designing dredge studio: toledo pennsylvania state university department of landscape architecture fall 2012 instructor: sean burkholder
Department of Landscape Architecture College of Arts and Architecture
special thanks to: Joe Cappel and the Toledo Port Authority Kristin Gardner and Hull and Associates Sandy Bihn and the Lake Erie Water Keeper / Toledo Lighthouse Society Robin Whitney and the City of Toledo document prepared by: Sean Burkholder Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture firstname.lastname@example.org in collaboration with: students enrolled in PSU LARCH 414 Studio Fall 2012
image: toledo port authority
The United States Army Corps of Engineers and its associated contractors annually dredge over 4 million cubic yards of material from Great Lakes navigation channels. Half of this material is placed within confined disposal areas (CDF) while the other half is open-water disposed or re-used for other purposes such as habitat creation or as a supplemental construction material. This process thus converts over half of the material dredged from the Great Lakes back into new land in some form; unfortunately at first glance this newly configured land is much less productive and valuable than its non-eroded past life. These undervalued sediment-scapes are however some of the most dramatic and biologically diverse landscapes in the city and are laden with potential if correctly considered. Of that 4 million cubic yards of dredged material, about 1/4 of it is pulled from the harbor in the city of Toledo, Ohio. The USACE map on the facing page shows the 20-mile federally-managed shipping channel cut into three pieces to fit on the page. The USACE map below indicate the critical condition present in Toledo, in terms of quantity and placement options. With a depth rarely exceeding 10 feet, the western basin of Lake Erie require Dredged Material Management constant management in order to provide adequate shipping draft depths. The complexity in moving this large volume material is compounded by the speculated (but highly likely) environmental issues associated with its Currentof Conditions The GLNS is facing many material management challenges. Figure 10 below open placement withindredged the lake. While many other states within the Great Lakes Basin do not permit open water illustrates the current status of dredged material management at each commercial disposal, The state of Ohio and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have established several agreements that harbor on the Great Lakes. Harbors designated as â€œredâ€? have dredged material permit this placement while general concerns of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. It is management issues that could limit satisfying the ability of the USACE to maintain federal navigation channels and therefore channel availability within five years. optimal, Yellow harbors assumed that while restrict this arrangement is not ecological it is the only feasible method of addressing the would be affected within 10 years, and green harbors are expected to have no pressing large volume of material within the navigation channel. While open water disposal may always be a reality for the issues within the next ten years. Additional details on harbors with a critical dredged material managementare status are includedbeing in the CDF Fact to Sheets Appendixit.D. city, alternatives constantly sought minimize
DREDGED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT STATUS
Figure 10: The dredged material management status for all GLNS commercial harbors has been identified by the GLNS Team. Harbor status was determined by factors including, but not limited to, remaining CDF capacity, annual dredging requirements and material disposal options; Cleveland and Toledo are cross-hatched to indicate the criticality of DMM issues in those harbors. image: u.s. army corps of engineers
The studio itself was broken into two projects. The first of which (Project 1) studied the site scale interventions that would be made possible with a large influx of dredge material. The redevelopment of parks and residential neighborhoods with new dredge-infused topography was the primary outcome of many projects. While this scale of projects served a significant social function, even the largest of projects could only manage a year or two of dredge material before reaching capacity. The second project of the studio, was aimed at dealing with much larger volumes of material by considering the entire Maumee Bay.
While issues of dredge management were a primary topic of focus, there were many interrelated issues. The most important of these issues is the environmental health of Lake Erie. As the most ecologically productive of the Great Lakes, it is also the most shallow. This condition makes it very susceptible to ecological stresses such as pollution and invasive species. Another factor in the Maumee Bay is the historic Toledo Harbor Lighthouse. This structure was built in 1904 and exists as a valuable piece of cultural infrastructure. Its location also marks the north extent of what is considered the Maumee Bay. Many of the projects looked to take on both ecological issues and incorporate the Harbor Lighthouse. The conditions in Toledo are not fantasy. The same reality is true for the proposed projects. The situation is growing desperate and with it, the list of possible considerations becomes more fantastical. New island CDFs, submerged and emerged habitat restoration ares (HRU), upland farmland placement, existing habitat nourishment, abandoned mine disposal via rail and material recycling have all been considered with complete seriousness. While the management of this material appears to be placing an incredible burden on the region, an opportunity could be discovered in this process to completely reconsider the relationship between dredge and the city. In no place is this more possible than in the city of Toledo.
image: u.s. army corps of engineers
image: sean burkholder
image: sean burkholder
Gabriella Salvemini [independence park] Project Statement As dredging continues in the city of Toledo, there is a need for beneficial use of the abundant silts and clays taken out of the Maumee river and bay. Toledo is abundant in green space, and lacking verticality in the landscape. The purpose of this design is to introduce monumental landform that can be both a public amenity and a beneficial use of dredge material. Utilizing the idea of a canyon as inaccessible landform, three monumental mounds ranging in size from 40-60 feet in height rise above the river, containing about two years’ worth of dredge material. Inaccessible habitat creation in the form of retaining wall mounds form visual landscapes; the public experience the site through recreation trails and spaces that access the verticality of the tallest mound. The space is a place for containment of dredge, new habitat, and new forms of recreation for the city. It is the hope that this design can show how dredge material can inhabit a visible area of the city and enhance a public experience that sheds positive light on dredge in the Maumee. Canyon section
10’ wide pathway
7’ 6’ segmented wall
5’ 4’ segmented wall 2’ gabion
dredge layer 1 1’
3’ gravel setting bed
steel sheet piling to retain dredge gabion walls filled with reclaimed material 1.5’
Accessibility: full Purpose: walking/running Materials: gravel base
10’ wide path highlights views to Toledo skyline, sheet pile retaining walls reflect history of the city
Public mound(s) 1
Accessibility: partial Purpose: recreation, views to skyline Materials: gabion retaining walls, dredge Amount of dredge contained: 158,336.5 y3 2
Accessibility: full Purpose: recreation, views to skyline Materials: concrete, steel I-beam support
Aesthetic mound 2
Accessibility: none Purpose: visual interest, dredge retainment Materials: sheet pile retaining walls, dredge Amount of dredge contained: 156,832.3 y3
Natural Inspiration 3
Functional mound 3
Accessibility: none Purpose: dredge containment Materials: sheet pile retaining walls, dredge Amount of dredge contained: 381,724.3 y3
Total Contained Dredge Material: 696,893.1 y3 Dewatered Dredge volume/year: 360,000 y3
Bird’s eye view
Public mound includes a 20’ high sledding hill at 20-30% slope with 10’ wide level space at top for further recreation
Toledo, OH International Park
0 62.5 125 N Scale
Mound creation Void spaces create mounds wa t abstracted
Overall dimensions Acres: 42 o ur
Height of mounds
40’ public 60’ public 40’ functional 40’ functional 40’ functional 36’ functional
40’ for combined sewer pipe
as 5’ 4’ L
60’ mound 1
40’ mound 3
tp ha se
e as st
ph 0 20 40
7 layers maximum
1 Site section
Phasing For mounds 2 and 3, utilizing sheet pile retaining walls
40’ mound 2
12’ wide walkway allows access to the 45’ elevation on the public mound, providing sweeping views of downtown Toledo and the Maumee River
One Sea Gate Building: 411’
3,750’ or 0.7 miles
Matthew Chiampi [independence park] International Park Toledo, OH
Eight billion gallons of sewage is dumped into the Maumee River and Lake Erie annually. Akron and Toledo contribute about almost 90% of that sewage pollution and Toledo itself accounts for 44%. The issue of sewage pollution and open-lake dredging are two of the main reasons for the declining of overall health of Lake Erie. Combined sewer systems are not an issue but in Toledo’s case, the problem lies in part with the combined sewer system overflow. The combined sewer transport both stormwater and sewage to eventually be treated in cdftocontainers calculations a treatment plant. When flows become too extreme for the system handle, the overflow system is initiated pumping both stormwater and sewage into the Maumee River and Lake Erie.
full containment cdf
restored wetland open recreation cdf
To help alleviate this issue, I propose tapping into existing stormwater systems and diverting it to be day-lighted 5,531,546.24 cu. ft. at International Park. This would produce a “stormwater watershed,” which would institute delineation of the surrounding context where water would be harnessed and then transported to the site. Ideally, this system would be able to incorporate dredge material by creating containers (CDF’s) for dredge material and using dredge material to contain. A folded landscape along with underground cisterns would allow for flows of 1,423,650.98 cu. ft. stormwater to slow, filter through percolation, enter holding cisterns, and re-enter the system decreasing the frequency of combined sewer overflow polluting. Entirely new combined sewer systems may contain increased amounts of stormwater but still have the 2,548,322.29 cu.budget ft. on costly infrastructure possibility to pollute through overflows. Rather than raise the city’s storwmater improvements, Toledo can utilize the existing needed process of dredging to create landscapes that filter, slow, and decrease quantities of stormwater that enter the existing system. This can transform dredge material into a highly useful resource to not only the city of Toledo, but also to Lake Erie.
3,971,973.27 cu. ft.
35,417,159.31 cu. ft.
= 48,892,652.09 cu. ft. of dredge
2 open recreation space
3 full containment
+ 1 containers
2 dump dredge
3 cap + finish
site process 1 bio-filtration
1 landscape fold = 36,541,537 cub. ft.
dredge material containers restored wetland pedestrian circulation
cdf typologies folded landscape
3 restored wetland
cs pipe + cisterns
4 light recreation
Thomas Kyd [independence park] Project Statement The 28 million dollar proposed pipeline is scheduled to be implemented in 2015. This pipeline holds a storage volume of 4.9 million gallons (24,000 cubic yards). This volume of sub terrain soil mixed with dredge material will be used to create the landscape found thought the site. These large mounds contain a total volume of 57,050 cubic yards of dredge material and will create a unique landscape that defines the constructed environment around it. The dredge mounds feature native species with pedestrian and bicyclist paths. The terrain and elevation of these paths change in a variety of patterns as a visitor moves throughout the site. The undulating mounds will also give Toledo residents a space that cannot be found anywhere around the city. This dredge material will be taken from Confined Disposal Facilities (CDFs), and trucked to the site. The proposed added commercial areas will attract additional visitors and allow for a diverse experience. Larch 414 International Park
The landscape throughout the site defines where constructed elements are found. This specific commercial building is built into a dredge mound creating a unique visual experience for visitors. The dredge mound also provides a path for visitors to follow that leads to the roof of the building which enhances the experience furthermore.
11/2/2012 Thomas Kyd
Commecial Mound & Commercial River Front The mound contains ground flora and canopy trees but it is kempt to allow pedestrians to comfortable and safely walk on the mound.
This commercial water front will attract additional visitors to the site. A unique architectural style that has similarities to existing commercial buildings will attract people to the site for not only the landscape, providing a variety of recreational activities. The added commercial building will creating a higher volume of pedestrian traffic, a more vibrant and lively atmosphere, and a diverse experience.
Commercial River Front
Serviceberry Amelanchier aborea
Basswood Tilia americana
River Birch Betula nigra
Larch 414 International Park
White Ash Fraxinus americana
Commercial Water Front
Common Rush Juncus eďŹ€usus
Red maple Acer rubra
Building Mound White Oak Quercas alba
Larch 414 International Park
Riparian buffers will contain native species of plantings that help reduce pollutants and plantings closer to the water can thrive in saturated soils. These riparian zones will provide a variety and a break from the straight path of the boardwalk.
11/2/2012 Larch 414 International Park Thomas Kyd
Boardwalk & Spiral Mound Trails found throughout the site will vary depending on slope and location. The example shown here is a walking path that moves through a raised mound. The boardwalk will serve for a passive recreation for education, relaxation, recreation, and site seeing.
Boardwalk with Mound
The spiral mound will contain ground flora for slope stabilization and to keep visitors on the designated paths. Ground flora is also found throughout all forested areas.
May-apple (Podophyllum peltatum) Solomon's-seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) Bishop's-cap (Mitella diphylla) Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense) Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens) Spring-beauty (Claytonia virginica) Cut-leaved toothwort (Cardanine concatenate) Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) White wood aster (Aster divaricatus) Wild ginger (Asarum Canadensis)
Spiral Mound Road
River Birch Betula nigra
Common Rush Juncus eďŹ€usus
Serviceberry Amelanchier aborea
Black Willow Salix nigra
Spice Bush Lindera benzoin Eastern Woodland Sedge Carex blanda
Redbud Cercis canadensis
Red maple Acer rubra
Serviceberry Amelanchier aborea
White Oak Quercas alba
Sweet Birch Betula lenta
American Beech Fagus grandifolia
Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia
Maple-leaved viburnum Viburnum acerifolium
View of Downtown
11/2/2012 Thomas Kyd
Larch 414 International Park
11/2/2012 Thomas Kyd
Design Intent The 28 million dollar proposed pipeline is scheduled to be implemented in 2015. This pipe holds a storage volume of 4.9 million gallons (24,000 cubic yards), this cut sub terrain of the pipeline volume will be mixed with dredge material in order to create the landscape found thought the site. These large mounds contain a total volume of 57,050 cubic yards of dredge material and will create a rare landscape that defines the constructed environment. The undulating mounds will also give Toledo residents a space that cannot be found anywhere around the city. This dredge material will be taken from Confined Disposal Facilities (CDFs), and trucked to the site. The added commercial areas will attract additional visitors and allow for a diverse experience.
Riparian buffer comprising of native species. These riparian areas will allow for a variety of plant species, reduction in pollution, and a diverse visual experience. Entrance path that leads to the main boardwalk. Entrance path that leads to both the bike and pedestrian paths. This path moves along a 10ft high mound with a volume of 850 cubic yards. Start of the main boardwalk that runs along the riverfront.
Existing entrance road to site. Renovated parks and recreation building. Surrounded by a 1300 cubic yard mound.
Commercial Water Front
An added architectural building design that features a restaurant in order to help attract more visitors and give an exclusive riverfront experience.
Existing commercial buildings will remain.
The largest dredge mound accompanied by a spiraling path that leads a visitor almost 30 ft above the existing grade. This elevated visual view will give the visitor a unique experience. The dredge mound has a volume of approximately 25,000 cubic yards.
Docking area will expand in order to give additional space for visitors to come by boat.
The site is defined by the landscape forms and thus constructed element revolve around the position of these forms. The existing parking lot will be utilized but 1/3 of the original parking area will be taken away.
Landscape is built around proposed buildings to create a transition of hierarchy.
Volleyball court area will be moved and downsized in order to make room for landscape features and additional commercial space. The surrounding three mounds hold a combined volume of 3500 cubic yards.
These landforms not only hold 2500 cubic yards of dredge material but are also used to create a varied topography to create an interesting change that is found no where else in Toledo.
This last commercial building is built into the landscape creating an inspirational ideology of designing within the dominant landscape. This landscape mound has a volume of approximately 2000 cubic yards.
Riparian buffers will be included along the boardwalk to create a diverse number of species, allow for proper stormwater infiltration and give a change in the boardwalk experience.
The mounds also contain native species commonly found within a northern majestic forest.
Another spiral path mound that holds 9500 cubic yards of dredge. These types of mounds contain ground flora and fauna for a more open experience, slope stabilization, and to deter visitors from diverging off the path.
Boardwalk with Mound
Existing trail head will be preserved and repaired if the pipeline has damaged it.
Connection between the main boardwalk and walking paths that move throughout the site. The remaining dredge mounds found above and below the connection consist of a combined 5000 cubic yards.
The total volume of all of the mounds found throughout the site comprises of 57,050 cubic yards of dredge material.
Forested areas will contain natural openings, allowing for a diverse set of species and a variety of experiences. This mound has a volume of 1800 cubic yards.
Existing road will change due to the landforms of the dredge material allowing for a unified hierarchy which is defined by the landscape.
As a continued threshold from the more structured commercial area decreases, the amount of dredge mounds and forested area will increase. This mound holds 4600 cubic yards.
Purposed E-3 Storage pipeline to be implemented in 2015.
Gina Montecallo [mentor drive] Urban Ecological Zones
Mentor Drive Master plan
Zone 1: Vertical Hard Surfaces
Zone Conditions: Exposure to wind and thermal stress Minimal substrate accumulation Portland cement creates more alkalinity Microclimate fluctuates Sediment/Moisture is found at the wall base South-facing walls experience harsher elements As wall degrades within and between materials, more fractures are formed, allowing to trap mineral and organic sediment, and germination of seeds. Zone Species:
Bacteria/Fungi represent pioneer colonizers Lichen/Bryophytes/Algae American bitterweed (Celastrus scandens) Woodbine (Clematis virginiana) Virginia creeper (parthenocissus quinquefolia) American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens)
Zone 2: Primary Succession
Zone Conditions: High availability of resources Quantity of leaves per unit of ground area is low Water runoff is high Biomass and detritus rapidly accumulate Pioneer species characterized by prolific seeders, fast growing, short lived, shade intolerant. Zone Species:
Andropogon gerardil (blue stem turkey grass) Chasm anthium latifolium (indianwood oat) Muhlenbergia capillaris (pink muhly) Solidago canadensis(golden rod)
Zone 3: Pavement
Zone Conditions: Vegetation depends on the rooting substrate Wider cracks simulate roadside habitats High nutrient levels from run-off Trampling compacts any substrate available Trampling disturbs and relocates substrate Zone Species: Trampling tolerant species Bryophytes adapt to high nutrient conditions Bryum argenteum (Bryum moss) Poa annua (blue grass) Sagina procumbens (birdeye pearlwort)
Zone 4: Secondary Succession
Zone Conditions: Old Field succession Has supported vegetation in the past Subtrate has remained in tact after Disturbances such as fire Highly competitive for resources
Zone Species: Vaccinium corymbosam (high-bush blueberry) Betula nigra (black birch) Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) Pinus strobus (white pine)
Zone 5: Establishing Forest
Zone Conditions: Dense, stratified canopy Shaded understory with less competition Zone Species: Quercus rubra (red oak) Acer saccharum (sugar maple) Acer rubrum (red maple) Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar)
URBAN MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES ECOLOGY Zone 2 Zone 1 Initial Site Disturbance: Demolition/ Dredge Fill
Fracturing: Speeding the degradation process of hard surfaces by creating cracks and fractures to facilitate seed deposition and plant establishment. Trampling: Occurs when people or larger animals occupy the space and exert pressure on the ground flora. Acts as a mild disturbance and helps to disperse seed for pavement vegetation. Spot Spray Herbicide: Used in the initial years of regeneration to prevent invasive species from over growing and taking control. Not a broadcast application, rather applied in specific areas where needed.
YEA YEAR AR
Rotational Mowing: Used in Zone 3 and performed biannually. Zone 3 is subdivided into 3 plots. Each year a new plot is mown in early spring (before bird nesting) and late summer (after bird nesting). This maintains vegetation communities in various stages of growth and promotes biodiversity. Continuous Mowing: Used in Zone 2 for aesthetic purpose and path maintenance. Zone 2 is mowed every few weeks to maintain order where it is needed. Prescribed Burning: Performed every 5-7 years, using Point Source Fire for its precise method, which is necessary in this confined area. Line backing fire is ignited across the downwind side of the site. A line of spots is then ignited at a specified distance upwind of the backing fire. Encourages woodland plant regrowth which is eaten by deer.
Site Perspective In Year 5
Mentor Drive Section
[Phragmites australis] Invasive grasses arriving from the new dredge seed bank
[Andropogon gerardil] Native grasses competing with the invasives in different foundation plots
Fractured asphalt for grasses to establish
Brick foundation used to organize and subdivide the site
16548.50 ft3 of dredge material was used to fill the 10ft deep basements
Emma Hahn [mentor drive] Poor infrastructure coupled with extreme issues of vacancy has encouraged the city of Toledo to consider new strategies for the Mentor Drive site.
Mentor Drive Jeep Site [6 blocks]
Joe E. Brown Park [2 blocks] Mount Carmel Cemetary [6 blocks]
Located in close proximity to a number of sizable recreational spaces, the construction of traditional park space within the site does not seem fit.
Mentor Drive Site
> Poor infrastructure
> Unoccupied Houses 
> Vacant Lots 
Vacant structure mitigation strategies
Mentor Drive as an Urban Adventure Park
The site manages existing structure in four ways.
Issues of past use and living memory within the context of the neighborhood must be considered alongside present and continuing issues of vacancy and the management of dredge material within the broader context of the city of Toledo. The proposed design of an urban adventure park aims to exploit the existing structural typologies present on site while distorting the landscape through the use of dredge material, thus managing concerns at both levels and creating a space relevant to both site and region.
Dredge material landfrom manipulation
The primary strategy, the removal of all existing form, incorporates the use of vegetation and dredge material, the latter of which is used in the infill of basements and in the stitching together of the resulting series of exploratory All structure removed 1events located across the space. Drege landform
All structure removed
Some structure remains
Exploit existing structural typologies
Distort landscape with the use of dredge material
House form remains
New park landscape relevant to both Mentor Dr. and Toledo
[13â€™] Dredge material landform
29,010 cubic yards
[10â€™] Existing foundation / basement  Basements filled with dredge material and capped
Total dredge material integrated:
about 5,515 cubic yards each
78,645 cubic yards
The third strategy focuses on the maintenance of house frame structural typologies, creating a raised concrete skeletal clubhouse, structurally reinforced and depictive of existing forms.
Context Foundation amphitheather and net canopy
In the next strategy basement and foundation structure remain, transformed into a sunken activity space draped with a playful net canopy.
Reinforced frame clubhouse
Reinforced concrete house facade
Facade Cantilever Similarly, the house form strategy takes the form of a cantilevered concrete house faรงade.
Dredge material hill landform
Amanda Laino [mentor drive] Mentor Drive is the perfect site for a demonstration project. My concept incorporates using recycled dredge material through the use of different materials that could be implemented throughout the city of Toledo in various projects. Finding new ways to use recycle dredge will promote the be neficial r e-use of dr edge ma terial. I first researched different treatment methods that allow dredge to be turned into different consturction materials. The materials used throughout this site consist of a glass aggregate produced from dredge material treated through the process of vitrification, manufactured top soil created through composting, construction grade cement prepared by Cement-Lock technology and thermal desorption, and lastly, a construction aggregate produced through solidification process. The existing site contains basement foundation that will be filled with the dredge construction aggregate, which will be used for a filtration system. Next, dredge soil will be placed on top and then capped with concrete. Organic shaped, soil mounds are scattered throughout the site that makes for a playful and e xciting place to be .
materials 1. sandblast with glass aggregate
2. ﬁll with soil
3. cap with concrete
4. ﬁll with dredge
5. ﬁll with aggregate
6. existing conditions
1. glass aggregate- high process temperatures destroy organic contaminants in dredge. rapid quenching of molten glass in water physically sequesters heavy metals within the glass mixture, resulting in low leaching potential. glass aggregate handles and stores similar to conventional quarried aggregate. sandblasting media-up to 30% cutting performance over silica sand with uniform angular grains.
3. construction grade cement- cement lock technology utilizes thermal desorption to produce a concrete cement. all organic compounds are destroyed and metals are removed resulting in a cement mixture. tests done by gas technology institute determined the slurry is a suitable partial replacement for portland cement. the cement exceeded the qualifying compressive strength.
2. manufactured topsoil- through the process of composting dredge is mixed with organic matter and wood chips to degrade organic contaminants. the biosolids like sewage, sludge, and manure, provide nutrients and microbes while chips provide moisture.
5. construction aggregate- through the process of solidiﬁcation, dredge is mixed with cement, ﬂy ash, and/or lime chemicals to create soil aggregate. these are mixed to bind small particles with improved physical and chemical properties for use of aggregate in some type of construction process.
utilize existing basement foundations for stormwater management
ďŹ ll mounds with construction aggregate and soil
varying shaped and elevated mounds provide for a playful and explorative place
cap dredged site with concrete
MacKenzie Patrick [seneca easement] Seneca Industrial Site
Design Concept Design Solution The Seneca Industrial site was proposed as a potential site for utilizing dredge material that is removed from the Toledo Harbor to create a landform buffer between the residential district and the industrial complex.
Front St, Toledo Harbor
Location within Toledo
1. Improving industrial to residential relationships by exposing the wonders of industry 2. Utilizing â€˜leftoverâ€™ spaces for stormwater retention and habitat creation
Entrance to Maumee River & Toledo Harbor
3. Seperating noise pollution between industrial and residential Seneca Industrial Site (Design Site) Toledo City Center
In designing industrial sites around storm-water management and opportunity for micro-ecosystems, the future of Toledo Port Authority property could adopt more sustainable strategies. In turn, this would improve the ecosystems of the Maumee River and attract visitors for the flora and fauna which are unique to the region. Toledo, already a leader in shipping, is the ideal port for leadership in sustainability.
Existing Site Conditions
Kenzie Patrick dscape Architecture Undergraduate Student nsylvania State University Drainage Patterns Stormater Infiltration Outlet Drains Protected Shoreline
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Railroad Industial Use Pedestrian Use
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*Note: The current stormwater managment plan was not available for reference during the time this plan was made.
In this design, the buffer separates the industrial and residential, while also creating green space for the residents, storm-water management areas, and micro-ecosystem habitats on existing sites. The profile of the dredge landform varies from one end of the site to the other, with varying degrees of access and views between the residential and industrial. The storm-water plan draws water into storm-water retention areas which then drain to the river. This process eliminates the possibility of the industrial deposits flowing into the Maumee River. Lastly, the micro-ecosystems built on the north part of the site can be implemented within the existing industrial elements and provide habitat for insects and birds.
*Note: This plan is a combination of existing and proposed roads on site. Road layout is flexible.
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Section 1 - Mound Type 1
Seneca Industrial Site Master Plan
A Pedestrian pathway along Front St enhances public use of this space. A planter/trees seperate the pathway from the busy road. Shrubs planted on top of Erosion Control Mat for stabilization, to improve aesthetics and to prevent pedestrian access. 2-Layer (primary and secondary) Geogrid Stabilization every 12”
Security Fence to protect Industrial Sites
Property 1 - Railroad Use Most flexibility on use
Prepared Compacted Subgrade
Stormwater Treatment Swale
Dredge Mound (20-30 feet wide, steep slope)
*unaccessable to public
Front Street - Existing Road
3. 3. 2. Property 2 - Posted for Lease Some flexibility on use
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Section 2 - Mound Type 2
Safety Fence to protect pedestrians on Overpass Security Fence to Protect Industrial Sites
Raised Pedestrian Pathway overlooking site
3. Section 1
Dredge Mound Planted w/ Erosion Control Mat and Grass
Property 3 - Heidtman Steel Little flexibility on use
Perforated Pipe Drain
Stormwater Treatment Swale
Front Street - Existing Road
Design Concept in Context *accessable to public only past the overpass
*unaccessable to public
Overpass over Norfolk Southern RR
Scale 1” = 150’ 0
Dredge Mound(30-50 feet wide, walkable slope)
1. Dredge Mound Type 1 2. Dredge Mound Type 2 3. Stormwater Rentention Area 4. Overlook Space
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Potential buildings for future development of sites to be leased Proposed ecosystem habitats
Potential buildings for future development of sites to be leased Pedestrian Overlook Linear Landform constructed of dredge material Adjacent Residential District
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Avery Sell and Alex Marchinski [jeep plant site] PARKWAY ANNEX
In order to address the opportunities and constraints of The Jeep Parkway site, we focused on creating an environment which contained a gradient of public space and access, the recreation of habitat and the reclamation of a polluted river. The public space gradient incorporates elevated walkways and piers that allow visitors interaction with this newly created environment. Limited public access in the southern parcel allows natural habitats for native species to develop. Using dredge material and technologies, a newly designed path of the Ottawa River cleans and scrubs the water of pollutants and sediment. Evoking site history, these dredge landforms take the shape of craters created by the very munitions built at the parkway facility in the 1940s. In an effort to use dredge material pulled from the Maumee Bay in a positive manner, this site uses two years of dry material that would otherwise be disposed in an open lake or confined disposal facilities.
Originates in southeast Michigan and flows for 15 miles through northwest Ohio.
1912 - The original site of Pope Motor Car Co. before it was bought by John Worth Willys and combined with the Overland Automotive Division to form the Willys-Overland Motor Company, the site was renamed as the Parkway Annex
572 - 575
575 - 581
581 - 586
586 - 591
Was determined to be part of the Maumee River Area of Concern which made it eligible for a cleanup under the Great Lakes Legacy Act
Site is 50 acres which had been dug up to a depth of 10 feet.
In 2010, 242,000 cubic yards of contaminated sediments were removed from a 5.5 mile section of the river.
Recent construction of major road leading directly through the site and to new industrial buildings.
50,000 cubic yards of material were deposited into CDFs, the rest was placed in municipal landfills.
250,000 cubic yards of sediment have been dredged out of the Ottawa River and moved to a municipal landfill.
Contaminates removed included PCBs, PAHs, and more than a million pounds of heavy metals.
Site is located in a Community Reinvestment Area (CRA), eliminating most general real estate taxes that result from land improvement.
There is still a fish advisory and a water advisory in place for the river.
SITE GOALS Site Elevation
Was contaminated as a result of runoff and discharge from industrial sites and sewers along its banks.
1. Test and understand strategies of dredge use. 2. Create a gradient of public access, steering away from the traditional intentionally public space.
“Dredged material can be used directly as aggregate, be converted to building materials (e.g. bricks), directly used in construction (levees, berms, beaches), used to restore or re-nourish eroding beaches farmlands or wetlands and to construct new wetland or upland environments. We have elected to separate. The uses into two categories, engineering and environmental, for ease of discussion while recognizing that in reality the distinction between them is a little blurred.”
1940 - Began producing 350,000 military “Jeeps” for use in WWII at the Parkway Annex 1940s - Supplied munitions and military materials, including the "Robomb", the allied version of the German V-2 rocket, bullet cores, shells, projectiles and parts for aircraft landing gear 1945 - Began producing the Civilian Jeep (CJ) as a work and recreational vehicle
1980 - Willys-Overland Motor Company is bought by Chrysler and the Parkway Annex is renamed as the Toledo Assembly Plant 1997- Chrysler begins to build Supplier Park, a modern car assembly facility within the city limits. 2002 - Chrysler begins demolishing the outdated facilities of the Parkway Annex leaving behind the smokestack that still stands today 2010 - Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority purchases the Parkway Annex site for $95,000 2012 - Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority begins development of the Overland Industrial Park with a 2.8 million dollar grant from the Ohio Department of Development
Strategies to clean river water all create an inefficient system. Using S-curves to slow down the water allow more contact with aquatic plants that filter out toxins and impurities. In the graphic to the left, the deeper, narrower stream moves sediment continuously and limits the water’s contact to aquatic plants. The shallower streambed allows sediment to drop out an collect.
4. Create a landscape unlike those found in the Toledo area.
OVERLAND PROGRAM OVE
SITE SIT TE P PLAN L AN
New animal habitat would be created in the secluded southern end which is not as accessible. This area would be more densely planted and defined by steeper landforms and a serpentine shoreline.
RIVER REMEDIATION STRATEGIES
3. Promote environmental remediation of the river and create new riverside habitat.
Ecological remediation strategies which include flood plains and sediment drop off points are located within the center of the site as to allow accessibility by municipal personal
601 - 606
Public access is limited to the northern part of the site to limit disturbance to newly created habitat in the southern parcel.
591 - 596
596 - 601
OVERLAND PROJECT STATEMENT
Phasing strategies were developed based on concentration on the southern end first, completing the process with the northern end followed by the structure. Based on this strategy, we calculated the amount of dredged used with its respective phase.
PORT PORT P T PLANNED PL LAN ANNED ANN PARKING P PA ARK RKIN NG
TOTAL DREDGE MATERIAL USED
R VE RI V RO OV VER RLO LOOK K RIVER OVERLOOK OTTA AWA WA R IIV VER E OTTAWA RIVER E IS EX STI TING GA C ES CC SS RO OAD AD EXISTING ACCESS ROAD
OVERLAND OV VER ERLA LAND N SMO SMOKE OKE S STACK TA ACK K
1,007,140yds³ SHORELINE DESIGN
N EW RI R IVER R CO CORR RRIDOR OR NEW RIVER CORRIDOR
DREDGE MOUND DREDGE CRATER DREDGE CRATER_FLOODABLE STRUCTURE_FLAT STRUCTURE_RAISED STRUCTURE_VIEWING PLATFORM ENCLOSED STRUCTURE SEATING PLANTER OTTAWA RIVER SEDIMENT DROPOFF ZONE
By maximizing the shoreline the potential for water to be cleaned multiplies. Using a curvilinear path causes the water to slow down allowing sediment to drop out and collect. Greater surface area allows the water to have greater contact with chemical scrubbing vegetation. The Ottawa River already has 7050 feet of shoreline within the Overland site. With the goal of doubling the amount of shoreline, we were able to add an additional 10,000 feet of shoreline within the southern parcel of the site. This off limits area would have dense vegetation with flood zones that allow infiltration and filtration of the river water.
SITE PERSPECTIVES (CONT)
SITE PERSPECTIVES D
ON THE PIERS
FINAL PLATFORM OVERLOOKING PIERS
WITHIN THE RIVER CORRIDOR
ON THE PIERS AND PAVILION
PRECAST CONCRETE WALKWAY
B-B’ 1 : 200
C-C’ 1 : 200
STEEL PIER STRUCTURE CORTEN STEEL RAILING
O V E R L A N D
VIEW OF PIERS FROM OTTAWA RIVER
A-A’ 1 : 40
O V E R L A N D
of Contents Ashley Reed Table [edison park]
Thomas Edison6 Park
2-5 Toledo Park Infrastructure Research
Toledo Park Infrastructure Research
Park Features and Ampihtheatre CDF
Section A: Road to Stage
Section B: Marina to Rails to Trails
Elevation C: Boardwalk Bridge
Evening on the Boardwalk
Ashley Reed The Pennsylvania State University Landscape Architecture 414 November 2012
The Thomas Edison Park was designed to create an urban outdoor entertainment space for the city of Toledo. Toldeo’s greenspace infrastructure lacks natural areas, entertainment venues and a connection to surrounding areas and future development; this design brings these amenities together in a naturalistic urban entertainment park. The main feature of the park is the Edison Amphitheatre to hold weekly attractions such as concerts, speakers, movie nights, and other large events. The Forest Clearings are intimate flexible spaces that can act as picnic areas or be turned into campgrounds for large events bringing in revenue for the city. The Edison Boardwalk and Skyline Outlook bring visitors out to the Maumee River and also offer views of Toledo’s industrial infrastructure as well as the skyline and the bridge. The Boardwalk Bridge connects the site to the Maritime Museum and future development. The Event Lawn and Formal Welcome Area create open space to hold large community events such as farmer’s markets, snowball fights, carnivals and fairs, sporting events, and also can be converted to a large campground for events. Finally the Constructed Wetland creates a contrast in not only form but the environmental habitat on site. These features work together to create an urban entertainment park that will serve Toledo and the surrounding communities for years to come.
Map and Table Data Source: The City of Toledo Division of Recreatio Recreation
Thomas Edison Park
Thomas Edison Park
Evening on the Boardwalk
Thomas Edison Park
Thomas Edison Park
Skyline Outlook Boardwalk Connection to Maritime Museum
• Boater’s Entrace • Allows Boaters to Dock and Attend Events
• Gathering Area for Campers • Views towards Downtown Toledo
Boardwalk Bridge • Has 14’ Boat Clearance
Skyway Stage Edison Boardwalk • Brings visitors to the water • Views of Bay, Bridge, and City
• Natural Area • Maumee Fed • Dredge lined for nutrients
• Variety of Events • Veterans’ Glass City Skyway as backdrop
Rails to Trails
• Connection to City’s Existing Trail System • Entrance for Pedestrians and Cyclists
• Seating for Events • Mini-CDF for Dredge • Backside is a constructed grassland
Park Trail System Maritime Museum Boat Docks
• Extends, throughout the site, the City’s trail system
• Give’s site connection Boating community
• Block’s site from road • Dredge Material • Constructed Grassland
Formal Welcome Area
• Entrance for Pedestrians and Cyclists
• Driver’s Entrace • Existing Maritime Parking lot renovated with more spaces and a drop off
Separation Mound Event Lawn
• Block’s site from road • Renovation and Extension Forest Clearing • Dredge Material • Constructed of existing tree grove • Intimate Grassland • Natural Area Gathering Areas • Camping • Picnics
Forest Connection to Front Street
Section B: Marina to Rails to Trails 0
Elevation C: Boardwalk Bridge 0
• Another Space with a variety of Events • Central Gathering Area 0
Thomas Edison Park
5’ Contours Shown (Exceptions at the start of the landforms) Amphitheatre CDF
Thomas Edison Park
Natural Area’s • Forest • Wetland • Grassland • Connection to water • Heavily Planted Boat Connections 2’ Sheet Piles for Sitting Nooks • Maritime Museum Boat Docks • Boardwalk Bridge connecting Museum to site Forest Clearings 1.5’ Sitting Wall • Campgrounds for large events, brings in revenue to Toledo • Intimate Gathering Areas 6” Clean Soil Cap • Picnic Areas Trails • Network throughout site • Connection to Rails to Trails Lighting • Taking advantage of bridge and industrial lights on the river • Mimicking industrial lights with bulb lights on boardwalk Lawn Maintenance 7’ Drilled Sheet Pile • Main Gathering Lawn, Amphitheatre , and Forest Clearings needs maintained often for weekly use Entertainment Spaces • Gathering Lawn for recreation, but also farmers’ markets, carnivals, winter events, fairs, more campground, and block parties. • Amphitheatre for concerts, plays, speakers, shows, benefits, and summer movie nights. • Also designed for everyday use. Dredge Material • Mini Combined Disposal Facility in Amphitheatre, sheet pile used to create terraces • All mounds are constructed out of dredge • 6” soil cap on dredge to control phragmites and promote healthy vegetative growth • Layer of dredge on bottom of wetland, nutrients in dredge helps establish a healthy wetland • Site holds 918,513.41yd³ of dredge material which is about 2.5 years of Toledo’s dredge production (after drying)
Section A: Road to Stage 0
• Entrance for Pedestrians and Cyclists • Connection to major intersection • Connection to Tribute Park
Terraces for Seating Urban Entertainment
Filled with Dried Dredge Material Not to a Scale
Thomas Edison Park
Griffen Galante [edison park]
Project Description: Create a contemplative destination for the Business Leaders Meeting at the future marina docks project site of Chinese investors Yuan Xiaohona and Wu Kin Hung. This design will be a park for industry and business leaders to meet with clients and co-workers. This space will create a stress-free experience of inspiration and creativity. It will also bring the hard, industrious city closer to the natural landscape. The design elements of this project focus on the symbolic and metaphorical meanings behind rocks and mountains. A vertical element is created by layering dredge material until a karst topographical mountain develops on the site. Pedestrians will experience this mountain on two different levels: above being the surface level of movement, and below in the tunnel being the meditative experience. The site will host many different activities, including contemplative experiences, recreational, business meetings, picnics for local residents, and exercise zones. The site will use roughly 300,000 cubic yards of dredge material in the construction of this project.
TOLEDO, OHIO : Modern Industrial Leader Design Intent
Griff Galante Dredge Studio - Sean Burkholder
Create a Contemplative Destination for Business Leaders Meeting at the Future Marina Docks Project of Chinese Investors Yuan Xiaohona and Wu Kin Hung. This Design Will Be a Park for Industry and Business Leaders to Meet With Clients and Co-workers. This Space Will Create a Stress-Free Experience of Inspiration and Creativity. It Will Also Bring the Hard, Industrious City Closer to the Natural Landscape.
The Chinese believed that somewhere in the highest mountains there was a cave that was an exact representation of the world outside. In its center was a stalactite that gave off the milk of contentment. Any rock that suggests a mountain, cave or stalactite became symbolically important. This idea is reinforced by the Chinese notion that in addition to north and south, east and west, the most important orientation was ‘in’. It is because of this inward focus that Chinese culture looked for paradise inside of things, just as western culture looked upward and outside. In Chinese art, this orientation caused a search for ‘a world within a world’, for imagery in surprising and unpredictable places.v
Thomas Edison Park
[”The Most Important Orientation, Was IN”] Let us imagine that early Chinese lived in limestone caves. We know that karst limestone caves are common in China, and that among their characteristics are endlessly winding tunnels. They have underground streams and lakes, skylights, even fish. The geography of this world was so complex, that people would not be able to explore and map them in a dozen lifetimes. Paradoxically, when they emerged from these caves, they could readily see and walk around the small mountains that contained these ‘worlds within worlds’.
bridge and main access road. These roads allow for intriguing views for drivers.
This path is the mirror opposite of the “Above World” level of movement. The lower bath involves the experience of “Self-Awareness.” It is a literal metaphor for meditation and the journey to your inner-self.
The lower gathering space will spot a pedestrians 50 feet below the “Overlook,” gazing in awe at the fact that they have walked on a normal path, into a winding tunnel, and reached the water’s edge with a mountain standing tall behind them. Pedestrians can enjoy the end of their “Journey” into their own minds, by relaxing with friends to enjoy lunch with a cool breeze
The “Above World” level of movement on the site. Here pedestrians have the full freedom allowed by their legs to roam the hill top. This movement is based on the concept of an “Unfocused Mind.”
The “Overlook,” a balcony looking down upon the pedestrians who have arrived at the waterfront from the tunnel. This space adds a destination for the pedestrians walking above, as well becomes a relaxing place to sit and picnic in good weather conditions.
Circulation Diagram, Points of Interest
TOLEDO, OHIO : Modern Industrial Leader
TOLEDO, OHIO : Modern Industrial Leader Quarry Garden This Award WInning Design Led to the Design Element of the Tunnel, Ending With a Realisation That One Has Just Walked Through an Enormous Mountain Landscape.
Slot Canyons The Natural Erosion Created By Desert Winds Was the Inspiration for the Tunnel Designs. The Awe Inspiring Effect Caused By the Light Rays Shining Through the Crevasses in the Ceilings Became the Basis for the Tunnel Types.
The Tunnel Has Many Elements That Relate Closely to Slot Canyons Found in Popular Desert Locations Around The World. The Tunnel Will Have Varied Ceiling Types, Placed in Varied Integrals Along the Mountain Surface. The Types consist of an Open Path, Partially Closed, and Fully Closed Path. Each Type Creates a Different Experience Along the Tunnel, By Allowing Varying Amounts of Sun Light to Shine Down.
Open Ceiling The Open Ceiling Is Located Along the Entrance Heading Into the Tunnel Itself.
Partially Closed Depending Upon the Location of This Ceiling, Fences Will Be Placed Around the Openings to Protect People From Falling In. If the Tunnel Is Shallow Enough, Pedestrians Will Be Able to Access the Edge and Watch People Walking Below.
Fully Closed This Type of Ceiling Provides Pedestrians Above a Connector Bridge to Pass Over the Tunnel Beneath. This Type Doesnâ€™t Extend Far as It Will Create an Undesired Claustrophobic Experience for Pedestrians Within the Tunnels
1 Parking Lot, One Way Traffic Access Directly From Adjacent Park
2 The Fork
The Choice to Walk Freely or Deliberately
3 The Tunnel
Experience a Meditative Journey
4 Open Mind
The Freedom to Walk Where You Please
5 The Overlook
Experience Views of The River, Downtown, and The Bridge
6 The Waterfront
Look Back in Awe at The Rising Mountain You Have Traversed
Rendered Plan, Critical Points
TOLEDO, OHIO : Modern Industrial Leader
Rendered Sections, Critical Points
Rachael Stewart [edison park] Project Statement In my design of Edison Park, I chose to focus on the opportunities the site presented. The location of Edison Park provides a variety of important and interesting views: views to the Skyway Bridge, views of the Toledo Skyline, and views to the Maritime Museum and marina. Also, like the rest of the region, Edison Park is very flat. This provided an opportunity to use landform to set the park apart from the rest. By using dredge material to create these landforms, two goals could be achieved at once. To make the most of these opportunities, I created a design that changes the site’s topography to rolling hills, getting steeper towards the edge of the Maumee River. These hills help to provide different areas to view from and also help to create different spaces within in the site. Then, to provide contrast and further highlight the important views, I created 3 very flat, rectangular areas on the site and along the river’s edge. The rectangular shape helps to set them apart and focus on their importance. Through the use of the hills, open spaces, and winding pathways, park visitors can use the space for relaxation, recreation, and contemplation.
Edison Park EDISON PARK BACKGROUND AND EXISTING CONDITIONS Edison Park in Toledo is currently an unused lot of land along the Maumee River. It is directly next to (and nearly under) the Toledo Skyway Bridge. It is part of the “Marina District”, an area in Toledo currently undergoing revitalization. It has the site of the future Museum of the Great Lakes next to it separated only by enough water to hold a small marina. Across from the site of Edison Park are industrial sites left in various states of disrepair.
While currently unused, Edison Park has many existing conditions that present unique opportunities when designing it. Edison Park is currently extremely flat, like the majority of Toledo and the region. It also has some great views that can be highlighted, like the views to the Skyway Bridge, the Great Lakes Museum, the Toledo Skyline, and the future site of the S.S. Col. James M. Schoonmaker. The Maumee River is also the site of a great deal of dredging activity, which means that there is a great deal of soil available to use.
Right now, Edison Park is simply a lot of land with some natural growth and virtually no use by people. However, with my design, I aim to change this. There will be a significant number of tourists coming to the Great Lakes Museum who likely will be drawn to the park due to its proximity and views of things like the S.S. Col. James M. Schoonmaker. The park will be accessible either by foot through paths that I will create or that already exist, or through vehicular transport, as the museum already has parking set aside near Edison Park.
PROGRAMMATIC ANALYSIS SKYWAY BRIDGE VIEWING PLATFORM
Keeping in mind the existing site conditions and opportunities, I have determined a program for the site that addresses all of these issues in a unique way while also using a significant portion of dredge material.
HIGHEST ELEVATION FOR TOLEDO SKYLINE VIEW
To address the major views of the site, I have created areas where the best views of certain attractions can be seen without any obstruction. To view the marina, museum, and ship I have created a viewing platform that brings park users very close to the water while also providing a clear view to those features. I created a similar platform for the Skyway Bridge, where viewers will be down near the water, allowing them to fully take in the grandeur of the bridge. To view the Toledo Skyline, I created one “mountainous” landform that users will easily be able to surmount and view the city from a position of high elevation (the landform will rise approximately 45 ft. above the current water level). MARINA, MUSEUM, AND SHIP VIEWING PLATFORM
The site is currently very flat, similar to the surrounding areas. However, to set the park apart, it became apparent that creating a landscape of rolling hills would accomplish that while also helping to promote views, create spaces, and use dredge material. I created a “natural” looking variety of rolling hills. To add interest to this landscape I made the hills closest to the Maumee River more dramatic and steeper. This increased steepness creates a different atmosphere depending on the area of the park the user is in.
FORMAL GRASS LAWN
LARCH 414, FALL 2012 Rachael Stewart
GRADING PLAN AND CUT AND FILL CALCULATIONS APPROXIMATE ADDED MATERIAL: DESIGN HOLDS 67.8% OF ONE YEAR’S 244,038.98 cubic yards DREDGE MATERIAL DE-WATERED DREDGE MATERIAL PER YEAR: 360,000 cubic yards
595 605 605
5 58 5 58
0 59 2
9 59 0 60
598 596 597 595
7 59 4 59 6 59 59 95
597 596 595
Matthew Moffitt [edison park] Very little sediment dredged from the Toledo Harbor is being beneficially re-used, remediated, or efficiently recycled. The Ohio EPA has expressed concern in the viability of open lake dredge placement and CDF dredge storage as practical sediment management strategies. In addition, Toledo residents lack the comprehension of dredge material as a functional element. This proposal illustrates Edison park as a catalyst for the interaction between dredge remediation and site user. Dredge will be exposed in various containers on-site. It’s performative processes of accretion, dewaterment, and succession are accelerated to yield various outputs for the city of Toledo. These in-situ functional processes are bordered by raised pedestrian circulation ‘ribs,’ inducing a dialectic interaction between site user and dredge remediation. Through efficient cycles of 2 weeks and 6 months, two classes of remediated dredge are shipped off-site for use by Toledo in both transportation and residential construction projects. Phasing | Site Process Cycles public shipping channel dredging projects
Phasing | Site Construction
Phasing | Site Process Cycles
private environmental remediation dredging projects
confined disposal facilities
Hydraulic Dredge Material
Dry Dredge Material
via docked barge
Initial Landform Construction
via dump trucks
hand + machine labor
2 week cycle | week 0
2 week cycle | week 2 + 6 month cycle| month 0
barge parks at loading dock, hydraulic dredge is pumped into container 1
dredge dewaterment process complete. water is released into container 5, 90% of dredge [class b] is shipped off-site*, 10% remains on-site for further remediation
Construct Semi-Public Landforms fill: dry dredge material
Dry dredge material is trucked on-site for construction of contained landforms that determine the spatial composition of public and private spaces.
Rhizofiltration Container 5
Construct Public Circulation Infrastructure materials: see structural rib axon
continuous 2-3 weeks
Class B Dredge Material
output [water + plant remains]
Class B dredge material has been fully dewatered but not remediated. It is suitable for adaptive re-use as fill in transportation infrastructure projects as conducted by the city of Toledo
Phytoremediation Containers 2+3
output [class a dredge material]
Class B dredge material has been phytoremediated by introducted species, helianthus annuus. The majority of organic pollutants (PCBs, PAHs) have been removed. It is suitable for adaptive re-use as fill in residential and commercial projects as conducted by the city of Toledo
output [class b dredge material]
output [biofuel briquette]
Diffused water is rhizofiltered by introduced species, typha latifolia. Water, having undergone two phases of remediation is released into the Maumee River. Typha latifolia is culled and shipped off-site for compositing and wetland mitigation projects.
6 month cycle | process
6 month cycle | month 6
rhizofiltration + phytoremediation + admixture sampling
class a dredge + culled vegetation + admixture products shipped off-site*
Admixture Sampling Container 4
output [various construction materials]
5| Water Release Container Water diffused from the dredge dewatering process is piped into dredge container 5. Here, water is released into the container via one of 5 valved pipes. The idea of ‘containment’ will allow for the introduction of aquatic rhizomatous grasses. Introduced species such as typhus latifolia will perform rhizofiltration acting as a second filter for the diffused water from the original dredge input. The majority of organic pollutants leftover from the original hydraulic dredge input will be accumulated by these introduced species (PCBs, PAHs). Filtered water will then be released over a constructed armor rock weir to the existing Maumee River. The Construct Dredge Containers + Viewing Nodes materials: re-enforced concrete egress side of the weir is to steel be +terraced to promote the establishment of 5 shallow photic zones where submerged aquatic vegetation may grow. 1 output: rhizofiltered water [originally diffused from dredge dewaterment 2 in container 2] + mature wetland grasses for re-planting/composting
Helianthus annuus may be culled and removed off-site after having accumulated a sufficient quantity of organic pollutants from class b dredge materials in containers 2 +3. The sunflowers may be re-used in biofuel generation on or off-site
Container Typology Perspective 2| Additional Remediation of Released Water from Container 1
Container Typology Perspective 1| Functional Remediation of Hydraulic Dredge Material
Container Perspectives| Legend [correspond with container typology perspectives 1+2]
trans outpu fer t
1| Dredge Dewatering Container Dredge is pumped into container 1 via a valved line that attaches to the hydraulic dredge unit upon arrival at the dock. The 50% water, 50% solid dredge input is capped with a reusable polymer membrane and vacuum pressure is applied via an adjacent tank. Pressure is applied with the most force above infiltration beams, where water migrates to a coarse aggregate layer. Here, water percolates to one of several perforated pipelines, which directs the water towards dredge container 5 (see container typology perspective 2), for further remediation and release into the river. output: class b dredge material [suitable for transportation infrastructure projects], removed at 2-3 week intervals
2+3| Phytoremediation Containers Dewatered dredge from container 1 is removed in 2 week cycles. The majority of this output is shipped off-site for use in infrastructure projects directed by the Ohio Department of Transportation. Priority access to this dewatered dredge material will be awarded to the city of Toledo for urban renewal projects. Containers 2, 3, and 4 will receive the remainder of the output from container 1’s two week cycles. Phytoremediation processes will be applied to this material, via the use of sunflowers and the introduction of microbial populations. Sunflowers will be culled and harvested upon seasonal cycles. output: class a dredge material [suitable for residential, commercial + fill projects] + biofuel briquette [suitable for industrial use as a substitute for other fossil fuels], removed at 6 month intervals
4| Admixture Application Container Less than 5% of class b dredge is moved to container 4 at the end of each biweekly cycle. Various aggregates, reinforcement elements, and chemical admixtures may be applied to class b dredge within various holding cells. output: construction materials [suitable for a wide range of projects and research based on the success of the applied admixture]
rele infiltr ate infiltr ate infiltr ate infiltr ate infiltr ate infiltr ate
trans outpu fer t
c 1 d
5| Water Release Container Water diffused from the dredge dewatering process is piped into dredge container 5. Here, water is released into the container via one of 5 valved pipes. The idea of ‘containment’ will allow for the introduction of aquatic rhizomatous grasses. Introduced species such as typhus latifolia will perform rhizofiltration acting as a second filter for the diffused water from the original dredge input. The majority of organic pollutants leftover from the original hydraulic dredge input will be accumulated by these introduced species (PCBs, PAHs). Filtered water will then be released over a constructed armor rock weir to the existing Maumee River. The egress side of the weir is to be terraced to promote the establishment of shallow photic zones where submerged aquatic vegetation may grow. output: rhizofiltered water [originally diffused from dredge dewaterment + in container 2] + mature wetland grasses for re-planting/composting
a sealed drainage mat with polymer membrane e here, vacuum pressure is applied from a vacuum pump in order to accelerate the dredge dewatering process, the drainage mat is dark black to intercept and contain heat during summer months, speeding up the dewatering process b dredge slurry input [rapid dewatering] c geotextile filter fabric d coarse drainage aggregate e perforated drainage pipe removed water is relocated to dredge container 5 where further infiltration and release into constructed remediation wetlands occurs f hydraulic dredge pipe a valved pipe connects to the site dock extension where hydraulic dredge is released into container 1 g internal water infiltration beams h dump truck/crane dewatered dredge is transported from container 1 to containers 2-4
a diffused water is piped inward directly from container 1 b five valved secondary pipes collect water from the entry line and release water into container 5 via a slow and controlled process in order to inhibit microecosystem disturbance c typhus latifolia and other rhizomatous wetland grasses are introduced to rhizofiltrate the remainder of organic pollutants within the introduced water flow d armor stone control weir e water is released back into the Maumee River, having undergone two remediation processes. The pier extends into the river and uses varying size stones to promote the establishment of aquatic ecosystems adjacent to the river release point.
Structural Rib Axon| Circulation Infrastructure for the Viewing of Research Containers as ‘Theatre’
Plan Render | Site Interactions
• rib enclosure railing
• modular pre-cast concrete ‘cap’
• structural steel deck • steel truss bearing structure
• initial phase constructed landform
2 4 3
Site Section Perspective| Visual Interaction with the Maumee River 11
Site Process Sections | Hydraulic Dredge Remediation +Excavation Infrastructure
Site Process Sections | Hydraulic Dredge Remediation +Excavation Infrastructure
2-3 WEEKS EA DEWATER + TRANSFER + REMOVE [CLASS B DREDGE]
CYCLE 2 | 6 MONTHS EA REMOVE [CLASS A DREDGE] + HARVEST [CROP FOR BIOFUEL]
Cycle 1 Processes i. A barge docks at the proposed landing point, via a new extension to the existing Maumee River shipping channel. A valved attachment pumps hydraulic dredge into dredge container 1 with the appropriate volume and velocity. ii. A control valve releases hydraulic dredge into container 1 at a controlled rate. During each 2-3 week cycle, enough hydraulic dredge is released to retain a consistent dewatering process. iii. Water diffused from dredge container 1 is piped into a release cistern attached to container 5. A series of pipes control the release of water from the cistern into container 5 at a velocity harmless to the succession of aquatic vegetation. iv. Content threshold weir: dewatering process is separated (with some transparency) from the class b dredge collection process. v. Water infiltration lines: spread across the base of the container, additional diffused water is collected and output towards container 5 vi. Dewatered class b dredge is removed from container 1. The majority of class b dredge is shipped off-site in trucks and used for transportation infrastructure projects in Toledo. 5-10% of class b dredge is removed during each biweekly cycle and dumped into containers 2 and 3 for cycle 2 phytoremediation processes or dumped into container 4 for material testing.
CLASS B DREDGE DEWATERED,TRANSFERED OFF-SITE
Cycle 2 Processes i. A barge docks at the proposed landing point, via a new extension to the existing Maumee River shipping channel. A valved attachment pumps hydraulic dredge into dredge container 1 with the appropriate volume and velocity. ii. Introduced typhus latifolia is removed from container 5 and shipped off-site. It may be used in sustainable composting projects conducted by the city of Toledo. iii. Water diffused from dredge container 1 is piped into a release cistern attached to container 5. iv. Dewatered class b dredge is removed from containers 2 and 3. Introduced helianthus annuus is removed from container 5 and shipped off-site. It may be used as biofuel during renewable energy generation testing.
CULLED TYPHA LATIFOLIA TRANSFERED OFF-SITE
input [hydraulic dredge]
CLASS A DREDGE + CULLED HELIANTHUS ANNUUS TRANSFERED OFF-SITE
slurry [dewater]_dewatered dredge
1 2 site
dewatered dredge [phytoremediate]
water + vegetation river
input [hydraulic dredge]
slurry [dewater]_dewatered dredge
1 2 site
remediated dredge + vegetation
image: andy turner via panoramio
image: sean burkholder
Gabriella Salvemini Connective Landscape The dredging industry is necessary to the city of Toledo, connecting the city to other large cities and the United States Interior by allowing freighters to carry their cargo from port to port. This idea of connection is the basis for design. By connecting people to the physical manifestations of dredge, they can understand why this process performs a positive function. Focusing on freighters as a direct result of dredging and invasive species as the indirect result of these activities, purposeful design moves help people recognize hidden connections and become further informed on how dredging fits in to their contemporary landscape. 10’ deep concrete rhizome barriers extend across the lowlands around water bodies. They serve two purposes, functioning to restrict rhizome growth of phragmites and reed canary grass, and acting as pathways across the island. The barriers vary in width; 6’ wide, 3’ wide, and 2’ wide. The widest are for people to move across, the smallest is functional.
In order to explore beneficial uses of invasive species, a series of control devices are implemented within a portion of the third island. The remainder of the island serves as disturbed habitat for comparison of growth patterns. By preventing rhizome growth, fragment movement, and seed movement, the goal is to provide control methods for invasive species, allowing them to take on a new role in the contemporary landscape.
Landform is arranged in 15’ high ridges to prevent the movement of purpleloosestrife seeds via wind. The ridges are oriented to block seeds moving with the summer wind directions.
Dense mesh is stationed at the entrance to the interior waterway as well as the entry and exit of each of the 3 ponds. This is to prevent movement of aquatic plant fragments from water body to water body. Aquatic invasives will be planted on the outer waterways, with the t hope that fragments will be stopped by the mesh and limited invasives found in the interior of the waterway.
rch sea Re
To gain funds for the construction and maintenance of the island, hunting will be promoted as the main use of the island. Restrictions on hunting season, bag limit, and spread of invasives off the island provide structure to an otherwise open landscape. The island will be open to researchers during the off-season to gather data on control methods.
Connections between people, freighters, and invasive species converge at Toledo Harbor Light
3 : forest
Deer habitat Upland habitat is meant for deer, with landform designed around a series of ‘pinch points’ that function as places where deer congregate. Species like oak, wild grape, and clover will be planted for forage.
2 : pond
Monitoring The series of ponds have nets installed to prevent plant fragment movement at each end, and through monitoring scientists can see any relationship between nutrient levels on interior water versus lake water to see if methods in the bay are working.
Filtration The bay is planted with phragmites australis, and has nets for zebra mussels in the water. This arrangement is meant to help filter nitrogen and phosphorus out of the water that enters into the stream. Micro habitat relationships 1: bay
2 : pond
3 : forest
Primary Reproduction Method e
r izeGrowth th row id g rap
Accessible to the public, this island includes boat docks so people can visit the historic Toledo Harbor Light and experience native plant communities via raised boardwalk that traverses the island. A 30â€™ high viewing deck allows the public to visually interact with passing freighters utilizing the dredge channel. The viewing deck also allows views to the existing Toledo Harbor Lighthouse, and constructed wetlands beneath.
Characteristics of invasive species are drawn upon in the design to create a space that investigates positive effects and higher control of their spread. Deer are included in this investigation since they can become an invasive species themselves, and often create the degraded landscapes that invasive species thrive on.
escape routes surrounding elevation sun exposure open area to bed
Design of the islands are very user specific; spanning the dredge channel they each hold a different vegetative context for people to experience. The smallest is designed to show anthropogenic influences on native plant communities and provide interactions with freighters in the channel. At the center, an island is dedicated to native plant communities accessed only by researchers for monitoring purposes. The largest island houses invasive species, with one half exercising control over them, and the other left for colonization so that growth habits may be compared.
The largest island is designed with respect to environmental conditions and deer habitat requirements. Wind and lake currents inform the location of a bay and stream with a series of ponds that cuts across the island. A portion of the island implements a series of control devices meant to stop rhizome growth, fragment, and seed movement.
Site Plan 3 : controlled invasive Phasing 3 : invasive
ISLAND 1 : Public + native species 2 1
ISLAND 2 : Research + native species
ISLAND 3 : Hunters and researchers + invasive species
The exchange of ballast water is a stabilization mechanism necessary to the shipping industry. The rocess, which maintains buoyancy after changes in cargo weight, also has some serious ramifications for the ecology of the Great Lakes.
When ballast water is taken up, aquatic organisms, seeds, and microbes that reside in the water column are taken in as well. Ideally, most of these species will expire during the voyage but, some survive and are released with the ballast water at the destination port. This process has led to the introduction of a wide range of non-native and invasive species, such as sea lamprey and zebra mussels, where the ballast water acts as the conduit for this exchange.
Ballast water system as stabilizing mechanism
Ballast water as conduit for invasive/non-native flora and fauna
Native organisms captured
Empty cargo hold
Some species die off
Full cargo hold
Nearly empty ballast
Non-native organisms expelled
= SEVERE ecologic / eco``nomic costs to Lake environment and associated industries (750 mil to 1 bil in one decade for zebra mussels alone)* *”Progress and Challenges in Preventing introduction into U.S. Waters Via the Ballast Water in Ships,” U.S. GOA, 9/2005
In reaction to this, the Coast Guard has implemented the “Final Rule,” a set of laws that dictate that all ballast water exchange occur 200 nautical miles from shoreline and at a depth of 2000 meters, effectively making the Great Lakes a no exchange zone. The final rule is a short term solution lacking alternate exchange zones and proving to be largely ineffective. The UN set forth a series of recommendations as a result of a convention held on the topic that demand a set of standards for ballast water to be put in place and for the ballast water capacity of ships to be enlarged, a process viewed as unattractive to the shipping industry as it diminishes cargo space on board a vessel.
This design proposes an approach that forms a break between the input and output of ballast water, creating a treatment system contained by dredge material that serves to mediate the exchange process.
“The Final Rule” regulations and United Nations IMO requirements
Mediate inputs and outputs through alternate method
Lack of exchange zones
Released foreign ballast water
>>Shortcomings - Exemptions
200 nautical mi. 200>>nautical 2000 m. mi. depth >> 2000 m. depth
- Lack of altnative exchange zones - Ineffective containment of invasive species - SHORT-term solution
>>UN requirements - Development of alternate methods - Increase in ship ballast capacity
Exchanged lake ballast water
The system establishes Toledo as a hub for ballast water exchange within the Great Lakes. The first element, the alternate exchange zone is located along the shipping channel for ease of accessibility and provides exchange services, treatment of ballast water, and defouling maintenance. The second element, the existing Ironhead Marine Inc. graving dock will become the headquarters in expertise for the enhancement of ship ballast capacity. Coupled, the system will allow the region to meet UN standards while provide options for exchange without the sacrifice of cargo space.
The proposed alternate exchange zone features a dry dock and treatment island. The dry dock enables vessels to release ballast water into the treatment sequence and to intake sanitized water, as well as receiving defouling services, through which algae, mussels, etc. are removed from the vessel before going to port. Once ballast water is released, it is piped into the treatment sequence present on the island.
Floating dry dock Lake Erie
>> Ballast management island alternate exchange zone + ballast water treatment + defouling
Shipping channel Surplus holding cell 2 >> public hot springs
Cooling run >> holding cell 1
>> Ironhead High Bay Filtration system and heat treatment sequence
Defouling + ballast capacity mitigation
Sterilized water does not provide any particular ecological benefit if released into the lake, so treated ballast is maintained on the island and used both as a bank from which vessels may take in water and as a public amenity. The heated water flows out of treatment into the initial holding cell which acts to slightly cool water and contain a capacity equal to average ballast. Once this cell is overwhelmed, water overflows into the surplus holding cell, cell 2, which takes the form of a public hot springs. The heated, purified water provides an amenity for the Toledo community, allowing visitors to be part of an essential industrial process innately related to the shipping industry and legacy of the Toledo harbor.
Once piped, the ballast water flows through the primary filtration system, a series of high capacity filters that extract most organisms. From there, the water passes through a heat exchanger, which increases water temperatures to roughly 110 degrees Fahrenheit, effectively removing microbial life and seeds. At this point, the water is sterilized.
Floating dry dock + Ships exchange ballast through treatment sequence prior to docking at port + Fouling is removed to reduce transport risks
The treatment island structure accommodates 33,706,282 cubic ft. of dredge material, further addressing issues perpetuated by, yet necessary to the shipping industry, along the axis of the shipping channel.
II Primary Filtration 3 + 100,000 m / hr capability + Removes majority of species in released ballast
III Heat Exchanger + Brings water to roughly 110 degrees F + Removes microbial biomass in ballast water
IV Cooling Run / Holding cell 1 + Holds freshly santized water until backflowed + Lowers temperature of heat treated water
holding cell 2
Public hot springs / Overflow holding cell 2
Floating dry dock implementation + Quantities that overwhelm cell 1 are directed into cell 2 until backflowed + Purified water provides public amentity and social space for community
are directed into
mentity and social
+ Requires limited dredging (in comparison to graving dock) + Located along shipping channel to maximize accessibility
Dredge disposal containment + Structure accomodates 33,706,282 cubic ft. of dredge material
Rachael Stewart HARBORLANDS
Lake Erie has a great deal of amenities and attractions for the many people and animals that enjoy it year round. However, there are a variety of factors that threaten the quality of the lake and its habitats daily. Phosphorus and other nutrient loading contribute to algal blooms and decrease the quality of the water in the lake while development on the shorelines take away valuable wetland habitat from a number of endangered species. It is these factors that led to the main environmental and social strategies of this design. Designing islands that would both be efficient at removing phosphorus at the water while also providing wetland habitat reconstruction for endangered birds (particularly, the sand hill crane, snowy egret, and black tern) was one of the primary goals of the islands. However, keeping people away would be a challenge. Despite good intentions, people tend to have a negative impact on the ecological functions of their environments. In a case such as this, human involvement would likely completely inhibit the ecological goals and strategies of the design. To combat this, the design incorporates a completely different set of social goals and strategies. One of these goals is to limit people’s access to areas developed to achieve the environmental strategies while still providing them with an “edited ecological experience”. To clarify, this means providing people with a way to feel that they are experiencing and interacting with nature so that they are distracted from the actual other ecological functions happening. The other primary social goal was to use the Toledo Harbor Light as a focal point and unique feature of Lake Erie. The lighthouse was built in 1904 and is very interesting from a historical and architectural view point. However, it is not easily accessible. As a solution to these strategies, the design incorporates a series of islands instead of just one. The largest of the islands is considered the “social island”. It has some reconstructed wetlands with a trail network to explore and bird watching structures from which to observe. It also is built up around the light- H A R B O R L A N D S CONTEXT PHASING house, which is situated on a formal lawn. This island acts as the “decoy”, distracting CONTAINMENT 1 people from the outlying islands, which are working towards the environmental goals MAIN SOCIAL ISLAND 2 and strategies of reconstructing wetland habitat and employing phosphorus removal TRAILS AND STRUCTURES 3 techniques. Through this distraction and underwater construction techniques, these ECO ISLANDS 1 & 2 4 “eco islands” are inaccessible to people. This design explores the power of separaECO ISLANDS 3 & 4 tion and distraction while creatively achiev5 ing very different sets of environmental and HYACINTH BALLOON INSTALLATION social goals. 6 Inner and outer containment walls go into place, forming a “doughnut” shape. Can hold an estimated 125,901,458 cubic yards of dredge material.
Dredge material emerges to form the “social island”, the only island accessible by people. The island is built around the crib of the Toledo Harbor Light.
Network of trails and bird watching structures built. Loading and maintenance area for the “hyacinth balloon water filtration installation” also built.
The site of my island design for the Harborlands is located in the middle of Lake Erie, approximately 8.4 miles away from the mouth of the Maumee River in Toledo, Ohio. This site was chosen beacuse of its proximity to the shipping channel as well as the opportunity to include the Toledo Harbor Light in the design.
Dredge is used on both sides of “social island” to form islands specifically for wetland habitat restoration. These islands are not accessible by people to preserve the integrity of the wetland habitat.
Dredge is used to form the final two islands, also specifically for wetland habitat restoration, finishing the atoll. These islands are not accessible by people to preserve the integrity of the wetland habitat.
Water hyacinth straw is bundled into reinforced geotextile fabric and fastened to a variety of poles in the center of the atoll. The installation aids in removing phosphorus from the water and can provide nesting material for birds, all while being aesthetically intriguing and appealing.
DETAILED SITE PLAN
HYACINTH BALLOON MAINTENANCE AREA
HYACINTH BALLOON WATER FILTRATION INSTALLATION
BIRD WATCHING STRUCTURE
HYACINTH BALLOON LOADING/UNLOADING AREA
OUTER CONTAINMENT WALL HYACINTH BALLOON WATER FILTRATION INSTALATION
INNER CONTAINMENT WALL
LIGHTHOUSE LAWN TOLEDO HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE
BIRD WATCHING STRUCTURE
VISITOR BOAT DOCKS
ADDITIONAL DREDGED SPACE
BIRD WATCHING STRUCTURE
SCALE 1” = 200’
SCALE 1” = 500’
WRITTEN SCALE INACCURATE
WRITTEN SCALE INACCURATE
SOCIAL GOALS AND STRATEGIES EDITED ECOLOGICAL EXPERIENCE
SECTION A - A’ LIGHTHOUSE RECOGNITION
For the environment work properly, the least amount of human interference is best. To allow people to feel like they are experiencing nature, some habitat reconstruction will take place on the “social island”. The true habitat recreation will take place on the four outlying “eco islands”.
The Toledo Harbor Light is a unique feature of Lake Erie that is currently not easily accessed. Making this attraction easier to observe and explore will draw people to the island.
“DECOY ISLAND” The lighthouse aids in the “decoy island” illusion by providing a very visible distraction from the outlying “eco islands”. The main island, while serving social purposes, is primarily meant to be a distraction from the “eco islands” so they can function without human interference.
LIGHTHOUSE FOCAL POINT
The Toledo Harbor Light is a unique feature in Lake Erie, but it is not easily accessible. By building an island around it, it will be more easily seen and experienced while also drawing more visitors to the island.
The “edited ecological experience” is created to allow people to feel as though they are fully interacting with nature without realizing that the true natural experience is just an island away. By providing visitors with opportunities to bird watch and walk through wetlands, they will be less likely to disturb the outlying “eco islands”.
HYACINTH BALLOON INSTALLATION AREA
RECONSTRUCTED WETLAND HABITAT
SECTION B - B’
SUBMERGED CONTAINMENT WALL PREVENTS BOATS ACCESS
EMERGENT WETLAND HABITAT RECONSTRUCTION
WETLAND HABITAT RECONSTRUCTION
EMERGENT WETLAND HABITAT RECONSTRUCTION
ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND STRATEGIES HABITAT RECREATION
The snowy egret, black tern, and sandhill crane are all endangered in the state of Ohio, primarily due to habitat loss. By recreating the desired habitat of these birds, their numbers can increase.
Phosphorus is a large problem in Lake Erie, as its overabundance aids in algae growth and makes the water less habitable. By removing phosphorus, the water quality will improve for all depending on it.
BIRDWATCHING STRUCTURE OVERLOOKING RECONSTRUCTED WETLAND HABITAT
WETLAND RECONSTRUCTION The snowy egret, black tern, and sandhill crane all occupy and feed in wetlands at some point during the year. By reconstructing the wetlands that have been destroyed, they can reinhabit the area.
Many different wetland plant species absorb a significant amount of phosphorus, a nutrients plants need to grow. This helps to improve the quality of the water.
WATER HYACINTH STRAW BALLOON INSTALLATION
Water hyacinth straw has been proven to absorb a signifcant amount of phosphorus. By bundling them in geotextile fabric and fastening them out in the water, they both work ecologically and are aesthetically interesting.
Alex Marchinski OVERALL PROCESS
s rce ou
Point Source vs Nonpoint Source Phosphorus Contributions M
Material is evenly dispersed directly from the main pipe. A wheel line system travels up and down the field spraying the slurry.
Dredged slurry is pumped onto shore.
6 TREAT & TEST
Water from dredge and runoff enter the treatment center and are cleansed and tested. Toledo citizens also visit the facility to learn about the processes involved in cleaning the river.
sand usk yr iv
After one year of spread and another for consolidation, land crop may be planted.
Once fully cleansed and phosphorus is removed from water, it can then be released back into the bay.
Once this process was solidified, I determined the two most crucial components that I could continue my studies on for the rest of the project. I decided I would figure out how the farming system would work and how the water would be treated before entering back into the lake.
While researching the different issues associated with the Maumee Bay, I discovered that most of them result from the poor water quality that is caused by the phosphorus deposition into the lake. Ultimately trying to track the direct source of the phosphorus, I found that most of the contaminated input is coming from nonpoint sources, or runoff. To track the source even further, more research proved the Maumee River as one of the biggest contributors of Phosphorus runoff along with the Sandusky River, combining a total of 55% of all phosphorus entering the lake. Because a good majority of the land use around the Maumee River is agricultural, it became clear that much of the contamination came from these farm fields.
Dredged slurry is hauled to a pump connected to a scow near the center of gravity.
Dredge dewaters in a year-long process and is either infiltrated into underground pipes or is collected with runoff in a canal that both run to the treatment facility.
maumee rive r
sources int po on
RUNOFF Phosphorus is collected in stormwater runoff after running
Dredge is concentrated at the lake channel center of gravity. An island is constructed to aid in the collection of the dredge slurry.
Phosphorus Contributions among Lake Erie Tributaries
AGRICULTURAL FIELD DESIGN
CONTAMINATION Phosphorus creates eutrophication, resulting in
algal bloom creation
existing irrigation tiles 0
Dredge is piped up through the distribution pipes where it is taken up by the spraying irrigation systems that apply the dredge to the farm fields. Once it dewaters, water is collected through existing drainage tiles and sent to the stream or through runoff flow directly from the fields and into the stream. Water from the stream flows directly to the treatment center, running through intersection tunnels along the way.
DREDGE 3,000 acres @ 4â€™ depth 19,340,640 cubic yards 4.14 years of dredge material
After gathering all of this research, I decided that main goal would be in finding a strategy to reform farming practices in a way that controlled the runoff before it entered the lake. Hull & Associates had already done some research in this area that laid out a general plan for applying dredge to agricultural fields and direct its draining back into the lake. I looked closer into the land around the Maumee Bay and the process that could take place in this new application process.
REQUIRED DEWATER HOLDING 11,604,384 cubic yards 1 year of dredge 600,000 cubic yards
The amount of dredge that is utilized was calculated using the 3,000 acre requirement at 4â€™ of improvement height. The dewatering calculations took the 60% drainage requirement from the dredge volume to describe the amount of water collected throughout the entire year of the dewatering process. It was then determined to only provide enough volume space to hold one year of dredge dewatering material, anticipating the fact that the facility would not be holding the entire cumulative volume at one time.
AGRICULTURAL FIELD DESIGN
TREATMENT FACILITY DESIGN Various types of water treatment were then taken into account before these three types were determined most useful for conducting this specific treatment. The artificial aeration & circulation treatment and
ARTIFICIAL AERATION & CIRCULATION Can use plant photosynthesis to catch oxygen High levels of dissolved oxygen create a competition for nutrients between algae and natural occurring aerobic bacteria Phosphorus precipitates out with natural iron, binding it up, unavailable to plants and algae
contact tanks would be placed throughout the facility while the wetland would exist throughout the rest of the space. Each of these treatment methods would run independently and eventually drain directly back into the lake.
Plants need phosphorus as an essential macronutrient Plants postpone phosphorus saturation of the sediments
Introduces aluminum sulfate, benodite clay, and other polymers to water Aluminum ions react with phosphate to create insoluble aluminum phosphate
The existing intersections in this area donâ€™t include any sidewalks or setbacks off of the road; the agricultural fields are directly next to the streets. A new design needed to be implemented that took into account both underground piping and also the proposed water channel.
This entirely new streetscape would serve as a corridor to the treatment center in which the public would have access to. Therefore, a bike path is implemented that exists across the street from the water channel that also uses piping segments that run under the streets upon arriving to the different intersections.
AGRICULTURAL FIELD DESIGN
TREATMENT FACILITY DESIGN dredge dewater inlet
water runs out
treated water outlets
dredge pumps in
Understanding the landform and available technologies, the general path of the dredge would be pumped uphill where it would drain on the agricultural fields, dewater, and flow downhill using a channel system.
AGRICULTURAL FIELD DESIGN
PARAMETERS 3,000 acres required 4â€™ dredge height improvement 60% dewatered assumed electric pumping operations pumping & piping design needed
Using the research from Hull & Associated, I pulled general parameters from their study to set guidelines for my project. Two test agricultural plots were determined as well was a general location for the treatment center.
TREATMENT FACILITY DESIGN
treatment center location sampled agricultural location
Although primarily serving the purposes of treating and testing the water, the treatment facility becomes a public space where local residents and farmers can access and understand these new water treatment methods.
Gina Montecallo Due to climate change, Lake Erie water levels can drop as much as 6 feet in the next 100 years.
The Current Harbour will be 9.3 Miles inland in 100 years. Toledo
~73 Square Miles of lake bed will be exposed in the Maumee Bay Lake Erie Bathymetry
A 6 Foot drop will be extremely significant for the shallow Western Basin of Lake Erie
Lake Erie Profile
Land Use Of the area surrounding the western basin
Wetland Filtration System
100 Years Ago
100 Years From Now (proposed)
Developed As the lake level recedes, a series of “ridges” will be created that integrates agriculture and wetlands.
Wetlands will be found in the low points where run off from surrounding agricultural fields will be directed. The series of wetlands will filter the contaminated water as it travels back into the lake.
Dredging: “Cut/Fill” Method
Social + Environmental Integration
--Dredge Material is used to form the ridges along the exposed lake bed. --The silty nature of the dredged material makes an ideal substrate for holding water and acting as the base for wetlands.
--Wetland benefits include: Rich Species Habitat High Bio-diversity Carbon Sequestration Environmental Reducing Eutrophication Water Filtration Social Nutrient Rich Soils Flood Control Recreation
Amount of Dredge Used In The Site
--The material is dredged from the shipping channel + directly behind the previously formed ridge.
Original Lake Bed
--Agriculture in the flood plain can occur without draining and habitat loss. Farming with waterlog tolerant crops promotes minimal impact and a successful yield. These crops include: Oat cultivar Barley cultivar Wheat cultivar Wild Rice Maize Triticale --Farming on the high points of the “ridges” will avoid flooding crops as frequently. --Minimizing use of pesticides and fertilizers can aid the wetlands in run off filtration
Old Lake Bed
Dredge Cut Old Lake Level
$243 Million Annual
Top Predator In Lake Erie
Matthew Chiampi INDUSTRIAL INDUSTRIALPROPERTY PROPERTY SALE SALE PRICES PRICES
MULTI-FAMILY PROPERTY SALE PRICES
MANUFACTURINGJOBS JOBS MANUFACTURING TOLEDOLOST LOST40% 40%SINCE SINCE TOLEDO 2000 2000
MULTI-FAMILY PROPERTY SALE PRICES
ECO TOURISM AS NEW INDUSTRY Toledo is The ciTy iT is Today because of iTs manufacTuring hisTory. ever since The ciTies fruiTion, iT has had This idenTiTy of a producTion ciTy. however, Toledo’s manufacTuring indusTry has seen a 40% decrease in recenT years, parTially due To The auTomobile indusTry issues. even Though There exisTs This decline, The processes of dredging are always consTanT creaTing This comparable dredge idenTiTy. The 750,000 cu. yds. of dredged maTerial removed annually is by far The mosT in comparison wiTh oTher dredge ciTies in The greaT lakes region. This enormous amounT of maTerial removed is perceived as a wasTe producT and is disposed Through open waTer placemenT in lake erie, wiTh less Than 1% of This maTerial being recycled. here lies a conTradicTion wiThin Toledo; lake erie exisTs as a huge asseT for The ciTy’s economy. specifically, The ciTy receives 10.7 billion dollars from lake erie Tourism; 1 billion from The lake erie fishing indusTry alone. economic experTs suggesT ThaT Toledo do whaT They do besT; diversify by looking inTo new susTainable indusTry and uTilize Their already exisTing innovaTive Techniques. Thus, work wiTh susTainable ideals and recycle dredge To halT polluTion of lake erie while reinvenTing The Tourism indusTry. The reuse of dredge for lake erie Tourism benefiT can raise awareness of The possible socioeconomic benefiTs while decreasing The negaTive percepTions making dredge an asseT wiThin Toledo.
. DREDGE COMPARISON
CDF PLACEMENT OPEN-WATER PLACEMENT NEAR SHORE PLACEMENT DREDGE THREATENING HARBOR ACCESS IN 5 YRS
birding Tourism is a very profiTable and popular indusTry. specifically, norThwesT ohio is seen as one of The mosT popular birding 2 major migraTory flyways. wiThin These flyways exisT prioriTy birds species This allows The possibiliTy of observing exisTing sTopover habiTaTs for These species along wiTh birding Tourism desTinaTions To implemenT an improved birding “circuiT” wiTh an iniTial inTervenTion happening aT The famous Toledo harbor lighThouse.
desTinaTions in The naTion due To The inTersecTion of wiTh specific sTopover habiTaT needs.
NEGATIVE DREDGE PERCEPTION
This proposal calls for The use of 3 differenT Types of dredge disposal Typologies creaTed around The lighThouse-- upland, near shore, and confined aquaTic. These differenT conTainmenT Types inTroduces a Terraced landscape ThaT would harbor differenT Types of environmenTs caTering To The prioriTy bird species. dumping The dredge inTo These habiTaT zones would Take The process of TradiTional dredge dumping and make iT an orchesTraTed The form of The siTe is based on The radius of a Tower crane. This Tower crane would remove The dredge from The barge, roTaTe, and place iT inTo The conTainers. These cranes would be funcTional for boTh dredge removal buT also, when noT in use, for addiTional bird habiTaT simulTaneously becoming a symbol for The new indusTry of Toledo--dredge producing Tourism. This synergy creaTed Through The juxTaposiTion of dredge, habiTaT, and Tourism can reesTablish Toledo as The producTion ciTy iT has always been. producTion for people To wiTness during allocaTed Time periods. UNDEVELOPD LAND COASTAL AREAS EMERGENT INLAND WETLANDS AMERICAN OYSTERCATHCER BROWN PELICAN COMMON TERN ARTIC TERN BALD EAGLE GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER BLACK SKIMMER GRASSHOPPER SPARROW RED KNOT ROSEATE TERN REDDISH EGRET RUDDY TURNSTONE PROTHONOTARY WARBLER ROSEATE SPOONBILL
WOOD STORK EASTERN MEADOWLARK WILSON’S PLOVER WESTERN SANDPIPER BOBOLINK SEASIDE SPARROW CERULEAN WARBLER CLAPPER RAIL LITTLE BLUE HERON HENSLOW’S SPARROW SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER MOTTLED DUCK UPLAND SANDPIPER SWALLOW-TAILED KITE
GRASSLAND + PASTURE
PONTE MOUILLE STATE PARK
STERLING STATE PARK
TOWER CRANE PEDESTALS
LANDBIRD + RAPTOR STOPOVERS
SITE INTERVENTION TOLEDO HARBOR LIGHTHOUSE
CEDAR POINT WILDLIFE REFUGEE + MAUMEE BAY STATE PARK
STOPOVER HABITAT CIRCUIT OTTAWA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGEE
CONNECT DIFFERENT STOPOVER HABITATS AND EXISTING TOURISM
EXISTING WATERFOWL STOPOVER SITES MIXED EMERGENT WETLANDS > 40 ACRES + > 2.5 ACRES OF OPEN WATER. OTHER WETLANDS IN CLOSE PROXIMITY
01 DREDGE AWARENESS
02 WALLEYE SPAWNING
ALLOCATE TIME PERIODS FOR DREDGE REUSE AWARENESS
CONSTRUCT CDF DIKE WALLS FOR DREDGE CONTAINMENT ALONG WITH CRANE PEDESTALS
UTILIZE TOWER CRANE RADIUS FOR EASY DREDGE REMOVAL
THE DESIGN ALLOWS FOR A MODULAR PROGRAMMATIC SPACE CATERING TO CRANE MOVEMENT.
Amanda Laino h a r b o r l a n d s T h e G r e a t L a k e s R e s t o r a t i o n I n i t i a t i v e : 1 . T o x i c S u b s t a n c e s &