CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENTS LOGBOOK ENVS10003
SEAMUS FAITHFULL 699 296
WEEK ONE 7/03/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Load path diagram: A load path diagram demonstrates the path an applied force takes when it travels through a structure.
Lecture Content We were given the task of designing and building a structure made from a single piece of paper that could support the entire weight of a brick at approximately 30mm or above off the ground.
The weight of the brick due to the force of gravity (F=mg) is applied downwards onto the cylinder of folded paper. The force was evenly distributed across the cylinder and the cylinders reaction force was equal and opposite to the bricks force due to gravity, allowing the paper to support the brick.
Studio Session We discussed the different types of forces experienced in buildings including compression and tension and in which buildings these forces apply. Buildings with dome shaped roofs experience compression forces but not tension forces. Such buildings were used before the invention of materials with high tensile strength such as steel. Steel can be used to span great distances under large tension forces allowing the construction of modern buildings such as sky scarpers which could not previously have been built with materials such as brick, stone and wood (beyond certain limits). A force is any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body (Ching, 2014). Â
Lastly, we began constructing our buildings out of MDF (medium density fibre). We were split into groups and given the task of building a tall compression building with a roof and an entrance that could fit a toy dinosaur. Our group was given the additional challenge of building our tower complete (whole) before excavating an entrance.
A) We used a solid line of bricks to construct the square bottom shape of our building. This gave the building its shape and also a sturdy platform.
C) We began closing the building by aligning the blocks towards the centre of the building instead of directly above the block below. We did not complete the building as we ran out of time.
D) To make the entrance we gently pushed individual blocks out using a pen, to our surprise it did not collapse.
B) We then constructed the building with an overlapping pattern to make the building more flexible and to reduce the build time.
E) Our tutor demonstrated that we didn't need to be so careful when removing the blocks. This is because the blocks are all interconnected and support each other, allowing such an archway to be built.
F) Our design was able to flex and the load was shared between each block allowing it to support itself even with the excavated area.
The overlapping design of our building mean that the weight of the building was applied across the blocks evenly. This overlapping design enabled the building to support itself when the walls as excavated.
This image clearly shows the buildings flexibility and demonstrates how the buildings weight is shared across the blocks allowing the buildings walls to flex.
The entrance was successfully excavated and the toy dinosaur was easily able to fit inside. Succes!
Example Questions 1. Compression a) Is a characteristic of mass construction b) Can only be found in mass construction c) Is the same as tension d) None of the above 2. Forces are a) Gravity only loads acing on buildings b) Donâ€™t exist because you cant see them c) Defined by direction, sense and magnitude d) Defined by direction and magnitude only 3. Why do we use Scales? a) To represent larger elements in smaller formats b) To represent smaller objects in larger format c) For practical reasons d) All of the above
Glossary Jamb: The vertical portion of a frame onto which a door or window is secured. Mullion: A vertical bar between the panes of glass in a window. Beam: A long, sturdy piece of squared timber or metal used to support the roof or floor of a building. Load Path: The path an applied force takes when it travels through a permanent load.
References Build Right. (2012). Retrieved from http://toolboxes.flexiblelearning.net.au/demosites/series10/10_01/content/bcg bc4010a/01_loads_loading/01_primary_loads/page_008.htm Newton, C. (2014). W01s1 Load Path Diagrams [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y__V15j3IX4&feature=youtu.be Oxford Dictionaries. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com
WEEK TWO 14/03/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Materials • timber • metal • brick
Forces • tension • compression • tortion
• rural • suburban
• large • small
• sustainable • eco friendly
Orientation • North Facing • South Facing
Solid • compression buildings e.g pyramids
• e.g. Sydney Opera House
• tension structures e.g tents, sails
Skeletal • framework of buildings
Hybrid • comination of other structural systems
Sustainable Design Considerations • • • • • • • • • • •
Local materials Material efficiency Thermal mass Night air purging Solar energy Wind energy Cross ventilation Smart sun design Insulation Water use Water collection
Lecture Content In lecture two we completed an experiment to test the compression strength of straws. We exerted pressure on straws that were standing on an electronic scale, from this scale we were able to determine the compression rating for each straw. We tested a variety of straw combinations (1, 2, 4 straws) and also attached straws to plastic containers in different ways to see how much weight they could hold before being crushed. In the first test one straw was used. A downward force was exerted on the straw and an equal and opposite reaction force was exerted by the scale as the straw was compressed. The single straw could withstand up too 500g.
In the second test four straws were used. When the downward force was applied it was shared equally between the straws and as a result they could, as a whole, withstand more force. The four straws withstood up to 2000g. In the following tests straws were attached to a plastic container. At first four long straws were used and the design could only withstand 200g. This is because the supports (straws) were spaced apart and did not receive bracing from the other straws like they did in the second test. A variety of designs were made to try and see which design could withstand the most amount of pressure. Designs with shorter legs and/or more bracings were found to withstand the most pressure.
Studio Session In our week two tutorial we were given the task of building a structure using nothing but twenty thin strips of balsa wood and sticky tape/glue that was tall enough to reach the ceiling of the classroom. Because we were using just sticky tape of glue to construct our tower it was clear that the connections between bits of wood used would have to be fixed joints.
We designed our tower to have a wide base that would provide extra stability. As the tower became taller the importance of this wide stable base became clear. With the two forms of bracing at the bottom (triangular cross bracing & the crisscross brace), our tower was very stable. The next two sections of the tower were in the shape of triangular prisms. The connections between each piece of balsa wood were braced with triangles to increase the stability of the tower. Finally at the top of the tower we brought in the three ends into a spike instead of a triangle shape, this was ideal as it was positioned above the towers centre of gravity. To make our tower reach the roof we added one last piece of balsa wood in between the towers criss-crossed spike. During the construction it was noted that as the tower became taller it also became unstable. To combat this issue we added in extra bracing and supports.
Our connections were all fixed joints and were held together by sticky tape. Sticky tape was a good connecting material because it was light and very quick to use. Other joining techniques such as using pins was troublesome because they added addition weight which made the tower more unstable.
Other groups used different joining techniques. One such group used dovetail joins as seen in this image. This was a nice idea as it was aesthetically pleasing and used fewer resources. However, it was very impractical, taking up excess time and as a result this group failed to complete their tower.
At the bottom of our tower we decided to use a wide 3-pronged stance with two types of bracing. The triangle bracing in conjunction criss-crossed frame made with the our tower extra stable.
As our tower grew taller, section-bysection, it always became more and more unstable. It is clear in the image above that the tower was very wobbly and unstable. This was due to its tall height, weak joins and very flexible and weak material, balsa wood.
Example Questions 1. Which of the following is not an ESD strategy? a) Thermal mass b) Solar energy c) Frontal ventilation d) Water harvesting 2. The façade of the building is typically considered part of the: a) Substructure b) Service system c) Enclosure system 3. Which movements will a fixed joint restrict? a) Vertical b) Horizontal c) Rotation d) All of the above
Structural Joint: Connections between materials of a building that form part of the structure of that building. E.g. pin joints and fixed joints
Stability: The quality or state of something that is not easily moved.
Tension: The state of being stretched tight.
Frame: The elements of a building that forms its structure and shape.
Bracing: Elements that support, strengthen and stabalise a structure.
Column: Vertical elements that are used as support structure in a building.
References: Newton, C. (2014). W02 S1Structural Systems [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-JtPpI8uw&feature=youtu.be Newton, C. (2014). ESD and Selecting Materials [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luxirHHxjIY&feature=youtu.be Dictionary.com “Column”. (2014). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/column Merriam-Webster “Stability”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stability Vocabulary.com “Tension”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/tension
WEEK THREE 14/03/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Masonry: building with units of various natural or manufactured products… usually with the use of mortar as a bonding agent. (Ching, 12.06)
EARTH • Mud Cricks
CONCRETE • Blocks • Commons
• Slabs • Stone Rubble
CLAY • Bricks • Honey comb blocks
Equilibrium: When the applied force and reaction force are balanced, equal. Equilibrium = system at rest. Three forces acting; FV (force verticle), FH (force horizontal) and Moment (torque). Systems that are in equilibrium are represented in free body diagrams where the actual appearances of elements are represented by simple lines, arrows and symbols that show the forces acting and what types of joints are used. These free body diagrams make it easier to analyse and calculate the load of the building and how it is acting. Moment (Torque) The moment of a force is the tendency to make an object or a point rotate. MO = τ
= Force x distance = Fd
∴ M = Fd 0
Lecture Content Alan Pert - London Olympics • • • • •
• • • • • •
Games were a catalyst for urban regeneration 30 years of planned work was fast tracked into just 10 years Olympic park was the largest new park in the city for over 100 years 200 hectares of land was cleaned and freed from a tangle of pylons, pipelines and scrap yards. Olympic park was constructed in a neglected unused and contaminated wasteland. To reclaim this land tons of soil had to be cleaned by ‘remediation’ to remove oil, gasoline, tar etc The games were considered a success but its continued use in the future will determine its total level of success. Use the rubber from old shoe soles to make a cheap ‘playful’ fill for a walkway. (removed after games finished) London stadium used 8 times less carbon then the Beijing Olympic stadium 8 pools were made for the games. These were removed and given to schools across the country. Stadium held 80’000 people during the games, this was later reduced to hold 25’000 after the games finished. Stadium was made using steel cables instead of steel framework, this used 1000 tons less steel (10%)
Studio Session In this weeks studio session we had a guided campus tour and examined several building structures. Including;
Lot 6 Café The Lot 6 Café is of a concrete construction consisting of large concrete columns. These concrete columns have been made in situ (made on site). We could tell that the concrete was in situ because of their large size, which would’ve made it impractical, and near impossible to bring them onto site already constructed.
Underground Car park at South Lawn
The underground car park was a concrete construction consisting of numerous large conical pillars. These pillars were determined to be of in situ construction because of their larger size that would make transportation very difficult. They were made using steel molds that were reused after each pillar was formed. The columns are all hollow, this allows for drainage and also root space for the trees that are growing above many of the columns. There were also expansion joints (top right image). These were built into the car park to allow for expansion and contraction due to weather.
Arts West Student Centre
The Arts West Student Centre was architecturally designed using a large steel truss (as shown in image). The steel truss seems to be supported by a large cantilevered, laminated wooden beam. However, this is only aesthetics, as in such a situation timber cannot hold steel. Instead this large steel truss is actually supported by a large masonry block which is just visible in the far right of the image.
Stairs on West End of Union House
The stairs at the west end of union house are of a rigid steel construction. The stairs appear to be held in place by wires hanging from two large cantilevered ‘I’ beams as seen in the left image. However, the wires were not under tension and it was clear they were not supporting the stairs. Instead the stairs are in the shape of a bridge that is self-supporting. The base of the stairs is made of a large ‘I’ beam and the sides of the stairs are ‘C’ beams.
North Court Union House
The large sail at North Court Union House is an example of a membrane structure. The sail is secured to the ground by large steel wires in the centre of the court. These wires however were not under tension. The canopy instead is of a wing design and relies on the wind to hold it in place. The steel wires in the centre anchor it to the ground. The sail is designed to funnel any water down towards the middle and poor through down into a drain below.
Beaurepaire Pool Centre
The Beaurepaire Pool Centre is a large structure that has long distances that are spanned. The centre has a large steel portal frame structure. Windows form the walls on the two longer sides and have alluminium dividers/joints. The end walls are constructed of brick and give the building its strength. They are ‘sheer walls’.
Oval Pavilion (under construction)
The oval pavilion is currently being constructed at the sports fields. The building features a large cantilevered wooden frame roof that acts as a large open sheltered area. This cantilevered roof has a steel internal structure with a wooden covering on the bottom to disguise it. Steel is necessary for the cantilever because of the great span distance and hence large forces applied to it. Â
Melbourne School of Design (under construction)
The Melbourne School of Design is also currently under construction. It is of steel frame construction with in situ concrete floors and beams. The buildings main eye catching feature is a large cantilevered section. This section is evident in the middle and right images. This cantilever spans 12m, supports three levels which a force of 150 tons acting on the cantilever!!
Example Questions 1. Why do some blocks have holes in the middle? a) Increases the weight b) Allows reinforcement rods to be installed within the blocks c) As a warning they cant be used as load bearing elements d) Decreases the insulation performance 2. Which of the following would be described as a strut? a) Timber beam b) Concrete floor slab c) Steel column d) Cable stay bridge 3. What is a foundation? (<15 words)
Glossary Retaining Wall: A wall that holds back earth or water. Pad footing: A simple form of foundations used to support lightweight timber frame houses. Holes are dug into the ground and filled with concrete to ground level. These footings are not connected to one another Strip footing: A strip of concrete placed into a trench and reinforced with steel bars. Strip footings support the load of exterior walls and load bearing interior walls. Very commonly used in Australia. Slap on ground: Where a concrete slab is laid directly onto the ground Substructure: Structure forming the foundations of a building or other construction. The underlying or supporting part of a structure.
References Dictionary.com “Retaining Wall.” (2014). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/retaining+wall ABIS “Footing”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.abis.com.au/footing Merriam-Webster “Slab on Ground”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/slab-on-ground
Merriam-Webster “Substructure”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/substructure
WEEK FOUR 21/03/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Span • The distance between the centres of repeating elemements
• Cocnrete • timber • steel
• Distance between two structural points
Supports • Verticle structural element • Holds up beams
Beams • Horizontal structual element • Supports Klooring
In situ Concrete that is cast in place (on site).
Precast Manufactured in factory and transported to site.
Requires formwork & bracing
Requires initial bracing
Used for large concrete structures e.g. slabs
Faster onsite progress
Slow to set & not as 'pristene' Kinish
Very accurate and neat Kinish, different Kinishes optional.
Lecture Content This lecture this week was about the construction of the new sports pavilion and the different people from various professions who work together to plan, design, construct and review it. Engineers Engineers played a big part of the construction of this building, from planning the water and electrical aspects to the buildings actual structural features. Many different engineers worked on this site including; civil, mechanical, electrical structural and hydraulic engineers. Project Manager • Client-side project manager • Represents many people in relation to the sports pavilion but predominantly Melbourne University Sport. • Job is to make sure the client is happy; construction is on schedule and not over budget. • Appoints the technical experts who design and construct the building. • Starts before and finishes after technical experts. Architects • Used previous plans drawn by other architects as a initial starting point • Timber was used for vertical structure because of it provides ‘warmth’ where people come into contact with the building • Steel was used for horizontal beams because of its greater spanning strength and capabilities.
Studio Session: Reading Architectural Drawings
2 3 1
Complete architectural drawing plan of the ‘Canopy Detail Section’
• • •
Description of what the specific drawing is illustrating Scale (1:20) Related drawing (A21-02)
Information on the various consultants who were involved in building of the Pavilion.
• • •
Project overview The architecture company completing the project Employer (Melbourne Uni)
Description of the tender and the date it was submitted.
• • • • • •
Drawing title Document status Scale Date drawn Drawing number Project Number
Example Questions 1. What is the purpose of a floor system? a) To distribute the live loads acting on the floor to the walls b) To hold up the dead loads of the foundations c) To transfer live loads via vertical members to supports d) To transfer dead and live loads via horizontal members to supports 2. Provide reasons why precast concrete may be preferred over in situ concrete. • • •
Glossary Girder: a horizontal main structural member that supports vertical loads in a building. Joist: any of a number of small, parallel beams of timber, steel, reinforced concrete etc., for supporting floors or ceilings. Span: the distance between two supports of a structure. Spacing: The distance between two regular sections of a building e.g. joists
References Newton, C. (2014). W04_Floor Systems [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otKffehOWaw&feature=youtu.be Newton, C. (2014). W04_m1 Concrete [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1M19C25MLU&feature=youtu.be Newton, C. (2014). W04_m2 In Situ Concrete [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3zW_TBGjfE&feature=youtu.be Newton, C. (2014). W04_m3 Pre Cast Concrete [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scYY-MMezI0&feature=youtu.be Merriam-Webster “Girder”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/girder Merriam-Webster “Joist”. (2014). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/joist Dictionary.com “Span”. (2014). Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/span?&o=100074&s=t
WEEK FIVE 02/04/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Trees (Wood)
• Trees grow in the environment.
• Selected trees are cut down & stripped of branches/ leaves.
• Wood is cut and shaved into speciKic sizes.
• Water is removed from timber
• Finished timber is used and sold for various purposes.
Short & Long Columns Short • Short columns fail by crushing. [Failure of material] • The length of the column is less then 12 times the width. [<12] • Compression strength = Load (N) / Area (mm2)
θ = !
Where: θ = Compression strength (Pa) P = Load (N) A = Area (mm2)
Long • Long columns buckle in the short axis. [Failure of Form e.g. ruler] • The length of the column is more then 12 times the width. [>12]
Lecture Content Peter Ashford – Construction of the Architecture Building Basement • Excavated in sections • Retainment systems put in place to hold soil during excavation • Drainage systems built into retaining walls • ‘Shot Crete’ sprayed onto earth walls (water proofing, stabilisation) • Internal walls were precast concrete (made in South Australia) Cantilever • 3 stories high cantilever section • 12 cantilever • Structural steel frame • Large diagonal support takes most of the load (150 tons) -‐ 12 m -‐ Diagonal support (150 tons)
Studio Session In this week’s studio session we began building to-scale (1:20) models of the sports pavilion. The group I was in was given the task of building the square back section of the pavilion that included the basement (showers, toilets etc) and the above level.
Air lock (lift)
Brick Veneer Wall • Brick Skin • Timber stud wall
Concrete Slab Brick Retaining Wall
Wet Areas; showers etc
Firstly, using balsa wood and card, we constructed the basement level of our section of the sports pavilion.
Thin pieces of balsa wood and also card was used to represent the concrete walls of the basement that were not retaining the surrounding earth (thinner). Card was also used as the base on which our model was built and attached to.
Balsa wood was also used to represent the much thicker retaining wall of the basement. To make this section we used a double layer of balsa wood.
Double thickness piece of balsa wood (represents the thick concrete retaining wall).
Entrance to basement Double thickness balsa wood wall represents the concrete retaining wall. Cardboard floor (does not represent concrete slab but acts to stablise the model. Single skin balsa wood (same thickness as card wall) represents the walls that are not retaining the surrounding earth.
After completing the underground basement level of the sports pavilion we began the construction of the above level. We made the model in two sections because the basement model was not sturdy enough as the glue was still drying. Card was used again to represent the concrete slab that formed the roof of the basement and the floor of the above level.
Card used for the concrete floor slab
The models we were making only included the structural elements of the pavilion. AS our section included a brick veneer wall we only built the timber stud frame.
The timber stud frame
Super glue used to glue the stud frame together
Timber studs were cut from the balsa wood
Top Plate Timber Stud
Noggings Bottom Plate
Timber stud wall
Concrete slab floor
Missing Timber stud wall (did not quite finish due to lack of time) Concrete Walls Entrances to underground shower facilities etc
Example Questions 1. Which of the following is true about wall systems? a) Stud wall members can be timber or steel b) Load bearing walls can be constructed from reinforced concrete c) Structural frames can be constructed using timber, steel or concrete d) A and C only 2. State three differences between long and short columns • • • 3. For brick veneer walls, which is the structural element? a) The brick skin b) The brick frame c) The timber stud frame d) Both the timber and the brick skin
Glossary Stud: Vertical uprights in the framing of the walls of a building. Nogging: A horizontal member that runs between studs, providing lateral support. Lintel: Lintels are beams that span the openings for windows and external doors. Axial Load: A load that creates force parallel to the axis of an object. Buckle: The distortion of a structural member such as a beam or joist under a force (load). Seasoned Timber: Timber that is not green and has been dried to a moisture content that is stable.
References Build Right “Timber Wall Framing”. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/toolbox/buildright/content/bcgbc4010a/11_wal l_systems/01_timber_wall_framing/page_003.htm Wise Geek “What is an Axial Load?” (2013). Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-axial-load.htm Dictionary of Construction “Buckle”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/buckle.html
CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP 28/03/14 Safety • • • •
Steel cap boots worn Instructions/demonstrations on how to safely use workshop tools Care taken when using workshop tools Ear protection used if required
Task Build a structure that spans 1000mm has a maximum height of 400mm that can carry the biggest possible load.
Materials Each group was given a different selection of timber. The group I was in received; • 1 x (1200 x 3.2 x 90 mm Ply) • 3 x (1200 x 35 x 35 mm Pine) We also had access of various tools and fixing materials to assemble our structure including; • Nails, of various sizes • Hammers • Saws • Cordless drills & drill bits • Screws • Rulers & set squares
Our group’s materials
Our Structure As a group we decided to go with a simple structure that had minimal joins in order to preserve the timbers natural strength. We carefully picked our three bits of pine making sure they had no knots in them because they are structurally weak places in the timber. We attached the three bits of pine together using nails. We carefully aligned each piece and marked on them the positions where the nails would be hammered in. Each hole was then predrilled using the cordless drill and a drill but slightly smaller then our nails. This meant that the wood would be under less pressure from the nails and would less likely crack (weakening our structure). After each hole was drilled we hammered in a nail to fasten the pieces of timber together. The holes were drilled on alternating sides to the centre piece of timber.
The holes were drilled from alternating sides into the centre piece of wood.
The drill bit used was smaller then the nails. This reduced the stress the nails cause the timber but still allow them to tightly fasten.
After the three bits of pine were nailed together we attached the piece of plywood. Considering the point force that is applied to the timber we decided to attach it to the bottom of the pine to help deal with the tension forces it receives.
Compression force Tension force. This is where we attached the plywood.
Post Tension Technologies â€œTensile Forces.â€? (2014). Retrieved from http://www.creativesignmakers.com/postensiontech/faq.htm
We attached the plywood with small nails. A nail was hammered into each individual piece of pine to help share the tension forces.
Our finished structure! (upside down)
After completing our structures they were then each exposed to a point force that was delivered by a compression machine.
The point force acted as an active load that a bridge could be subject too. It caused our ‘bridge’ to bend, with a compression force on the top and a tension force on the bottom.
Our structure was able to hold a point force of around 672 kg before it cracked.
The large force acting on our structure caused it to crack. Once the force exceeded 672 kg the tension force on the bottom beam was too great and in result in broke.
WEEK SIX 11/04/14 E-learning & Reading Modules
Concrete • Klat, precast, waterproof membrane, slope towards drainage point (1-‐3°)
Light Framed • Verticle traiangular shaped roof structure made from timber or steel
Space Framed • 3D Plate type • spans in two directions
• Klat, sloping or portal • Usually Kinished with sheet metal
Trussed • constructed from a series of open web type timber or steel elements
Cold Formed (elements folded from sheets)
Hot Rolled (elements shaped while metal is hot)
Structural Steel (framing)
Steel Used in harsh environments
Steel Sheeting must be protected from weathering
Very rarely used as primary structure
Lecture Content Dermot McGeown – Head of Undergraduate Property Program There are two main types of infrastructure 1. Government Funded: Arts Centre or Gallery 2. Private Commercial Funded e.g. Shopping Centres Important Aspects of Property Development • • • • •
Space creation Profits made/lost Capitalising on opportunity Knowing product, market and marketing Achieving set outcomes
The other groups received the task of constructing the awning section of the sports pavilion including the large cantilever. Join between the two individual groups sections. Structure made from balsa wood using fixed joints (superglued).
Example Questions 1. A tiled roof: a) Can be constructed at any pitch b) Should be constructed at pitches > 15 degrees c) Should be constructed at pitches < 15 degrees d) Should be constructed as a flat roof 2. Why is steel a commonly used material in the construction industry? a) It has good compressive and tensile properties b) It can be formed into many different products c) It is easy to cut and change its shape d) A and B
Glossary Rafter: A beam forming part of the internal framework of a roof. Purlin: A horizontal beam along the length of a roof, resting on principals and supporting the common rafters or boards. Cantilever: A structural member that projects beyond its support at one end. Portal Frame: A rigid structural frame consisting essentially of two uprights connected at the top by a third member (often used in sheds). Eave: The bottom edges of a sloping roof that project beyond the outside walls of a building. Alloy: A metal made by melting and mixing two or more different metals together e.g. steel. Soffit: The underside of a part or member of a structure, such as a beam, stairway, or arch. Chord: The top or bottom members of a truss (typically horizontal).
References Dictionary of Construction “Cantilever” (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/cantilever.html Dictionary of Construction “Chord” (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/chord.html Dictionary of Construction “Eave” (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/eaves.html Dictionary of Construction “Soffit” (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/soffit.html Merriam-Webster “Alloy”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/alloy Newton, C. (2014). W06_c1 Roof Systems [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5ms8vmhs50&feature=youtu.be Newton, C. (2014). W06_m2 Ferrous Metals [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQy3IyJy-is&feature=youtu.be
WEEK SEVEN (18/04/14) E-learning & Reading Modules
(sythesised in lab)
Hosing & Piping
PLASTICS Thermoplastics: mouldable when heated, solid when cool & recylclable e.g. polycarbonate & polythene
Thermosetting Plastics: can only be moulded (shaped) once e.g. polystyrene & laminex
Synthetic Rubbers (Elastomers): elastic, water repellant and poor conductors of heat and electricity (useful insulators) e.g. neoprene & silicon.
Arches “Arches are curved structures for spanning an opening, designed to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression” (Ching, 2.25).
Domes “A dome is a spherical surface structure having a circular plan and constructed of stacked blocks..” (Ching, 2.26).
Shells “Shells are thin, curved plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete” (Ching, 2.27). If applied uniformly, a shell structure can support large forces. However, because of their thinness shell structures have low resistance to bending and are hence unsuitable for concentrated loads (Ching, 2.26).
Glossary Drip: A groove in the underside of a projection, such as a windowsill, that prevents water from running back into the building wall. Vapour Barrier: Material used to prevent the passage of vapor or moisture into a structure or another material, thus preventing condensation within them. Gutter: A shallow channel positioned just below and following along the eaves of a building for the purpose of collecting and diverting water from a roof. Parapet: That part of a wall that extends above the roof level. Down Pipe: A pipe to carry rainwater from a roof to a drain or to ground level. Flashing: A thin, impervious sheet of material used to prevent water penetration or direct the flow of water on a building. Insulation: Any material, device, or technique that provides protection against fire or the transfer of electricity, heat, cold, moisture, or sound. Joint Sealant: An impervious substance used to fill joints or cracks in concrete or mortar, or to exclude water and solid matter from any joints. Gaskets: Any of a variety of seals made from resilient materials and placed between two joining parts (as between a door and its frame) to prevent the leakage of air, water, gas, or fluid. Control Joints: Purposefully made grooves/cuts made in concrete to help control where it cracks.
References Ching, F. (2008). Building construction illustrated (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Dictionary of Construction “Control Joint”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/control-joint.html Dictionary of Construction “Drip”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/drip.html Dictionary of Construction “Flashing”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/flashing.html Dictionary of Construction “Gasket”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/gasket.html Dictionary of Construction “Gutter”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/gutter.html Dictionary of Construction “Insulation”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/insulation.html Dictionary of Construction “Joint Sealant”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/joint-sealant.html Dictionary of Construction “Parapet”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/parapet.html Dictionary of Construction “Vapour Barrier”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/vapor-barrier.html Newton, C. (2014). W07_m1 Rubber [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPhjDijdf6I&feature=youtu.be Newton, C. (2014). W07_m2 Plastics [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pfnCtUOfy4&feature=youtu.be
WEEK EIGHT 02/05/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Hardness High, but can be scratched.
Flexibility non-‐existent when cool but very Klexible when molten
Ductility Very low
Strategies to Stop Water Entering a Building 1. Remove Openings 2. Keep Water Away From Openings 3. Nuetralise Forces • Gravity • Air Pressure • Surface Tension • Capillary Action • Momentum
Fragility High, changed depending on glass types
Studio Session Metal Deck Roof
External Timber Lining Acoustic Insulation
2x Impact & fire resistant Walls Thermal Insulation (roof)
Z â€“ Purlin
Example Questions: 1. Double glazing changes the performance of a window by: a) Increasing heat transfer b) Increasing sound transmission c) Increasing visibility d) None of the above 2. Describe 3 strategies that could be used to stop water entering a building • • •
Glossary Window Sash: The framework of a window that holds the glass. Deflection: The bending of a structural member as a result of its own weight or an applied load. Moment: An applied load or force that creates bending in a structural member. Door Furniture: the handles, lock, and other fixtures on a door. Stress: pressure or tension exerted on a material object. Shear Force: A force acting on a body which tends to slide one portion of the body against the other side of the body.
References Dictionary of Construction “Deflection”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/deflection.html Dictionary of Construction “Moment”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/moment.html Dictionary of Construction “Sash”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/sash.html Dictionary of Construction “Shear Force”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/shear-force.html Newton, C. (2014). W08_m1 GLASS [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I0Jqcrfcyk&feature=youtu.be
WEEK NINE 09/05/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Joints Constructability
Health & Safety
Construction Detailing Considerations
A single material or combined materials that are indistinguishable from one another.
Two or more materials combined which are easily distinguishable from one another
• Bonded together • Become one material • Individual properties not apparent
• Metal Alloys • Plastic
• Bonded together • Retain individual properties • Act together to improve characteristics not obtainable by individual materials • Fibrous • Laminar • Particulate • Hybrid • Fibre Reinforced Cement (FRC) • Fibreglass • Timber Composites
Studio Session: Tutorial Group Site Visit Relevant Building Information • Heavy weight (concrete structure) • 4 storeys • Underground car park & car stacker • 28 apartments • Cost: $7 million ($2000 m2) (30% materials & 70% labour) Underground Car Park
Load path diagram demonstrating the path taken by an applied load when acting on the concrete floor slab of level 1.
Lifting Point (indicates that it is prefabricated). Prefabricated section of concrete Shot-Crete Wall
Walls deliberately cut to allow for expansion and to reduce cracking. Crack caused by expansion and contraction of concrete Wet concrete design (no waterproofing, drainage built in).
Shot-Crete concrete wall
Panel Props (temporary bracing to hold back the retaining wall while the concrete sets)
Fixing Point (steel cables run out 30m underground to brace basement walls.
Reinforced Concrete wall (steel bar reinforcement)
Level One The concrete floor slab for roof two was poured and in the process of drying. Because it was not sufficiently hard enough to support it self (takes 28 days), scaffolding was in place to support it.
H-Frame wood scaffolding (temporary)
Steel ‘I’ beams (permanent)
Steel scaffolding taking the load of the setting concrete.
Drying concrete (2.5 tons per m3)
‘H’ frame wooden scaffolding. Orange colour distinguishes it as being a temporary structure. Scaffolding is reused numerous times for different stages of the building and for other projects.
Steel Column: 200mm by 100mm and 9mm in thickness. Columns take the load of the building (static) and also the live loads (dynamic).
Sheer plate cast into the concrete to increase the surface area of the steel columns and stop ‘sheer punch’.
Preparations were underway for the pouring of the concrete slab for level 3. Safety barriers in place to prevent construction workers from falling. Coverings on exposed pipes to prevent water entering the building. Steel reinforcement bars in place for the concrete to be poured over.
Steel reinforcement bars to add strength to the concrete floor slab.
Steel ties in place to align the steel bars and make sure they donâ€™t move.
Example Questions 1. Which of the following would be classified as a composite material? a) Aluminium sandwich panel b) Bronze c) All of the above d) None of the above 2. Is concrete a composite material? a) Yes b) No 3. Which of the following materials will not lose their glossiness overtime? a) Painted timber b) Enamelled steel surfaces c) Copper d) B & D
Glossary Sandwich Panel: A prefabricated panel that is a layered composite, formed by attaching two thin facings to a thicker core e.g. two aluminum sheets bounded to a non-aluminum core. Bending: Shaping or forcing a material into a curve or angle. Skirting: a material, usually wood, running along the base of an interior wall covering the connection between the wall and flooring. Composite Beam: A beam combining different materials to work as a single unit, such as structural steel and concrete.
References Dictionary of Construction “Composite Beam”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/composite-beam.html Dictionary of Construction “Sandwhich Panel”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/sandwich-panel.html Newton, C. (2014). W09_c1 Construction Detailing [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqVwAV7yJCI&feature=youtu.be Newton, C. (2014). W09_m1 Composite Materials [Youtube video]. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uem1_fBpjVQ&feature=youtu.be
WEEK TEN 16/05/14 E-learning & Reading Modules Corrosion
ANODIC END (More prone to corrosion) Magnesium Zinc Aluminium Structural Steels Cast Iron Lead Tin Copper, Brass, Bronze Nickel Titanium Stainless Steel CATHODIC END (Less prone to corrosion)
Heroes and Culprits
Aluminium (large embodied energy)
Plastic (embodied energy)
Dynamic Loads “Dynamic loads are applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid changes in magnitude and point of application. Under a dynamic load, a structure develops inertial forces in relation to its mass and its maximum deformation does not necessarily correspond to the maximum magnitude of the applied force. The two major types of dynamic loads are wind loads and earthquake loads.” (Ching, 2014). “Wind exerts positive pressure horizontally on the windward vertical surfaces of buildings and normal pressure to roof surfaces having a slope greater than 300” (Ching, 2014).
“Wind exerts negative pressure or suction on leeward surfaces and normal to windward roof surfaces having a slope less than 300” (Ching, 2014).
An earthquake consists of a series of longitudinal and transverse vibrations induced in the earth’s crust by the abrupt movement of tectonic plates. Earthquake shocks propagate from the source alone the earth’s surface in the form of waves.
The natural period of a structure varies according to its height and its dimension parallel to the direction of the applied forces. Relatively stiff structures oscillate rapidly and have short periods while structures with more flex oscillate more slowly and have longer periods.
Studio Session See attached A3 image
Example Questions 1. Which of the following combinations would result in the least corrosion of the gutter? a) Aluminum roof sheet – zinc gutter b) Zinc roof sheet – galvanized steel gutter c) Galvanized steel roof sheet – copper gutter d) Copper roof sheet – zinc gutter 2. Which of the following structural design concepts should be observed in an earthquake prone area? a) Locate most of the buildings mass at the top of the building b) Minimise the surface area of the building c) Design the structural elements to move as much as possible d) Increase the stiffness of the building with bracing 3. In a seaside environment external cladding should be: a) A plywood product b) Glued to the external wall studs c) Detailed for the exposure conditions d) Detailed to prevent any thermal movement
Glossary Shear Wall: A wall portion of a structural frame intended to resist lateral forces, such as earthquake, wind, and blast, acting in the plane or parallel to the plane of the wall. Soft Storey: A multi-storey building in which one or more floors have windows, wide doors, large unobstructed commercial spaces, or other openings in places where a shear wall would normally be required for stability as a matter of earthquake engineering design Braced Frame: A wooden structural framing system in which all vertical members, except for corner posts, extend for one floor only. The corner posts are braced to the sill and plates. Lifecycle: A term often used to describe the period of time that a building can be expected to actively and adequately serve its intended function. Defect: Any condition or characteristic that detracts from the appearance, strength, or durability of an object.
Fascia: A board or other flat piece of material covering the ends of rafters or other fittings. Corrosion: The oxidation or eating away of a metal or other material by exposure to chemical or electrochemical action such as rust. Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ): An important criterion for green, or sustainable, building design, this refers to general overall building occupant comfort. Includes humidity, ventilation and air circulation, acoustics, and lighting.
References Dictionary of Construction “Braced Frame”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/braced-frame.html Dictionary of Construction “Corrosion”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/corrosion.html Dictionary of Construction “Defect”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/defect.html Dictionary of Construction “Indoor Environmental Quality”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/indoor-environmental-qualityieq.html Dictionary of Construction “Life Cycle”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/life-cycle.html Dictionary of Construction “Shear Wall”. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dictionaryofconstruction.com/definition/shear-wall.html Wikipedia “Soft Storey Building”. (2014). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_story_building W10_m2 A Tale of Corrosion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IqhvAeDjlg&feature=youtu.be
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