth years range from the early 1980s to the early 2000s. { Intrinsic Motivation Motivation that is driven by selfinterest or enjoyment.

leads to obesity.

{ Wearable Technology Clothing and accessories incorporating computer and advanced electronic technologies.

2.1.3 Technologies and Millennials

{ lameification Satire on the over use of gamification or game mechanics.

Design of computer technologies, especially online platforms, offers opportunities to inform users about personal food choice information to drive behavioral changes. Over the past decade, there has been a growing public fascination with the phenomenon of connectedness (Easley & Kleinberg, 2010). One of the ways in which society achieves connection is through social media. During the past ten years, applications have emerged in social media that enable the creation of new tools for user communication. Social networks, blog comments, and forums, as examples, share the ability to facilitate social behavior through dialogue and discussion, providing the opportunity to discover and share new information (Solis, 2008). Therefore, social media is a vast landscape of technology platforms, with many different uses that vary by application. In addition social networking, video sharing, and blogging, the totality of digital products and services enable social environments (Davis, Deil-Amen, RiosAguilar & González Canché, 2012). College males have an interest in social media and technology in general. Males have also proven to have levels of interest in gamification. Gamification inspires and motivates to achieve a desired end. As in its definition, gamification is game thinking and game mechanics to engage players in problem solving (Cunningham, C. & Zichermann, G., 2011). It is a contextualized fantasy that builds intrinsic motivation (Boschert, S., 2012). Game developers and designers define gamification by utilizing game mechanics, technology and development

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Background: 2


techniques from games in non-game spaces (Whitson, R. J., 2013). Gamification used in daily activities promises to make real life more like a game in terms of activities such as exercising and promoting healthy habits. Social media and mobile devices afford exploration in creating new personal interactive health environments. It is my aim to bring students into this digital space to assist in the formation of healthy and sustainable food behaviors. This digital space will live on a mobile device, wearable technology or any other digital tool. Current and continued technology trends will allow for additional interaction and personal decision-making.

2.1.4 Gamification Gamification is play applied to non-play spaces. My thesis investigates applying gamification to address college male eating behaviors. As exemplified by online technologies such as Nike+, Mint (Fig. 2.1), and Foursquare, gamification promises to make everyday tasks such as exercising and financial planning more enjoyable. Gamification applications are diverse and wide-ranging and include, to name a few: car dashboards that use mini-games and graphic visual feedback to reward reduced fuel consumption; software that allows players to set, track, and achieve financial management goals; websites that reward players who post comments with reputation points and recognition; programs that promote healthy eating habits using points; and a raft of fitness and weight loss coaches for game consoles.

Figure 2.1 Mint.com and Nike Fuelband: two examples of gamification. Mint.com is where users track information and the Nike Fuelband is wearable technology.

Utilizing games to make everyday tasks more enjoyable and to motivate certain behaviors is not new. The Boy Scouts of America began handing out merit badges in 1911. They understood the motivational power of goals, mastery seeking, reputation, and identity signaling valued accomplishments (Deterding, S., 2012). The achievement badges, leaderboards, and levels found in gamification all have well-known equivalents, from classroom grades to gold stars. Systems for encouraging and rewarding desirable behavior are also commonplace, from happy hour drink specials to airline loyalty points. Games shape human behavior (Whitson, R. J. 2013). New technologies

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and decreasing costs enable gamification of data and analysis of everyday life activities. Data collection establishes cycles of feedback and behavior modification in play. When entering the game environment, players agree to play a game, and in doing so they adopt a shared set of rules that guide the experience. Given this insight as applied to college male student food behaviors, a game could be established to encourage male college students to adopt healthy eating habits. Students could play such games independently, setting their own rules and indicators of success based on measurements of past performance and expectations. In both cases, the rules can be locally situated and constructed by the students. What is important about digital games is that rules of play are not only formalized, they are also concealed from players. For example, the rulebook for college student food behaviors could be developed in such a way as to be hidden from students, allowing them to discover the consequences on their own, which would lead to behavioral changes that provide information and inspiration and compel these students to action.

2.1.5 Gamification and Millennials The book, Play At Work covers most topics and more case studies than your typical Farmville write-up. The author Adam L. Penenberg examines game characteristics. Penenberg uses the Piotr Czerski Manifesto, entitled “We the Web Kids,” to better understand gaming and its attributes. The manifesto is useful as a template to determine what gamification could be. My goal for this thesis is not to write another “Gamification theory” or topic, but rather to rethink the tools that already exist. The first section of the Manifesto Czerkis addresses how a generation who grew up with the web. The web has influenced this generation’s expectations, political views and relationships. Another design viewpoint uncovered in my research targets how to engage people in the game experience. “We do not use the Internet, we live on the Internet. If we were to tell our Bildungsroman, (a novel about the moral and psychological growth of the main character), to you, the analog, we could say there was a natural Internet aspect to every single experience that has shaped us”(Czerski, P. 2012). Navigating content throughout the web was, and is, a

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Background: 2


natural experience for these web kids. The activity opens eyes to the vast array of information, differences and similarities all at the same time. The future of the gaming world is exciting based on its energy and fuel that will launch the next generation of web kids to greater experience.

2.1.6 Badge Systems When considering technology and the use of gamification, the badge system is already ingrained into our culture. Take, for instance, that diploma that hangs on walls, that driver’s license in your pant pocket or even that employee ID card. Badges affix a special mark indicating official membership, achievement or licensed employment. Therefore, it seems as if throughout our existence, gaming fundamentals are unobtrusively integrated into our life. The designer in me questions the value of gamification when it comes to the badge system. A weakness I have identified is the merit or real-time feedback in acquiring or maintaining a badge. An example DUI results in the loss of your license. The lack of more current feedback to players is weak under the current structured badge systems. Although past so-called “badge feedback” systems appear weak, future technology is integrating real-time feedback “badge” signals to players. The 2013 RAV-4 sports utility vehicle incorporates a new technological feedback aimed at the driver. I recently test-drove the RAV-4. My friend and I went to Nags Head, North Carolina a state where you can hop in your car and get to the coastline in a few hours. On the way back, it was my turn to drive. A green little light came on and sent me into a panic. Stephen told me the light flashes when the driver accelerates or slows for fuel efficiency. Now, that is real time feedback! Better yet, I was awarded the Eco “badge” from the RAV-4 driving system (Fig. 2.2). Then seconds later that green light disappeared from my view. My passenger laughed, telling me that I was breaking too fast and hard. After sometime, the vehicle achieved fuel efficiency. The remainder of the trip the little green light stayed on.

Figure 2.2 2013 Toyota Rav4 showing the “eco” badge driver’s receive when they achieve optimal fuel efficiency while decelerating or accelerating.

That green light feedback “badge” helped me modify my driving style or behavior to take advantage of the car efficiency features. Personally, I benefit because the feedback modified my behavior. This element is missing

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in the current badge system structure. Some may argue that this is not what gamification should do. Reflecting on current life examples, Millennials and their parents have a far different view of the badge system. The youngsters were awarded sport trophies with little to no effort. It is the opinion of many who believe this reward or badge value created an entitlement group. Consequently, badges have produced a nonwork ethic value for this generation. So, if giving meaningless awards created this behavior, then why continue? Games and life are challenging and designer, inventors, or anyone who influences our society should not lose sight of the fundamentals of gamification. Our culture will be stronger with an earned badge system based on merit as well as one removed when nothing is earned.

2.1.7 Summary The thesis investigation led me to examine how to motivate young college males toward adopting better eating habits with gaming. Gaming trends continue to expand in all areas of life. There have been many game successes but there have been failures. Some industry experts regard gamification as a miracle cure or on the other hand a showy mechanism to influence the spiritless resulting in little or no meaning. In some of my studio projects, I investigated what is referred to as “lameification.” Simply put, over use of gaming, taking it to a point where the game is trivial, corny and in some cases insulting to one’s intelligence. I believe gaming will continue to provide great opportunity for the greater good. I tested this theory during my winter break by playing many different games marketed for the smartphone or computer platforms. One that I would like to highlight is Nightmare: Malaria. The core of Nightmare game mechanics and storytelling supports a social cause (Fig. 2.3). The game focus brings awareness and support to the fight against malaria. The Emmy award winning production company Psyop in partnership with Against Malaria Foundation (AMF) created Nightmare: Malaria taking gaming to a completely different level.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Background: 2


Figure 2.3 Nightmare: Malaria using a social cause as a game giving the user the option to donate to people exposed to malaria. The game introduces the player to Anna and engages the player to help Anna escape from her own infected body. The game reflects similar functions of goal setting and discovery. Nightmare is reminiscent of Limbo and badland where players enter a dark world. However, in that world the player figures out puzzles or problems while the story is told, similar to Nightmare. Failure at a level in Nightmare provides players with facts about Malaria, a kind of paradigm shift in game play. Although the players do not reach a level, they still benefit by gaining knowledge. The game promotes the player to take moral action, such as, buy a bug net or donate to AMF. It is my hope that gamification inherently engages players to take moral action. The future is bright for my fellow designers and I to apply important serious play to social responsibility. Do I think that gamification is the answer to every problem? Well, I would not be adhering to player experience designer ethics if I said yes. Today many apps or games use gamification ranging from the mundane to serious play. I believe we designers can repackage gamification into something more than badges or points. Our challenge as designers is to visually display problems in a more approachable context. We should engage players in an effort to change individual perceptions through storytelling.

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Assumptions and Limitations 2.2 2.2.1 The Scope The grounds of this investigation will focus on food behaviors of young adult male students who are transitioning to college. Typically, this age group adopts independent living, creating new food behaviors, and changing former eating habits. Specific food behaviors lay the groundwork for long-term food habits. My thesis investigation takes the position that individual behaviors and environments are important factors that influence food choice decisions. The expansion of social media and mobile devices has affected cultural interaction in general and has altered specific behaviors. Generally, young adults, namely college students, communicate using texts, email, Twitter or Facebook. My outcomes do not take the form of a complete coded program. The investigation will be simulating the experience. An initial literature review suggests that new technology may be applied to inform and establish food behaviors. In terms of design, emerging trends include passive and active technologies utilized to modify behaviors. My framework for behavioral change is guided by a version of the Personal Conceptual Model for Food Behaviors (Furst, T. Sobal, J. Bisogni, C., Devine, C.M., & Jastran, M., 1998), which is noted in detail in the next section. Essentially, the model exhibits aspects of food choice and eating decisions. The model helps to identify where interventions might best influence positive food behaviors.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Background: 2


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STRUCTURE

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Framework 3.1 3.1.1 Personal Conceptual Food Model This thesis focuses on individual behaviors using the Personal Conceptual Food Model (PCFM) as a framework (Cornell University, 2006). This model has been adapted from the original (Fig. 3.1) by The Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University. The model breaks down the kind of food decisions that an individual makes. Selecting food to eat can be overwhelming when considering all the possible factors involved in the activity. The model lays out the crucial aspects of deciding and the relationships between all the variables.

PERSONAL CONCEPTUAL FOOD MODEL

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Strategies Choice Figure 3.1 Personal Conceptual Food Model (PCFM)

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Structure: 3


Convenience

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Figure 3.2 Three different layers of the Personal Conceptual Food Model; Life Course, Personal Food System, and Influences.

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The PCFM has three main process mechanics (Fig. 3.2): (1) The life course — Life TABLE 3.1 LEGEND — Five values that interact with the Personal Food System; and (3) Personal Food

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their relationship to food they bring past experiences of food habits that affect

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current ones. This behavior fits into the life course category. It views details

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Relationships and experience based on selected personal food values. When people talk about

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Managing System — Mental process by which an individual manages to decode influences

DETAILING THE THREE LAYERS OF THE PCFM.

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course contains past and current experiences and environments; (2) Influences

1

The Life Course

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Personal Food System

3

Influences

of how one is raised plus his or her personal environment, which affects food choices. Influences are the factors that change personal decisions. Influences have an affect on the personal food system an individual creates. The personal food system incorporates organized trade offs from the influences and personal food choice values. The last stage in the model forms strategies. Strategies are personally developed based on how and what an individual eats. The model is

Strategies

dynamic.

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Adaption The PCFM has evolved over the years (Fig. 3.3b) to become more specific in the language used, and adding more sub-categories. I adapted (Fig. 3.3a) this model to be a circle that houses the personal food system. The outer ring establishes the influences that surround us, in keeping with the original where a person exits outside the system. Visually the model needed to show the life course at the heart of the issue. In addition, my model indicates the dynamics that happen between the personal system and the influences. The model shows how the influences and personal system interact. I adapted the labels of the influences to be less broad. Originally the influences were ideals, personal factors, resources, social framework, and food context.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Structure: 3


Personal Conceptual Food Model Adaptations Personal system

Influences

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CHANGES IN THE PCFM

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Strategies Choice Figure 3.3a Adapted PCFM

Figure 3.3b Original PCFM


Figure 3.3 Adapted version of the PCFM for this project.

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“Life Course” refers to past and current experiences and environments (Fig 3.4).

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One’s food trajectory forms within the life course domain. The food trajectory

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Figure 3.4 Life Course layer of the PCFM

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is defined, as the physical and environmental context a person will experience

over the span of one’s life. Food trajectory takes shape over a period influenced by macro and micro-contexts. The macro-context includes the environment, government, society, and economy. My thesis investigation focuses on the micro-context within the food trajectory that includes family, friends, school,

work, and community. Within the macro-contexts, many of the issues become social problems and tend to be outside the scope of design. Personal roles within the various micro-context cause turning points in one’s usual personal food

Strategies

systems and lead to minor or profound remodeling of food choice patterns that establish new personal food systems.

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Figure 3.5 Food choice trajectory transition from within the Life Course PCFM layer (The Psychology of Food Choice (2006). The food choice trajectory (Fig. 3.5) transition shifts in a person’s life leading to either change or the continuation of behaviors, including food choice patterns. Timing represents when a specific transition or turning point occurs in the life of an individual. The specific timing of an event influences whether or how it influences food choices. Context serves as the environments within which

Strategies

life course changes take place. These environments include social structures, economic conditions, historical eras and the changing physical environment.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Structure: 3

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Figure 3.6 Personal food system, where the six values are housed, inuences the users mental processes.

The personal food system is the mental process by which an individual manages to decode influences and the effect they experience based on selected personal food values. The process builds out how and what is eaten in a given situation.

Strategies

Food values act as guidelines that are develop by the life course. A person’s food values are taste, convenience, cost, health and managing relationships. Taste value looks at the flavor of food, but also includes other senses such as smell, the texture, feel and look. The taste value is one of the most important values within the personal system. A person will not eat or drink something that they do not like the taste of, which makes this value the minimum for all decisions.

Choice

The next value convenience, reflects how individuals relate to time in physical and mental states. Learning to prepare, cook, and acquired new skills fall in this value. Students and young adults have a different view of this value when compared to older adults. Young adults associate time as the main meaning of convenience. Cost value is the financial guideline that people place on their decision. The amount of money an individual spends on food is contained in this value.

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Health value is a

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foods or what food items

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Figure 3.7 Influence Layer of the PCFM which houses five individual influences. The influence layer can interact with the personal system, which will change a person’s food decision.

process. This value considers the dynamics relative to one’s personal food choices with others in their circle. Managing relationships means thinking outside of one’s personal taste. For example, when an individual agrees on a certain restaurant, he/she checks to see if the place fits the companions taste value. If one person does not eat a certain food, a preference trade-off is made to maintain the relationship. The values acknowledge the working of relationships when dealing with food.

Choice

Influences The diagram food model also lists Influences (Fig. 3.7) that change individual food decisions: (1) cultural and subcultural norms, (2) physiological and emotional characteristic, (3) assets available, (4) social relationships and (5) physical and behavioral settings. These influences interact with the personal system and cause a person to change what they eat or how they eat. Cultural and subcultural norms are ideas acquired from family, friends or

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Structure: 3


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Figure 3.8 A step-by-step illustration of how a decision would flow out of the model. The top left image begins the decision process and the bottom right concludes it.

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Assets available are the physical and mental resources open to people when making food choice. Physical assets include, for example, how a person gets to locations, how much money they have, and access to equipment to make a meal. Mental assets can be knowledge but can also include support from others.

Choice

Social relationships refer to one’s personal network at different scales within that network. Social relationships can effect decisions of where, when, how and what someone eats. People going out on a date will negotiate together to make sure that both parties are considered equally.

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Physical and behavioral settings look at the setting that food process happens in and how. The setting is also the context of the locations in big picture of where in the world but also looking at how much food is available, how it is prepared and the climate’s effect on food in general.

Strategies Key elements of the PCFM are strategies, which are personally developed rules for how and what to eat in situations. These strategies form a personal food blueprint and establish scripts to achieve healthy eating behaviors. In recurring situations, these strategies represent methods to manage a given situation. Types of strategies include: focusing on one value; routinization; elimination; limitation; substitution; addition; and modification (Table 3.2 below) TABLE 3.2 PCFM FOOD CHOICE STRATEGIES. Strategy

Example

Focusing on One Value (Emphasize only cost, taste, health, relationships, convenience or another value)

Eat the cheapest food whenever possible

Routinization (Standardization, systematize, ritualize)

Eat rice and chicken every day for dinner

Elimination (Avoid, exclude or prohibit)

Never eat dessert

Limitation (Restrict, regulate, reduce)

Eat dessert once a week

Substitution (Replace, exchange, fill in)

Choose whole wheat bread over white bread

Addition (Augment, include, enhance)

Eat a vegetable at every meal

Modification (Alter, adjust, transform)

Remove fat from meats and poultry

3.1.2 Summary Of The Food Model The PCFM is a framework, with integrating concepts that are important in respect to each other. The model is integrated, making assumptions about practices and structures in a theoretical manner. It allows thinking of food choices as an activity-based system on experiences in context with the life course to evaluate current influences and incorporate them into personal systems. The result permits individuals to model how they select food.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Structure: 3


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Choice

Figure 3.9 Two ways to exit out of the PCFM is strategy or choice. Males typically go straight to choice, ignoring the different strategies.

3.1.3 Food Environment The Center for Disease Control and Prevention calls food environments “physical presence of food that affects a person’s diet.” That is, how close someone is to any kind of food availability. There can be different levels of the food environment and many have been identified. Making Healthy Places (Dannenberg, Andrew L., 2011) defines both the community and microenvironment. The community environment defines the places where food can be obtained, including grocery stores, convenience stores, specialty stores, restaurants, and farmers’ markets that are generally open to the public. Microenvironments accessible to various groups include homes, workplace and school cafeterias, and churches (Cannuscio, C., & Glanz, K. 2011). This thesis investigation evaluates food environments offered at North Carolina State University.

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METHODS

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Case Studies 4.1 The case studies cited below are proposed to study the complex issues of gamification and health challenges. These case studies emphasize details of phenomena and context within real-life applications.

GYM Pact The days of making a blood pact seem to be gone. Be not dismayed. There is an application bringing back the pact. This app utilizes gamification through betting your money with a competitive community. Players maintain a food log, gym or veggie pact. I signed up for the gym pact saying I will workout four times a week, each missed day is a $10 fine (Fig. 4.1). The reward for keeping my pact would be around $1.50, and $40 if I do not honor my pact. On the opposite side, those members who fail to meet the pact give cash rewards to others who meet goals. How is this strategy gamification? Some elements go against gamification ideas. The motivation carries personal responsibility. Gamification players must be ready or they may fall into the category of “not ready,” meaning the user is not committed to the play or the game rules. As a member of Pact the advocate role is highly established. In essence, members who fail in their personal commitment know the monetary penalty supports community members accomplish Pact. In addition, players from the community vote on food Pacts to keep accountability. The user Interface (UI) is set up with small little badges that act as statues bar to show completion.

Figure 4.1 Screenshot of Gym Pact user interface demonstrating the voting for a possible “food pact” (top row). Screenshot demonstrating the pact activity of users (lower).

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Methods: 4


Weight Watchers Weight Watchers is a longstanding weight loss program that has evolved to include both support group meetings and new on-line memberships or mobile app frameworks (Fig 4.2). The program’s foundation integrates individual member choice to promote weight loss success. No food is off limits, but

Figure 4.2 Weight Watchers homepage. Weight Watchers uses female celebrity endorsers to attract female users.

portion control is defined through its points system. The weight loss program uses a point system and online tools with hints of gaming mechanics. The online site includes community boards to share successes as well as acquire information to manage specific food-related issues and situations. A recipe builder integrates personal recipes to points in making personal food choices are also included in the program. Various exercise routines are available, with noted subtracting points. A weekly online newsletter is sent to members. Overall, these features provide member support and motivation to understand food behaviors. Weight Watchers partners with many manufacturers to include point values on packages. In addition, the mobile app allows barcode scanning of food items to determine point values while at the store.

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Foldit Foldit is a puzzle game that teaches the players to fold proteins. This process of folding proteins is important because, if we understand certain proteins, then we can discover better ways of fighting disease-related proteins, which could mean a cure for many diseases such as HIV / AIDS, Cancer, and Alzheimer’s. Foldit capitalizes upon the human ability to recognize patterns. Therefore, by turning protein folding into a game, players are not only enjoying a game but also helping science too. The setup and structure uses human ability to find patterns and gives the tools to find the patterns too. As players folds a protein, they can see how many point they are gaining. The goal for each puzzle aka protein is the get the most points each is displayed in a status bar (Fig. 4.3). Each level grows harder but offers more tools for a player to complete the puzzle. A user can even join groups and work with

Figure 4.3 Foldit, a protein folding puzzle program.

others to solve the puzzle. There has even been times where players folded a protein and been mentioned in books. So maybe you are like me and you cannot remember, which science deals with proteins. Since the interface and system allows player to find patterns and have visual feedback you could help science.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Methods: 4


Fitocracy Fitocracy is a multi-platform fitness log that makes working out fun. This web site feels and looks like Facebook (Fig. 4.4). The website allows users to filter personal feeds to everyone in the community: friends, groups to which one belongs. It utilizes gamification, community interaction, personal tracking, and motivation and reward elements. Members can post comments on a community wall. The comments range from asking questions about certain workouts or opinions about the latest running shoes. This is all done within the feed sections of the website. The “You� section presents personal profiles to view tracking information, such as daily updates, current exercise level, total points and friend updates. Fitocracy has various sections, one of which tracks personal workouts. It utilizes an archival system of past exercises and workouts. The data is visualized in a variety of forms. An example is a bar graph that exhibits each day’s score. A knowledge page on the left side is available, as well as tracking and motivation components. Within the motivation tool, activity points are earned. The portal includes a fun aspect that enables a player to challenge others in the community. The community board offers dietary information, inspirational testimonials, and general health tips. Leaders and connect pages serve to find others who share the same interests. They also highlight top member achievements. This application is a logging tool for fitness, with elements of social media. As a fitness app, it has merit in that it helps to change individual behavior through the utilization of technology. The mobile aspect makes it easily accessible at any time and any place by anyone.

Figure 4.4 Fitocracy homepage (top) and activity log (bottom).

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HAPIfork HAPIfork, is loaded with Bluetooth technology, battery, accelerometer and USB port. The fork, aims to slow down the player’s eating pattern (Fig. 4.5). It is known that eating slower gives the body time to digest food. The stomach signals the brain it is full. The smart fork is designed to send a light vibration to the

Figure 4.5 HAPIfork interface and fork. Fork and phone used in tandem to slow a user’s eating habits.

person when eating too fast. A player keeps record of what is eaten. The players can set up an account to share the information with others. There is also gamification functionality built in the application. Similar to other game applications, points are gained and posted on leaderboards then shared with other players who may participate. Two problems with the fork come to mind. The fork creates an introduction of a new element or behavior by the player. Now the player focuses attention on the application screen. Further, it has the potential to alter behavior disengaging the player from table conversation. There could be more negative behavior changes created. So, why a screen? A possible design option could incorporate glow lights from the fork with an ambient interface. High on the list of concerns with the smart fork is the food unhealthiest does not require a fork. Example, I am seconds away from Krispy Kreme doughnuts. No matter how slow I eat the doughnut it will not help me lose weight.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Methods: 4


Case Study Analysis 4.2 Each case study discusses gamification in various life events, however, gamification is played out differently. In the case of Pact, gamification extends beyond a game to strategically include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Pact reveals that gamification mechanics do not have to be overused, but can select a few mechanics to work. The social world within Pact is non-existent. Pact pushes the player’s personal motivation behaviors without real social feedback. Weight Watchers offered a view into how to quantify and develop personal food strategies. In that personal food management is critical in adopting healthy food behaviors, these two elements are incorporated into my investigations. The HAPifork application invades the food experience with the use of fork and phone integration. The fork and phone become the food experience focus. The idea of reversing the focus from the tools to the food choice experience centers on investigation 6 and 7. These case studies culminated the bases of my thesis investigations.

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Research Methods 4.3 4.3.1 Observations The purpose of conducting observations was to determine what North Carolina State University does for students in the context of food but also how student behave in this interactions. Each observation lasted for 45-60 minutes concentrating on food experiences from purchasing to eating. All elements of how to eat healthy were observed. Using an observation protocol as a framework helped view interactions, behaviors, common objects and relationships. Each observation focused on different elements of the food experiences in each food environment on NC State’s campus. I wanted to see how differently males act in this context as compared to women. The first observation examined Clark Dining Hall food

Figure 4.6 Lunch house at Los Lobos at North Carolina State University.

environment during peak dinner times (Fig. 4.7). Students used dinnertime to meet with friends or see other people. They paid for food and either got in line or claimed a table. Students would conduct a sweep to see what food was offered for the day. Most students went for the pizza and chicken station. The fresh food station did not have a line at the time. The salad bar offered many different vegetables on that day. The time appeared to be prime dinnertime. It was easy to determine what food was meat-centered or vegetable-centered based on food signage. The second observation viewed student behaviors within the Clark Dining Hall food environment after the morning rush. The food decision process seemed to be slow. There were no lines, and students did not feel guilty about being in the way to see what was offered. Many students ate by themselves and had homework or their phones next to them.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Methods: 4


Figure 4.7 Layout and stations of Clark Dining Hall at North Carolina State University.

The third observation viewed student portions and food set-up at Fountain Dining Hall at lunchtime. Students seemed to be between classes or finishing their day. Students came in with backpacks on and had more items with them. This observation appeared to follow the same general observation as the student dinner dining experience, which was more social in nature. The final observations looked at the newly renovated Talley Student Union building during mid-afternoon time (Fig. 4.6). The new Talley center offers five new food sections available to students, as well as a broader range of other customers. Each one offers a specialized food. The age demographics range was wider than those in the dining hall, with a mix of younger and older customers. Once again, it was a time for people to meet up with friends during their time on campus. Some people were not eating or brought their own lunch. People by themselves would have some kind of mobile device or reading on which to focus. Full Observations Found In Appendix

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4.3.2 Semi-Structured Interviews I conducted two interviews with Dr. Sarah Ash and Lisa Eberhart to learn about North Carolina State University’s dietitian and food science programs. They provided insight into current on campus motivations for healthy eating habits. As the on-campus dietitian, Lisa Eberhart shared eating behaviors and motivations that confirmed structure to my investigations, literature research and direction, as well as the interview from Dr. Ash. There is an active presence on campus to motivate healthy eating habits among all college students.

4.3.3 Card Sorting Using the PCFM, I created a card sorting activity to determine how food choices are made. Card sorting provided a view of how a participant grouped items related to the concepts. Participants studied each value of each category in the model. Each participant was given a list of 30 food items available from North Carolina States Dining Hall menu (Fig. 4.8). Each food option ranged from breakfast, lunch and dinner. Options included entrees, vegetables, soups, desserts, and side dishes. Each participant was given influences and personal values from the PCFM (cultural and subcultural norms, physiological and emotional characteristic, assets available, social relationships, physical and behavior settings, taste, quality, managing relationships, cost, health and convenience).

Figure 4.8 College males participating in a card sorting activity based on the PCFM and discussing their sorting habits.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Methods: 4


Three rounds of card sorting involved two personal values and one influence value at the end of each round we discussed the choices. We then talked about any personal strategies when eating in food environments on campus. They discussed how Fountain Dining Hall is not the best Dining Hall to make healthy food decisions. Since Fountain Dining Hall is closest to their dorms, they tend to eat there because of convenience. We also talked about what tools they use to develop strategies. Both participants pointed out how the school menu is online to see and try to plan their meals. I asked how many times a week they would use the web site, and both answered that they might view it once a week if at all. The card sorting activity gave me insight into the development of the investigations. The feedback from these sessions guided me to craft moments of potential contact. The process presented a picture as to what tools first year college students use in planning for healthier meals. From the discussion, I concluded that my investigation could not be a web site. The web site tool is already available for students, which is not highly used. The investigations should guide students to understand what is needed to achieve healthy meals.

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4.3.4 User Persona + Journey Map Based on literature I created two personas for my investigation. In addition, my role as a Teacher’s Assistant gave me opportunity to observe key student behavior patterns, which aided in the development of my college male personas. Meet Bryan Snacks. His game handle is OPRAHWINDFURY. He is a sophomore in college. Snacks calls himself a typical college student. He plans to study engineering with a minor in math. Most of his time is spent at a parttime job as a waiter. Snack has classes on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. This schedule affords Bryan time to work Tuesday and Thursday afternoons. He sometimes works nights and grabs food from the restaurant most nights with his tip money. Meet Frank Miller, His game handle is ANANGRYWAFFLE. He is a college senior. Miller loves sports and fitness. He is studying sports management. When it comes to food, he does not wander outside his standard rice and chicken for two meals and he has oatmeal for breakfast. Miller’s workout life requires him to eat in this manner. Miller does not like to eat anything else for fear of the consequences. To understand the strategies one will go through while using the PCFM, I created a player journey map of strategies (Fig. 4.9). The map highlights patterns when using a specific strategy. One personal value and one influence are counted on each row. The process is converted into an algebraic expression to better understand the effects of the strategies. The next step is to apply the result to a given strategy to determine what would happen (i.e. Personal value + Influences = results1 (strategy) = results 2. Adding in the element of chance and gaming I created two spinners that held the personal values and influences. For each round I would spinner both of the spinners to see what values would go to the given strategies. After each strategy was assign to a given value the results were reviewed to see what food would be used.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Methods: 4


Based on the card sorting activities, interviews and the personas that were completed earlier in the process I had paired the patterns with what would be generated from that result. The map went through three different iterations to determine how a given strategy affects the food. The expression in each row stay the same and a new strategy is assign to the row.

BRYAN SNACKS’ JOURNEY MAP

Cost + Cultural Norms = Pizza Taste + Emotional Characteristic = Ice Cream Convenience + Assets Available = Burrito

Substitution Limitation Addition

Flatbread Pizza One dessert a week More Vegetables In Burrito

Health + Social Relationships = Salad

Routinization

Eat this meal with friends

Quality + Physical Setting = Bacon

Modification

Render Bacon Fat

Managing Relationships = North Carolina BBQ

One Value

Still eats BBQ

Cost + Cultural Norms = Pizza

Limitation

One slice

Modification

Low Fat Ice Cream

Convenience + Assets Available = Burrito

Routinization

Always has for lunch

Health + Social Relationships = Salad

Addition

Salad with every dinner

Quality + Physical Setting = Bacon

Elimination

Never eats Bacon

Managing Relationships = North Carolina BBQ

Substitution

Gets turkey Meat

Cost + Cultural Norms = Pizza

Modification

Thin Crust

Taste + Emotional Characteristic = Ice Cream

Elimination

Does not have

Convenience + Assets Available = Burrito

One Value

Goes to fast food joint

Health + Social Relationships = Salad Quality + Physical Setting = Bacon Managing Relationships = North Carolina BBQ

Substitution Limitation Routinization

Iteration

Taste + Emotional Characteristic = Ice Cream

Subs Fries for Salad Only has twice a week Has only tailgating

Fig. 4.9 User Journey Map: Personal value + Influences = results1 (strategy) = results2

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CONTEXT

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Moments Of Potential Contact Map 5.1 The moments of potential contact map revolves around the day in a life of college male and contact points (Fig 5.1). The map details intervention points the designs will live in.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Context: 5


Moments Of Potential Contact

vs

{ Investigations } how gamifcation would be employed

Investigation 2 Face-Off

This map show design locations intervention points. The map is built on

Players battle with there faces, e who has the better face. to see

68%

two premises, to create player motivation and to build personal eating strategies. As one moves through the map there are three elements

Max

There are fives parts on the avatar face that equals the values of location, size of meal, sugar intake, health, mood.

achieved: Seeks Patterns, Competition, and Creating a Feedback Loop.

{Competitive design for motivation}

Min

Player signs up

Enter Info about themselves: Age / weight / height / lives on or off-campus/

Given a digital Buddy avatar that monitor what is eaten.

{Creating motivation from information}

Half

Challenge Me Track information in real-time.

Challengers will either eithe accept or forgo the battle. If the other person accept they will w meet at predetermined are area.

There are three rounds and a player needs to win two of the three rounds. Each round a player will select one face value. The highest value wins the round.

Each face value behaves differently by either growing, moving, shrinking, appearing and disappearing.

Investigation 3 Face Timer The avatar face turns into a digital clock where players can see when values changed.

If a player set time in the past the player sees an animation of the past morhp.

Players can compare multiple time spans.

Location, Size of meal, Sugar intake, Health, Mood

Developing Strategies

If a player sets time in the future player sees an animation of the face in real-time.

{Using pattern recognitions as a form of motivation}

Motivation Investigation 4 Face the Facts

{Enter values in different ways}

Create challenges for daily goals.

Readjust values for goals to successfully make a challenge.

I been bad

Less sugar

More veggies

Make preset strategies for times needed to quickly readjust values goals.

GPS GPS follows players at the dinning hall.

1234

Student ID

Able to scan items barcode using any device with camera.

Link ID to micro food environments that are not the dinning hall.

Cell Phone

Smart Tag NFC, RFID, or Bluetooth to connect devices after completing the transaction. Players can touch device to smart area to upload information.

Using the locations technology of the GPS it gathers locations.

Players can play a quiz style game to see how the food effects his face values the most. This quiz is also timed.

{View information by location}

Scan Barcode

Investigation 7 Reflective Pool Players can reflect on the information.

points: 100

Enter Manually Allows the user to add or even customize the meal entered.

As players eat at a new food environment they will get a card that shows player’s stats about the place.

vs

ers look at the map to Players see who is available to e in the area. Then battle they select the person they wantt to challenge.

Max

{Track five different values}

Investigation 1

Flag can be cashed out to change face items.

Winner of the Face-Off gets a flag planted on that spot.

{Create a focus on the food and social time}

Compare or see all cards players have collected.

Players can fill out a grid chart for each of the stations collected and how much was on their plate.

{Understand how your friends affect your food environment}

Investigation 5 Meet Up Player finds a place to eat with friends for a food environment that will be best for everyone.

Investigation 6 Lights Up Once each player arrives at the food environment, they can play a game to keep attention on the food and social event.

If a player guesses wrong three times or runs out of time the game will be over.

Players view their social loop and add other players to meet up with.

Based on the location players will receive a vintage sign of that location’s name. Players will put there phones face down on the table to start the game.

The bottom of the screen displays the items that have been quantified. A player can drag that item to the face value.

+100

+00:10

For every right answer a player receives points and more time on the clock.

Players can can vote and leave comments to the loop. As one food environment starts to become favorable for the group the loop becomes smoother.

If a player picks / uses the phone he will receive a light. The player with the lowest amount of lights win.


Design Investigations 5.2 5.2.1 Introduction A Day in a Life is a study in which I followed personas through a typical day, observing and recording events to build a realistic picture of what actually happens within the context of a given situation. The process may need to be repeated over a wider span of time in order to gather an objective perspective. Mapping a ‘Day in the Life’ helps illustrate graphically how my design studies live in context. A general outline aids in the process to figure out where the design intervention should most likely occur. The outline consists of three different categories within the food context — breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Within these times the player handles and interacts with the design object. After each major eating period, I conducted an analysis determine what was successful, what did not work and how best to allow for correcting eating behaviors. The goal of the analysis was to break down the day in a life, and to summarize the design studies, as well as reflect on what was made.

5.2.2 Investigation - Day In a Life The past couple of days Bryan has felt as if his world is slowly slipping out of his hands. He has been staying up late completing homework while consuming energy drinks and handfuls of candy. Now his past food decisions and behaviors are starting to catch up to him and Bryan is paying for it. One day while at work, he voiced his concerns. A co-worker suggested gamified interfaces that would help him make better food decisions. He noted that the interfaces were fluid and would work well with his busy schedule. Once Bryan arrives home he downloads the interfaces to his phone. He also links his student ID to the account. An avatar becomes his mealtime friend greets Bryan. For each meal Bryan eats, the avatar changes based on a set of five values. Excited about how it works, Bryan puts his phone under his pillow and gets ready for bed. The next day Bryan wakes up early to start his day. He has a long day of afternoon classes and wants to get some work done in the morning.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Context: 5


BREAKFAST ACTIVITY IN DAY IN A LIFE - COFFEE TO LIBRARY (CHAPTER 1)


Breakfast (Chapter 1) Bryan heads to a local coffee shop where he decides to get some coffee and a bite to eat. Bryan pursues the menu and orders a banana, breakfast wrap and a latté. He taps his phone to the smart tag at the register that synchronizes his meal. The smart tag is a Bluetooth wireless communication device, which sends all information to any player’s device. Bryan grabs his order and a couple of packs of sugar for his latté. As Bryan finishes his meal then checks his phone to see if the meal was synchronized. Bryan sees his meals listed in chronological order. He taps the interface and brings up all information. He sees the latté and remembers he added more sugar. He clicks the latté icon and drags the word sugar over it. He then drags the slider to confirm how much sugar he added. To help make the rest of the day go better Bryan creates goals. There is an option for beginners, which he selects. The interface displays within the five values where he should be for the rest of the day. The interface then breaks down the values for each of the remaining meals. Bryan grabs his book bag and heads to the library to grab a book and finish so much needed homework.

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Gamification In The Context of Healthy Eating For College Males /// Context: 5


Moments of Potential Contact In Context

Bryan Snacks visiting the local coffee shop checking out the menu.

After paying for his meal Bryan uploads the infromation by placing his phone next to the smart tag. His meal is now uploaded and saved for later viewing.

Bryan enjoys his food without entering data during the meal. He has the choice when to enter the infromation.

Bryan can see a chronological list of all the food that was added.

Bryan can customize his meals by clicking on an item on the list. He can add or subtract things he ate that were not uploaded.

Bryan remembers that he added sugar to his latte. By tapping on sugar he can add it to his meal.

Checking his meal that was uploaded earlier from the smart tag Bryan can see he is within his goal for the day.

INVESTIGATIONS KEY

Challenge Me #1

Face-Off #2

Face Timer #3

Face The Fact #4

Meet Up #5

Lights Up#6

Reflection Pool #7


IN-BETWEEN TIME IN DAY IN A LIFE LIBRARY (CHAPTER 2)


In-Between Time (Chapter 2) After finishing some pages of the book, Bryan stops to check the time. He sees that his avatar face has changed. Bryan uses Face Timer to check when his avatar face changed. He wants to make sure that it was from his morning meal and sets the time back. His avatar faces changes immediately as he order his meal. The face changes again when he added sugar to the latté. He is shocked at how high the hair value went up. Bryan puts his phone away and continues to work on his studies knowing that he will take a break for lunch. Noon comes around and Bryan starts to pack up. Before he leaves the library, he checks the map to see if he can battle anyone for his first Face-Off. He sees that someone is near the library and he sends a personal invite to the battle. As he leaves the front doors, he sees that the person has accepted the Face-Off challenge. They meet at the designated spot on the map. The challenger and Bryan bump their phones together to start the Face-Off. Bryan know he is in a strong position since he checked Face timer earlier. The screen tells each player that there will be three rounds. The player who wins two rounds is the winner and is awarded a flag planted in the spot. To win the round players must pick their highest value. Bryan picks the mustache for the health value for the first round and his competitor picks the ear. They bump phones again once they finish selecting. The first round starts and shows who had the stronger value. Bryan wins the first round. Now Bryan starts to think with some strategy so he does not want to play the best hand. Bryan save the hair value fearing the latté may cause him to lose this round. The competitor beats him out. Now it goes into sudden death round. Whoever wins this round wins the battle. Saving the best value for last, Bryan picks the mouth option and wins the whole battle. Bryan shakes the competitors hand and heads to the Student Union.

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Moments of Potential Contact In Context

Bryan checks the time and can also see how his avatar’s face has changed from adding his information about his meal.

To find out what time the face changed Bryan can look at the time span.

Bryan watches an animation of the face during the selected time span.

Bryan wants to Face-off with someone. He checks the map to see if any players are in the area.

After finding a player to battle Bryan meets up with his challenger. They bump phones to start the battle.

Bryan is shown the rules before the battle starts.

Bryan knows that his mustache value is the highest and could win that round.

After three rounds Bryan is the winner of the battle.

INVESTIGATIONS KEY

Challenge Me #1

Face-Off #2

Face Timer #3

Face The Fact #4

Meet Up #5

Lights Up#6

Reflection Pool #7


Analysis (Chapter 1 and 2) This first part of the scenario covers the Chernoff faces and depicts visually dynamic information interaction with the player. The introduction explains how the investigations work, where and how information is captured. Most quantitative self-systems require lengthy data entering and change player behavior. In essence, players become data keepers. My goal for my investigations is to connect existing account information with the interface. The experience should focus on the game experience and behavior modification rather than introducing additional thinking. The four things most college males have on campus are a cellphone, student ID, laptop and books. These tools (cell phone and ID) present great opportunities to serve multiple functions, such as data transfer devices. Connecting these items to an existing account allows players to view data with options to modify or confirm. There are events within the interface, which may need to be customized based on the information. Bryan is able to work seamlessly with the information. There is less time required in set-up, selfprofile. Today’s players do not spend time in data entry, profile set-up and tracking. The interface starts with the use of the Chernoff faces, incorporating gamification. Chernoff faces displays different variables. Each individual face part represents a value of the variables by the shape, size placement or even orientation. The faces highlight the use of pattern recognition as a mechanism to drive players to interact with the information. This idea for using the Chernoff face brings to question the idea of player information interaction. More questions arise regarding what we think about dynamic information and what we traditionally know about visual information. A key element of my investigation offers connectedness. Over the past decade, there has been a growing public fascination with the phenomenon of connectedness (Easley & Kleinberg, 2010). One of the most important ways in which society achieves connection is through social media. Although this interface uses a game method, it enables communication differently. These various types of applications all share the ability to facilitate social behavior through dialogue and discussion, providing the opportunity to discover and share new information (Solis, 2008).

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LUNCH ACTIVITY IN DAY IN A LIFE STUDENT UNION (CHAPTER 3)


Lunch (Chapter 3) Bryan arrives at the Student Union, which has other food environments. As he waits in line, he checks the goals he established. Remembering how the latté affected his values he decides to add salad to his hamburger and avoid fries. He understands by taking this option, the sugar value will decrease and he can be stronger in the Face-Off. Using his student ID to pay for the meal, Bryan is able to capture and synchronize the lunch meal details. After the meal, Bryan checks the interface to gain a perspective of where he stands relative to his goal. He sees how adding the salad keeps him on track for the rest of the day. Bryan is still curious about how other items affect the values set-up in the interface (location, size of the meal, sugar, health value, and mood). Before he leaves to go to his first class, he plays Face the Facts. This game displays the quantified values and how they affect the features on the avatar’s face. Every correct answer earns more points as well as additional time. A correct answer matches the value affects the facial feature the most. If a player does not answer correctly three times or time runs out the game is over. Bryan correctly matches the latté value and its facial feature changes. Bryan plays Face the Facts in an effort to position himself for the Face-Off so he can acquire more flags on the map.

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Moments of Potential Contact In Context

Before ordering Bryan checks his goal for the rest of the day.

Bryan uses his student ID that is linked with his account to pay and can transfer his meals to his phone.

To understand how his food affects the different values on the face. Bryan plays Face the Facts. Each item that is saved are shown at the bottom of the screen.

Bryan drags the word lattĂŠ up to the hair value.

Bryan can select each value and readjust his goal to make his daily challenge.

Bryan correctly answers lattĂŠ value right and is reward points and more time for the next item.

INVESTIGATIONS KEY

Challenge Me #1

Face-Off #2

Face Timer #3

Face The Fact #4

Meet Up #5

Lights Up#6

Reflection Pool #7


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DINNER ACTIVITY IN DAY IN A LIFE DINING HALL, AND DORM (CHAPTER 4)


Dinner (Chapter 4) Bryan makes his way to the Dining Hall, but does not want to focus on the technology. He does not want to worry about the phone interaction right at that moment. This is social time for him and his friends. The guys want to see who can last the longest without touching their devices. They turn on Lights Up, which is a game to test this ability. His buddy Mike and Jim put their phones on the table. Based on the GPS location the food environment name will display on the screen. The GPS also picks up who is playing the game at the table. If a player pick ups or uses the phone they are penalized a light during the game. The player with the lowest amount of lights wins. The meal is over and the allotted time passed. The game is over. Both Jim and Mike picked up their phone to show the group the latest viral video. Once back at his dorm Bryan checks the Reflective Pool. This interface points out the Dining Hall station Bryan visited. He confirms the food tracked by the interface for his dinner. Dots on the screen inform him how food covered his plate, reflecting the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The screen prompts him to enter the number of helpings. The information is saved and Bryan checks the interface to ascertain whether he made his food choice goal for the day.

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Moments of Potential Contact In Context

Bryan goes to Clark Dining Hall to meet up with friends. Before he enters he turns on his GPS to track the stations he visits.

To keep the focus on the food and social time Bryan and his friends play One of the Bryan’s friend picks up his phone to send a text. He receives a Bryan uses Reflective Pool to enter how much food he eat at the dining Lights Up. They all put their phones on the table. light for using his phone. hall.

INVESTIGATIONS KEY

Challenge Me #1

Face-Off #2

Face Timer #3

Face The Fact #4

Meet Up #5

Lights Up#6

Reflection Pool #7


Analysis (Chapter 4) Gamification applications are diverse and wide-ranging and include advanced methods in displaying information such as a car dashboards and graphic visual feedback. My goal was to allow the player to set, track, and achieve food behaviors that promote healthy eating habits overall. Information is provided that allows Bryan to see the places he eaten, assess his eating pattern from a broad level to detail. He knows where he ate, what he ate and how his choices relate to Dietary Guidelines. In addition he is able to self quantify the meals eaten, by modifying or confirming data. Data is displayed to the player however it should take a sophisticated form to assist in behavior modification. The Dietary Guideline is noted but require additional investigation to determine how that information is loaded into the interface as well as maintained over a period.

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INTERACTIONS

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Summary of Investigations Interaction 6.1 These interactions are in the context of gamification with two premises to encourage healthy eating for college males. According to Cunningham, C. & Zicherman, G. (2011) gamification engages players in problem solving. Also Whitson, R. J. (2013) assert games shape human behavior. The two premises here are to create personal motivation, problem solving, and to assist in developing personal strategies to encourage healthy eating habits. The idea includes elements of feedback loops and challenges. The feedback loops are designed to provide food choice information at an individual player level, yet broaden its reach to the player’s social loop.

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6.1.1 Challenge Me Challenge Me is the starting point for a player to commit and develop personal eating strategies for daily food decisions. Strategies are avoided by males when making a food decision. The objective is to create personal food strategies. While a player sees personal information tracked in Challenge Me it allows the player to interact with that information. A player can select a challenge to play. The player can monitor how well one is doing for that challenge with the use of progress bars (Fig. 6.1). Players can readjust their goals to meet the challenge or make preset buttons (Fig. 6.4).

Figure 6.1 Challenge Me interface displaying overall goal completion and the breakdown into individual inuence values.

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Figure 6.2 Challenge Me interface displaying the adjustment of goals, which can occur at anytime.

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ORDER OF SEQUENCE

Figure 6.3 Challenge Me screens in sequence order from data upload to interaction.

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Figure 6.4 Challenge Me user presets (left) users can adjust quickly (right).

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6.1.2 Face-Off In my investigations I wanted to create a competitive environment using information that a player establishes. I researched the Chernoff faces, which display data in the shape of a human face. The Herman Chernoff study shows how to visualize information in a different way. The idea behind Chernoff is that using facial features, such as ears or mouth, a player can easily recognize the face and notice small changes without much difficulty (Fig. 6.5). I applied these visualizations into the context of gamification. Players can look on the map to see if other players are around. Players would then send an invitation to another competing player on the map. A competing player can decline or accept the challenge (Fig. 6.7). The Face-Off is a battle to determine which Chernoff faces is the better health value. The battle motivates players to strive to make better health decisions within those values. The battle incorporates a feedback loop among community players. The feedback loop creates a sense of partnering to develop healthier eating habits. The battle consists of three rounds and the winner is the player who wins two of three rounds. Before each round players select a face feature (Fig. 6.8). The highest value wins the round. Players can see how many rounds they have won as indicated on the status bar on the bottom of the screen. The winner of the battle displays his avatar with a crown and confetti (Fig. 6.9).

FACE VALUES

Hair

Mustache

Ears

Glasses

Mouth

Location

Size of meal

Sugar

Health Value

Mood

Figure 6.5 Face-Off five “face values” linked to five values a user is tracking.

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Figure 6.6 Chernoff faces: A study of maximums and minimums.

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

The Min and Max


Figure 6.7 Face-Off display interaction a user will see when accepting or denying a “Face-Off.”

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Figure 6.8 Face-Off sequence displaying the first round of a challenge where users chooses their best “face value” to go up against another users.

Figure 6.11 The winner will get awarded a flag for the battle.

Figure 6.9 Face-Off sequence displaying the winner of the challenge. The features that are displayed in red represent the number of rounds won. { 85 }


6.1.3 Face Timer Still using the Chernoff Faces, a player can see when different values change over time. Face timer gives the player an avatar face but allows the player to select what time he would like to view eating patterns (Fig. 6.11). The player can set the time in two different ways. First, if the player sets the time past the current time, he can view an animation of the avatar’s face changing over time (Fig. 6.12). In addition, a player can set the Face Timer in the future and watch a live morph . This activity uses time as a way to link eating habits to one’s personal self-assessment and accountability. Face Timer also gives the player the ability to compare different times together. Players can use Face Timer to better position themselves in the Face-Off.

Figure 6.11 Face Timer demonstrates the progress a user has made on his values using a ‘Live Morph” or a “Past Morph.”

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Figure 6.12 Face Timer interface demonstrating a user’s interactions with “Past Morph.” This helps the user to see the progress made during a chosen time span.

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6.1.4 Face the Facts Face the Facts is a quiz style environment to test player’s knowledge of personal food choices made within given values (Fig. 6.13). As noted, PCFM details the values as taste, convenience, cost, health and managing relationships. The avatar displays real-time status once the game starts. At the bottom of the screen displays the food items being track. The player drags that item to any of the facial features on the avatar he think affects it the most. For every right answer, a player is rewarded points and time on the clock (Fig. 6.14). If a player selects the wrong face feature, he receives a red circle. Three wrong answers lose the game for the player.

Figure 6.13 Face the Facts start screen.

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Figure 6.14 Face the Facts interface demonstrating the user interaction. The user is trying to figure out which value is affected more by the quantifying item.

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6.1.5 Meet Up As noted in the PCFM, two values strongly control a food decision: how someone manages relationships and taste (Fig. 6.16). Meet Up creates a space for players to gather and make trade offs together. A player selects a place or the food environment most agreeable to everyone to meet (Fig 6.17). Then everyone who is invited rates the environment, makes comments or adds a new food environment (Fig. 6.18). The rating system is a set of slider bars, which influences the circle. The circle exhibits the interaction between players. A distorted circle displays a less than desirable environment. The goal is to find a place or food environment that everyone can enjoy and that meets personal food values. Once this happens the environment with highest rating and smoother circle will display. A player can be voted a hero by other players based on the leadership role in helping the group select a healthy eating environment. The food environment is important in context because it considers how food is prepared, where the food is acquired that directly affects food-eating habits. The function of rating and commenting on an environment establishes an approved reference list of acceptable food environments.

Figure 6.15 Meet Up interface demonstrating the user interaction rating a food environment with friends.

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Figure 6.16 Meet Up interface demonstrating the use of comments.

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6.1.6 Lights Up Based on my case studies, I found players are attracted to smart devices in making behavioral changes. As noted in the HAPIfork case study utilizes smart device tools to change behaviors. Lights Up takes the focus off the smart device and returns it back to the meal at hand. Lights Up is a challenge based on the trend to eliminate phone use during a meal with others. Once everyone has placed their orders at the restaurant personal phones are positioned at the center of the table. Each player is given a vintage light bulb sign in the name of the current location (Fig. 8.18). Using GPS the smartphone pulls the name of those food locations up on the screen. The GPS also picks up who is playing the game at the table. If a player pick ups or uses the phone he is penalized a light during the game (Fig. 6.17). The player with the lowest amount of lights wins. After 30 minutes, a player can leave the game once he has finished eating at the food environment or does not want to play anymore. The objective is to introduce critical thinking and behavioral changes to eating habits.

Figure 6.17 Lights Up interface showing user being penalized for interacting during the game.

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Figure 6.18 Lights Up screens demonstrating the lights on and off, which acts as the status bar.

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6.1.7 Reflective Pool The Reflective Pool captures eating information throughout the meal based on GPS technology. Reflective Pool engages the player to review information that was collected at each station. Based on GPS data acquired details are provided of locations and meal item choices (Fig. 6.20). The player is able to complete a grid chart that visually displays the information (Fig. 6.19). The information at this point can be used for future daily eating strategies or modified based on what the player wants to achieve.

Figure 6.19 Reflective Pool start screen before user interaction.

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Figure 6.20 Reective Pool sequence demonstrating the user’s portion being entered in at each dining station.

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Conclusion And Recommendations 6.2 My investigations into the role of gamification in college male eating habits has opened the doors to my awareness and use of games. College males campus eating habits do not follow healthy eating guidelines. The premise of this study suggests the opportunity to motivate and inspire males on the importance of healthy eating using gamification. Literature reviews suggest the opportunity to educate males on the importance of healthy food choices and encourage healthy eating habits. In addition, there are few applications, food programs, and support groups available to guide males to better eating habits. Drawing upon the Personal Conceptual Food Model contributed to my understanding of food choices and the interaction between individual food decisions and one’s life course. The investigations around the potential contact points are possible scenarios and are a springboard into deeper examinations of how gamification could be employed.

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Acknowledgments 6.3 MOM

STEPHEN SHIELDS

For all the late night calls, Skype, Google

What can I say? Octopus. You are the best thing

Hangouts. I could not have done this without your help and support. I am always trying to be

about North Carolina.

like you.

RYAN FOOSE

CRYSTAL GARDNER

We are desk buddies for life. Thanks for your

You cheered me up so many times when I was

advice regarding life and design. I will never

down about school. You showed me that it

forget our talks.

takes time to do what you want. WILL WALKINGTON DAD Thanks for your support.

You help to instill a new level of smart into my life. Thanks for building a smarter me and projects.

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KEZRA GRACE

SCOTT TOWNSEND

You inspired me to add goofy and weird hints

Thanks for reminding me to keep it simple.

to my projects and to understand not to take things so seriously.

AMBER HOWARD

VICTORIA BYRUM

Thanks for guiding me on my design path. The time you spent with me clarified my thesis

I loved our one-one meetings in the upstairs

subject and design studies.

studio. You helped me stay the course. MEREDITH DAVIS JERI-LYNN GEHR Thanks for believing in me. You saw my I am your mentor, so you had better not mess

potential when I did not see it in myself.

it up next year. MICA DENISE GONZALES CRISP I would not be at NCSU without the lessons A year and half of pushing me has made me a

learned. You helped start my design journey.

better designer and thinker. You can expect a cat gif from me.

PROJECT M

DEBORAH LITTLEJOHN

Two weeks in Alabama affected the course of my thesis. The meaning of making stuff that

My writing has gotten a lot stronger because of

matters will always be carried with me.

your advice.

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APPENDIX

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Bibliography 7.1.1 Block, L. (2013). Food decision making. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(5), v-vi. Boschert, S. (2012, October). Fight obesity with specific , countable goals. Pediatric News, pp. 23. Brunt, A. R. & Rhee, Y. S. (2008). Obesity and lifestyle in U.S. college students related to living arrangements. Appetite, 51(3), 615-621. Cannuscio, C., & Glanz, K. (2011). Food environments., 50-62. doi:10.5822/978-161091-036-1_3 Cluskey, M. & Grobe, D. (2009). College weight gain and behavior transitions: Male and female differences. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2), 325-329. Cunningham, C., Zichermann. G. Gamification by Design (2011) Czerski, P. (02, 2012 15). We, the web kids. Retrieved from http://pastebin. com/0xXV8k7k Dannenberg, A. L. (2011). In Frumkin H., Jackson R. J. (Eds.), Making healthy places designing and building for health, well-being, and sustainability electronic resource]. S.l.]: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics. Davy, S. R., Benes, B. A., & Driskell, J.A. (2006). Sex differences in dieting trends, eating habits, and nutrition beliefs of a group of Midwestern college students. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106(10), 1673-1677. Deterding, S. (2012).Gamification: Designing for motivation. Interactions, 19(4), 14-17.doi:10.1145/2212877.2212883 Erdman, M. B., Horacek, T., Phillips, B., Guo, W., Colby, S., White, A., et al. (2010). Assessment of the food and eating environment on college campuses using a modified version of the nutrition environment

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measures survey for restaurants (NEMS-R). Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(9, Supplement), A24.

Eyal, N. (2013). Why behavior change apps don’t work. July, 2013, 2013 French, S. A. & Stables, G. (2003). Environmental interventions to promote vegetable and fruit consumption among youth in school settings. Preventive Medicine, 37(6), 593-610. Furst, T., Connors, M., Bisogni, C. A., Sobal, J., & Falk, L. W. (1996). Food choice: A conceptual model of the process. Appetite, 26(3), 247-266. Grocott, S. M., Brown, L. B., Mitchell, A. C., Richards, R., & Eggett, D. L. (2009). How long does it take college students to cook healthy meals? Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 41(4, Supplement), S9.doi:http:// dx.doi.org.prox.lib.ncsu.edu/10.1016/j.jneb.2009.03.118 Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., Bailey, S., Fava, J. L., & Wing, R. (2009).A prospective study of weight gain during the college freshman and sophomore years. Preventive Medicine, 48(3), 256-261. Li, K., Concepcion, R. Y., Lee, H., Cardinal, B. J., Ebbeck, V., Woekel, E., et al. (2012). An examination of sex differences in relation to the eating habits and nutrient intakes of university students. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 44(3), Mitchell, A. C., Brown, L. B., Grocott, S. M., Richards, R., & Eggett, D. L. (2009). Mission accomplished: College students CAN cook! Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 41(4, Supplement), S29. doi:http://dx.doi.org.prox.lib.ncsu.edu/10.1016/j.jneb.2009.03.137 Nelson, M. C., Larson, N. I., Barr-Anderson, D., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2009). Disparities in dietary intake, meal patterning, and home food environments among young adult non-students and 2- and 4-year college students. American Journal of Public Health, 99(7), 1216-1219.doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.147454

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Nelson, M. C. & Story, M. (2009). Food environments in university dorms: 20,000 calories per dorm room and counting. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(6), 523-526. Parker-Pope, Tara. Creving an Ice-Cream Fix. New York Times. September (2012). Riesenhuber, A., Boehm, M., Posch, M., & Aufricht, C. (2006). Diuretic potential of energy drinks. Ammo Acids, 37, 81-83. Sellaeg, K. & Chapman, G. E. (2008). Masculinity and food ideals of men who live alone. Appetite, 51(1), 120-128.doi:http://dx.doi.org.prox.lib.ncsu. edu/10.1016/j.appet.2008.01.003 Solis, B. (September 29, 2008). The state of social media 2008 http://www. briansolis.com/2008/09/state-of-social-media-2008/ The Psychology of Food Choice (2006). In edited by Richard Shepherd and Monique Raats., Nutrition Society (Great Britain), Raats M. and Shepherd R. (. (Eds.), . Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK ; Cambridge, MA: CABI in association with the Nutrition Society. Whitson, R. J. (2013). Gaming the quantified self. Surveillance & Society, 11(1/2), 163.

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THESIS RESEARCH INTERVIEWS 7.1.2 Interview #1 - Lisa Eberhart, Registered Dietitian North Carolina State University Sean Gardner - I am trying to figure out eating behaviors, especially in males and different ways they interact with food specifically in the college age range because that’s the time when they are away from their family they actually have that independence in eating. So I’m trying figure out if graphic design can create a system or build an application that will help them monitor what they’re eating and help them understand what they are eating and where they are eating and eventually encourage other people to get into this healthier eating habits and help them understand what they are eating. And when I was reading literature, it was like yes, you should definitely look at the difference between males and females and look at this age range. so that’s why I was looking kinda particularly interested in this college age range since they have this independence, first time actually understanding like the elements of what they eat. Lisa Eberhart - I think the college student that first comes to campus, especially male students, this is just my observations, I don’t have any good data on it, Is they stay with the same behaviors they had before, but they just eat more …… (laugh) Maybe they don’t eat more they eat often, so if they eat a lot of fast food in their home of origin, they probably eat fast food here. ….. so if they had more home style entrees and items they might gravitates more towards those. I don’t see a lot of concern about health and wellness Sean - Ok Lisa Eberhart - With college age guys, except for the ones that get into bodybuilding or want to lose weight or just want to get in shape in general, especially ROTC types, or where they are kinda compelled to be a certain body weight, their very interested in what they are eating. Guys like technology, you know, uh . . cause we have IPads at every dining hall, where they can click on and find out the calories, we also QR codes at the point of sale, where they can scan it with their phones they can get the calories, protein, carbohydrates, fat.

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But I don’t know if that have much impact on behavior. . maybe it does?. We link our foods here at state with Myfitpal which is an app. .that calculates for you specifically so you put your height, weight, your age, your gender and it calculates the calories you eat to maintain your body weight, to lose weight or gain weight whatever you put in is your parameters. And uh, then you put your and put your exercise in and it calculates amount what shows you where you’re at as far as your goals are. . .for calories, and where you’re at for their Healthy general healthy diet goals. So you know so if your way above your fat allotment, or way above your carb or protein allotment it tells you or if you have met those things. But as far as Guys, in general hum, I don’t Gardner - Do students come in here have meeting with you? Eberhart - Yeah, counseling, and the majority of those , I would say, all are guys, that are athletically driven, they want to improve their athletic performance, or weight loss, sometimes when they first come to college if they have been overweight as teen they sometimes they think I want to try to lose weight, sometimes their family of origin wasn’t a good place to try to lose weight, maybe they had some other weight issue there. Some of them will come because they have to because they’ve developed diabetes or high blood pressure or something or they’ve just discovered allergies or food allergies and they don’t know what to eat, that’s the majority of the guys I see. Gardner - Cool . . . So what other roles or functions do you do here on campus, because I know they do a lot here at NC state, it like just blew my mind. Eberhart - I just. . . .this . . .I just gave a talk for the Department of Nutrition, so here’s this is what. . . . .so basically we do a lot of nutrition stuff here, a lot

Interview #2 - Dr. Sarah Ash, Professor, Nutrition North Carolina State University Sean Gardner - I am Sean Gardner a Master Graphic Design student and my thesis revolves around nutrition and the college age and where design can intervene. so if its a system or some type of application or computer program. So far I have talked to the nutritionist on campus and reading literature.

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Dr. Sarah Ash - Which nutritionist did you talk to? Gardner - Lisa Dr. Ash- Lisa Eberhart Gardner - yeah. And reading literature about this age range. So that what I am doing. Can you give me a little background about yourself? Dr. Ash - Sure, So I’ve been teaching here since 1988. Teaching. came here just to teach. I teach the large intro class that has about 300-400 students per semester, then I teach a variety of other classes. Then 1998, have been the coordinator for the nutrition undergraduate program. . . .creating structured guided reflections for experiential opportunities for students. Gardner - Cool. . . . . So What are some of the challenges of teaching good nutrition for student at undergraduate level? Dr. Ash - Ahhh, i think the two basic challenges are the access to opportunities to put into practice what you learn and then just do they have the motivation to do it. Is it top on their priority . For many students it isn’t and for those it is just hard to put it into practice what they learn. I think its getting better here on the campus. I think Lisa has done a good job with Dining services. She will tell you that a lot of students just want Chicken nuggets and french fries. Gardner - That’s true, I was shocked at the things that they were on this campus. When I was undergraduate it was here’s the salad bar. . . .So one of your colleagues said you do journals with students at the undergraduate level. Dr. Ash - You mean food diaries? Gardner - Yeah. Gardner - So is that, is that the kind . . . . What the kind of information ? Dr. Ash - So I do that in my intro class that’s a required project for the student each semester and we have a computer program that analyze it. Then they have a series of questions they have to answer about what they learned about the quality of their diets. It is eye opening for the students. Many of them discover that they like fruit but they ate no fruit. That is probably one of the major themes. A lot students just do want pay extra for this type of food. We have these

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conversations off an on where your priorities are. Where students will think nothing of going to a bar and paying $7 for a drink or pay an extra .50 cent for orange juice versus a coke. . . . .its just a completely different kind of mine set. Gardner - Are there any other tools beside the journals that help students track this information. Dr. Ash - There are a lot of apps, you are probably aware of these apps, then I am actually surprise students use those apps on a good day. I see it come and go, but its not uncommon for a student who hear about this project that they have to do in class, come up to me after calls and show me this app on their phones, and they want to see if they can transfer the information. . . . . .Which the answer unfortunately is no. but, Ahu, What I think is interesting there is that I’m seeing more and more males interesting than back in the 80’s or 90’s. there are a lot more guys interested in a positive way, for females in the past its usually been around restricting calories and trying to lose weight, so being aware of what their eating often times was done in an unhealthy context. Gardner - Yeah. Dr. Ash - I know that there are eating disorders with males, I know clinicians are seeing more of that. What I see more is guys interested in having the healthiest diet possible to maximize their fitness goals. Gardner - So its more related to their fitness Dr. Ash - Right, they want to make sure they get enough protein, they may be interested in their weight but they’re more interested in their lean tissue and being able to engage in the physical activity they want to. So I would say for them its a little more positive, but I’m sure some of that can evolve into problems but, they tend to have, surprisingly have good diets. Gardner - Yeah, that interesting, are there or is this a period from high school and college where they are really experimenting food or ? Dr. Ash - That I really couldn’t you because I don’t ask those type of questions, ahum, so I don’t know how long they’ve been engaged in that kind of activity. Gardner - When do you think people start understanding their nutrition and food behavior? is it at an early age or does it become more defined when they are

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a little bit older? Dr. Sarah Ash - I’m not sure. . . . .I’m not sure it’s necessarily early age related. My guess its more life related, something happens to you like an opportunity to do a food diary or you are forced to do something to become more aware of your diet. Or you become ill or a close family member is diagnosed with a condition that is diet related. I do have students you have families that have strong histories of whatever it might be. . . .heart disease, diabetes, so they are already thinking about their diets. because of that. then there are other students that just don’t care, they never care, I don’t see that as a . . . . . I know that in the past, I haven’t kept up with the literature but maybe 10 or 15 years ago relative to triggers for making dietary change of course you know and have learned behavior change around anything but especially around diet is very very challenging. Gardner - Yes, Dr. Sarah Ash - Ahu, I know in the past there has been some literature that suggested that for men behavior change was most likely to be triggered, most common trigger was some kind of health even, like a heart attack. So you live your life drinking and smoking then you have a heart attack then suddenly you get religion and start thinking about your diet. then for women triggers tend to be more emotional like a divorce or going to their high school reunions something like that. I don’t know what the literature says these days. Gardner - We were talking about men but are females more aware of their nutrition or is it equal? Dr. Ash - I would say that women are more interested in nutrition, continue to be more interested, when I look across the number of nutrition majors we have, because the majority of them are women. So I would say their interest in the topic is greater. How much of that translate into their behavior . . . . Women. . .there certainly more women concerned about nutrition but the driver for women historically and continues to be weight control. To me one the misconceptions it that women are more health conscience, often hear that, it is true women go to doctor more with the intent to engage in preventive behaviors but some of that is related to childbirth and forced to go to the doctor. But I think the other issue for women is health conscience really means weight conscience. Therefore those two things are not synonymous, as I said before women are managing their weight in very unhealthy ways. Gardner - So should someone looking at nutrition target males and women differently? Dr. Ash - I can’t. . . .I’m not sure that I know the answer to that question, that would be the sort

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of thing, then again its possible that there is literature out there, I can’t say that I’ve looked at the literature. I know that, I assume they published on this, but several years ago an institutional effort, I can’t remember where interventions took place just one university or multiple they came together wrote a grant for a couple million dollars from the USDA to develop some programming around improving the quality of college students diet and it was pretty much a failure. I can tell you the names of some of the people you might search. Gardner - ok Dr. Ash - Adrianne White, I believe that’s how she spells her name. Ahu, Kendra Kettleman, I think she is at the university of south dakota, at any rate, if you have any trouble finding it just let me know. Gardner - ok Dr. Ash - But I just went to a presentation they gave, I don’t remember the degree they, sounded like they really hadn’t done their homework ahead of time. They hadn’t done the kind of focus group work probably necessary to figure out what resonants, are you familiar with the term social marketing? Gardner - Kind of Dr. Ash - The concept of social marketing is you take the principles of marketing and apply for public good. . . .social good rather than for profit, and I think that the public health has been slowed to really adopt those principles of marketing. . .what really does resonant? I could come up with some potential theories but I don’t think you really know until you talk them out and its always amazing to me what you learn from those kinds of experiences that you would never had thought,particularly given your own lens that you look at things. We look at things from an age, generational lens, a cultural lens, a gender lens and the public health interventions are litter with examples where you have pick your category of people, white middle-class women making assumptions about what all these other people might think about something. One of the most recent examples I find really fascinating is this concept of calorie posting on fast food menu boards and of course New York city implemented several years ago and a study came out a year after it went into effect to see what kind of impact

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it had on purchasing behavior and it was one study but researchers found that if you look at the fast food restaurants in particularly in limited resource neighborhoods, you found . . . .it was a controlled number and in a sampling of New Jersey, particularly in hispanic males, they consumed more calories. Something that had not occurred to anybody, maybe people would see this as a way to see how much more can I get for my money. Dr. Ash - We of course in the public health, think people would be just horrified at the number of calories in a whatever, and I should get this lower calorie thing. This is just one of thousands of examples where it just didn’t occur to people that someone else might take that and come out with a completely different perspective. Gardner - Are there any tools or models to help people to understand their nutrition? Dr. Ash - Well, you know there’s all these apps, phone apps, there are websites, but many of them are not free and then there’s myplate.gov, or choosemyplate. gov the offical name, and of course like health.gov webiste its kind of clunky. . . .(laughs). . . .who could have predicted it? . . . .its a shame because it is free and has lots of great information, it has a tracker, a diet tracker feature that you can use although it is kind of clunky. When I have students use it as a homework exercise I always tell them you can not do this at the last minute because it will crash, am sorry. . before warned . . you need to give yourself enough time a couple of shots at making the website work. Of course nobody has heard of it, but in theory, its actually pretty cool because you can type in foods into the database and it has this cool little visual that shows you how many servings of grain, fruit, vegetables, meats you are accumulating and it keeps track of what it considers extra calories, like sodium, saturated fat, I’ve know people who has used it to lose weight but you have to be patient and you have to be dedicated. That’s the thing, there all these tools but first you have to want to use them. Gardner - Yeah, feels like adding all this stuff for behavior with no change. Dr. Ash - Yeah, what’s interesting about that website is it was, this is the challenge in working with people ugh. . so you know the old pyramid, the old food guide pyramid?

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Gardner - Yeah, Dr. Ash - When the USDA, every five years or so, they look to see if they need to make changes or update, whatever, they conduct focus groups asking what they like about it or what they don’t like and people find fault with it and they are always deflecting responsibility. . . .its not my fault, its your fault because you have this lousy visual that doesn’t help, they complain that the pyramid was too complicated, didn’t understand it, people would say just tell me what to eat. I don’t want to have to read this, just tell me what to eat and that happened at the same time the internet becoming mature and so the USDA folks said ok, we’ll just tell people what to eat, like fad diets tell you what to eat. So they created this website and people have to go to this website. So if people don’t go to the website what is their excuse, they’ll say the website takes too much time, too much effort. So what you want us to drop food from the sky, what do you want us to do? So its a challenge, people need to be motivated. Vast majority of people don’t put value on putting in the time. They’ll spend their money on other things. When you comparing the US to Europeans, we want food to be fast and quick and cheap and that is the conflict. Gardner - OK, that’s all the questions I have, do you want to add anything else. Dr. Ash - I don’t think so Gardner - Well, I really appreciate the time and thanks for rescheduling

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Dining Hall Observations 7.1.3 In each observation, note the time and Dining Hall as part of the reference. Additionally, take pictures of the environment, if possible, as well as student behaviors and portions. Write a general observation of the experience, such as if the Dining Hall was crowded and if it was staffed appropriately to help make food choices easier.

The first observation will examine the Dining Hall food environment.

MONDAY, OCTOBER 28TH - EVENING 6:30 P.M., DINNER Students used dinner time to meet with friends or see other people. They paid for food and either got in line or claimed a table. Students would conduct a sweep to see what kind of food was offered for the day. Most students went for the pizza and chicken station. The fresh food did not have a line at the time. The salad bar offered a lot of different vegetables on that day. My observation was that this appeared to be prime dinner time. It was easy to determine what food was meat-centered or vegetable-centered based on food signage. HOW EFFICIENT IS THE LAYOUT OF THE ENVIRONMENT? The layout is overwhelming and confusing. Students are greeted by the cashier, and from that point the layout spans in many directions. Students would either find a seat and “claim” it or go straight to find foods of choice. There was no signage directing students where to go from one point to the other. In terms of creating food behaviors, there was a small area where the food was presented— buffet style. The layout of the food is determined by how it’s cooked. The pizzas are placed in front of the oven they are prepared in; the burgers are placed in front of the grill they are cooked on; and the pasta is placed in front of the cooktop. There are three sections for food and drink choices: foods that are prepared, foods that students prepare themselves, and drinks. The foods that students prepare, i.e., a salad, are set at the front of the buffet. The drink section has soft drink products, PowerAde, and then, seemingly as an afterthought, water. For dessert, there is a separate station for ice cream, brownies, etc. IS THERE AN ENTRYWAY INTO THE DINING HALL THAT EXPLAINS THE PROCESS? ARE THERE SUFFICIENT FOOD STATIONS? There isn’t any kind of signage that directs flow around the cafeteria. When individuals enter the cafeteria past the cashier, they are on their own to figure out the surroundings. There are sufficient food stations, unless you do not eat meat. For non-meat eaters, there isn’t a variety of choices.

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WHAT IS BEING SERVED? On the day of this observation, pizza, burgers, tacos, fried chicken and fish, salads, and cereal were served. IS THE SIGNAGE APPROPRIATELY DISPLAYED AT ALL CENTRAL POINTS? Are there maps for restrooms, fire exits, etc.? When you enter, are there directions? Are there details noted to avoid confusion? How is the lighting/ colors, etc.? Are there daily menus with calorie counts or notes about nutrients? There is no signage anywhere for directions. There are no maps for restrooms or directions to service lines. However, there are clearly marked signs for fire exits. There aren’t any details to avoid confusion, but there is one warning sign for those who may have peanut allergies. The menu items are labeled with QR Codes that require students to have smartphones in order to scan and display nutritional facts. It seems an afterthought and is a passive way to reach those concerned about such information. This also is a concern in terms of portion control considering the buffet style. Students can literally have all they can eat, or not, based on personal discretion. HOW IS INFORMATION DISPLAYED? IS THERE USE OF KISOS OR DIGITAL DISPLAYS? WHAT TECHNOLOGY IS BEING USED? QR Codes and signs on the wall communicate where the food is from, and information on the napkin holders displays the “Fresh Start” as well as how to access a dietitian.

The second observation will view student behaviors.

TUESDAY, OCTOBER 29TH - MORNING 9:00 A.M. BREAKFAST Monday’s observation concentrated on what students should eat. Today the food decision process seemed to be at a slow pace. There were no lines, and students did not feel guilty about being in the way to see what was offered. Many students ate by themselves and had homework or their phones next to them. WHAT IS THE GENERAL STUDENT MAKE-UP? IS IT MORE FEMALES OR MALES? More males were present at this time. Students were eating quickly and then leaving the Dining Hall.

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WHAT STATIONS ARE BEING VISITED BY EACH GENDER? IS THERE SOCIAL INTERACTION? When viewing the food, students checked the various food stations and then made their choice. At this time, there was little social interaction between individuals. The usual greetings were exchanged, such as hello or a head nod. At this time, there were more males at the Dining Hall. WHAT PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS EAT ALONE? ARE THEY STUDYING OR INTERACTING WITH A MOBILE DEVICE? ARE THEY READING OR STUDYING? During the morning observation, there were more students who ate alone. Most of them were either on a mobile device or reading. DO THEY TAKE TOO MUCH TIME TO DECIDE WHAT THEY WANT TO EAT? DO THEY SEEM TO KNOW WHAT THEY WANT TO EAT BEFORE GETTING TO A FOOD STATION? While observing students’ selection of food in the morning, it appeared to be based on visual walk around to all food stations before making a choice. Student seemed to think a little more before making a choice. At dinner time, most students talked to friends and made decisions quickly. COULD YOU DETERMINE IF STUDENTS MADE FOOD CHOICES BASED ON MONETARY, FOOD QUALITY, CONVENIENCE (WHAT IS QUICK), OR WHAT SMELLED GOOD (SENSORY)? Students seemed to already know what they wanted. These factors (monetary, food quality, etc.) were not a factor, in that these food items are served repeatedly through the course of the week. DID STUDENTS ASK QUESTIONS OF THE SERVERS REGARDING FOOD PREP OR NUTRIENTS? No.

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The third observation will view student portions and set-up.

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 31ST - NOON LUNCH Students seem to be between classes or finishing their day. Students came in with backpacks on and had more items with them. This observation appeared to follow the same general observation as the student dinner dining experience, which was more social in nature. ARE THERE SERVERS AT EACH STATION? IS IT SELF-SERVE? It is a buffet style, serve what you like. DO STUDENTS GO BACK FOR SECONDS? IF SO, WHICH STUDENT GROUP GOES BACK FOR SECONDS MORE OFTEN, FEMALES OR MALES? A few males would go back and get seconds. Females tend to eat what they have. IS THERE MUCH WASTE OR LEFTOVERS ON PLATES AFTER EATING? Plates would not have that much remaining. It appeared that students finished what was on their plate. IS THERE GREAT AMOUNT OF FOOD AND DRINK CHOICES? It was really difficult to find water. There is a large amount of soda from which to choose. Students can also get juice at any point. ARE THERE HEALTHY FOOD CHOICES? ARE THE HEALTHY CHOICES SCARCE? There is an adequate amount of healthy choices since the school provides for vegetarians and vegans. WHAT COULD THE DINING HALL DO BETTER TO MAKE FOOD CHOICES FOR STUDENTS?

The fourth observation will view SUB.

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 27TH - NOON LUNCH The new Talley student center offers five new food sections available to students, as well as a broader range of other customers. Specifically, the commercial food offerings were Jason’s Deli, Red Sky Pizza Company, Tuff’s Diner, Los Lobos and Telly Market. Each one offers a specialized food branding. The age demographics range is broader than the Dining Hall. There was a mix of younger and older

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customers. Once again, it was a time for people to Meet Up with friends during their time on campus. Some people were not eating or brought their own lunch. People by themselves would have some kind of mobile device or reading on which to focus.

The fifth observation will view SUB touchscreen displays.

MONDAY, NOVEMBER 4 - 10:00 A.M., MORNING The touchscreen system was still down.

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