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ALBERTI SUMMER 2012

PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN


CONTENTS

ARCHITECTURAL & DESIGN TERMS 5 SUNLIGHT 9 WATER 11 WIND 13 NATIVE PLANT & ANIMAL SPECIES 15 HEALTHY SOIL 17


ARCHITECTURAL SCALE: created at a proportion to actual size; examples: 1/16�=1’ architectural scale is what we conventionally associate with studio

ELEVATION: a scale drawing that shows the exterior view of an object or structure without perspective

ENVIRONMENT: (1) the surrounding area; examples: St. Louis, Missouri, USA, Earth, Solar System (can take on several scales) (2) urban environment: a specific type of area characterized by higher population density and vast human features

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: the process of addressing surrounding environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products

EXPLORATION: the process of thinking of and trying new ideas without the fear of failure

environmental design goes beyond just the concerns of nature into humanity, politics, economy, etc.


‘ “

FULL-SCALE: created at the actual size; examples of full- scale objects: doorknob, cellphone

FOOT (measurement): a unit of standard measurement; denoted by an apostrophe: ‘

HEALTHY COMMUNITIES: A neighborhood, town, or other area that promotes the physical, mental, and emotional health of its citizens through the designs and practices of the places and organizations

IMAGINATION: the action of forming new ideas, images, or concepts of outside objects not present to the senses

INCH: a unit of standard measurement; denoted by a quotation mark: “

ARCHITECTURAL & DESIGN TERMS 5


INSPIRATION: the process of being mentally stimulated to do or feel something, especially to do something creative it is important to discover what inspires you

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE: the art and practice of designing the outdoor environment

MODEL: a scaled three dimensional representation of an object or structure

MODULE: a module is a standardized part or independent unit that can be used to construct a more complex structure

PERSPECTIVE: a picture drawn in a way that depicts the dimension of an object or structure

PLAN: a scale drawing of a structure that shows the walls, door openings, windows, etc.; a type of section drawing that cuts parallel to the ground plane


PREFABRICATION: also known as “prefab� is the manufacture of sections of a building at a factory so they can be easily and rapidly assembled at the building site SCALE: (1) a value to proportion measurements (2) the size of an object or structure ex: these circles change scale

SECTION: a scale drawing that is created by making a cut through an object or structure along a designated axis

SITE PLAN: a drawing that depicts the overall context of an object or structure; often with an accompanying scale for reference SPIRITUALITY: a sense or state of mind that pertains to the supernatural essence of humanity and nature; examples: religion, music, creativity, self-reflection

SUSTAINABLE: able to be maintained at a certain rate or level by conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources

ARCHITECTURAL & DESIGN TERMS 7


UNDERSTANDING SUNLIGHT

SUMM

BASICS ABOUT SUNLIGHT: -The sun raises in the east -The sun sets in the west -The intensity of sunlight changes with the season -Uncontrolled sunlight can harmfully effect indoor conditions

ER In the summer the sun has a greater angle of rotation about the northern hemisphere, thus in St. Louis, sun is a lot more direct. This causes smaller shadows and shade, in comparison to winter. Sunlight from the south is harsh during the summer, which is why it is usually blocked out of structures. Instead, we harness indirect sunlight from the north.

The path of the sun during a typical summer day


ISSUE 3 variable levels of light and has dense cloud cover over

90% of the sky. It is generally three times brighter ewsletter by InformeDesign. A Web site for overhead (zenith) than at the horizon. Because direct sun is not present, the brightness of this type of sky depends on sun position. Generally, higher daylight illuminance occurs at higher solar altitudes.

usedwww.informedesign.umn.edu during analysis of performance (see references). This list is a good place to start at the schematic design and human behavior research. design phase with appropriate refinements during the design development and construction documents phases.

Implications

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ight in Buildings

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—Avoid direct sunlight and skylight unless needed In the winter the sun is much The partly cloudy sky may have cloud cover that for thermal comfort. www.informedesign.umn.edu less intense because it has ranges from heavy to light and is similar to the clear —Bounce daylight create indirect daylight. the Le Corbusier so toclearly identified a smaller angle rotation. sky at one moment and the partly of cloudy sky the —Bring daylight in from above to obtain deeper penimportance of light in architecture when duction next. Most designers do not base decisions on the etration. Typically southern sun during he expressed the point that, faces, and provide more than one primary partly cloudy because is constantly —Filter daylight into buildings. ghout history, daylight has been achanging the sky winter is itharnessed within Design Strategies Using Daylight and therefore, too variable. —Use sustainable design principles. lighting zone. “Architecture is the masterly, Conceptually, daylighting can be distributed tocorrect intestructures forinlighting purposes ry source of lighting buildings, —Maximize ceiling height to gain better light distririor space through openings from the side, from the because less burned harsh than and in magnificent play of volumes brought —Clerestories are high windows with sill he Design Criteria bution. emented originallyit is with greater than seven feet above the floor an top, or a combination of the two. Building type, thetosummer. The following criteria generally apply most day—When appropriate, separate view glass from dayin light ...” emphasizing that together excellent strategies for task illumination on height, aspect ratio and massing, dominant climatic andlighted morebuildings. recently with electrical In all cases, specific issues about light glass. zontal and vertical surfaces. Glass higher on conditions, site obstructions, adjacent buildings, and “...the history whether of architecture is the hisy. Before supplementclimate,daylight geographicwas location, building type, and —Determine daylight is primary or suppleThe path of the sun during a typical winter day into a generally provides deeper penetration other issues most often drives choice of strategy. client preferences may influence of mentary lighting design.for light.” (Le tory of thein struggle replaced with electric light the in importance the —Light shelves provide shading for middle wi each item. Since LEED certification is of increasing —External control strategies offer best light and heat positions and re-direct sunlight from high po Throughout history side lighting has been a primary Corbusier, 1989). 9th-century, consideration of good importance (http:/ /www.usgbc.org/), architects and control. Combined strategies of external and interwindows. Light shelves, which separate view way of introducing daylight into buildings. Besides designers should review the credits allowed for the day- sun is nalan controls are alsoway practical and arelight becoming ht strategies was essential. As we Controlling natural light from effective to bring into a structure and from daylight glass, are reduce most effective on a b supplying light, side lighting can provide view, create more common. This article ing's southern exposure and under clear orientation, allow conthe need for artificial light. ed the mid-20th-century, electric —Building geometry and interior space planning Light shelves may be external, internal, or a nectivity to out-ofs u m mshould a r i zpromote, es rather than preclude, distribution supplanted daylight in buildings in bination of external and internal. Depth of sh doors, and allow ventiof of daylight. the use daydepends on visual needs, orientation, latitude lation during less harsh cases. Fortunately, during the last —Locate the maximum number of spaces near daywindow height. times of the year. light in builder of the 20th-century and early light through building massing and configuration. —Borrowed light as a concept allows sharing o —Create low contrast between window frame and ings with focus of this century, architects and to adjacent spaces when the geometry and Daylight openings and adjacent walls to reduce glare and improve the of perimeter spaces permit. Corridor lig external controls should on goals, cliners have recognized the imporvision experience. Splaying openings inward can gained through translucent partitions, glass b vary by compass direcmate increase and distribution of daylight into rooms. and value of introducing natural or glass transoms represents a viable con tion since each façade —Integrate building systems, including artificial weather, sky Usually borrowed light will supplement or re of a building, based on nto buildings. lighting with daylighting through control systems. electric light during daylight hours when il orientation, receives difconditions, nance are low. Security and fering amounts of daysidelight exterior fins ceiling finsrequirements move to change Unidentified church in Helsinki, Finland (sidelight detail; splayed) design criteria, safety influence feasibility of borrowed light. ght can provide aopenings welcome and light openings throughout the manipulate lightAalto’s control over sunlight Academic Bookstore Will Bruder’s Burton Bar Library, day and across seasons. and strategies mic contribution to the human Phoenix, AZ (sidelighting and When daylight penetrates a building from abov Location of openings in external shading detail) for daylighting design. Useful reference ceiling plane or is concentrated in the roof, Where Research Informs Design® ence in buildings and, as demonwalls can be low, midsources also cited. referred to as top lighting. Top lighting can pr dle, or highare depending on desired distribution and d in recent studies on schools and greater freedom of source placement to9achieve structural and wall system restrictions. Common sales environments, can impact uniform illumination, takes advantage of high strategies are: Goals for Daylighting surfaces and other architectural elements to di n performance (Heshong Mahone

W

IN

CONTROLLING SUNLIGHT

SUNLIGHT


Water is much more useful than just fountains or pools... Rain water can be prevented from going into the sewer, and kept on site for sustainable practices.

USES FOR

C

O ED W A ECT T E

AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION LANDSCAPE PUBLIC PARKS COOLING WATER FOR POWER PLANTS AND OIL REFINERIES - PROCESSING WATER FOR MILLS, PLANTS, ENERGY - TOILET FLUSHING - CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES, EX: CONCRETE MIXING - ARTIFICIAL LAKES

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an example of a rainwater harvesting system

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COLLECTING (HARVESTING) RAINWATER Sloped roofs can be a means to collect water with a gutter and barrel system. The barrel can be above or below ground. This water should be filtered before it is used for human consumption.

Flat roofs can serve as a surface for green roofs, which hold plants and vegetation in a creative manner. The rainwater naturally waters the plants. These plants could serve as food for the occupants of the structure.

in addition to being good for nature, green roofs can reduce heating and cooling costs for the owner

WATER 11


WIND AS ENERGY Wind, like water and sun, can be captured and harnessed as energy. Typically wind turbines, shown on the left, are used to transfer wind into usable energy for objects and structures. Wind energy offers a pollution free, infinitely sustainable form of energy that can help to reduce our reliance on traditional fossil-based power generation.


ST. LOUIS

IN THE WIND BLOWS FROM THE NORTHWEST IN THE WINTER AND SOUTHEAST IN THE SUMMER.

WIND AS VENTILATION

STACK VENTILATION

CROSS VENTILATION

THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE AIR INTAKE AND OUTTAKE FOR VENTILATION SHOULD BE GREATER THAN 20 FT AND LESS THAN 40 FT.

Cross ventilation relies on wind to force cool exterior air into the building through an inlet (window, door, etc.) and to force warm interior air out of the building through an outlet (window, door, etc.).

>20’ <40’

WIND 13


The Ashrae Climate Zone Map categorizes climates for native plants and animals

MARINE

DRY

MOIST

COOL

PLANTS

A N D

A

NI

MAL

S?

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-They grow easier because they are in the correct climate -Less maintenance -Foreign plants & animals can damage the location they are placed in

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Missouri plants are generally characterized by a prairie environment. Native plants are extraordinarily adaptive because of the extreme change in season from winter to summer. The majority of native plants are grasses or wild flowers. These plants serve as the primary food source for native animal species. Thus, they are highly dependent on another and extremely important to native environments.

WE USE N AT DO Y

IV

H

WARM


NATIVE PLANTS OF ST. LOUIS & MISSOURI SH

G

P

B RU

SS RA

E ER

N

T

A NI

E RE

S

woody plants with several main stems arising at or near the ground

ES

ninebark

golden currant

spicebush

snowberry

big bluestem

little bluestem

switchgrass

prairie dropseed

cardinal flower

goldenrod

coreopsis

culverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s root

ginko

american smoketree

appalachian redbud

short plants with long narrow leaves, grown wild or on pasture

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plants with long life spans, beyond two years of growth

woody perennial plants, typically having a single trunk flowering dogwood

NATIVE PLANT & ANIMAL SPECIES 15


HEALTHY SOIL IS...

-Rich in organic matter, insects, earthworms, air, water and nutrients -Required for healthy, long-living vegetation -One of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most vital components for food production

Healthy soil is made up of four major components: 1. Mineral Particles 2. Air 3. Water 4. Organic Matter

WHY IS HEALTHY SOIL IMPORTANT? The quality of soil impacts: -Soil productivity -Food quality and safety -Human and animal health -Environmental quality


What can you do to encourage healthy soil? -Maintain moisture with watering -Moderate fertilization -Aeration -Mow grass -Rotate vegetation -Incorporate animal Hummus & Decomposting Plants manures Topsoil- rich in minerals, air, and water -Compost organic material

F O S ER Y L A I L O E S H Y T H T L EA H

Subsoil- less rich, lower parts may contain clay

Bedrock- solidified minerals and organic material

an example of a compost bin with leaves and other natural and â&#x20AC;&#x153;organicâ&#x20AC;? material

HEALTHY SOIL 17

Alberti Summer 2012 | Principles of Environmental Design  
Alberti Summer 2012 | Principles of Environmental Design  

This book was created for the Alberti: Architecture for Young People Program at Washington University in St. Louis as a guide to help studen...

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