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Albania US$2; Australia A$6.50 (inc GST); Bulgaria BGL5.90; Canada C$4.95 (Toronto C$4.75); Croatia KN24; Cyprus E3.00 C£1.76; Czech Rep. CK91; Denmark DK28; Estonia K30: Gibraltar G£0,80; Hungary F650; Kenya KSH185; Latvia LVL 2.75; Malta E2.70; Morocco D25; Norway NK35; Poland Zl12.00; Romania E3.40; Russia US$2.75; Slovakia E3.00/Sk90.38; Sweden SK35; Switzerland SF6.20; Thailand B190; Turkey YTL 5.00; Ukraine US$3.50; USA US$3.75

Experience center

The Alaska Pipeline Still coated by Covalence

07

Soon available in 3D 

17

Quarterly edition Spring 2014

! E R A C O DARE T

sealforlife

The meaning behind

Download the Seal For Life app

Dare to Care and Total Care

Let’s Seal for Life

Now featuring: Dare to Care Convention Movie

Youtube.com/sealforlifecom

GREAT EVENTS Nace 10-14 March 2014, San Antonio, USA Pipeline Opportunities Conference March 25, 2014, Houston TX, USA District Heating 7 April, Cologne, Germany Asset Integrity Conference 14 April, Muscat, Oman Tankforum Dubai 14 April, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Extreme: Gulf of Mexico

Napca, Pipeline Coaters Conference April 23-26, 2014, Florida, USA

Non-sense of non-shielding coatings This is also the world of Seal For Life. The skutsje, a more than 100 years old barge, is a populair historic boat type in the Netherlands. Every year they compete in a national race-week with tens of thousands of spectators. Good conservation of these ships can only be achieved with high quality solutions. This barge (right) has been sealed with fluid STOPAQ anti-corrosion material to seal the deepest pores and crevices. Sealed for her maritime life indeed!

En+Eff Messe May 6-8, 2014, Köln, Germany 9th Pipeline Technology Conference 2014 May 12-14, 2014, Estrel Berlin, Germany Pipetech World Summit June 16, Rome, Italy

SFL INDUSTRIES

SFL INDUSTRIES

SFL INDUSTRIES

marine

subsea

aerospace

6th Journées Protection Cathodique SFL INDUSTRIES SFL INDUSTRIES June 24-26, 2014, Juan les Pins, France

fast

pipelines

ASCE Pipelines 2014 Conference August 3-6, 2014, Portland OR, USA Continued on page 2

Seal For Life, the original slogan of Stopaq, has now become the name of our company. And not without good reason. It’s not just a slogan, but a statement we are making to the market: thanks to its ‘literally smart cross-bonds’, Seal For Life Industries is able to offer new, sustainable solutions within the oil, gas and water – i.e. pipeline – markets. Our constant pursuit of quality and way of thinking enable us to give guarantees that others simply cannot fulfill.

joint market through a broader, yet at the same time deeper, focus on civil infrastructural challenges. Our views on markets and applications demand not only knowledge but also courage. That’s because introducing new methodologies and ways of thinking into traditional markets is a brave thing to do. But we have already noticed both within and outside Seal For Life, that our vision is leading to success: ‘Dare to Care’ is not only a slogan, but also a clear statement to our stakeholders, clients and application engineers.

Our synergies also enables us to take advantage of our leadership position in niche markets. For instance, we can successfully tackle the cable

As Seal For Life, we are the ‘lifeguards’ of (often) vulnerable systems, not just on land but also offshore. An increasing number of clients no

SEALANT SOLUTIONS

SEALTAQ 2100 SFL INDUSTRIES SFL INDUSTRIES SFL INDUSTRIES longer accept short-term solutions, pipe plant coating and plant coating rise in water levels, worldwide. This but instead are convinced by construction our in general.home By means of exclusive just somethingflooring for the pro cf services is no longer energy vision and can see our growth and partnership services, we can boost future; our Stopaq member is already expansion into other market areas. sales concepts for a whole range carrying out applications involved What’s more, through our global of specific applications and uses, with raising dyke walls in relation to dedicated market management for such as casings, j-tubes, subsea these changing circumstances in the offshore, we can also take a leading structures, surface preparation, preNetherlands. If there were no levees, SFL INDUSTRIES SFL INDUSTRIES SFL INDUSTRIES SFL INDUSTRIES position in the field of pre-insulated engineering, factory-applied pipeline 45% of this particular country would cable & wires automotive coating concepts, storage problems, disappearwaste underwater water. cathodic protection home do-it-yourself treatment application training, corrosion monitoring and after-sale service. In short, ‘Dare to Care’ is no longer limited to below-ground pipeline and Changes on our planet also offer new traditional markets, but means ‘Total opportunities to put the innovative Care’ for Seal For Life nowadays. Seal strength of Seal For Life into practice. For Life’s playing field has become not For instance, pipeline and ‘bedding only very broad, but also specialised. solutions’ in unstable infrastuctures, This demands a lifelong learning our solutions for applications in polar process – continuing education – from regions and the solutions that we as engineers and application teams, but a group can offer in relation to the also from ourselves.


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Spring 2014

The future proof organization New markets are waiting with staying power P E R M A N E N T LY

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GUTTER RUBBER

Developed by engineers from Holland, a country with centuries of experience in PAINTED holding backCAN water.BE Blockr® gets you back into action fast.

SWIMMINGPOOL WINDOW

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sales & customer service. The ‘moment of truth’ for the sales orga­ ni­ sa­ tion. Can we turn our abilities and beliefs into reality?

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The three main pillars of knowledge are education, research and innovation. But are these pillars sufficient to turn an idea into a successful reality and translate benefits to society? The answer seems to be no. It does not matter how large or how many support mechanisms are visible as ‘trees’ (society), they will not work if the “roots” (education) are not adequately nurtured to prompt the knowledge flow capillaries. Pumping knowledge from roots to the trees, from human capital to society, is the simple and risky work called entrepreneurship. The term has been used in multiple and diverse ways, but few really know how to define it to generate high and sustainable growth. Entrepreneurship is not just about receiving money for new business (trees); it also needs spirit and talent (roots) to flow accordingly. It is not only science but art as well. It is an art, or spirit, that emerges thanks to the inspiration, creativity and added value that motivates indi­viduals to generate unique attitudes and behaviors. It presumes an inner cultural challenge that presently differentiates entre­ preneurs with what we term ‘disruptive’ initiatives.

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GREAT EVENTS Continued from page 1

NACE Central Area Conference August 25-27, 2014, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA

Dare to Care Event – SFL Industries 12-15 October, Abu Dhabi, UAE Iploca 15-17 October, Abu Dhabi, UAE Corrosion Prevention 2-6 November, Seoul, South Korea Latincorr 28-31 October 2014, Medellin, Columbia BHR Aberdeen 3-6 November, Aberdeen, Scotland

Source: Mahr Avila, EU Advisor

ADIPEC – the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference 10 – 13 November, Abu Dhabi, UA

SURFACE

IS UV-RESISTANT:

ON ROOFS

ONCE

APPLIED

SEALS FOREVER

Green uvresistance backing

Black uvresistance backing

Us e ins t ruc t ions Bloc kr ® s e a la nt

STICKS IMMEDIATELY

CAN BE PAINTED OVER AFTER APPLIED

CAN BE APPLIED TO ALMOST ANY SURFACE

The do-it-yourself

solution to sealISand EASY AND SAFE UV-RESISTANT TO APPLY protect anything CAN BE USED NO HAZARDOUS ON ROOFS inMATERIALS or around your house!

Seal For Life Industries is a total solution provider for jointing and sealing techniques in district heating. The product range includes joint casings & sealing heat shrinksleeves, foaming hole closures, end caps and sealants. Additional equipment like torches, scrapers, heating shields, etc. are part of the Seal For Life District Heating product assortment. Millions of pre-insulated pipe for district heating and cooling joints have been sealed with Seal For Life’s Covalence products. Seal For Life District Heating is your expert in sealing applications and is therefore very proud to introduce the new sub-brands of Covalence.

Wrap-around Tubular Covalence Solutions

Dual Adhesive Covalence Solutions

facts instead of expectations

Soon available, PolyGuru is an independent service of SFL Industries specialized in service analysis of polymers, composites and coatings. Since the establishment of PolyGuru, SFL has successfully worked on international challenging and revolutionary projects with well-established companies and universities. Our markets include windenergy, aerospace, infrastructure, and membrane development. In many real-life circumstances,

mechanical and chemical exposure triggers several chemical-mechanical effects that influence material service life when protecting metal surface or as a substitute for metal, to a significant extent. Polyguru enables you to virtually test these combined mechanical and chemical effects on an any material in any configuration and application. So you can obtain quantitative insight in lifetime and eventual failure modes. Polyguru also supports with design of laboratory

experiments and interpretation of manufacturer’s chemical resistance guides. Use PolyGuru for critical service life issues such as stress corrosion, mechanically, chemically and thermally driven stress, interfacial fracture, blister information and H2S. Contact us for further applications.

CAN BE APPLIED TO ALMOST ANY SURFACE

EASY AND SAFE IS UV-RESISTANT TO APPLY CAN BE USED NO HAZARDOUS ON ROOFS MATERIALS

CAN BE USED

YET FLEXIBLE

Pol guru

CAN BE PAINTED OVER AFTER APPLIED

EASY AND SAFE IS UV-RESISTANT CAN BE USED ON ROOFS MATERIALS

EasySeal DualSeal

AMI Field Joint Coating 2014 September 2-4, 2014, Radisson Blu Scandinavia Hotel Düsseldorf, Germany

International Pipeline Exposition 2014 September 30- October 2, 2014, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

SURFACE

yS

Eas

ACA Corrosion & Prevention September 21-24, 2014, Darwin, Australia,

The key to creating a successful com­bi­nation of art and science, and therefore delivering tangible benefits to society, may depend firstly on building the individual and contextual conditions that permit entrepreneurs to launch in­ no­ vative projects (a new fish for example), not only by detecting the right idea (flying fish) within a huge and rapid competitive world (oceans and currents) but by managing the right moment (early in the morning), at the right place (Barbados), with the right resources (a fish caught while flying, using nets from outrigger canoes). If entrepreneurs detect good disruptive ideas but aren’t conscious of their potential, innovation will not be fruitful.

With big names we must really care for: GasUnie, Fluxys, Pemex, Petrobras, Gazprom, Eni, Chevron, Saudi Aramco, Petrochina, Statoil, QP, ADNOC, GNPOC, Sasol, Lukoil, Exxon and BP.

CAN BE APPLIED ALMOST TO ALMOST ANY ANY

Two new specific soil stress resistant solutions for pre-insulated pipelines

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IS A PERMANENT

Us e ins t ruc t ions Bloc kr ® s e a la nt

CAN BE APPLIED TO

Introducing EasySeal and DualSeal by Covalence

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EASY AND SAFE

CAN BE PAINTED CAN BE APPLIED OVER AFTER TO ALMOST ANY APPLIED SEALING SURFACE SOLUTION

Contains 4 samples with different backings for different applications and surfaces: • Aluminium backing • Cloth backing • Green uv-resistance backing • Black uv-resistance backing

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CAN BE PAINTED OVER AFTER APPLIED GUARANTEE

APPLIED

$5

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/IP

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EASY AND SAFE IS UV-RESISTANT Aluminium Cloth TO APPLY USED backingCAN BEbacking NO HAZARDOUS ON ROOFS MATERIALS

The do-it-yourself solution to seal and protect anything in or around your house!

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SEALS WATER LEAKS

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CAN BE APPLIED TO ALMOST ANY SERFACE

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this, the ‘people focus’ that makes IS UV-RESISTANT: CAN BE USED the appliers happy is central. It ON ROOFS CAN BE ensures both personal growth ONCE PAINTED and development, all through the OVER AFTER APPLIED ‘one fa­mi­ly’ mentality. Here you APPLIED will also find the ambassadors STICKS IS A PERMANENT P E R M A N E N T LY (distributors and appliers) who IMMEDIATELY YET FLEXIBLE SEALING SOLUTION SEALS are the messengers. GUTTER RUBBER SWIMMINGPOOL WINDOW FOREVER BROKEN GLASS PANEL The Aluminium Cloth Green Black lower part of the triangle: C CHIMNEY ROOF backing backing uvuvtape tape resistance engineering resistance & services.CABLE This CONNECTION backing backing tape istape where the innovations METAL PLATES and ideas come from; it’s the HVAC-SEAL Hans Brinker, a Dutch boy plugged the leak with his finger world­ wide support center. and stayed there through the freezing cold night until help It’s an important shoot of the arrived the next morning. Through his heroic efforts, the boy saved the Netherlands from flooding. tree where you can also find aspects such as PQT training, certificates, partnerships (such as with Falck). But beware: it’s not headquartes. Thinking in terms of ‘headquarters’ is so old-school!

MATERIALS

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(soil) and CAN the core essence BE APPLIED IN of Seal SEALS ALMOST ANY For Life Industries. It’s the fertile EVERY ground that gives the sy­ ner­ WEATHER THING gy its po­wer, based on our SFL mission, vision, belief, attitude 30 and approach. It’s our combined CAN BE APPLIED TO YEAR ALMOST ANY quality that must be safeguarded GUARANTEE SURFACE and constantly fed.

Introducing Blockr ® , Seal for Life Industries newest revolutionary product for the home solutions market. Blockr ® stops water leaks permanently.

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People focus is the core of staying power: people must want to work in a motivated way, they must understand and be enthusiastic about why they are doing something for the organization.

a. The basis, the seed-bed: true, important core values for staff: what do we stand for? b. The trunk: aim for 100% ‘people focus’ and therefore dedicated staff and satisfied clients c. the lower part of the triangle: the support organization/ engineers, who always offer support and service d. the top of the triangle: – the ‘moment of truth’ – it’s here that the product or service is delivered e. the star: – that’s what we all do it for – 100% satisfied clients. They are the stars!

Introducing Blockr ® , ‘Seal for Life Industries’ newest rich earth as the basis. This AA.  revolutionary product forThe the home solutions market. Blockr ® stops water leaks is permanently. the seed-bed, the nutrient

Discovered by engineers from Holland, a country with centuries of experience in holding back water. Blockr ® gets you back into action fast.

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An organization must be ready for the future. And a successful future can only be guaranteed if that organization has staying power. The following organizational model is heartwarmingly simple and therefore very clear: its metaphor is the Christmas tree. Staying power is essential to create a healthy, green Christmas tree.

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Online shop for DIY markets


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Spring 2014

Doing more with less Research continues on exactly what happens when two objects stick toge­ ther. There is no universally accepted theory and given the variety of adhesives that exist it is likely that more than one process may be at work. It is generally agreed that adhesion occurs at a molecular level with the primary processes involving Van der Waals forces, iconic bonding, covalent bond­ing, and/ or metallic bonding. Because the latter three processes result from chemical bonding, we will focus our discussion on Van der Waals forces.

Van der Waals forces come into play when molecules are polarized -- that is, they have a positive end and a negative end. Because the hydrogen atoms are skewed to one side, one end of the molecule has a weakly positive charge and the other has a weakly negative charge. Since opposites attract, the positive side of one water molecule will be attracted to the negative side of a neighboring one. That’s the Van der Waals force. For Van der Waals forces to work, there must be close contact between the two surfaces being joined--a separation of only a few angstroms. (An angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter.) At that range the Van der Waals and other molecular forces interact strongly and the adhesive and the glued surfaces bond together.

To ensure close contact, the adhesive must have the ability to wet the surfaces of the parts properly - it must spread and flow such that it maintains the maximum contact area possible, and it should spread thinly to avoid being subject to cohesive failures. According to recent research, Van der Waals forces explain how the lizards known as geckos can stick to so many surfaces in a seemingly impossible man­ner. Specifically, the tiny hairs on the gecko’s feet (called setae) are split at the microscopic level into “as many as 1,000 branches, whose spatula-shaped tips are only 200 nanometers wide.” As a result, even though the Van der Waals forces acting on an individual tip are small, the adhesion of a billion or so tips adds up to enough force to let the gecko stick to anything. Persuasive as all this sounds, other scientists doubt that Van der Waals forces alone fully explain how adhesion works. They attribute at least some of the strength of adhesives to the process of me­chanical bonding, also known as mechanical locking. The idea here is that all sur­ faces, even seeming­ ly smooth ones, are actually rough at the molecular level, and that an adhesive achieves some of its strength by flowing into the hid­den valleys and imperfections of the surfaces to be bonded.

What is more? Develop, manu­facture and sell more m2 of visco-elastic tape, shrinkable products and more kilometers of polymeric anodes. What is less? Energy-efficiency

Resulting in: less manpower, less skilled crews, less grit, less time, less preheating, less layers, less testing on site, less commissioning costs, less scaffolding costs, less mobilization costs, less waste onsite, less precautions, less personal protective gear, less defects to repair.

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Spring 2014

When the adhesive hardens, the two parts are mechanically llocked together.

RE! A C O T E DAR

In mechanical bonding, as with Van der Waals forces, an adhesive needs to be able to spread finely into the microscopic roughness of the surfaces, wet the tiny cracks properly, and allow trapped air to escape. The main difference is that mechanical bonding will work at distances that would render Van der Waals forces useless. There are several other theories of adhesion that ought to be mentioned briefly. The electrostatic theory arose in part from the observation that some adhesives generate static sparks when pulled apart, while other items will cling together when placed next to each other, especially in the case of plastics. The theory proposes that as the joint forms, electrostatic charges develop between the two joined surfaces and between the surfaces and the adhesive, and these electrical forces help hold the joint together. But electrostatic forces are believed to be only a supplemental source of joint strength, not the primary one. References: Petrie, E.M., Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants, 2000 Kunzig, Robert, “Why Does It Stick? - the hypothesis that push-on adhesives use bubbles to create vacuum,” Discover, July 1999.

Colombia dares to compare against FBE Coating 100% solid method Sandblasting FBE coating Primer Epoxy coat (16 mills)

Alternatives’ results Radial Diagram Alternative 1: Coating 84% solids, sandblasting, primer, barrier, ended - (SIKA)

TIME

fusion bonded epoxy copolímero adhesivo

PURCHASE MATERIAL COST

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

job done!

Alternative 2: Coating with Three layer

polietileno de alta densidad

Alternative 3: Coating with FBE one layer COST OF MANPOWER

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

STOPAQ method COMPLEXITY OF INSTALLATION fusion bonded epoxy

In Columbia a comparative coating analysis for pipelines has been made to compare cost for various methods of protecting pipelines from corrosion.

The following methods were compared: • The Coating 100% Solid method. Pipes are being sandblasted and provided with a primer. Finally, an epoxy coat is applied; • The Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) method. A liquid FBE film flows onto the steel surface and soon becomes a solid coating by

chemical cross-linking, assisted by heat. This can be done with one or three layers;  • The STOPAQ method. The patented visco-elastic product is applied. Manually, or by machine. Analyzed items for the whole project are: • Purchase cost per linear meter, the direct cost to purchase project materials; • Man cost per linear meter; • Time. The days to execute the total project;  • Maintenance cost, the direct cost

MAINTENANCE COST

Source: HNA Engineering to coating maintenance for gas pipeline; • Complexity of installation; • Technical specifications. Many technical specifications have been studied: • Adhesion to metal and other; • Experiences worldwide; • Nominal thickness per layer (Mills);  • Specific electrical resistance (Ω - m2); • Temperature of operation (C°); • Elongation (%); • Cathodic Disbondment 28 Days,

“no looking back” 1.5 volt, 3% NaCl 95 C°, mmr;  • Recovery or Self healing of coating per mechanical detachment. The outcome of the comparison shows that a low investment in

Alternative 4: Coating with visco-elastic fluid with ­machine. Tipe (FAST) CZH Alternative 5: Coating with visco-elastic fluid with ­machine. Tipe (FAST) CZH

material (100% Solid method) provides high cost in manpower and maintenance. Using the FBE method will rise up investment cost when there are still high cost for maintenance and manpower. Using the STOPAQ solution will generate cost which can be compared with the FBE method. However, cost for manpower and maintenance will be considerably less. Looking at environmental risks, complexity and technical specifications the STOPAQ solution seems to be the best solution by far.

Patented Underwater Anti-Corrosion Technology Applications: • Splashzone Jetty Pile Protection • Subsea Pipeline Repair • Offshore Jacket Leg Protection

Features & benefits: • Adheres under water & offers extremely high specific electric resistance • Training in cooperation with Falck Nutec at Seal For Life’s Technology Centre • Quick & easy to apply by trained divers and approved application companies


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Spring 2014

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Spring 2014

Since 1974, the Alaska pipeline coated by Covalence

E! R A C O T DARE

(formerly known as Raychem)

protection When our beloved alligator has a prey clamped its jaws, he never let’s go. His scales protect him from harsh attacks from all sides. The properties of this powerful beast are similar to the concepts of corrosion protection of Seal For Life’s Covalence Shrinkable Systems. The innovative shrink technology of Covalence protects critical infrastructural objects without losing elasticity. Covalence is one of our most powerful and proven technologies. Whether in combination with the visco-elastic corrosion prevention materials, hot-melt and mastic adhesives, total care shrink technology is the way to Seal For Life tight. It’s about making the surface preparation and the applicators’ job easy. Covalence – the first and still the best at heat shrink technology.

420 miles of the 800 mile Trans Alaska Pipeline are above ground.

The year was 1974 and Alyeska had an incredibly large problem on their hands. Their pipeline had been delayed for years as politicians argued about environmental impact studies, labor disputes and land ownership questions (and probably argued about what was in it for their constituents). At that time, Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) was a somewhat ‘new on the scene’ pipe coating and manufacturers and applicators were both learning their way through some kinks. It was also decided early in the process that the best solution was going to be a heat shrinkable, spirally wrapped tape product. Raychem had never manufactured a tape product before! So the team (led by one of the great corporate leaders of all time, Paul Cook) got to work conquering this mountain. The product which was eventually used was called Arcticlad (and was similar to another product called Rayclad that continues to be used today!). As one team was working on developing and perfecting the Arcticlad, another team was busy engineering the machines that would clean the pipe; preheat the pipe; wrap the Arcticlad and then shrink the Arcticlad. Quite a tall order. Starting at the beginning, machinery was built that encapsulated the pipe and had numerous wire brushes working to knock any lose or disbonded FBE from the pipe.

In any case, the FBE coated pipe that had been patiently waiting in pipe yards scattered around Alaska had, unfortunately, not been coated with an FBE designed to withstand several years of UV exposure. Imagine that for a second; 380 miles of 48” OD pipe sitting in a pipe yard...and the factory applied coating is experiencing massive failures due to UV degradation. I have to believe this resulted in many sleepless night for those responsible for the integrity of that pipeline.

The four silver objects between the two side booms are the heaters.

heaters (sometimes as many as 8 or 10 used at a time) were designed for just this purpose. Finally, the Arcticlad would be spiral wrapped using a specially engineered tape wrapping machine. The heat of the pipe (from the machines above) was sufficient to to create adhesive flow and put the Arcticlad backing into a state of crystalline melt; which

The Dalton Highway which runs (at times) parallel to the pipeline.

Now let’s look at this same problem from another perspective; that of the somewhat fledgling technology company; Raychem Corp. The year was 1974 and Raychem had an incredibly large opportunity on their hands. Scattered across Alaska were 380 miles of 48” OD pipe, coated with failing FBE.If Raychem could engineer a solution for this incredibly difficult problem, Raychem would cement their place at the top of the heat shrinkable pipeline coatings world and leave their mark on one of the greatest pipeline projects of all time.

backing that did not yet exist; using an adhesive that did not yet exist; installed with equipment that did not yet exist and having this all completed within a time frame that did not dramatically compromise the timing of the project. Raychem’s response: “No problem.” Raychem had already been established as a leader in heat shrinkable technology and specialty adhesives. They didn’t have the perfect products already created, but they did have a solid base of proven technologies to work from. It was determined early in the process that the timeline for this

So, the problem as it stood was re-coating 380 miles of 48” pipe; in the field; faced with sub-zero temperatures; installed on top of a failing coating; using a product

project needed to be 6 months or less (keep in mind, that was 6 months to production so it would have to include training the different pipeline crews and qualifying the product).

As an added bonus, the new technologies Raychem had created to solve this problem were able to be transitioned into entirely

A close up of the wrapping machine, and the Arcticlad pay off The machine at the far right of the picture is the specially designed pipe cleaner.

The next step in the process was the preheating station. In order for the Arcticlad to properly bond to both the bare steel (where the FBE had disbonded) and to the still bonded FBE, the bond line temperature needed to be ~225 Fahrenheit. Quite a challenge to raise the temperature of a

A beautiful partnership is born in 1974.

able expand their business into the oil and gas pipeline market with what turned out to be a $23 million dollar project (which would be more than $100 million in 2013 dollars!). Thirty eight years later this pipeline is STILL in service!

resulted in the adhesive filling, flowing and forming a homogenous layer which acted as a sealant and offered some physical protection for the pipe. In the end, the project was successfully completed. The six month time frame was kept. Alyeska was able to salvage

“I don’t think it’s a secret to anyone that the trans-Alaska pipeline, the terminal at Valdez, is a critical asset not only to the state but the country. It’s stating the obvious - that this pipeline plays a critical role in this nation’s economy.”

new (and leading) product lines. Modern products (currently under the Covalence Seal for Life heading) including ambient temperature wrap around shrink sleeves; factory applied line coatings; closures; road bore sleeves; high temp wrap around sleeves and others can all trace their ancestry right back to the mid 1970’s. One man’s problem is another man’s opportunity. Isn’t that a beautiful thing? Source: http://blogheatshrinksleeves. com/2013/05/the-great-transalaska-pipeline-case.html

Eric Gonzales 48” pipe from below zero; up to 225 in a reasonable amount of time. Custom

and still use their pipe in spite of the damaged coating; and Raychem was

A picture of the finished product. Well done, Raychem!


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Spring 2014

SFL Industries is a strong contributing team player in the Energy Valley TopClub

Even at -69 degrees Celsius it can’t be broken A band that seals a pipeline? Thanks to Oppanol® – the polyisobutylene (PIB) made by manufacturer BASF – this is not just a utopian dream but has been proven in practice. Over recent years, STOPAQ has developed a band that uses Oppanol as its principal constituent.

This Oppanol constituent is a PIB, which is to say an organic compound composed of  carbon atoms with excellent sealing properties. The band complies with all international requirements and has also been ISO 9001, kosher and halal certified. STOPAQ is used to protect pipelines

against corrosion and hairline fractures. The surface of the pipe is made fully impermeable to outside influences and is thus fully protected. Oppanol means that pipes can operate entirely independently of climatological conditions; whether the pipe is located in the desert or in polar regions, it remains protected. Moreover, Oppanol is non-toxic and does not constitute any danger to the environment or to people working with it. This contrasts with the current method of insulating pipes using other polymers. Traditional competitive 2-components and solvent based solution have the added disadvantage that the solvents

incorporated in the resin are released under extreme conditions, such as in the desert. Protective tents have to be erected in order to work with traditional polymers under such circumstances. These are all disadvantages that do not arise when working with SFL’s solutions based on Oppanol. For instance, SFL’s STOPAQ has powerful properties. It bonds well even on rough surfaces. Should a damage unexpectedly appear in the coating, STOPAQ’s wrappingband with an outerwrap tape or shrink sleeve, then exerts selfhealing properties to seal the damage automatically. Also at -45 degrees Celsius, although it takes 3 months. There is also a tight bond in the working relationship between SFL’s

technology centre Stadskanaal and the manufacturer BASF. SFL has global patents and BASF supports SFL by raising awareness of the product, including among its own customer base. Moreover, BASF itself also employs SFL’s STOPAQ systems. Both companies see this healthy partnership as an integral part of their success. In addition, the customer is at the forefront: “Do it once, do it right.” Moreover, its product development based on mutual agreement continues. SFL’s proven creativity, through the deployment of Oppanol to achieve innovative Seal For Life goals, will be of foremost importance in this. Development of the table began with Shell. The oil company needed a means of combatting corrosion on

pipelines. STOPAQ began seeking out appropriate materials and in so doing came across Oppanol. STOPAQ now enjoys a global customer base, especially in the Near East and Middle East. That is no surprise given the huge number of pipelines close to the oil fields. STOPAQ is Saudi Arabia’s exclusive supplier of anticorrosion agents for all pipelines running underwater, which is more than half of all the pipelines in the whole of Saudi Arabia. STOPAQ intends expanding its activities into Russia in the near future. Moreover, its product development continues apace. STOPAQ’s proven creativity, through the deployment of Oppanol to achieve innovative goals, will be of foremost importance in this.

Oppanol® – Approvals & Certifications Oppanol® fulfils the following FDA Food Contact Applications regulations: 21 CFR 172.615 Chewing gum 21 CFR 175.105 Adhesives 21 CFR 175.125 Pressure sensitive adhesives 21 CFR 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings 21 CFR 176.180 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food 21 CFR 177.1420 Polyisobutylene polymers (Oppanol® B100 and products with a higher molar mass) 21 CFR 178.3570 Lubricants with incidental food contact 21 CFR 175.105 Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles Oppanol® fulfils the following EU regulations: Directive 2002/72/EC and amendments in Annex 2 (Monomers and other starting materials) Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004, Article 3 Italy: Decreto Ministeriale No. 91 (6.2.1997) The Netherlands: Verpakking- en gebruiksartikelen besluit, Ed. 21.8.1991 France: Arrêté vom 14.9.1992, Matériaux au contact des aliments Brochure Ed. 1994 Spain: Ministerio de Saidad y Consumo (4.11.19982), Real Decreto 211/1992 (24.3.1994 Certificates ISO 9001 / Kosher / Halal

100% COATING INTEGRITY

egion

Power Plant

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Spring 2014

Eemshaven

Biogas Power Plant

SINCE 1998 AT PDO OMAN By Rajdeep Dutta It all began with the discovery of oil underground in the Northern Netherlands, the region where SFL’s Technology centre is located. Actually, right between the biggest western European gas and oil field. This discovery of oil was followed in the 1960s by the discovery of a huge gas field at 20 kilometres distance from Stadskanaal, where SFL develops new technologies to support the oil and gas industry.

the spotlight. For example, the Gasterra Flames basketball players are also being sponsored alongside the Nic/Alfa college korfball club and the Abiant/Lycurgus volleyball club.

However, the most famous name has to be the professional football club FC Groningen for which Energy Valley Topclub has become a key sponsor. FC  Groningen plays in Dutch professional football’s highest division – the Eredivisie – and has the rapidly expanding port a celebrated history. The club plays Delfzijl addition, and Eemshaven Kollo Sic - 11MWe (www.kollosic.nl) of Eemshaven is literally an open and each year for its place in European - 1.220 MWe gateway to the world. Half a century later, and theAdvanced gas andPower highly accessible football and in the past has even Delesto - 570 MWe (www.akzonobel.nl) oil industry has now built on those knocked out the legendary Atlético Eemscentrale - 2.400 MWe (www.electrabel.nl) foundations to become aLNG manyrelating to “sustainability” Madrid. The association’s mission - TerminalFactors (www.eemshaven-Ing.nl) NorNed of cableand - 700 energy MWe (www.tennet.nl) branched industry and network transition have thus is to position itself as a green sports NUON Magnum - 1.300 MWe (www.nuon.nl) expertise in the Northern Netherlands. become important themes for this association with the most sustainable RWE - 1.600 MWe (www.rwe.nl) And the region is also positioning region, which explains why STOPAQ possible approach. As an example, Energy Park Eemshaven (www.groningen-seaports.com) Bio Power Plant MWe (www.biox.nl) itself on that basis: the Northern as -a50 manufacturer of sustainable anti- its management, staff and players all Bio Power Plant - 100 MWe (www.evelop.nl) Netherlands is the energy region of corrosion systems feels so particularly drive gas-fuelled cars. Windpark Millenergy - 60 MWe (www.windparkdelfzijlnoord.nl) the Netherlands and it follows from at home consortium. Waste to energy plant - in 50this MWe (www.bkb.de) this, of course, that its full Hydrogen focus isPower Plant - 120 KW (www.akzonobel.nl) The Energy Valley Topclub has a Pyrolyse fuel plant (www.bio-oil-holding.eu) on energy transition and sustainable Sports names special lounge at FC Groningen’s Bio Methanol Plant - 1 billion litre/year (www.biomcn.eu) forms of energy. has been an active “green modern and quite splendid stadium Pure Plant Oil STOPAQ plant - 3,5 million litre/year Kollo Sic - 35 member” MWe (www.kollosic.nl) Energy Valley’s solid cornerstones of Energy Valley since 2010. where, prior to the start of matches, it capture NUON MagnumValley (www.nuon.nl) are Gasunie and Gasterra.CO2These The Energy Topclub affiliated holds regular lectures, presentations Wind park - 63 MWe (www.growind.nl) companies have helped build the to this sponsors a number leading and debates on the theme of “energy”. Biodiesel Plant Biovalue - 240 million litre/yearof (www.biovalue.nl) basis of the Energy Valley brand, sports in Groningen in STOPAQ takes an active part in these Energynot Transition Park companies Eemsdelta capture and re-use Chemiepark only advancing the region’sCO2 profile order to put the intitiatives occurring discussions and is consequently a CO2 capture RWE in Europe but also worldwide. In in the Northern proud member of the Energy Topclub. Eemsdelta Green (www.costa-due.nl)Netherlands under

Groningen

The Oman Gas Company is committed to achieve tech­ nical excellence in terms of maintaining integrity of its gas network. Several major integrity related projects were completed in the past or are in the verge of completion. A brief account of each project is made here by Rajdeep Dutta, former Head Integrity Management at Oman Gas Company and now Head Pipelines Maintenance Planning at Petroleum Development Oman.

Coating Rehabilitation A major coating rehabilitation project has been completed on 16”, the Murayrat–Wadi Jizzi gas pipeline. The contractor was Galfar. Under this project approximately 1200 coating defect locations were excavated, verified and repaired with STOPAQ. The 20” Yibal–Al Ghubrah gas line had its original FBE coating damaged over almost its entire length. A total of 14 sections were strategically selected

for continuous coating rehabilitation, where higher density of external metal loss corrosion was reported by IP. The work was carried out under maintenance contract and was completed by February 2006. Intelligent Pigging & Verification A major contract was awarded to Rosen to carry out high resolution MFL type intelligent pigging (IP) in all piggable OGC pipelines over a total length of 1,862 Km in 2004. The IP program was successfully completed. IP follow-up activities, e.g. dig-up verification and recoat & repair were completed. All metal loss defects reported to be more than 30% of wall thickness (WT) were excavated and verified. Automated UT was used for internal defects, whereas direct pit depth gauging was used to verify the external defects. Pipeline Composite Repair During IP verification any defects reported and/or found to be more than 50% of WT were repaired with IMG composite repair system. If the safe pressure as per ASME B31.8 was calculated to be less than present MAOP of the pipeline, these defects were also repaired and the original

MAOP of the pipeline restored. In 2004 a total of 126 m composite repairs were carried out, whereas in 2005 this number was just 176.5 m. Cathodic Protection Upgrade The contract was awarded to W.J. Towell and under this project in 2005, a total of 11 CP stations were successfully commissioned and delivered in fully functional condition. With the newly commissioned CP stations, the 16” Murayrat – Wadi Jizzi gas pipeline is 100% cathodically protected at present. Whereas in 2002 (when OGC took over its operation) only 20% of its length was properly protected. Similar success is aimed for 20” gas lines on completion of this project. This pipeline has historically suffered very low level of CP, due to system inadequacy coupled with failed external FBE coating. Facility & Section Replacement Buried drain vessels removal completed at the following PRTs: SIE, Shafa, Al Ghubrah, RPP/RIE, Wudam & SQU PRTs. All removed vessels were delivered to OGC Mabella yard. As recommended by in-house corrosion audit, corroded sections of the Al Ghubrah delivery line and Wadi Jizzi (train-II) piping assembly have been successfully replaced with new ones. A 300 m. section of 20” gas pipeline was exposed and displaced due to wadi washout at Bidbid area. The section was isolated and successfully replaced with a new one and the pipeline recommissioned.


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total care

Spring 2014

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Spring 2014

everywhere, anywhere

why anodeflex The Anodeflex™ system offers a better, more cost effective, and environmental friendly approach to pipe rehabilitation. It is typically installed in the same right of way as the pipe, adjacent to the pipe, with only minimal disturbance of the environment.

why stopaq STOPAQ® produces and supplies worldwide a broad range of innovative patent defended self-healing anti-corrosion solutions. The self-healing systems with unique viscoelastic properties prevent corrosion of your valuable assets for life. STOPAQ® systems are maintenance-free and seal completely and permanently any substrate against the ingress of water, oxygen, bacteria or AC/DC current.

why polyken Polyken® pipeline tape coating systems provide pipeline protection with cold-applied and fused tape coating products for various climates and environments. With a full range of multi-layered coating systems and a host of coating accessories, Polyken® is ready to respond to customers anywhere around the globe.

why covalence Covalence® heat shrink force technologies provide strong mechanical strength performance and corrosion protection for oil, gas and water transmission pipelines. With technology born of the atomic age, shrink sleeves are unique in their ability to perform safely and efficiently.

why powercrete Powercrete® is a solvent free epoxy coating used for rehabilitation, directional drilling, girth weld protection, bends, fittings and odd shapes, offshore applications, patch and repair and potable water applications. Powercrete® epoxies are designed to meet the requirements of the most demanding pipeline applications.


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Spring 2014

Welcome to the world of Seal For Life Industries

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Spring 2014

WHO IS WHO AT SFL?

Welcome to the new website of Seal for Life Industries. On this website you will find the new markets in which we operate, the solutions and systems that we can offer you and news about the latest developments in the field of corrosion prevention. After many months of preparation, we are proud to be able to show you our World. Christof Stroeter

John Wakim

KB Singh

Ahmed Moinuddin

Cor Prins

Chris Banton

Aaron Schiflet

Cindy Patton

Nathan Knight

Emiel Lubbers

Erik Smid

Jeroen Kuipers

Leticia Pelayo

Drs. Frits Doddema

Ing. Sander Hofstee

Neill Gil

Stefan Krieken

G. Singh Sethi

Dirk Totte

Dinko Cudic

Sam Thomas

Osvaldo D’Albuqerque

Ana Cervantes

Dong Kyu Yoon

Riyadh Al-Hasan

Adelaide Cappa

Elmar Chavet

Paul Spee

Seal For Life is not just a slogan, but the main theme of our thinking and doing. Total Care is what we stand for. In the same way we want to give you a complete overview of our solutions and services. However, if you still miss certain things, please let us know! info@sealforlife.com

Marcia E. Navarro

Inge Robyns

Abboud Mamish

Chris Chen

Katrien Masschelein

Abhishek Kapur

One World, One Mission

Sneak preview

Dhirendra Sharma

Rajeev Sharma

Amarjeet Bains

*** This picture overview is a first snapshot. Other members will be introduced in the next SFL Times.

Dare to Care Convention 2013, Stadkanaal, the Netherlands


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Spring 2014

The total care cathodic prot ection casing filler solution Written by F. Kuyt, FNR (formerly Nederlandse Gasunie NV)

In the Netherlands, casings are obligatory under certain conditions. For example, pipes may not cross railways without a casing. Plastic or certain coated casings can shield the cathodic protection current however and therefore are not suitable for cathodic protection of steel carrier pipes and for this reason complementary measures are necessary to protect them against corrosion. Moreover, under certain conditions there is no possibility to verify or monitor the corrosion prevention system inside the casing once it is in place. In such cases, the construction of the pipeline and the situation in which the pipeline is laid require specific protection measures.

Until the beginning in protecting the pipeline inside the casing against corrosion. The cathodic protection current could reach the pipeline inside the material of the casing. However, with the prohibitions against the use of asbestos cement casings, this situation changed. With newer casing materials, the industry could no longer trust that the cathodic protection would work properly. Because casings are often located in hard-to-access areas and ineffective cathodic protection gives rise to corrosion issues, it became increasingly important to treat the carrier pipe inside the casing to prevent corrosion. Considerations for corrosion prevention of a pipeline inside a casing If the material of the casing is not isolating, additional measures are not needed. However, despite the fact the pipe is sealed on both sides, water and/ or soil almost always find their way into the casing. Frequently, this occurs with condensation which is very aggressive to steel. If the material of the casing is not shielding the protection current and is completely filled with water, cathodic protection will do its job and no corrosion of the carrier pipe will occur. However, this is a very uncertain situation. Most of the time, the carrier pipe is not protected against corrosion. After investigations and practical ex­ pe­riments, we were convinced that the Stopaq material is an excellent anticorrosion system for our pipelines du­ ring a very long period. We saw through research that the system keeps its properties for at least 35 - 40 years. With this knowledge and our experience in the

fill holes and crevices. We did practical investigations and discovered that the liquid kept its properties after it became

Dutch Gasunie of using wrapping bands and paste in anti-corrosion systems (in which the pipeline does not need maintenance), when we met a problem with a casing we tried to find a solution with the use of an anti-corrosion system. The only way to prevent possible future corrosion problems is to fill the annulus of the casing with an anticorrosion system material. We found that only Stopaq’s casing filler system could fulfill our demands.

solid again. We filled a casing and saw that the liquid filled it completely. The temperature was raised to 60ºC and the material is then liquid and as thin as water which makes it rather easy to fill the annulus completely. After cooling of the liquid the properties did not change. The adhesion to the metal or coating of the pipe inside the casing remains the same and there is no change in the flow properties. So the pipe will be covered completely and corrosion will not occur for a very long period. The cathodic protection current mea­ surements showed that the current demand decreased dramatically.

Stopaq casing filler is a fluid-like liquid at a temperature of about 60ºC. So the whole annulus can be filled with Stopaq. We started with an experiment to fill one casing and this was very successful. Properties of Stopaq anti-corrosion system In co-operation with Stopaq, we de­ veloped a method to fill the annulus of the casing with a liquid Stopaq anticorrosion system. The Stopaq ma­ terial has excellent properties to adhere to every other known coating material. At 60ºC the Stopaq material is a fluid liquid. With measurements in combination with calculations it is a possible to establish if the protection of the carrier pipe is sufficient or not. On the other hand if there is no possibi­ lity anymore for easy access to the buried pipeline because new roads will be built, we must take measures to protect the integrity of the pipeline. integrity. This can be done by installing a cathodic protection system inside the casing by means of galvanic anodes. However after about 10 years the system will not deliver enough cathodic protection current. So you have to take into account that in a relatively short period, the system will have to be renewed. The renewing of the corrosion prevention and cathodic protection

Conclusion

systems is very difficult, especially when accessibility to the casing becomes an issue because there is a new construction built above ground. For new constructions, cleaning of the annulus is not necessary, but problems occur with the cleaning of the annulus of existing casings. With water under a certain pressure and flow the space between the carrier pipe and the casing is cleaned with water under a certain pressure and

flow. The Stopaq material adheres very intensively to the metal surface . The anti-corrosion system used for the casing in combination with the carrier pipeline will provide protection against corrosion for a very long time. The system can even be called maintenance-free. Cathodic protection is not necessary and is even not possible because the casing filler material will completely cover the metal

End of a weak spot Factory Applied Line Pipe Coatings are used for horizontal drilling, transmission pipelines and distribution pipelines.

Worldwide, millions of square meters have been sealed by STOPAQ. Now, entire pipes can be coated in the factory or on site in especially developed mobile coating plants. STOPAQ cooperates exclusively with excellent renowned preferred suppliers of machinery like Ehri BV, Selmers BV and Bouwmeester BV to offer various solutions. Systems can be applied in the factory or in mobile coating plants on site. STOPAQ Basecoat can be supplied in containers for specific-like application with 3LPE/3LPP coating plants. Special spray-like units can be provided via our Seal For Life Technologies and Services team.

“Woldwide, millions of square meters are sealed by STOPAQ.” Plant Saltillo, Mexico

surface. At this moment, casing filler can be applied all over the world. There is for example a container filled with casing filler on its way to Sakhalin to solve a corrosion problem. Technique As previously mentioned, the Stopaq mate­ rial has the properties to adhere to the coating materials and to flow to

Now there is a new way for corrosion prevention of buried pipelines inside hard-to-access casings. We can describe this as an anti-corrosion system. The casing filler material stays flexible with broad temperature ranges and maintains complete coverage of the metal surface to be protected. The solution is maintenancefree after application for a very long time. Cathodic protection is not necessary and is even not possible because the material will completely cover the metal surface to be protected against corrosion. Given the Dutch Gasunie experience, today we use Stopaq anti corrosion system – the Stopaq anti-corrosion system - termed the ‘Stopaq casing filler’- inside all new casings and if necessary in existing casings.


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Experience Center E! R A C O T DARE

Conlexic Electra (Red Eectric Jellyfish)

Coming soon in 3D The Seal For Life Industries Experience Center is located in Stadskanaal, a relatively small community in the north of the Netherlands. The Center welcomes many visitors, including business partners, students, and governmental authorities who are provided with a thorough overview of what happens around pipes above and below ground, as well as above and under water. An interactive history describes obsolete methods,

tested

methods

and

innovative

solutions to corrosion and sealing issues. Novel

protection The Conlexic Electra (Red Eectric Jellyfish) is a special animal as he protects himself against natural enemies to issue power surges of up to 60 volts. AnodeFlex, member of Seal For Life Industries also knows all about protecting your valuable conduits through electricity. Cathodic protection, to be exact. Effective electric power management shifts the potential of pipelines such that corrosion is suppressed. Especially in combination with one of our sealing solutions for example STOPAQ visco elastic sealants - corrosion is no longer an issue. AnodeFlex™ is an impressed current, flexible cable anode, especially for use in cathodic protection systems for buried structures. Placed alongside a pipe or other buried metal structure, AnodeFlex™ provides uniform cathodic protection to every point, with a minimum of interference from adjacent structures. Don’t take any risk. Seal for Life with Anodeflex.

thinking and the constant quest for innovation are the leading principles that bind together all the partners of Seal For Life Industries.


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Spring 2014

Non-sense of non-shielding coatings Select the right coating for moisture resistance

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Spring 2014

Subsea Application in Trieste, Italy Client: SIOT Location: Trieste, Italy Object: Jetty Piles Object dimensions: Piles 1000mm diameter Existing coating: Epoxy/Impressed Current Reason: Severe corrosion due to failure of existing coating Applied system Subsea: Stopaq Subsea Compound/PVC yellow/OGS XT24 Applied system dry area: Stopaq CZH/PVC Surface preparation: High pressure waterjetting, 400 bar

In February 2012 Stopaq assisted the SIOT/Lo Perfido project in Trieste.

Stopaq was asked to assist with two piles which were previously coated, pre-installation, with an undefined epoxy coating still demonstrating good adhesion in dry areas above the water line. The splash zone area, however had been maintained over the years with various epoxy coatings and the piles suffered from severe corrosion in some areas. The impressed current had caused premature failure right after application (within 1 to 6 weeks) on the piles, and additional failures due to salt entrapment and cracking of the existing protection system developed over a service period of 2 to 5 years.

According to Dr. D. Norman (University of Cambridge) on behalf of the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG), the external part of a pipeline has two different lines of defense against corrosion. This corrosion can be caused

Properties The Stopaq corrosion prevention ma­te­rials are fully flexible and do not require tensioned application. The materials do not harden or cure and keep their unique characteristics

by the environment around the pipe including natural soil, waste materials and seawater.

throughout the lifetime of the object. The materials are impermeable to water and oxygen, two ingredients that cause corrosion, and adhere to any surface, including steel, concrete, PVC and existing coatings.

Smit Subsea Divers trained by Stopaq Instructor Bas Huizing. All men got certified after an extensive dry and underwater training at the Dubai Subsea Diving Centre. The divers are about to repair subsea oil pipelines from construction defects against the risks of corrosion.

In his outline, he sketches that the first line of defense is the external pipeline coating. The second line of defense is cathodic protection, designed to prevent corrosion at sites of damage to the coating. The long-term performance of an external pipeline coating may thus be defined as its ability to prevent active corrosion of the pipeline steel either directly or in combination with the applied Cathodic Protection (CP).

“Stress corrosion is most commonly found under a coating that has become porous or has lost adhesion.” Pipeline coating design Pipeline coating is designed to prevent the corrosive elements of the backfill from directly contacting the pipe steel. A coating may be deemed to have failed if any soil or water does make contact with the pipe steel. Nevertheless, some degree of coating failure is unavoidable and CP provides a particularly cost effective solution to this problem. A low level of coating defects and a fully effective CP system is, for most operators, a common and acceptable condition for an operating pipeline.

Pipeline coating degeneration Coating degeneration can take many different forms. The primary objective of this article is to identify the cause and mechanism of degeneration and how it can be prevented. The importance of exploring coating degeneration to a pipeline operator is to assess the impact it has on pipeline corrosion. Furthermore, the cost and complexity of implementing a corrosion management strategy play a vital role in coping with the risks caused by the degraded coating. Active corrosion on underground pipelines can occur where the coating is defective and the corrosion process may be driven by one the following conditions:

• Ineffective CP The most common cause of ineffective CP is poor quality monitoring which fails to identify under-protection and extensive coating breakdown. This breakdown creates a total current

demand far in excess of the original CP design criteria. 3.  Which measures can be taken to ­quantify the degeneration of coatings on pipelines that are approaching, or have exceeded the original design life?

• CP Shielding CP current is prevented from flowing onto the pipe steel by a high resistance barrier, such as coating that has lost adhesion to the pipe. This creates conditions in which pitting and general corrosion occurs. In anaerobic soil conditions the rate of corrosion attack may be accelerated by bacterial or microbial activity.

According to J. Leeds, the biggest problem of CP and Coatings is the uneasiness with pipe-to-soil potentials and lack of accurate coating survey methods. Most common methods used to monitor CP and by inference) pipe line coating conditions and corrosion, are rudimentary and subject to inaccuracies.

• External Drivers Electrical interference, stray current and galvanic effects can nullify the effect of the applied CP and create a corrosion problem where the pipe coating is defective. AC induced corrosion is most commonly associated with small coating defects.

• Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) Stress corrosion cracking on underground pipelines is most commonly found under a coating that has become porous or has lost adhesion. Moisture must be present at the pipe surface but the critical potential for SCC initiation and growth is less negative than the commonly accepted protection potential of  – 850 mV so CP shielding is a factor in SCC. Some degree of pressure cycling is required for axial crack growth.

Pipeline coating assessment The criteria for judging significant coating degradation or failure may depend on the particular operating environment for a pipeline. The optimal remedy for controlling corrosion risks will depend on which of these above four conditions apply to the pipeline. CP shielding poses particular problems because the symptoms of CP shielding cannot be measured reliably from the ground surface. Thus detecting the resulting corrosion can only be determined by intelligent pigging or direct observation. For this reason

special emphasis is placed on the degradation mechanisms that contribute to the risk of CP shielding on an operational pipeline.   The approach taken in this article has been to ask the following questions: 1. Can coating be applied and operated in such a way that none of these failure modes critically impairs the integrity of the pipeline within the original design life? 2. If there is evidence that pipe coatings are showing premature failure, which measures are required for future ­prevention?

rehab sisters

Pipeline resistance

coating

moist

The fundamental role of a pipe line protection in the form of coating is to provide an electrical and electrochemical barrier isolating steel from corrosive soil by insulating anode and cathode areas. This brings corrosion to a halt by breaking the continuity of the electrical circuit. The fundamental component of which the coating is made, must be moisture resistant. This guards the coating against further degeneration caused by any dampness that penetrates into the steelcoating interface.

Keeping your pipelines healthy 24/7

Few suppliers pay attention to longI n d u s tterm r i e smoisture resistance of coating. This, however, is the element that really matters. A study of protective coating data c100 m0 y30 k20 c0 m75 y100 k0 c55 m55 y0 k0 c0 m100 y87 k0 c20 m100 y50 k0 c85 m45 y0 k0 c0 m0 y0 k100

reveals that emphasis is unfairly placed on mechanical properties and pseudo-soil effects. Moisture uptake can significantly reduce coating mechanical properties, making it much easier for soil stresses to permeate and damage the coating. Hence all mechanical properties should be related to the coating’s moisture content and all properties should be evaluated at a series of moisture contents. A coating’s moisture resistance is reduced by holes: defects that expose steel to corrosive soil. Undermining these defects gives rise to degeneration which can be yards in length and represent a major problem for operators, particularly if the voids fill with moisture. If the voids are anaerobic and full of nutrients, they also become sites for sulfate-reducing bacterial activity with associated corrosion processes.

Pipeline coating preservation Is there no coating system that can guarantee to completely fulfill the basic requirement of separating anode and cathode areas on a steel pipe(line) from the corroding environment for its design life? To answer this question, it is necessary to look at non cross-linked anticorrosion and adhesive materials which bond on a

molecular level to steel and PE. CP is as a supplementary technique to contain corrosion processes at coating defects if applicable as the visco-elastic systems exhibit self-healing characteristics. This feature is intrinsic, and inherent to the system. Traditionally, there are two ­coating-defect distributions: 1) Size, and 2) Distance. Both distributions determine how CP is apportioned on a line and determine the CP’s effectiveness at individual coating defects. This is matter most. Coating-defect numbers vary. Generally the newer the pipeline, the fewer the defects. Defect numbers also vary with the coating system used. The coating systems showing fewest defects as the pipeline ages are FBE or extruded PE three-layer and extruded two-layer, largely related to field joints where tape or sleeves were used. The coating system showing the largest defect numbers in the shortest time is polyethylene tape or butyl adhesive where severe ruffling can occur in less than a year, but this ruffling is determined by pipe diameter and soil conditions. In dry sand such a tape system can show excellent properties and few defects after 20 years of exposure. Therefore unqualified statements can lead to unfair conclusions about coating systems.


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Case Histories: Coating Condensating Pipeline or Subsea/Splashzone X-Knots

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Spring 2014

Case Study

Client Shell UK Contractor Wood Group, Cape Location Mossmorran, Scotland, United Kingdom Object Structural Object dimensions Various I-Beam and H-Beams Year of application 2013 Existing coating system 3 layer (zinc phosphate primer, epoxy midcoat, PU topcoat) Reason Severe corrosion due to failure and weathering of existing Applied coating system STOPAQ basecoat, PU topcoat black Surface preparation St 2 / St 3, water jetting / Sa 2 ½ on pitted area Temperatures +5 to +25 ambient, +10 to +25 surface

Mosmorran

Australia In December 2012, Anti Corrosion Technology Pty Ltd (STOPAQ B.V.’s Australian Partner) was 1. Measuring and precut of Stopaq EZS Basecoat

successful in specifying STOPAQ corrosion protective system with Australia’s largest independent oil & gas company and one of the world’s leading producers of liquefied natural gas. The objective was to repair a damaged jacket leg on a major LNG platform in offshore Western Australia – where severe corrosion activity was evident on the steel substrate due to existing coating failure. After weighing up all the advantages of STOPAQ in comparison to conventional coating systems – such as minimal surface preparation, safe and easy scope of work and application for the contractor, proven long–term performance as a corrosion protection system, etc. – it was obvious that the only solution was STOPAQ’s anti–corrosion system. The STOPAQ system, which was effectively applied to the damaged X–knot section by rope access, consisted of CZH Paste, CZH Wrappingband, Intermediate PVC and Outerglass Shield XT. The success of this project indeed sparked great client confidence to utilize STOPAQ for many other of their offshore (and onshore) applications.

2. Application of the pre-cut Stopaq EZS basecoat pieces as the corrosion prevention layer

3. Details of the application in the corners

4. Application of the PU topcoat mechanical protection layer

5. Complete, finished system

Mexico Pemex and the Mexican Ministry of Communications and Transport awarded Stopaq a project to protect pipelines at Paso del Toro in Boca del Rio, State of Veracruz. Rehabilitation was required due to the failure of the existing coal tar coating on the 30” and 20” LP gas and oil transport pipelines. Located in a hot and humid environment, the surface temperature was 12-17 º Celsius so air temperatures between 27-29 º Celsius left condensation on the lines. Without shutting down the pipe, the Stopaq coating system was successfully applied, consisting of Stopaq Wrappingband CL, intermediate PVC (yellow) and outerwrap PVC.


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What to look for in a visco-elastic coating system?

non-crosslinkable and no minimum design temperatures In the world of the big brands, the struggle between innovation and those that would copy goes on. Seldom does a day pass that the press does not report on disputes between innovators and those that allegedly copy to compete. We are all familiar with Apple vs. Samsung, Google vs. Microsoft, or Nokia vs. Research in Motion. A patent represents an exclusive right granted by a State to an inventor. In exchange for making public the invention (and solving a problem or making a contribution to society’s technological progress), the exclusive right allows the patentee, for a limited period, to prevent others from making, using, selling, or distributing the invention without permission. We are proud to manufacture unique and protected anti-corrosion (visco-elastic) solutions. So our motto is: do it right, do it once!

No cathodic disbondment

Does not disbond from blasted or re-rusted steel in a few minutes at ambient temperatures

Fluid properties may be sprayed

Highly chemical resistant

Approved by renowned companies

High impermeability to water and oxygen

Maintains flexibility until -70°C

Real self-healing

Fully amorphous material, can be painted

Maintains fluid phase

Dripping point beyond 130°C

Will not spark at 35 kV

Cohesive fracture leaving compound in place on surface by pulling the netting out of the band

Injectable

Can be applied underwater

No discoloration after water soak immersion test

Advantages of BASF’s Oppanol® A unique set of properties in a single product: • High adhesive strength • Adheres to most substrates, e.g., pp, pe, fbe, and gre • Does not cathodically disband • Extremely low permeability • No internal stress • Long-term stability

Do It Right, Do It Once! • Developing and producing non-toxic anti-corrosion and sealing products • Fast and easy to apply systems • Healthy & safe solutions • Non-polluting and no chemical waste • Protecting the environment, both sea and land • Providing a better working environment • Providing logistical advantages • Offering guaranteed solutions • Being the best at what we do • A reliable and trusted source • Continuous improvement of compositions

Let’s get

technical: Silicon Rubber

• n ≈ 18 – 72.000 • Covalent bonds only • No sensitive chemical groups • Just Carbon and Hydrogen • No possibility to crosslink the polymer chain

20000

A rusted bolt is pushed into the bottom of a container filled with Stopaq material. Pressure forces Stopaq to flow underneath the entrapped air and cover the metal surface. Once covered with Stopaq it will not be replaced by air again.

PUR5500

Oppanol B150

520

Oppanol B100

110

Oppanol B80

110

Finally the entrapped air will detach from the metal surface and will move into the Stopaq material. The coverage is accelerated with temperature and the metal surface is fully covered in the course of time.

Chemical Properties & Appeareance

Oppanol B15N

Immediate Cold-Applied Adhesion

“Conventional” coatings

Oppanol B10N 1

10

45

220 100

1000

10000

100000

Permeability [g.1µm/m2/d]

H2 0 Test Results

The Fate of Entrapped Air

St 2-3 Manual cleaning Powertool cleaning - Free from loose parts - Free from biological growth - Free from oil & Grease Above water line, degrease with Isopropanol - Free of foreign matter

SEALANT: Oppanol 80g/m2

VES Speciality paper

Water vapour barrier

Testing of Resistance to Cathodic Disbondment - Self-healing

Immediate adhesion to PP, Neoprene, alu , PE, ST2/3 prepared steel, wood

Surface Preparation


24

Spring 2014

E! R A C O T DARE

since 1956

original advert

We have a new extended Seal For Life family and a new logo, but with 55 years of proven in ground performance Polyken Tape Coatings remain the King of anti-corrosion coatings. Coating trends come and go, but only Polyken has passed the most critical of all tests – Time of Performance.

Seal for Life Times Spring 2014  
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