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No. 159

THE ART, LITERATURE, ADVENTURE, L

SUMME


This is Maine. The rest is history. This summer at Maine Maritime Museum ... 11\; ..,

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Welcome home, Mary E In spring of 2017, the oldest Maine-built wooden fishing schooner still afloat came home to Bath, Maine. See the restoration of the 1906 schooner Mary E all summer long at Maine Maritime Museum.

Lighthouse cruises. Trolley tours. Historic shipyard.

www.MaineMaritimeMuseum.org

243 Washington Street• Bath, Maine• 207-443-1316


Sail with Us and Discover Our Seafaring Heritage ... Join us for a voyage of discovery aboard SEA HISTORY and explore our maritime heritage from ancient mariners to the achievements and discoveries of the 21st Century. If you love the sea, rivers, lakes and bays, then you belong with us. Join the National Maritime Historical Society today!

SEA HISTORY is published quarterly by the National Maritime Historical Society, ' a non-profit membership organization whose mission is to preserve and perpetuate our maritime heritage .. Membership in the Society includes: • One-year subscription to SEA HISTORY • Invitations to seminars, meetings, special events • Travel opportunities • Discount of 10% on all NMHS merchandise.

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SEA HISTORY

No. 159

SUMMER2017

CONTENTS 10 At War Before the War-SS City ofFlint's Ordeal Under the N azi Flag, by Dr. Donald E. Willett In 1939, before the US joined WWII, the crew ofSS City of Flint learned just how dangerous their jobs had become when their ship was stopped at sea and seized by a Nazi warship. 16

Copper Bottomed-USS Constitution Restoration 2015-17, by Margherita M. Desy and Kate Monea While USS Constitution is still in dry dock at the end ofa three-year restoration effort, visitors can't help but notice the bright copper plating tacked to the ships hull below the waterline. The practice is as old as the 1797 ship for protecting a wooden hullfrom damaging marine growth.

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Tall Ships America: Maritime Heritage Calls On Boston this Summer, by Bert Rogers and Harold Burnham Tall ships are coming to Boston! As you take in the fantastic spectacle of towering masts and billowing canvas, also appreciate the small fleet ofEssex-built schooners dating from 1893 to 2011. These vessels, representing a centuries-old shipbuilding heritage, will be on handfor tours and sailingfrom Fan Pier.

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22 Apprentice-Built Dories for Schooner Adventure, by Stefan Edick and Graham McKay With her restoration completed, schooner Adventure is getting the last piece ofher deck equipment delivered this summer-her iconic stacked dories. Built by teenaged apprentices at Lowell's Boat Shop, these boats are authentically designed and built, making Adventure's story not just about the big schooner, but about the artisans that equipped and maintained the fishing fleet.

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24 Probing the Mysteries of the Jones Act: Part 1, by Michael J. Rauworth The Merchant Marine Act of1920 is misunderstood even by those whose livelihoods it directly affects. Is it workers' compensation? Cabotage restrictions? Maritime attorney and master mariner Mike Rauworth takes a look at the Jones Act in a two-part series, explaining what it means and why it matters. 28

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One Last Ocean Crossing: The 1911 Barque Peking Returns to Germany, by G regory DL Morris This summer, the barque Peking sails home to Germany-in a massive heavy-lift dock shipto be restored and take center stage as the flagship ofa new German maritime heritage center.

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30 John Stobart on Cape Cod, Inspiring the Next Generation in Maritime Pursuits, by Christopher Galazzi The Cape Cod Maritime Museum's youth programs integrate classic art with maritime trades training to produce the next generation of maritime professionals.

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Cover: Essex-built schooners Thomas E. Lannon and Adventure charging towards the start of the 2016 Gloucester Schooner Race. Photo by George Bekris. (See pages 18-22 and 36-37)

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DEPARTMENTS

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4 DECKLOG

39 MARITIME HISTORY ON THE INTERNET

5 LETTERS

40 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT

8 NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION

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MUSEUM NEWS

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49 CALENDAR

34 SEA HrsTORY FOR Krns

50 REVIEWS

38 MARINE ART NEWS

56 PATRONS

Sea History an d the National Maritime Historical Society Sea History e-mail: seahistory@gmail.com; NMHS e-mail: nmhs@seahistory.org; Web site: www.seahistory.org. Ph: 914 737-7878; 800 22 1-NMHS MEMBERSHIP is invited. Afrerguard $ 10,000; Benefactor $5,000; Plankowner $2,500; Sponsor $1,000; Donor $500; Patron $250; Friend $ 100; Contributor $75; Family $50; Regular $35.

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All members outside the USA please add $ 10 for postage. Sea History is sent to all members. Individual copies cost $4.95.

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28 SEA HISTORY (issn 0146-9312) is published quarterly by the National Maritime Historical Sociery, 5 John Walsh Blvd., POB 68, Peekskill NY 10566 USA. Periodicals postage paid at Peekskill NY 10566 and add'! mailing offices. COPYRIGHTŠ 2017 by the National Maritime Historical Sociery. Tel: 9 14 737-7878. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Sea History, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


DECK LOG The "Time" in MariTIME I will arise and go now, for always night and day I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore; While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey, I hear it in the deep heart's core. "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" by William Buder Yeats I spent my summers on my family's island in Georgian Bay in Lake Huron. We went everywhere by beautiful wooden boats of all sizes-but we did not sail. When I was about rwelve, my cousin Roger bought a little Sunfish and took me out, so excited for my first sail. We'd barely started sailing when the boom came swinging across and hit me in the head, tossing me in the water-my auspicious introduction to sailing. As spring sporadically blooms around me, as summer beckons, as I sit working but looking out my office window at the boats along the Hudson, I am flooded with many happy memories of time spent on the water. Many, many years later, as a career woman in her rwenties, just returned from living abroad, I went to visit my parents at their home on St. Simon's Island. On my first day back, as I was walking along the beach in the evening, a handsome young man stationed at the nearby naval base sailed up in his Sunfish and took m e for a sail; I knew enough to duck the boom. Even now, I can feel the heat of the Georgia sun and the cool of the breeze in the evening ... and the sand in everything. And see the little sand pipers everywhere. Sitting here in my office, I make a promise to myself to get out on the water, because in Sunset with Sea Oats small boats I can best by Val Sandell, Signature Member ofASMA relive the happiness of boating and sailing through my life. I have made this promise before. If I don't keep it very well anymore, it's because there are so many opportunities calling to me. The summer season brings all the wonderful maritime h eritage festivals, the tall ship events and antique boat shows, conferences and symposiums, and marine art exhibitions. Don't we love the marine art shows most particularly? So we, who treasure our maritime heritage, can look on the water and remember why we do. We can get ourselves out there, support our local maritime festivals , and maybe even spring for a painting or a book. C heck the Sea History calendar on page 49 for an enticing listing of possibilities, or simply leaf through these pages. And perhaps while you are at some lovely summer event, where the lines of a classic vessel and the smell of the salt air on the water transport you to another ship, another day, you will write me a few lines and share.

-Burchenal Green, President burchenalgreen@seahistory.org 4

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY PUBLISHER'S C IRCLE: Peter Aro n, Guy E. C. Maitland, Ronald L. Oswald OFFICERS & TRUSTEES: Chairman, Ronald L. Oswald; Vice Chairman , Richardo R. Lopes; President, Burchenal Green; Vice Presidents, Deirdre O ' Regan, Wendy Paggiona, Nancy Schnaars; Treasurer, Howard Slotnick; Secretary, Jean Won; Trustees: Charles B. Anderson; Walter R. Brown; W illiam S. Dudley; David S. Fowler; William Jackson Green; Karen Helmerso n; Richard M. Larrabee; G uy E. C. Maitland; Capt. Brian McAlliste r; CAPT Sally C hin McElwreath , USN (Ret.); Michael W. Mo rrow; Richard Patrick O'Leary; Erik K. O lstein; ADM Robert J. Papp Jr., USCG (Ret.); Timothy J. Runyan; Richard Scarano; Phi lip J. Shapiro; Capt. Cesare Soria; William H. W hite; Chairmen Emeriti: Walter R. Brown, Alan G. C hoate, Guy E. C. Mai tland, Howard Slomick FOUNDER: Karl Kortum (1917-1996) PRESIDENT (1927-20 16)

EMERITUS :

Peter

Stanford

OVERSEERS: Chairman, RADM David C. Brown, USMS (Ret.); RADM Joseph F. Callo, USN (Ret.); George W. Carmany III; James ]. Coleman Jr. ; C live Cussler; Richard du Moulin; Alan D. Hutchison; Jakob Isbrandtsen; Gary Jobson; Sir Robin Knox-Johnston; John Lehman; Capt. James J. McNamara; H. C. Bowen Smith; John Stobarr; Philip J. Webster; Roberta Weisbrod NMHS ADVISORS: Chairman, Melbourne Smith; George Bass, Oswald Bren, Francis Duffy, John Ewald, Timothy Foote, Steven A. Hyman, J. Russell Jinishian , Gunnar Lundeberg, Conrad Mi lster, W illi am G. Mull er, Sruarr Parnes, Nancy Hughes Richardso n, Berr Rogers, Joyce Huber SEA HISTORY EDITORIAL ADV ISORY BOARD: Chairman, Timothy Runyan; Norman Brouwer, Robert Browning, William Dudley, Dan iel Finamore, Kevin Foster, John Jensen, Joseph Meany, Lisa Norling, Carla Rahn Phillips, Walter Rybka, Quentin Snediker, William H. Wh ite

NMHS STAFF: Executive Director, Burchenal Green; Membership Director, Nancy Sch naars; Marketing Director, Steve Lovass-Nagy; Comptroller, Anj oel ine Osuyah; Staff Writer, Shel ley Reid; Director ofDevelopment, Jessica Macfarlane; Director ofPublic Relations, Lisa Fine; Membership Coordinator, Irene Eisenfeld; NMHS Seminar Series Coordinator, Barbara Irry SEA HISTORY: Editor, Deirdre O'Regan; Advertising, Wendy Paggiona Sea History is printed by The Lane Press, Soud1 Burli ngton, Vermont, USA.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


LETTERS Wood Island Life-Saving Station: Right Story, Wrong Photo A 2016 notice in the last issue of Sea History about the work of the Wood Island Life-Saving Station Association to restore and reuse the 1908 station in Kittery Maine has been brought to my attention and is greatly appreciated. We continue to work hard towards our goal of a fully restored station open to the public as a maritime museum . Our results from 2016 were exceptional, bur there is still a good deal of work remaining. The article in "Ship Notes, Seaport, and Museum News" had an incorrect photo, however, which we believe may have been the Wood Island Lighthouse in Biddeford, Maine. It is easy to confuse the two-although one is a lighthouse and one a life-saving station. From the shore at Kittery Point, it appears as if Wood Island has both a lighthouse and a life-saving station, when, in fact, they are situated on two neighboring islands at the entrance to the Piscatequa River, with one building for each islandWood Island and Whaleback Ledge. (The Whaleback Light is owned by a different non-profit, the Friends of Portsmouth Harbor Lights, and it, too, is being restored, with plans to open to the public.) Ours is an exciting and ambitious project, which enjoys significant support from the national to the local level. We aim to accurately restore a 1908 life-saving station and open it to the public as a living maritime museum. The building was decommissioned in 1948 and is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. It is a rare "Duluth Type" station, one of just twenty-eight ever built. Only twelve remain nationwide; only one other is restored and open to the public (Old Harbor Station, Provincetown, Massachusetts). Wood Island Station is the only life-saving station in the country with a surviving marine railway that will be fully restored to its original 1907 plans and put back into functional service. The station was nearly razed only a few years ago. Precious little maintenance had been performed for decades, and the Town of Kittery, which owned the property, announced plans to demolish it starting in 2009. Our non-profit, the Wood SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

We Welcome Your Letters!

Please send correspondence to: seahistory@gmail.com or Editor, Sea History, 7 Timberknoll Rd., Pocasset, MA 02559

Wood Island Station in Kittery, October 2016. Island Life-Saving Station Association, was formed to fight the town's demolition plan and provide an alternative. After a sevenyear struggle, we have now secured contracts with the Town to allow for the restoration and reuse. In the summer of2016, approximately $757,000 in federal, state, and private funds were spent on the first phase of the restoration to remove the asbestos within the building and rebuild its crumbling structure ($200,000 from EPA Brownfields program, $200,000 from the National Park Service's Maritime Heritage grants program, $250,000 from the State of M aine,

and approximately $100,000 in private donations). For 2017, we are scrambling to secure additional funding to take on the full restoration of the exterior. We have also applied to the US Department of Defense and their Innovative Readiness Training program (IRT: www.irt.defense.gov) to bring active and reserve military personnel to Wood Island in 2018. It is hoped this program will be able to rebuild the two crumbling sea walls, install a new pier, and rebuild the one-of-a-kind marine railway. In addition to restoring the station's structures, additional plans are underway to build authentic replica rescue craft based

Join Us for a Voyage into History Our seafaring heritage comes alive in the pages of Sea History, from the ancient mariners of Greece to Portuguese navigators opening up the ocean world to the heroic efforts of sailors in modern-day conflicts. Each issue brings new insights and discoveries. If you love the sea, rivers, lakes, and

bays-if you appreciate the legacy of those who sail in deep water and their workaday craft, then you belong with us.

Join Today! Mail in the form below, phone 1 800 221-NMHS (6647), or visit us at: www.seahistory.org (e-mail: nmhs@seahistory.org)

Yes, I want to join the Society and receive Sea H istory quarterly. My contributio n is enclosed. ($ 17.50 is for Sea History; any amount above rhar is rax deducrible.) Sign me up as: 0 $35 Regular Member 0 $50 Family M ember 0 $ 100 Friend 0 $250 Patron 0 $5 00 Donor Mr./Ms.

159

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on the original plans of specific boats that were stationed at Wood Island. During the time the station was being built, the lifesaving service was transitioning from rowing rescue vessels to motorized warercrafr, and we intend to underscore this development in our interpretation of the site by building and operating a Beebe Mclellan motorized surfboat to march the one de1ivered to the station in 1914. Hundreds oflives were saved over the 40-year history oflife-saving from this location, and this proud tradition continues today out of the nearby US Coast Guard Station at Portsmouth. More information and some fa ntas tic drone videos are ava ilable on our website at www.woodislandlifesaving.org.

sel and will return her to the Georgia coast and Mcintosh County, where she w ill be restored. A non-profit organization, Friends of the Kit Jones, Inc., has been esta blished to help the club in these efforts. Several hundred of its members gathered recently for an annual meeting, where the news of the Kit Jon es was enthusiastically received. The first order of business will be to remove

SAM R EID, PRES IDENT

the vessel's heavy rigging before transporting her by truck from Biloxi to Georgia. A secure landing site awaits her in Darien, where restoration efforts can begin . We are very fortunate to have a copy of the original Sparkman & Stephens plans from which to work, as well as a considerable number of people willing to devote their time and expertise to the proj ect. We would like to thank those people who contributed to the Kit Jo nes project as a result of the Sea History article, and we welcome any future participation in our project. Tax-deductible contributions can be made online a t www. gofundme.com/research-vessel-kirjones. Checks made payable to the Friends of the Kit Jones, Inc., may be mailed to PO Box 1968, Darien, GA, 31305 . We also wish to thank the University of Mississippi and lon g-rime Kit Jones caretaker Paul Bodin at Bay M arine Boat Works, Biloxi, for their patience a nd help in ensuring that this beautiful a nd historic vessel was nor lost, bur will live on. We are very grateful for the continu ing interest in the Kit Jo nes proj ect demonstrated by Sea H istory editorial staff and its readers. We encourage your readers to follow the Kit J ones proj ect on Facebook at www.facebook. com/RVKitJones, and to visit our website, which includes a derailed history and many photos, at www.kirjones -reprise. rumblr.com .

Wood Island Life-Saving Station Association, Kittery Point, Maine J. P. URANKER WOODCARVER AUTHENTIC MARITIME

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If you love lighthouses ...

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uslhs.org I (415) 362-7255 6

Historic Ship OFF a Lee Shore! I wish to update you on the progress of our project to save and restore the tugboat Kit Jo nes, wh ich was featured in "Historic Ships on a Lee Shore" last year (Sea H istory 154, Spring 2016). The Kit Jo nes was built in 1939 on Sapelo Island, Georgia, by R. ]. Reynolds Jr., who commissioned a Sparkman & Stephens design for a tugboat to serve his Sapeloe Plantation. She was constructed by skilled local residents, many of the Gullah-Geechee culture, using heart pine and live oak timbers harvested from the island. The Kit Jo nes served variously as a lifeline to the mainland for residents of the island, next as a fireboat in WWIIera Savannah, and for the greater part of her 75-year working career as a scientific research vessel. Operated for severa l decades by the University of Georgia and later by the University of Mississippi, scientific field work performed aboard the Kit Jo nes resulted in contributions to a significant body of marine and ecological research. At the time of the Sea History feature, the KitJones was sitting in dry dock in Biloxi, Mississippi, facing an uncertain future. H er owner/operator of thirty years, the University of Mississippi, was no longer able to maintain the vessel. We are happy to report that the McIntosh Rod & Gun Club, Inc., of D arien, Georgia, has now acquired title to the ves-

DAVIS POOLE , PR ESIDENT

Mcintosh Rod & G un C lub, Inc., and Friends of the Kit Jones, Inc.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


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NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION A Stellar Celebration at the National Maritime Awards Dinner, Washington, DC The Mayflower Hotel proved to be the ideal venue for our National Maritime Awards Dinner in April because it is such a historic location, not to mention that the Mayflower is such an iconic ship in American history. We were delighted with how elegant it was, and how welcome we felt. We plan to return in April 2018, and hope you will join us. Our awards dinner founding chairs, Irmy and Philip Webster, were on hand to receive our guests and greet our many VIPs. Our 2017 dinner chairs set the tone for the evening: CAPT Jim Noone, USN (Ret.), opened the program with a heart-felt welcome, and Dr. Timothy Runyan impressed upon the group how critically important it is to get federal support for historic ship preservation and education. He congratulated those in the room who were at the forefront of the recent successful effort to reinstate maritime heritage funding, and the representatives of the many maritime organizations in attendance, who were there to show that there is a true force to the maritime heritage movement. We were delighted to present the NMHS Distinguished Service Award to Conservation International, and its chairman and founder Peter A. Seligmann. Conservation International is a global non-profit focusing on innovative solutions and developing partnerships with governments, communities and businesses to ensure sustainability of natural resources. Since its founding thirty years ago, the organization has had a major positive impact on the health of the world 's oceans and shorelines. We were honored to have Thomas L. Friedman, a three-time Pulitzer Prize-winning New York Times columnist, present the award: "How many founders do you know," he asked, "who have had a profound effect on life, can get stuff done-really big stuff-and helped to preserve the face of the earth? "

Peter Seligmann (left) is introduced by 1homas Friedman. The NMHS Distinguished Service Award was also presented to the National Geographic Society for its extraordinary achievements in chronicling mankind's relationship with the water and educating millions of readers and viewers about our global maritime heritage. Gary Knell, president and CEO of the National Geographic Society, accepted the award from world-renowned underwater explorer and oceanographer, Bob Ballard. A former recipient of our award, Dr. Ballard stated that when you think of America, you think of apple pie and baseball and the US Navy-but certainly right up there is the National Geographic Society. Their work is more important now than ever. Gary Jobson, Gary Knell, and Bob Ballard The Naval Historical Foundation, co-sponsor of the event, presented its Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Jack Philip London, executive chairman and former CEO of CACI International. Dr. London served twelve years as a naval officer during the Cold War, as an aviator from 1959 to 1971, and in the US Naval Reserve until 1983. He has generously supported naval heritage projects and has served on many boards, including the Naval Historical Foundation, the United States Naval Institute, and the Navy Memorial Foundation. The NHF Distinguished Service Award was presented to Dr. London by Admiral William J. Fallon, USN (Ret.), chairman of the Naval Historical Foundation. In accepting the award Dr. London talked about his experience serving in the US Navy. The Navy, he explained, was his past and his future; it changed his life, his direction, and his world view. In his time since leaving the service, he has supported naval heritage work because he feels strongly that Americans need to know their history. He concluded his remarks reiterating the Navy's core values: honor, courage, and commitment.

Admiral William Fallon, USN (Ret.) presents the award to Dr. Jack Philip London (at right). Gary Jobson, president of the National Sailing Hall of Fame, vice president of the International Sailing Federation, past president of US Sailing, and NMHS overseer, served as our spirited master of ceremonies. Our own Richardo Lopes, NMHS vice chairman and award-winning producer and director of XXL Media, produced the fabu lous videos that introduced each honoree. Introduced by Admiral Paul F. Zukunft, Commandant of the US Coast Guard, the USCG Academy Cadet Singers, directed by Dr. Robert Newton, concluded the program to a welldeserved standing ovation.

We give special thanks to the members of the outstanding dinner committee, who work hard to recognize those whose remarkable achievements inspire the maritime heritage community at large. We were able to corral a Jew of them for this group photo, with dinner co-chairs Jim Noone (back row, 2nd from left), Tim Runyan (standing, Jar right), and founding chair Philip Webster (back row, 3rd from right).

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 20 17


Dana Hewson Retires After Four Decades at Mystic Seaport h en D ana Hewson left work at the end day on Apri l 28 th, he left behind a tenure and legacy few could match. After thirty- nine years at M ys tic Seaport, hi s retirement feels like the end of an era. In fac t, it is the end of an era. D ana's job was unli ke anyone else's in this century-or rhe las t for that m arrer. A s M ys tic's firs t fu ll-time "shipkeeper" back in 1977, and until last month as rhe museum's Vice President for Watercraft Preservation and Prog rams and C lark Senior C urator for Watercraft, he is one of rhe most respected, knowledgeable, important people in the maritime heritage world. Whi le he kept up a busy schedule at the museum, m an agin g the museum's collection of more than 500 boars and ships, he has been an active contributor to rhe maritime heritage community ar large and could be counted on to participate in conferences, seminars, meet in gs, and gatherings, sharing his extensive knowledge on watercraft, from small rowing skiffs to great square riggers. I could nor venture a guess as to how many projects he has influenced over the yea rs, offering insight to others working on their own res toration proj ects. Dana H ewson has been an integral part of rhe Mystic Seaport shipyard and waterfront since he joined the museum just shy of fo rty yea rs ago, doing anything and everything-whatever needed to be done. "In many respects, D ana has been the heart and soul of M ys tic Seap ort's wa terfront; he is synonymous w irh rhe museum's core values," M ys tic's president, Steve White, recalled. Dana has been involved wirh all aspects of maintenance, restoration, and operations related to the museum's watercraft collection. Before joining rhe crew ar M ys tic Seaport, he spenr a number of yea rs in forestry management, and brought specialized knowledge rhar proved particularly usefu l in rhe museum's efforts to acquire and m ill suitable timber for irs many ship preservation projects. D an a has played a leadership role in seminal watercraft projects, most notably the bui lding of theAmistad; he was involved at a senior level in the project, from its earliest planning stages through the co nstruction, launch, and delivery to Amistad America, Inc. Additionally, D ana has been responsible for a broad range of progra ms and evenrs at M ys tic Seaport, including the 1908 steamboat Sabino operations, the museum's tra nsient dockage business, the John Gardner Boatshop classes, the sailing program for rhe 1932 schoo ner Brilliant, and countless others. In his role as curator, he provided direction and leadersh ip in the preservation and development of the museum's watercraft collection, whi ch includes fo ur National Histo ric Landmarks. A mong the lat ter is the museum's flags hip, the 1841 wh aler Charles W M organ. H e and his fri end and colleague Quentin Snediker led the restoration and the subsequent 38th voyage of the Mo rgan in 2014.

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

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Beyond his work at M ys tic Seaport, h e h as served as vice president of the C ounci l of American M aritime M useums and been an advisor for such diverse projects as Ernest H emingway's Pilar in H ava na, C uba; the National Park Service's steam schooner Wapama in Sa n Francisco; the sch o oner Ernestina-Mo rrissey in M assachusetts; and schooner Evelina M. Goulart at rhe Essex Shipbuilding Museum in Essex, M assach usetts. H e is a recognized authorit y o n the prac tices a nd techniques o f hi storic w atercraft preservation a nd was a princip al contributor to The Secretary of the Interior's Standards fo r H istoric Vessel Preservation Proj ects (Office of the Secretary of the Interior, 1990). Quentin Snediker, who has worked alon gside D ana in the shipya rd for many years, has been named rhe Clark Senior C urator fo r Watercraft ar Mys tic Seaport, follo w ing D a n a. H e rem emb ers, "When I rerurned to M ys tic Seaport to lead rhe Amisrad Proj ect after a rwo-year sabbatical ar rhe C hesapeake Bay M aritime Museum, we shared his offi ce fo r several months. He told me he had only rwo rules: First, he didn't want to find me with my feet up on his desk, and second, never our-dress h im . Ir was rhe beginning of a beautiful friendship rhat has las ted more than twenty years, and I expect will continue." Ir's a lirrle ironic rhat N MHS chairman Ronald O swald also remembers a dress quote from Dana, since I don't think fas hion was particularly h igh on his priorities. Ron and Dana met at one of the early M ystic Seaport award galas, and Ron complimented him on how great he looked in his tuxedo, ro which D ana replied that he really h ad no reason to buy a su it, and since he couldn't get away wirh wearing his go-ro corduroy jacket to a black-tie affair, he swung for the tuxedo. We hope he will do n it again this fall as our guest ar our awards dinner ar rhe New York Yacht C lub. H e and Quentin-and Mys tic Seaport-were recognized ar rhe 2010 National Maritime Historical Socie ty awa rds dinner for their work in restoring Charles W Mo rgan. We would enjoy having Dana in the audience this year to fere NMHS tru stee Philip Webster, fo unding dinner chairman of rhe N ational M aritime Awards Dinner; Brian D 'Isernia, commercial shipbuilder and sh ip preservationist; and Bert Rogers, executive director of Tall Sh ips America. W hile we know he' ll enjoy his rime off, we also know we'll be seeing him around. As D ana stated in a recent interview about his work ar Mys tic Seaport, "It's been a huge part of my life and my fa mily's life," he said. "When you wo rk ar a place like this, you can't fully separate rhe job from your life and yo ur home. It's a big part of my idenriry." Fair winds and following seas, Dana, and thank you-Burchie

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At War before the WarSS City ofFlint's Ordeal Under the Nazi Flag by Dr. Donald E. Willen or the American people, World War II started on 7 December 1941, when Japanese warplanes attacked Pearl Harbor on that "Day of Infamy." For American merchant seamen, however, and members of the National Maritime Union, the war began almost three years earlier, on 3 September 1939, hours after Great Britain

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battle of World War II. Like it or not, the Un ited States merchant marine was now involved in this global war, although the US would not make its own declaration of war for more than another two years. SS City ofFlint was an American merch ant ship built in 1919 at the Hog Island Shipyard outside Philadelphia. The 4,963GRT freighter meas ured 390 feet long and

SS City of Flint

declared war on Germany. That evening, while on patrol about sixty nautical miles south ofRockall in the North Atlantic and 200 nautical miles northwest of Inishtrahull, Ireland, Oberleumant Fritz-Julius Lemp, commander of the German submarine U-30, spied a large merchant vessel on the horizon. He quickly plotted an intercept course and began his attack run. Before him lay SS Athenia, a 13,465-ton, unarmed British-flagged passenger liner. Lemp played cat-and-mouse with his prey for three hou rs and then launched two torpedoes at the hulking silhouette. One torpedo struck theAthenia on its port side near the engine room, and the ship slowly began to sink by the stern. Onboard were 1,418 crew and passengers, including 311 Americans. Remarkably, only 117 died, twenty-eight of whom were US citizens. It took the ship more than fourtee n hours to sin k, giving the radio operator sufficient time to broadcast a distress signal. A number of British warships, a Swedish yacht, a Norwegian tanker, and an American-flagged freig hter-the City ofFlintresponded to the Athenia's S·O·S. The sinking of theAthenia and the subsequent rescue operation would mark the beginning of the Battle of the Atlantic, the longest 10

54 feet wide, and drew 27 feet 8 inches. After the Great War, the federal government leased the City of Flint to several companies that ran cargo between Northern Europe and the East Coast of North America. W hen the Athenia broadcast its S·O·S in the North Atlantic, the City of Flint was underway, outbound from Eng-

land, bound for New York with a load of general cargo and twenty-nine passengers. Ironically, the City ofFlint usually did not carry this many passengers, but SS Athenia had been overbooked and was traveling the same route, so its agents sent these extra passengers to the City ofFlint. Upon hearing the radio broadcasted S·O·S, City of Flint's captain, Joseph A. Gainard, was ted no time in plotting an intercept course for Athenia's position and ordered a course change towards the sinking liner. He also ordered his chief engineer to push the engines to their limits-1,400 lives were at stake. When the City ofFlint arrived on the scene, rescue operations were already underway. The British warships were screening the vicinity for U- boats, w hile the merchant vessels plucked the hapless victims from the sea. Considering the perilous situation for all involved, the operation proceeded smoothly. W ith 236 of the 1,301 survivors on board City of Flint, Captain Gainard and his crew departed the scene and steered a course towards their original destination. A week after the incident, two US Coast Guard vessels rendezvoused with the City of Flint at sea and took onboard the more seriously injured; the two cutters then escorted the freighter with the rest of the survivors to the nearest North American port in Halifax, Nova Scotia. This

The first survivors from Athenia coming alongside SS C ity of Flint

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 20 17


three-ship fo rmation m ade up the firs t American convoy since the G reat War. W ith the survivors safely ashore in H alifax, the City of Flint departed Canadian waters and headed home. For mos t merchant seamen, theAthenia resc ue op eration provided enough memories, real or imagined, to flesh-out the best of sea stories. Little did the officers and crew know that their next voyage would be one of the greatest non-war war stories of World War II. As they got underway to res ume their original route, everything proceeded normally. O ve r the n ex t few weeks, the ship conducted the coastwise portion of its voyage, making stops in New Yo rk, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Norfolk, discharging imported cargo and taking on new. Individual crewmembers signed off at predesignated ports and ti mes according to their contrac ts, and new crew signed on. At their las t American port before heading back out across the Atlantic, Captain Gain ard visited the U nited Stares C ustom House in New York C ity to register hi s cargo manifes t and present the relevant ship's p ap ers. Us ually a fo rmality, this visit took longer than it had in the pas t. W ith the rest of the world now at wa ragain-and the United States proclaiming neutrality, government offi cials examined the cargo m ani fes t with a fin e-toothed comb to make sure the freighter contained no contraband item s. C onfiden t that th is was the case, the C ustoms H ouse offici al cleared the City of Flint to proceed on its voyage to M anchester, England. On his way back to th e ship, Capta in Gainard stopped at the US H ydrographic Office, as was his ro utine, to get the latest weather forecas ts for his intended ro ute. There, he was also given specialty charts marking all of the German and English minefields in and aro und Great Bri tain and the entrance to the North Sea-just as a precaution.1 The City ofFlint departed New York H arbor on 3 October, bound fo r Manchester. The fi rs t six days of the passage passed uneventfully, but shor tly afrer noon on 9 October everything changed for the worse. The cadet officer, who was standing a lookout wa tch on the bridge, spied wh at he reported as an unusually shaped cloud moving across the hori zon, more rap idly than other clouds in the region. He asked the

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 201 7

mate and the captain, who were also on the bridge, to help identi fy it. At about this ti me, the engine wa tch either "blew the tubes" or changed the burners in the fire box, and a large amount of soot spewed out the smoke stack and into the sky. All of a sudden, the oddly sh aped cloud turned toward the merchant ship on an intercept course. It was no cloud; it was a large warship. Captain Ga inard at first bel ieved, and hoped, that it was a French ship, but it did not take long to acknowledge that this was larger and fas ter th an anyt hing in the French Navy. Soon, the wa rshi p-the German pocket battleship D eutsch/and-was bea ring down on the Americans with all its armaments trained on the City ofFlint. Later, Gain ard wo uld lea rn that when the German lookouts spied the billowing black smoke, they reported a possible small con-

voy of enemy ships to their bridge officers. Well in view, the D eutsch/and hoisted two signal flags to the yardarms: one set of fl ags ordered the City ofFlint not to use its radio; the other conveyed that the A m ericans sh ould prepare to be boarded. Captain Gainard knew well that his freighter could not outrun or evade the bat tleship, so he decided to comply. To his relief, once the ship reduced its speed, the German bat tleship cradled its weapons and launched a small boat with a boarding party. 2 W hen the boarding party reached the City of Flint, its leader, Lieutenant H ans Pushbach, climbed aboard and made his way to the bridge, where he inspected the shi p's ca rgo manifest . It included general cargo (apples, as phalt, wax, m achinery, lumber, tractors, foo dstuffs, to bacco, and other typical trade good s) a nd 2 0,000 drums oflubr icating oil, the latter of which concerned the German lieutenant. "This is bad," he said in English. "U nder the laws of my country, you are guilty of carrying contraband to the enemy." Captain Ga inard reminded the German officer: "This is a U nited States ship and this cargo is not contraband under the laws of the United States."3 The d iscovery of a fo rbidden cargo lefr the captain of the D eutsch/and three option s. H e could sink the ship, but this hostile action could force the United States to d ro p its neutrality and enter the war on England 's side. O r he could let the ship go; such a gracious act might encourage Germany's enemies to use more neutral ships to transport contraband items to the Allies. Or he could put a prize crew aboard the City ofFlint and sail her to Germany. H e chose the third option. If he could get the

A member of SS C ity of Flint's crew snapped this photo of the D eutschland, holding station after the German warship stopp ed the American freighter at sea.

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seized ship home to Germany, his country would own another merchant ship, plus its cargo that might help the war effort. Additionally, the American crew could become a valuable bargaining chip in talks with Franklin Roosevelt and his governm ent. If the British Navy were to intercept the ship at sea, it would be faced with either sinking the ship and thus endangering the American crew, o r recapturing the vessel and returning it to its owner. With the first option, there would surely be hell to pay from the Americans; with a successful completion of the second, American neutrality would remain as strong as the White C liffs of Dover. A German prize crew soon boarded the City of Flint, bringing w ith it thirtyeight survivo rs of the British freighter Stonegate, which the U-boat had sunk several d ays earlier. The Germ a n commander gathered the A merican crewmen and, in reasonably good English, informed them that, "You are now bou nd for Ge rma ny. My soldiers will be a military guard. You will get all yo ur orders from your captain. If there is any interference or refusal, I will kill yo u."4 With these words, the crewmen

of the City ofFlint became the first Americans in World War II to face a death threat in a combat zo ne, and they were the first US prisoners of war in this new conflict. The Ge rman com ma nder ordered the City ofFlint to head away from the No rth Sea and steer northeasterly toward Norway to avoid British air and sea patrols fo r a safe arrival in Germany. To improve their odds of success, the prize crew painted over the American stars and stripes on the hull and repai nted the stack. The Germans then painted the colors of the Danish fl ag on the ship's topsides, and hastily stitched together a Danish flag and set it over the stern. For their final act of chica nery, the Germans painted over all other A merica n m a rkings and renamed the ship the Alf It worked-at least for a while. The sh ip encountered no British patrols, but the City ofFlint's engineers hatched a plan to force the Nazi crew to rethink their plan by informing them that the ship's freshwater supply was d angero usly low. Of course, this was not true, but this news left the Germans with no choice but to change course. Even if water were rationed to the personnel onboard, the ship's three boilers

required a fixed amo unt of the precio us liquid . It was simple engineering-no water, no steam . No steam, no propulsio n . No propulsion, either a British prisoner-ofwar camp or a one-way trip to Davy Jones's locker awaited them. Gainard hoped that the Germans would head for a neutral Norwegia n port, clai m that their water supply was critically low, and ask to load more potable water. Under international law, this was a legitimate request for a combatant to m ake port in a neutral nation. If the warring vessel entered a neutral port under fa lse pretenses, however, Norway could impound the vessel and crew and arrest the prize crew. After fine-tuning thei r dead-reckoning projections and slinging the lead line a few times, Captain Gainard and his German counterpart determined that they were near the Norwegian port city of Troms0, and called for a pilot. Eleven days afrer its capture, the City ofFlint anchored in Troms0 and her crew hoped for the best. Strangely, Norwegian officials did not sound the supposedly empty water tanks. Instead, they ordered the Germa ns to lower their Bag, paint over all fa lse m a rkings, a nd replace

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them with the original identification marks. Next, they allowed the captured and paroled British merchant seamen from the Stonegate to depart the ship, while the City of Flint took on sixty tons of fresh water over the next ten hours. With the tanks topped off, the Norwegians ordered the ship to leave Norwegian waters within twenty-four hours. 5 Once the City ofFlint left Norwegian waters, she faced two options: steer south or head north. British naval patrols, uncharted mine fields, and U-boats to the south made the northern course the safer choice for the Germans. At first they hoped to reach Hammerfest, in northern Norway, but heavy seas and dense fog forced the ship to steam towards the Soviet port of Murmansk. The ship arrived in the Russian port on 23 October and steamed into the harbor flying a Nazi flag. A number of German ships were in the harbor, including the great passenger liner SS Bremen; the prize ship City ofFlint was welcomed into port with great fanfare. After the Russian Naval Port Officer examined the ship's papers, he removed the German prize crew and declared the City ofFlint a free neutral ship. At that moment, Captain Gainard should have heaved the anchor and headed to sea with his American crew, but their luck in this second neutral port would fail them; one of the boilers was shut down for repair so the ship could not leave. The Soviet Union's definition of a free neutral ship apparently differed depending upon the nationality of the ship in question. The Soviets proffered special treatment to the American vessel. Once his ship cleared customs, Captain Gainard sent a message to the American Embassy in Moscow asking permission from the port naval officer to go ashore so he could conduct ship's business. Reportedly, the message never made it to the embassy. Gainard never touched Russian soil, but he asked for launch service so his crew could visit Murmansk. Again the Russians refused. Shortly after the City ofFlint arrived and dropped anchor in the harbor, Soviet officials stationed a neutrality patrol boat nearby, and it did not move the whole time the Americans were in port. The Russians were allowing local launches to service every other neutral ship in the harbor, as well as all the German vessels, but the City ofFlint SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017

was denied this courtesy. Also, Gainard noted, the Russian authorities did not use their patrol boat to guard any other neutral ship in the harbor. After four days at anchor and with all engine repairs completed, the City ofFlint was ready to sail. Much to everyone's surprise, just before the ship weighed anchor, the Murmansk Port Naval officer returned the members of the German prize crew to the ship and allowed them once again to take command of the vessel. As they cleared the harbor, the ship's officers-German and American alike-decided that the safest course of action was to take the route used by all ships to elude the British blockade and stay within neutral territorial waters. If they kept within Russia's and Norway's three-mile limit, hopefully the British would not attack. They encountered no problems on the Russian leg of their transit, but not long after they entered Norwegian waters, three Norwegian warships-two destroyers and a minesweeper-escorted the American vessel through the fjords. On the second night underway, a British cruiser lit up the tiny convoy with a searchlight. The Norwegians returned the favor and signaled to the British ship that the tiny flotilla was in Norwegian waters. With typical British wit and aplomb the English captain responded, "Sorry. We do not wish to intrude but we would have liked to include your friend in our convoy." 6 With obvious trepidation, the German prize crew declined this gracious offer.

Even though the ship's radio supposedly did not work, the Germans somehow received orders to anchor the ship in Haugesund, Norway. This command placed the prize crew in a delicate position. As a combatant, the City ofFlint could only stop in a neutral port if the vessel faced a legitimate problem-a strategy they followed when they pulled into Troms0. But at the time, the ship was performing up to specifications, and other than a skinned shin, all the officers and crew were healthy and fit. There was plenty of potable water in the tanks, the fuel supply was more than adequate, and the recently repaired boiler was working well and producing more than enough steam. With no good alternatives and orders to follow, the German commander ordered Captain Gainard to anchor the ship in Haugesund. The City of Flint dropped the hook on 3 November. "That night," according the Gainard, "a wellarmed Norwegian boarding party secured the ship and arrested the German prize crew for violating Norwegian neutrality laws." For the second time since the Deutsch/and captured the unsightly Hog Islander, the German prize crew unwillingly left the American ship-this time never to return. Under Norwegian escort, the City of Flint proceeded to Bergen and began the tedious process of filling out the proper paperwork so the ship could once again regain its neutral status, fly the American flag, and deal with its cargo. With the revelation that the United States had recently

German Lt. Hans Pushbach, at right, with his crew, after their internment in Norway.

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enacted a new law forbidding AmericanRagged vessels from transporting passengers or cargo to a warring nation, all parties involved decided not to deliver the cargo to England, which had been their original intent. Instead, the ship returned to Haugesund and sold the cargo there. The ship contracted a load of iron ore in Narvik, Norway, and departed on 7 January for the homeward-bound portion of their long and strange voyage. On 28 January, 116 days after their departure from New York, the City ofFlint docked in Baltimore to a hero's welcome.

SS City of Flint arrives home to an icy Chesapeake Bay in January 1940, just under four months after her ordeal began, but still nearly two years before the US would join the war.

While the ship and crew were fered in Baltimore, they still discharged their cargo and prepped for the next voyage. SS City ofFlint would continue to ply the Atlantic trade routes, delivering crucial cargoes to the Allied cause. On 23 January 1943, German submarine U-575 penetrated an Allied convoy's defensive screen and sent the hardworking and gallant American ship to the bottom.

Crewmen from SS City of Flint striking the Nazi flag and returning the Stars and Stripes to the masthead.

Florence "Daisy" Harriman, the US Ambassador to Norway from 1937 to 1940, poses with the City of Flint crew in Bergen, after their German captors had been removed from the ship by Norwegian authorities.

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After seizing the City ofFlint in 1939, the battleship Deutsch/and returned to Germany, was renamed the Lutzow, and participating in the invasion of Norway. Damaged during the Battle of Drnbak Sound, she was en route home for repairs when she was torpedoed and seriously damaged by a British submarine. After extensive repairs, Lutzow saw further action at the Battle of the Barents Sea on New Year's Eve, 1942. For the remainder of the war, she conducted operations in the Baltic Sea. On 16 April 1945, with the war rapidly coming to an end, British aircraft sunk the ship in the Piast Canal. Russian forces later reRoated the ship and used her for target practice. She sank for the last time in April 1947. Captain Gainard returned home a hero, and Congress awarded him the Navy Cross "for extraordinary heroism in action as master of the steamer City ofFlint." He was the first American to receive this award during World War II, and the only American merchant mariner to wear that medal. Curiously, Congress ignored the fact that Gainard was serving as a merchant captain when the incident for which he was celebrated occurred, and instead awarded the medal to, "Lieutenant Commander Joseph

Gainard, US Navy." 7 The Navy had recalled Captain Gainard to active duty on 30 July 1941, and during the war he commanded the submarine decoy ship USS Big Horn (A0-45) in the Caribbean, and then the attack transport USS Bolivar (APA-34) in the Pacific. While on duty, Captain Gainard became seriously ill and was transferred to the US Naval Hospital at San Diego, where on 23 December 1943 he died. Eleven months later, on 23 November 1944, the US Navy launched a 2200-ton, Sumnerclass destroyer and christened it USS Gainard (DD-706) in honor of the heroic captain of the City ofFlint. J.. NOTES 1 Joseph Gainard, Yankee Skipper: The Life Story ofJoseph Gainard, Skipper ofthe City of Flint, (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1940), 193-194. 2 Gainard, Yankee Skipper, 195-204, New York Times, January 28, 1940, 1. The first signal consisted of the letters LUU-" do not use your radio;" the second read CFH, which means "I am sending a boat." 3 Gainard, Yankee Skipper, 206. 4 Gainard, Yankee Skipper, 209. 5 New York Times, October 27, 1939. 6 Gainard, Yankee Skipper, 235-236. 7 http://www.homeofheroes.com/members/02 NX/citations/02 interim-nc/ nc_04interim_5.html; The Atlanta Constitution, December 19, 1940, 14. Dr. Donald E. Willett is a professor of history at Texas A&M University at Galveston. His areas of research include US maritime history and Texas history, with a special interest in the history of maritime labor.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


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Copper Bottomed- USS Constitution Restoration 2015-17 by Margherita M. Desy, Historian, Naval History & Heritage Command Detachment Boston, and Kate Monea, Archivist, USS Constitution Museum, Boston She may be "Old Ironsides," but she sails on a copper bottom. USS Constitution, the oldest commissioned warship in the US Navy, is nearing completion of a major restoration and will be refloated from Dry Dock 1 at the Charlestown Navy Yard in late July. Until then, visitors to the navy yard can see the ship out of the water and, on a sunny day, can't help but notice the blindingly bright copper plating covering the ship's hull below the waterline. The copper sheathing serves as an anti-fouling agent, just as bottom paints do today on more modern vessels. The practice goes back to the late eighteenth century, and when Constitution was launched in 1797 from the same dry dock where she is now, she was sheathed with a copper bottom then as well.

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n 27 March 1794, Congress passed the ''Act to provide a Naval Armament," which authorized President George Washington to create the United States Navy. Each of the six frigates that made up the new US Navy was to be "copper bottomed," i.e., sheathed below the waterline with thousands of overlapping sheets of copper. The copper barrier would prevent boring mollusks, Teredo navalis, from destroying the wooden hull, and allow for greater ease in cleaning marine growth from the ships' bottoms. In a letter dated 21 April 1794, shipwright Joshua Humphreys from Philadelphia, who was the principal designer of the original six frigates, included "An estimate of the quantity of Timber Plank &c for a frigate . .. ," which listed the materials for Constitution, including the copper needed-"12000 feet of sheet copper for bottom." On 2 July 1797, just months before Constitution was to be launched in Boston Harbor, Secretary ofWar James McHenry wrote to George Claghorne, Constitution's naval constructor: It being of importance to the United States that the Frigate Constitution should be coppered on the Stocks before she is Launched into the Water- you will therefore be pleased to cause the said Ship to be coppered as high as light water mark as soon as the Bottom is prepared, as it will prevent heaving down afterwards and a Consequent heavy expense ... 1 Constitution's original copper sheathing was British-made, as there were no metal rolling mills yet established in the new United States. Each sheet measured 14 inches by 48 inches, and, given the 12,000 feet of copper sheet specifications by Humphreys , approximately 3,000 sheets of 1 Secretary of War James McH enry, to George Claghorne, 27 July 1797. N aval Documents... Barbary Wars, Volume 1, 2 05 .

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Recoppering the Constitution by Aiden Lassell Ripley, c. 1965. 20th-century rendering ofPaul Revere and Commodore Edward Preble, 1803, when USS Constitution was re-sheathed with Revere-made copper plates.

copper covered Constitution's lower hull when she was launched in 1797. Paul Revere, long retired from his famous "midnight ride" in the American Revolution, was by then a sixty-year-old silversmith, merchant, and foundry man. He contracted with Henry Jackson, the Boston naval agent in charge of acquiring materials for the construction of USS Constitution , to provide the copper and brass fittings for the ship "as cheap as anyone and as well." Revere's foundry drew down some of the British-made copper spikes used to fasten Constitution. The Revere foundry also provided a 242-pound bell and other fittings between 1794 and 1798. In early 1803, USS Constitution was readied by Commodore Edward Preble for a lengthy deployment to the Mediterranean Sea against the North African Barbary corsairs. Only six years old, the frigate 's original copper sheathing was already worn out, and new sheathing was needed before she headed out across the Atlantic. Enter Paul Revere again; by the 1803 re-fit, he

had a copper rolling mill in operation in Canton, Massachusetts, and was able to provide the thousands of sheets of copper needed for the ship. While copper deterred mollusks from boring into the wood and thus destroying the lower hull of a sailing vessel, it did not completely prevent marine growth from fouling the ship's bottom. In the summer of 1810, Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton, disappointed with Constitution's demonstrated sluggish sailing performance, instructed Captain Isaac Hull to take the ship up the Delaware River, where the fresh water would kill the salt-water shellfish. In August, Hull conveyed to Hamilton the following news: Since the ships [sic] arrival in fresh water, the mussels on her bottom h ave all opened, and the inside entirely washed out with the run of the tide, and they are fast falling off-The oysters I find do not feel the effect of the fresh Water so sensibly, yet I have great hopes that SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


a few days more wi ll cause them to open and fall off in the same manner as the mussels.2 Three days later, Hull reported that divers sent down to inspect the hull reported that the copper was rough and missing in places and that some of the copper nails were coming loose. They attempted to patch bare spots in the sheathing as best they could while the ship was at anchor. During the nineteenth century, Constitution's copper sheathing was periodically patched and replaced and, with the 1833 dry docking of the ship in the Charlestown N avy Yard, souvenirs were fashioned from the retired copper sheathing, including a m iniat ure kettle.

Petty Officer 3rd Class fo rge Ortiz, assigned to USS Constitution, hammers a copper nail into the new copp er sheets that cover the hull ofthe ship below the waterline.

Miniature kettle made f rom Constitution's copp er sheathing removed du ring the 183334 dry docking.

O ver the cent uries, USS Constitution has had her copper bottom repaired and replaced many times. The first photographs ever taken of the ship capture her on the m arine railway at the Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine, in M ay 1858, and show the new copper sheathing on her hull. USS Constitution's copper sheathing was replaced for the first rime in the twentieth century during the extensive 19271931 rebuilding. The restoration report tallied the copper sheathing and nails used: Ship has been copper sheathed fro m keel to 23' 6" aft and to a height of 21' O" forward-3,400 sheets of copper, 14" x 48" . . . [which equals approximately] 12.5

tons of sheathing copper, [fastened w ith] 1600 pounds [copp er] sheathing nails. 3 For her current res toration (2 015-2017), USS Constitution received 2,200 new sheets of copper to replace the copper installed in the summer of 1995. This is the firs t recoppering of "Old Ironsides" in the twenty-first century and is expected to las t until the ship is dry docked in another twenty years. USS Constitution will be refloared from Dry Dock 1 in the Charlestown Navy Yard at midnight on 23 July 2017. Once afloat,

her upper mas ts, ya rds, and rigging will be reinstalled, as well as her replica guns. Constitution w ill be closed to visitors during the month of August, but her crew will be providing dockside interpretation on the ship's history and performing long-gun and board ing- pike drills in the C harlestown Navy Yard th roughout the summer. To stay up- to-dare with USS Constitution's visiting hours and programming, please visit: www. navy.mil/ local/consrirurion . For more information on other aspects of the 20152017 restoration, please visit: www.usscon srirurionmuseum.org/resrorarion/ blog. ;t,

USS Constitution on a marine railway at the Po rtsmouth Navy Yard, Kittery, Maine, 27 May 1858. Note the new copper sheathing on the ships lower hull.

2 Jsaac Hu ll to Pau l Ha milton, 15 Aug 18 10. M l 25, Captains' Letters to the Secretary of the Navy, 1805-61; 1866-85 , NARA. 3 Comma ndant, US Navy Yard, Bosto n, "US Frigate CONSTITUTION (IX2 1)-Research Memora ndum," 1931, 60.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 201 7

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Maritime Heritage Calls On Boston this Summer Tall Ships America-Atlantic Coast 2017

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he largest fleer of rail ships since rhe turn of rhe millennium will arrive in Boston on 17 June in a magnificent parade of sail. Fifty ships, representing 13 nations and sailed by more than 2,000 professional mariners and trainees, will be berthed in locations around Boston Harbor from 17-22 June as part of Sail Boston 2017, and many will be open to the public in this grand maritime festival. The garhering of this fleer has been organized by Sail Train• ing International and Tall Ships America for RendezVous 2017 Tall Ships* Regatta and the TALL SHIPS CHALLENGE®, a rransAdantic series of races and port festivals rhar w ill converge in Boston for this huge maritime event. From Boston, the ships set sail for Canada to commemorate the 150rh anniversary of the Canadian Confederation. Port events are planned in Ontario and the Maririmes, culminating in a grand celebration in Quebec City. (Derails about the tall ships races and events in Boston are available online at www.rallshipsamerica. org.) These events have much to offer the visiting public, far beyond the spectacle of billowing sails and the bright flags of many nations. They provide inspiring and tangible proof that the traditions of seafaring are alive, relevant, and accessible, in an unbroken chain of maritime heritage and culture rhar leads back to rhe first intrepid voyagers at rhe dawn of history. While rhe sight of squareriggers and lofty schooners crossing the oceans with their salty crews scampering aloft with knife and marlinspike at the ready conjures up an image from a long-ago era, their existence today

TALL SHIPS AMERICA

by Bert Rogers

is nor just for show. These ships and rhe crews who sail them serve a practical purpose. Maritime commerce is nor only alive and well, bur, while rhe demand for shipping continues, rhe pool of trained maritime professionals to man the ships is shrinking. Our prosperity as a maritime nation in the 21 sr century dep ends on free and sustainable commerce upon the high seas, and likewise upon the mariners who ply their craft of seaman ship with dedicated professionalism. Nowhere is this more evident than in the grandeur of a fleer of sailing ships crossing oceans and navigating inland waterways, crewed by highly skilled seamen and ardent trainees-the next generation of seafarers-sailing in company to a historic seaport like Boston. When the ships approach Boston Harbor from seaward, they will follow the shipping lanes established over centuries of maritime activity in this historic port. The history of Boston, and of Massachusens generally, is a story of the ships and the sea, and, just as importantly, of shipbuilding. Ships and boats for fishing, commerce, warfare, and recreation were launched from great

. y ~ ~- " '<Clfarlestown Navy Yard and uSS·Constitution'

".,~

"

Best places to view the parade-ofsail from shore in red. Boaters planning to see the ships from the water can get tips and maps for spectator anchorages on the Sail Boston website at www.sailboston.com-anchorages/. Visit the Essex heritage ships and shoreside exhibits at Fan Pier.

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


shipyards and tiny coves alike, and they still are today. As of this writing, at least seven Massachusetts-built historic or replica vessels will be participating in Sail Boston, and will be featured in the main event, the Grand Parade of Sail on 17 June. After the parade has concluded, most

Lettie G. Howard, built in Essex, Massachusetts, in 1893, maintains a regular sailing schedule out ofSouth Street Seaport Museum in New York. Lettie G. will be the oldest Essex-built schooner participating in Sail Boston. Visit www.southstreetseaportmuseum.org to learn how you can sail aboard, or visit her crew at Fan Pier during the Sail Boston events.

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of these vessels will dock on or near Fan Pier, in the heart of downtown Boston, where they will interpret the maritime history of Massachusetts to visitors through dockside tours, exhibits, and public day sails. Many of these vessels operate in New England waters, conducting educational sails for school groups, longer voyages for sail trainees, and regular passenger excursions. What they share in common is a dedication to preserving and sharing both their unique history and the broader maritime story of Massachusetts, and offering it as a lived experience for their program participants. As long as these ships are sailing, this rich tradition and heritage will never be lost. For more information on festival details, visit www.sailboston.com. .1 Bert Rogers is the executive director of Tall Ships America.

Essex Vessels Sail to Boston

by Harold A. Burnham

hile the small North Shore hamlet of Essex, Massachusetts, cannot claim to have built the largRoseway est ships participating in Sail Boston, it built the most. These historic vessels include the fishing schooner Lettie G. Howard, built by A. D. Story in 1893 and rebuilt in South Street Seaport by David Short in 1991; the 1925 Boston pilot schooner Roseway, built by J. F. James and Son; and the fishing schooner Adventure, built in 1926 by]. F. James and Son and later rebuilt in Gloucester by Herman Hendrickson. The Essex shipbuilding tradition continues unbroken, and also coming to Boston for the festivities are the more modern wooden vessels built along the lines of the fishing schooners of G loucester's heyday. These include the passenger schooner Thomas E. Lannon (1997); the Chebacco boats Lewis H. Story (1998) and jigger Fame (2003); and the 1bomasE. pinky Ardelle, built in 2011, all by H. A. Burnham. Lannon Shipbuilding started in Essex-then the Chebacco Parish of Ipswich-in the early seventeenth century. By 1668 the shipbuilding industry there had developed to the point where the residents voted at a Ardelle Fame town meeting to set aside an acre of land along the river basin for "the men of Essex to build vessels and employ workmen to that end." This single-acre parcel was used continuously for nearly 300 years and continues to be kept open for that use today. Three of the vessels participating in Sail Boston-the Lettie G. Howard, the Thomas E. Lannon, and the Lewis H. Story-were built at that exact location.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

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At times as many as sixteen other shipyards operated in Essex simultaneously, and vessels were built all along the river's banks. Beyond this, a good many Essex vessels were built inland in the dooryards of their builders. There was great pride in the workmanship. Good ideas were quickly copied. Over time, traditional methods developed for acco mplishing almost every aspect of vessel construction. These methods continue to evolve to take adva ntage of readily available materials and contemporary technologies to this day. In the mid-nineteenth century, as domestic markets for North A tlantic fish continued to grow, so did Gloucester's demand for vessels. Essex strove to meet the need and, in doing so, wo uld set the standard for In its heyday, Essex shipyards built dozens oflarge schooners in a single year, with the North American fishing schooner. In his book The multiple shipyards occupying a relatively small space along the Essex River. American Fishing Schooners, the late Howard C hapelle noted that, between 1850 and 1853, 170 vessels were launched from Essex shipyards, all crowded in the same spot along the tidal creek that flows past the village. Not only did C hapelle comment on the staggering number of vessels launched from these yards, he also took note of the high standard of wo rkmanship that went into them. H e stated that the "quality of construction at Essex was highly praised; after 1845 the vessels were almost yacht-like in finish and many were built on honor, of superb construction." It is a matter of record that more than 1,300 vessels h ave been built in Essex since 1860, and a matter of fac t that many more were built prior to that time. Some historians speculate that the total could near 4,000 vessels. Considering these numbers, that shipbuilding in Essex is a nearly 400-year-old tradition, and the town's relatively small population, it is h ard to imagine a place where shipbuilding is more deeply woven into the fab ric of a community or its culture. After Wo rld War II, as fish stocks were depleted, along with adequate supplies of timber for shipbuilding, the industry moved back into the cottage and the The pinky schooner Ardelle was built in Essex cultural heritage of the town was no over the winter of2010- 11 by Harold Burnham. longer preserved by the shipbuilders, but through the efforts of authors, historians, museums, and the inspiration of the few who endeavored to build boats to this day. I come from one of these shipbuilding families, and I am grateful to have grown up and raised my own fam ily in this community, so dedicated to preserving our maritime heritage. Working in my own yard in Essex, at the Essex Shipbuilding Museum, and along the East Coast through my involvement with the preservation of several Essex-built vessels, I managed to master the craft of my ancestors and strive to pass on what I have learned to whomever is interested. While commercial fishing from wooden sailing vessels is a thing of the past, today the remnants of this once-great industry are kept alive th ro ugh the occasional building of authentic representations of indigenous vessels for use in cultural tourism, examples of which yo u will see along the Boston wharves in June. Not only do these vessels serve Schooner Fame was launched in Essex in to provide guests with a way to experience our maritime pas t, but their presence along 2003. She was built along the lines ofa Wtzr the waterfront serves as an important reminder to all who see them of the vital roles of18 12 privateer and sails out ofSalem, AfA. vessels like these once played in everyday life. So, if yo u are visiting Sail Boston and admiring the tall ships from aro und the world, take some time to notice the smaller Essexbuilr vessels there as well, both ar rhe pier and in rhe parade of sail. If yo u get a chance, get aboard or go for a sail. You will learn rhar, while they may nor be as tall as some ships, these vessels are as big a part of Massachusetts's maritime history as anything a float. Later, drive a little further up rhe coast and visit Essex and its shipbuilding museum to see how these vessels were built and learn a lirrle about the wonderful culture from which they came. And, while yo u are up on the No rth Shore, take a trip to nearby G loucester or Salem and go for a sail on these vessels that are working to keep Massachusetts maritime pas t present for the future. ..t Harold A. Burnham is the 28th Burnham to operate a shipyard in Essex since 1819. In addition to the shipyard, he is the owner and operator of Schooner Ardelle, Inc., and is currently serving as the owner's representative for the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) restoration ofthe schooner Ernestina-Morrissey, built in Essex in 1894. Harold also serves as president ofthe Essex Historical Society and Shipbuilding Museum .

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


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Apprentice-Built Dories for Adventure by Captain Stefan Edick and Captain Graham McKay

he National Historic Landmark schooner Adventure, now restored to her original configuration as a dory fishing vessel, will soon take delivery of the first of three Banks fishing dories built to the traditional Lowell 's Boat Shop design. These dories are being built by young students and apprentices at both Lowell's and the Essex Shipbuilding Museum, and are designed to be stacked, or "nested," on the deck of Adventure for years to come. "This is an important step in the revival of Adventure as a sailing vessel and historic icon," said Captain Stefan Edick, Adventure's executive director. "She was preserved as an example of Gloucester's maritime heritage and to represent the importance of the fishing schooner to New England and beyond. Having these dories aboard will allow us to fulfill our mission, and to tell the story the vessel was preserved to tell." The McManus-designed knockabout schooner Adventure, built in 1926 in the John James and Sons shipyard in Essex, Massachusetts, was the last vessel dory fishing under the American flag when she was retired from service in 1953. She stands as the all-time "highline" schooner in the history of America's oldest seaport. Given a new life after her retirement from fishing, Adventure sailed as the queen of the Maine windjammer fleet until 1988, when her owner, Captain Jim Sharp, donated the ship to the City of Gloucester. In turn, Gloucester presented the vessel to Gloucester Adventure, Inc., the non-profit organization that has managed her ever since. After a near-complete rebuild, which culminated in 2015, she was re-certified as a Small Passenger Vessel by the US Coast Guard and now sails from Gloucester and nearby ports with both passengers and students of all ages. 22

As the restoration of the schooner progressed, it was clear that she would need to be equipped with authentic fishing dories as an essential part of the vessel 's mission to interpret the history of both this specific vessel and of the broader history of commercial fishing in that era. The dories will be a key element in the organization's planning for educational programming. Edick and Captain Graham McKay, executive director and master boatbuilder at Lowell's Boat Shop in Amesbury, Massachusetts, took inspiration from the way in which Mystic Seaport managed the building of whaleboats and small crafr for

For Lowell 's in particular, this project preserves and revives a part of its own history that was facing extinction. For over 100 years, there was a demand for dories, and Lowell's met that demand. Since the North Atlantic fisheries moved away from dory fishing around World War II, the demand for stacking dories has been almost non-existent. Over the years, design elements that enabled dories to be stacked had been built our of the boats. The builders never worked with plans, only patterns and so-called "dory sticks," which were sticks marked with all the measurements one would need to build a dory. The finer details

Adventure's crew readying dories to launch underway, c. 1948-53. the Charles W Morgan restoration and subsequent return to sea in 2014. "For the Morgan project, Mystic Seaport partnered with boatbuilding programs throughout the Northeast that teach boatbuilding to young students, to great effect," said McKay. "It made sense to follow suit, and to have students and apprentices build boats to be used for educational programs aboard a historic fishing schooner." Though the records have been lost, Lowell 's Boat Shop, which has been in business building dories since 1793, likely provided dories to Adventure during her fishing career. "It is fitting that by building dories for Adventure, we are carrying forward traditions that we are charged with preserving while satisfying the missions of both organizations to educate the public on our respective histories," added McKay.

of stacking fishing dories were transferred from one builder to the next, but as the century wore on, this knowledge was carried into the great unknown with iits keepers. Fortuitously, a true production dory from Hiram Lowell and Sons, dating to 1935, exists at the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Virginia. In the summer of 2016, McKay traveled to the museum to record the derails of its dory to use in drawing up plans to build new dories for Adventure. From his measurements, a set of plans was developed, which is being used to build all three dories over the course of this past winter. In addition, the project sparked an initiative for Lowell's to delve into its collection of historic patterns. This collection has been kept in the shop since it returned from the collection

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


Appentices at Lowell's Boat Shop participated in every phase of building Adventure's dories.

ar Srrawberry Banke Museum in Portsmourh, New Hampshire, in rhe early 1990s, bur neirher time nor funds have been available in rhe lase rwenty-five years to sort rhrough and caralog its contents. "With some digging," McKay adds, "we were able to locate bottom, frame, and stem patterns that matched perfectly the measurements taken from the Mariners' Museum dory and were likely used to built it in 1935!" Also in the summer of2016, the project gained a third parrner in Captain Harold Burnham, master boatbuilder and president of the Essex Shipbuilding Museum. "The opportunity opened up as we finished restoring Lance Lee's double-ender Watermark at Maritime Gloucester, working with Mark Webster and the students from Topsfield Vocational Academy as part of the CREST collaborative. We were looking for a new project, and Adventure needed dories! Working with these students has been a whole lot of fun, and together we've harvested and sawn the wood, made the frames wirh natural knees, and been able to use fastenings from rhe museum's collection. It's exciting thar Graham was able to visit the Mariners' Museum and use that information to find the patterns in Lowell's loft." The construction of two of the dories is being undertaken ar Lowell's by eight high school apprentices who meer after school three days a week, and the third at SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

the Essex Shipbuilding Museum with the high school students in the CREST Collaborative. At Lowell 's and in Essex, guidance is being provided by Jeff Lane, Lowell's boatbuilder and instructor. Both groups are taking great pains to ensure that the dories being built are true to the originals chat fished from Adventure when she was a working vessel. "In addirion to providing Adventure with new tools to cell her story better, we are reaching a new generarion how to build dories and build chem right." said McKay. "Like rhe dorymen themselves, unfortunately, the oldtimers who knew rhese derails firsr-hand

have passed, bur rheir work is telling us their story, and we, in turn, are working to perperuare ir." Adventure will be participaring in Sail Boston 2017, as well as fesrivals in Newburyport, Massachusetts, and Portland and Boorhbay Harbor, Maine, where thousands of visitors are expected to cross her decks. When rhey visit, her crew will be able to point to rhese dories and begin to explain the difficult and dangerous life of rhe dorymen and rheir vital contriburions to the New England fishery. Lacer in rhe season, rhe dories will be launched and used as part of educarional programming for students of all ages. In the coming months, more dories may be built as inrerest in the project spreads. "Ideally, we envision four to six dories aboard in order to be able to give a more fully realized view of what carrying a nest of them was all about," said Edick, "and the arrival of the first three is thrilling. All of us in the Adventure organization are grateful for the leadership of Graham and Harold in seeing these dories through, and we've promised both that their builders will be the firsr ones to launch and row chem. That will be the greatest reward of all." j:, For more information on Schooner Adventure, Lowell's Boat Shop, and the Essex Shipbuilding Museum, please visit them online: www.schooner-adventure.org; and www. lowellsboatshop. com; www. essexshipbuild ingmuseum. org. j:,

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Probing the Mysteries of the Jones Act by Michael J. Rau worth

In the summer of 2010, as the nation was scrambling to contain the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the American public began to hear about the Jones Act. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas) filed legislation in June to waive the Jones Act-temporarily-to allow foreign-flagged vessels and their non-American crews to operate in US waters. She and other opponents of the Jones Act argued that the United States needed more responders at a lower cost to help with the marine environmental disaster off the Gulf Coast, and that provisions of the Jones Act bar this as a possible remedy. Over the last few years, the Jones Act-officially, the Merchant Marine Act of 1920- has been in the news more and more. Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) has gone on record in favor of its repeal, as he considers it "an antiquated law that has for too long hindered free trade, made the US industry less competitive, and raised prices for American consumers." In June 2012, a Federal Reserve Bank of New York report on Puerto Rico's economy concluded that the Jones Act had a negative impact on the island's economy. And just this March, a Jones Act case was decided in the state Supreme Court in Washington that stemmed from a shipboard injury to a member of a commercial fishing crawler's crew. Ask people you know if they support the Jones Act. Their answers will likely depend more on their relationship to the maritime industry than on having heard about it in the news or in the classroom. Those with no maritime connections are not likely to have heard of it. Ask a professional mariner, and she will talk about how it protects seaman, along the lines of workers' compensation. Ask someone in the shipping or cruise industry, and he'll likely start talking about cabotage, the maintenance of the merchant marine, shipbuilding, and national security. The Jones Act, named for Senator Wesley Jones (1863-1932) of Washington State, has been revised multiple times since 1920. It covers a lot of topics and is misunderstood and confusing to most people outside of the industry. It is confusing to many within the maritime field as well. We asked our colleague and friend Mike Rauworth, a maritime attorney in Boston and former professional mariner of both sail and steam, to take on the Jones Act in Sea History and break it down so it could be better understood. We will look at the Jones Act in this issue and in the autumn issue (Sea History 160), as it is too complicated to cover in a single article. In Part l, here, Captain Rauworrh reviews the part of the law that addresses seamen and their work aboard American-flagged commercial vessels.

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hat most mariners mean when they talk about the "Jones Act" is the right of a seaman to sue his or her employer for workplace injuries. The Jones Act does confer that right, of course, but it is only the most recently created of three separate legal doctrines that govern seamen's personal injury rights, even though that phrase is usedin effect-as a shortha nd for the package of all three, making it one of the most misunderstood phrases in the maritime world. In this issue and the next, we will take a look at what we refer to as the Jones Act in all its forms. All three need to be considered together, but we h ave broken the issue down into two parts, as the chronology and all its machinations go way back. In this article, we'll discuss the first two legal doctrines that are critical to understand before we get into the legislation we formally call the Jones Act. Before we do, however, we need to bear in mind that this discussion regards only the rights of seafarers to obtain compensation from their employers because of some injury or shortcoming related to their employment. It has nothing to do with any legal rights of, for example, passengers, longshoremen, pilots, equipment technicians on board to service equipment, or the like. It also has nothing to do with rights of seamen to compensation from persons other than their employers.

A Pause to Consider Workers' Compensation First, some context. We're talking about an employee suing his employer for on-the-job injuries. This is a very rare occurrence in the world of work in general. The reason it's rare is because of the

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phenomenon of workers' compensation (formerly known as workmens' compensation). Each state in the US has a workers' compensation system, and together they govern almost all workplace injuries. Almost. Workers' comp involves a trade-off. First, it prohibits any employee (with very few exceptions) from suing his or her employer for an injury incurred on the job. Instead, the injured employee is entitled to compensation (most often from an insurer selected and paid by the employer). Second, the amount of compensation is commonly set by a pre-determined formula and is usually less than what the employee probably would have received if he or she had been permitted to sue and had won the suit. These two features would seem to be a bad deal for the injured employee, but they are balanced by the third feature of workers' compensation, namely that the employee only needs to show that he or she was hurt on the job-it does not matter whether the employer was at fault or not. This is a big upside for the employee because, in a lawsuit, fault would have to be demonstrated. Under the workers' compensation system, even if it is determined that there is no fault on the part of the employer, the employee still receives benefits. This may seem fair to some, and not to others. What we think of it doesn't matter, however, because there is no choice left to a shoreside employee: if you are injured at work in a typical shoreside employment situation, you can apply for compensation benefits and take what you get, or you can get nothing (from your employer). There's no option to sue yo ur employer, with very limited exceptions.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


In spite of workers' compensation laws, shoreside workers do retain the right to bring a traditional personal injury laws uit against firms or persons other than their employer, if a third party can be claimed to have some fault in causing the injury. Suits of this kind share much in common with other personal injury laws uits, such as trip-and-fall suits or auto accident lawsuits, where the injured party has to both prove fault and prove the damages that resulted from the fa ult. In this scenario, shoreside wo rkers stand in much the sam e position as seamen, so we are going to leave the topic of these third-party suits alone and focus exclusively on rights of a n employee as against his/her employer. Workers' compensation law applies to virtually all employees in the United States. There are only three major exceptions: (1) members of the military and some other government workers, (2) railway workers, and (3) seamen. The reasons for these exceptions are too complicated to take up here, but suffice it to say that the fact that workers' comp does not cover seamen h as permitted the three legal doctrines to continue to govern seam en's rem edies against their employers for personal injuries, namely: (1) Maintenance and C ure, (2) Unseaworthiness, and (3) the Jones Act itself. The rem ainder of this article will discuss unseaworthiness and m aintenance and cure; we will take up the Jones Act itself in the next issue of Sea Histo ry.

Background Maintenance and cure is truly an ancient legal doctrine, traceable back to the Middle Ages, and extending, perhaps, before that. In the 12th century, Oleron, an isla nd off the coast of what is now France, was ruled by Eleanor of Aq uitaine, who established one of the earliest sea codes in histo ry, the Laws of Oleron, which provided: Art. VII. Ifit happens that sickness seizes on any one of the mariners, while in the service of the ship, the master ought ... likewise to afford him such diet as is usual in the ship; that is to say, so much as he had on shipboard in his health, and nothing more, unless it please the master to allow it him; and if he w ill h ave better diet, the m as ter shall not be found to provide it for him, unless it be at the m ariner's own cost and charges ... 1 While the Jones Act, as we know it today, is a statute that was passed by the US Congress and signed by the president, m aintenance and cure is purely a creature borne out of the decisions of judges spanning hundreds of yea rs-each building upon the last, and each under the inAuence of authorities reaching back to the Laws of Oleron and other simil arly ancient legal writings . The leading US case on the subject dates from 1823. It encapsulates not only the indulgent at titude of the courts of admiralty cowards seamen-a n attitude that persists roday-but also the rationale of the A merica n judiciary for the adoption of the doctrine of m aintenance and cure, held in this case to be in wide use in the law of other maritime nations: SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

Seam en are by the peculiarity of thei r lives liable ro sudden sickness from change of climate, exposure ro perils, and exhausting labour. They are generally poor and friendless, a nd acquire habits of gross indulgence, carelessness, and improvidence. If some provision be not made for them in sickness at the expense of the ship, they must often in foreign ports suffer the accumulated evils of disease, and poverty, and sometimes perish from the want of suitable nourishment.

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On the ocher hand, if these expenses are a charge upo n the ship, the interes t of the owner w ill be immediately connected with that of the sea men. The master will watch over their health w ith vigilance and fidelity.

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Even the merchant himself derives a n ultimate benefit from what may seem at first an onerous charge. It encourages seamen ro engage in perilous voyages w ith more promptitude, a nd at lower wages. 2

Entitlement to Maintenance and Cure In a certain sense, yo u could consider maintenance and cure like a modern-day health maintenance organization (HMO), excep t that the patient-the seam a n- does not pay a premium, and the shipowner (o r the shipowner's insurer) serves as the HMO. In short, a seam an is entitled ro have the shipowner pay the seama n's m edical expenses incurred by reason of the seaman's injury-or illness-th at ma nifests itself on board, including, for example, cancer or appendicitis or some other affiiction unrelated ro the seam an's work environment. In other words, the shipow ner has ro pay the seaman's medica l bills even if the shipow ner had no role in causi ng the condition needing med ical treatment. This entitlement is based on the relationship between the seaman and the vessel. Therefore, any provision of a contract with the seaman that attempts ro deprive the seam an of the benefits of m aintenance and cure will not be enforced . Certain union contracts, however, are allowed ro shape some of the benefits. At this poinr, it is worth noting a comparison between m aintenance and cure and workers' comp. You' ll reca ll that a shoreside employee is entitled ro wo rkers' comp for any injury incurred on the job, even if the employer had no fault in the injury. (This is known as "strict liability.") But maintenance and cure is even more expansive. The shipowner, like the shoreside employer, is liable for on-the-job injuries without regard ro the employe r's fa ult, but the shipowner is, in addition, liable for medical care for illnesses of the seaman, even those arising independently of the workplace. For example, take a form of cancer or a heart condition that manifests itself durin g the course of employment. The shipowner would be liable under maintenance and cure, but a shoreside employee could not collect benefits under workers' compensation. Maintenance and cure is also more expansive in terms of geography. A shoreside employer is liable for injuries incurred "on the job" (as opposed ro "at home," or "on the rown," for example), but the shipowner is liable for maintenance and cure for illnesses and injuries that occur at any point that the seaman is subject ro

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recall to du ty on board the ship. As long as the seaman has nor severed the employm ent relationship w ith the vessel, he or she wo uld be entirled to maintenance and cure benefits even for incidents that occur while on shore leave, or even at home, as long as he or she is still subject to recall to work. Indeed, in one famous (or infa m ous) case, a seam an was ruled entirled to maintenance and cure benefits for an injury he incurred while making his escape from a bordello. Even the negligence or fault of the seam an in creating the injury or illness w ill not, for the mos t part, defeat the right to collect m aintenance and cure. This is at odds with rhe rule in m os t other fo rms ofle gal recovery fo r injury or illness, but it does m ea n that an intoxicated seam an (on shore leave, fo r example) m ay not necessarily thereby lose the rights to benefits. There are a few sorts of conduct on the part of the seam an that can result in the rightful denial of m aintenance and cure benefits. O ne is when the injury is wholly attributable to his/her own mi sconduct- typically venereal di sease or intoxicatio n . Another is when the seaman misrepresents hi s/her medical condition to rhe shipowner, and the need for m edical treatment relates to rhe fa lsehood . Bur these are rare exceptions, and, in general, the law favo rs the position of the seam an.

Nowadays, paym ents are m o re commonly based on the ac tual expenditures of the injured or ill seaman fo r lodging and sustenance ashore. Like cure, m aintenance has an end point. O nce further m edical treatm ent will no longer improve the patient's recovery, the shipowner's obligation to pay maintenance comes to an end, as does the obligation to pay cure. The third heading of recovery is "unearned wages ." A ny seaman entitled to cure or maintenance is likewise entitled to unearned wages. The question is for how long. This is governed by the terms of the engagement. W hen the seaman is engaged on articles with a specific end dare (or end point, such as return to a US port), rhe seam an gets wages (including any overtime rhar wo uld h ave been earned) through that point. If such a dare has nor been specified , then the right to unearned wages probably ends at the earlies t point that the seaman would have been practically and legally free to leave his employm ent, in the sense of leaving the ship. This end dare is completely independent of the point of m aximum medical improvement that governs the end of paym ents of cure and m aintenance-except if the seam an becomes fir fo r duty before rhe end of rhe period fo r which wages would otherwise be due.

Benefits Under Maintenance and Cure

Special Considerations Under Maintenance & Cure

While entirlem ent to m aintenance and cure is exp ansive, its benefits are somewhat limited in comparison to other rem edies. There are three headings of benefits under m aintenance and cure. The first is "cure," in other words, medical care. This means rhar the shipowner (or its insurer) will h ave to pick up the tab for the seam an's hospital or o ther medical bills. W hile these m ay amount to a considerable sum, there is a lim it. Th ar is the point at which the seaman attains "maximum medical improvement"in other words, the point where his/her med ical condition cannot be further improved by additional treatment. At that point, the shipowner is entirled to cease payment for m edical services, even if the seam an requires further care for some reason other than improvem ent of his/her conditio n- for example, what is called palliative care (treatment for pain). It is important to no te that the entirlement to "cure" does no r include any compensation for effects of the injuries, apa rt from the fo regoing medical care. Thar m eans if rhe seama n loses a leg or an arm or an eye, or is rendered a paraplegic, there is no thing to collect fo r this ongoing and future loss of functionat least, not under m aintenance and cure. Likewise, m aintenance and cure offers the injured seam an no recovery for pain and suffering-as is available in most traditional personal injury lawsuits. The second h eading is "m aintenance." This is a per-diem payment intended to compensate rhe seam an for rhe loss of the foo d and lodging that he/she enj oyed aboard the vessel before his or her injury. Th is category of recovery is largely influenced by the circumstances sea men faced long ago, when they typically went from ship to ship, with only brief intervening periods ashorea time when a seam an's ship was typically the only home he had . In yea rs past, collective bargaining agreements h ad set $8 per day as the rate to be paid to their members for maintenance, and this figure enjoyed large influence, even in non-union contexts.

M aintenance and cure is essentially intended to be a h assle-free phenomenon, from the standpoint of the injured seafarer. Fo r this reason, the courts give the seaman the benefit of the doubt in cases rhar come before them . More than this, rhe obligation to pay maintenance and cure is intended to be largely "self-executing," m eaning, in essence, that the seafarer should be paid quickly a nd w ithout having to bring suit. There are significant downsides to a shipowner (o r its insurer) who delays in paying m aintenance a nd cu re-or who terminates it at a date that a court later rules to have been too early. When a seafa rer is injured under circumstances that do not raise questions of any possible defense, the wisest course fo r the shipowner to follow is to pay medical bills as soon as they are presented as cure, and to pay at least a reasonable minimum per day as m aintenance, as well as unearned wages . W hile there m ay be some issues that dem and inves tigation, this should be accom plished with great dispatch, and the paym ents adjusted acco rd ing to the findings . A negligent fa ilure to pay maintenance and cure (or a negligent delay in doing so) can expose the shipowner (or its insure r) to paym ent of compensatory da mages to the seam an-essentially paym ent for the consequences to the seaman of not receiving the m aintenance and cure payments that were due. More sobering, howeve r, is the thought of wh at h appen s to a shipowner who "arbitrari ly and willfully" fa ils to pay m aintenance and cure. In a 2009 case that went to the Supreme Court, a seam an wo rking aboard a commercial rug filed suit against his em ployer under the Jones Act and general m aritime law for refusing to pay m aintenance and cure after he injured his shoulder and arm in a fall on rhe rug's steel deck. In a 5 to 4 decision in favor of the seam a n, the shipowner w as held liable to pay pu n itive dam ages, and the legal fees of the injured seafarer. 3 This can amount

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 201 7


to a very sign ificant sum. Punitive damages are damages awarded in addition to the compensatory damages awa rded to a seafarer to make good his/her losses. Punitive damages in admiralty can probably as much as double the award of compensatory damages, and are designed to send a message to the defendant, to discourage any repeat of the act that led to the suit. Conversely, the shipowner canno t count on being able to recover any amounts overpaid by reason of m aintenance and cure-presumably a result of the favored position that seafarers occupy in the law. Accordingly, the shipowner (a nd more particularly, the shipowner's insurer) needs to proceed with particular care and good fa ith in responding to a claim for maintenance and cure. In summary, maintenance and cure is avai lable to seamen in a wide variety of circumstances. Its benefits may be considerable, but in general they provide compensation for fewer categories ofloss than most other forms of recovery for personal injury.

Unseaworthiness Virtually all injured seafarers will have at least some entitlement to maintenance and cure. If the case presents suitable facts, however, an injured seafarer may also claim, simultaneously, for recovery under the doctrine of "unseaworthiness." U nseaworthiness, as a doctrine in US law favor ing seafarers, stems from 1903. "The vessel and her owner are, both by English and American law, liable to an indemnity for injuries received by seamen in consequence of the unseaworthiness of the ship, or a fa ilure to supply and keep in order the proper appliances app urtenant to the ship."4 This was a time in wh ich personal injury law was, in general, much less favorable to injured workers than it is today. Essentially, the unseaworthiness doctrine makes a shipowner liable without fau lt for injuries that h appen to a seafarer by reason of any way in which the vessel is not reasonably fit for its intended service. Failures of the rig, fau lts in the hull, shortcomings in fittings such as ladders or mechanical equipment, inadequate or improper tools, or food , failure to staff the vessel with a proper crew, and failure to dispatch an adequate number of personnel to perform a particular task can all be held to make a vessel not reasonably fit for her intended service. This list is just illustrative, not ex haustive. Whether a particular condition aboard ship makes a particular vessel not reasonably fit is a question for the jury at trial. If the jury finds the vessel not to be reasonably fit, and if the condition is held to be the cause of the injuries to the seafarer, then the seafarer is entitled to recover his d amages from the shi powner. To be reasonably fit, however, a vessel need not be perfect-a n imperfect vessel may st ill be found by the jury to be nevertheless seaworthy. To find a vessel unseaworthy does not require that the jury find any fault or negligence on the part of its operator. A vessel may be not reasonably fit by reason of a condition that the operator may not know about, or even h ave any ability to have discovered . The classic example is an injury resulting from the fai lure of a shackle supporting a load above the injured person. SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

The shackle fai led by reason of a Raw in its casti ng, wh ich would not have been revealed by visual examination. Despite the inability to have discovered the Raw, the shipowner wou ld be ruled liable under the unseaworthiness doctrine. This is known as strict liability, and this doctrine now also applies to manufacturers and sellers of defective goods (think snowblowers, lawnmowers, and cars, as examples), even in the shoreside law context. W hile a seaman can recover for medical expenses until the point of "maximum medical improvement" (MMI) under maintenance and cure, a seaman who is successful in a claim for unseaworthiness can recover both pas t and future medical expenses (including past the point of MMI), loss of past and future physical capabilities, and past and future pain and suffering. In contrast to recovering wages simply until the end of the voyage under maintenance and cure, under unseaworthiness, an injured seafarer can recover lost past wages, plus the loss of future ea rning capacity. Punitive damages for un seaworthiness is currently a hot topic in maritime law. In March of2017, the Supreme Court of the state of Washington held punitive damages available to a seaman who had been awarded compensation for unseaworthiness .5 But other courts h ave ruled to the contrary, which increases the likelihood that this question wi ll have to be resolved by the US Sup reme Court.

Relationship of Unseaworthiness to Maintenance & Cure A n injured seafarer can bring a su it claiming both for maintenance and cure and unseaworthiness (as well as under the Jones Act). If the suit wins recovery under both, some of the medical damages may be awarded under both, and the same may apply to back wages, but double recovery is not permitted. In the next issue of Sea H istory, we' ll take a look at the Jones Act legislation proper and try to make it more understandable to those in the maritime industry to whom it is a vital protection, and to those who hear the term slung around by politicians and others in a way that often leads to confusion. J,

NOTES 1 Hudspeth v. A tlantic & Gulf Stevedores, Inc., 266 F. Supp. 937 (E .D. La. 1967). 2H arden v. Gordon, 11 F.Cas. 48 0, 483, 2 Mason 541 (1823). 3 A tlantic Sounding Co. v. Townsend, 557 US 404 (2009) 4 The Osceola, 189 US 158 (1903). 5 Tabingo v. American Triumph, LLC, et al. , 2017 WL 959551 (Wash . Mar. 9, 2017).

Michael Rauworth's "day job " is as a maritime lawyer, based in Boston. He serves as p resident and board chair of Tall Ships America, and maintains his Coast Guard license as master ofsail, steam, and motor vessels ofany tonnage, with pilotage on the waters ofthree states, and with over 200, 000 sea miles to his credit. H e retiredfrom the US Coast Guard with the rank of Captain, having served as Harbor Defense Commander in Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and in command offive reserve units. 27


One Last Ocean Crossing: The 1911 Barque Peking Returns to Germany by G regory DL Morris ome time in mid to late June, well within the quietest months on the North Atlantic, a heavy1i ft d ock ship op erated by Combi Lift G mbH out of Bremen, Germany, is scheduled to carry the century-old fourmasted barque Peking home to H amb urg. There, she will become the centerpiece of a multimillion-dollar m aritim e heritage complex being built in that historic port on the Elbe River. Peking h as spent the las t fo ur-plus d ecad es at the South Street Seaport Museum in N ew York City, where she was much loved by the public, but not particularly well maintained because of the tenuous finances at South Stree t. Peking has a length of 377 feet, beam of 47 feet, and for purposes of the lift ship will have a calculated gross weight of about 3,500 metric tons. The process of loading the barque onto the heavy-lift dock sh ip is estimated to take three to fo u r days, and the transAtl antic cross ing w ill take a minimum of twelve days. "S he's not particularly heavy, relative to, say, a military vessel ," sa id A lexandre Poirier, n aval architect and projec t engineer fo r Peking at Stiftung Hamburg M aritim (H amburg M aritime Foundation), "but she is long and fragile. She's only got 3-4 mi ll imeters of hull plating lefr at the waterline, our of an original thickness of 12 mm or more. There is 8-9 mm thickness in mos t of the rest of the hull. She will be loaded stern first, with

June 20 16, and the contract was signed that November fo r sh ipment within May/June 201 7." Combi Lift is a m ember of th e Harren & Partner Gro up. Ju st as several lift-vessel operators ~ competed to carry Peking across the ~ A tlantic, fo ur shipya rds in and aro und § H amburg are bidding to do the restoration ~ wo rk. Poirier said that Stiftung H amburg !i Mari tim met with the bidders at the end t ~ of A pril, bur that a fin al decision will take ~~ more time. 8 U nder the tenn s of the negoti ation G~ with South Street Seaport M useum, the ~ ~ Germ an found ation will p ay fo r the ~ prepara tion work perfo rmed by Caddell, ~ the ocean voyage by Combi Li ft, and the ~ " res toration wo rk on ce the ship is in ~ Germany, all out of the same â&#x201A;Ź26 million IQ> ($28.4 million) grant p led ged by the Peking as a museum ship in New York. German government; the total grant for the bowsprit peeking over the stern gate of rhe entire m aritim e heritage complex is the lift vessel." â&#x201A;Ź120 million ($ 131 million). Stifrun g That fragility means that the bracing H a mburg M a ritim is resp onsible for fo r the lift will be done from the outside at brin gin g Peking home and restoring the the th ree web fr ames . While the collision vessel. Local authorities are responsible for bu lkheads are sound, they are too fa r developing the museum complex. Poirier fo rward and aft to be of use. O ther than expl ains that his fo undation will gift the the corrosion and attri tion at the waterline, restored ship to the town as the centerpiece however, "the old girl is in remarkably good of the museum complex. The plan calls for shape," Poirier sa id, pointing to the original the sh ip to be open to visitors in 2020, and 1911 beams, joi nts, and plates th ro ughout for the full muse um complex to be the hull, some still showing the remai ns of completed over the yea rs to follow: "Getting original paint. Peking hom e h as been a fourteen-yea r Peking left the Seapo rt museum in cou m hip. We were finally able to get the Ma nh attan in September 201 6 and spent fi nancing for the harbor museum. The grant the wi nter across the harbor at Caddell Dry was one of the bigges t ever fo r a historical D ock & Repair on Staten Island, New development fro m the government. We will Yo rk. During her stay there, all ya rds and replace the whole double bottom of the ship the fo ur topmasts we re sent down; the only and rebuild her rig. Once the restoration two original ya rds remaining were las hed is completed, in about three years, the ship o n deck; and abou t 200 metric to ns of will be d isplayed Boating, re-rigged, and concrete ballast were removed . All interior with all h er historical interior spaces structures-temporary bulkheads, display restored or recreated ." cases installed fo r museum use-have been Peking is a steel-hulled, four-m as ted removed . barque. She was built by Blohm+Voss in Peer Kelch, chartering m anager fo r 19 11 and sailed fo r the H amburg- based F. Combi Lift, said that transports of historic Laeisz, as part of the "Flying P Line." Peking vessels are "more the exception than the was one of the las t windj ammers used to rule." Kelch said: "For Peking, we started carry general cargo from Europe to the wes t discussions m ore than ten yea rs ago in Coast of South A merica and hau l nitrates 2007. Final negotiations commenced in back. She was m ade famous to A merican Peking's two remaining original yards and an anchor are lashed to the deck in preparation for her last transAtlantic crossing via heavy lift ship.

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 201 7


Peking under full sail in her working life as a cargo ship in the nitrates trade. *

Irving Johnson

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: t~~=~~~~~:~:;::::~~~~~~~~~~~:=:::~~ audiences rhrough rhe well-known articles, film, and books by Caprain Irving Johnson, who sailed aboard as a deckhand in 1929 and documenred his experience sa il ing from Germany to C hile wirh a 16mm camera, decades larer rurning ir inro a shorr film , Around Cape H orn, produced by Mys ric Seaport M useum . Orher Flying P ships srill exra nr are: Pommern (1903), Passat (19 11), and Padua (built in 1926, renamed Kruz enshtern in 1946). Kruzenshtern is the only Flying P liner still sa iling today. Pommern is a museum ship in M ariehamn in the Aland

Island s, Finl a nd . She is currently undergoing a restoration. Passat, a true sister ship to Peking, serves as a yo uth hostel and museum ship in Li.ibeck, Germany. After a century of crossin g oceans and calling at ports all across the wo rld, Peking will return to her original homeport, this time fo r good. !, This article is adapted and updated from a feature that ran in the March-April 2 017 "Ships & Shipping Lines Focus Spotlight " supplement to H eavy Lift Project Forwa rding magaz ine. Rep rinted with p ermission.

Heavy Lift Vessels The current generation of lift vessels owned and operated by Combi D ocks can handle Aoating cargo as large as 132 meters long and up to 18 meters wide. Cargo exceeding that overall length ca n be transported with the stern ramp open. There are no fixed heighr limira rions, save what would become a stability issue or might be imposed by bridges, wires, or other cross-channel stru ctures . The lift vessels are designed to sa il with open and/or removed weatherdeck hatch cover pontoons, depend ing on the nature of rhe cargo being transported. "Apar t fro m this special historic cargo, all kinds of floating objects-dredgers (includ ing accessories) , naval craft, and mega-yachrs are moved with regularity on a worldwide basis," said Kelch . "[Our] vessels also carry roll-on/roll-off units of more than 4,000 metric tons. The Cambi D ock type ship is fitted with 7,000 metric tons lifri ng capaciry." There are about half a dozen vessels of similar dimensions in the industry, plus various larger dock vessels and semi-submersible deck carriers. "Indeed , it is a highly competitive market," he added. Since its foundin g in 2000, Cambi Lift has become a leading expert in shipping heavy lift cargoes across the world 's oceans. Cambi Lift maintains a fleer of heavy lift vessels of va rious sizes, as well as highly specialized semi-submersible dock ships. W hile tra nsporting Peking will be a pa rticularly meaningful project, mosr of the wo rk Combi Lift ships engage in is highly specialized, and individual transports are regularly custom-made to match each cargo's needs.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 201 7

The Peking Battles Cape Horn By Irving Johnson In honor of Peking's fi nal deparrure from New York back to her home port in Germany and in uibure to her legacy, we bring you this epic story. This true and gripping narrative rakes yo u to sea aboard one of the las t of the rail ships, the great barque Peking. Ir is voyage yo u'll never fo rget, from the winter North Sea gales rhar nearly drove the ship ashore, to rhe Cape Horn snorters that punished the Peking so severely that a whole secrion of her strong sreel side was driven in. This edition includes an afrerwo rd fro m Irving Johnson, looking back on the voyage from the perspective of a long and advemu ro us career at sea, adding depth and new meaning to a voyage that was the experience of a life time. Hard Cover $5.00 + $4.00 s/h in US Sofr Cover $3. 00 + $4.00 s/h in US

To order, call 1-800-221-NMHS (6647), ext. 0., or e-mail merchandise@seahistory.org. NYS residents add applicable sales tax.

29


John Stobart on Cape CodInspiring the Next Generation in Maritime¡P

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o t too long ago, kids growing up on Cape Cod would absorb the m aritime culture all around them simply as a way of life. Parents and neighbors were engaged in the fish eries, yachting, boarbuilding and maintenance, in the US Life-Saving Service and its successor, the US Coast G uard. On one end of the Cape in Woods Hole is the mecca of the marine science world, with research vessels of all sizes coming in and our of port on any given day. On the other end is Provincetown, home to an active commercial fis hin g fleer and vibrant tour-boat industry. These d ays, Cape Codders can grow up with very little access to, or insight into, their own maritime heritage, outside of the seaside kirsch they see as they drive down the Mid-Cape highway that stretches from the canal to Long Point Light on the rip of the Cape. The Cape Cod Maritime Museum (CCMM) seeks to remedy this situation. Operating year-round but located in a ma-

jor summer tourist destination, we have found an innovative way to mesh the two seasonal populations, while fulfilling the museum's mission to "protect, preserve and promote Cape Cod 's maritime past, present and future." This summer, the museum, located at the head of H yannis H arbor, is hosting a major arr exhibition by worldrenowned marine artist John Stobart, which will attract visitors from far and wide. Simultaneously, we are expanding the museum's maritime-themed educational programs to introduce young people to their maritime heritage and hopefully inspire them to pursue related trades. While the general population on Cape Cod has moved away from maritime-based work over the past few decades, the demand for skilled labor in boatyards and marinas is still strong. Local employers a re scrambling fo r workers with basic know-how around boats and tools, and the museum h as stepped up to answer the call- bur with a twist.

When boatyards across the Cape began to voice growing concerns that they cannot find enough qualified entry-level employees whom their businesses depend upon, it became painfully obvious to us that the museum's boarbuilding program s, already in place, could be a natural step in building a certificate program for prospective employees . Under the guida nce oflocal boatyard owner and m as ter builder Tony Davis,

(top) Brant Point Light, Nantucket, oil on canvas, 6 x 9 inches. The Cape Cod Maritime Museum in Hyannis, Massachusetts, is just a stone's throw from the Nantucketjerry docks. As travelers aboard the ferries app roach their destination, they can see this little lighthouse marking the entrance to Nantucket Harbor offto starboard. This painting by John Stobart and the others depicted here, along with more than two dozen more ofthe artist's paintings and prints, are on display at the museum through 2017

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

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of Arey's Pond Boat Yard in South O rleans, we developed a program for youth th rough which they can earn a Boat Yard Apprentice Certificate. Skills learned in the program are sanding, scraping, paint application, and epoxy repairs, as well as basic wood cutting and shaping. Certification also covers towi ng and launching, and an int roduction to sail and power boating. As CCMM is a maritime museum, however, we do not a im to serve as just a vocational trades school, we want to instill in our students the traditions and heritage of these trades as well. Enter John Stobart. It turns out that one of the museum's board m embers, David M cCaskey, is a longtime friend of the acclaimed arti st. Stobar t's wo rks are featured in pres tigious museums, ga lleries, and collections all over the wo rld, and his calendar fills up quickly with appearances and speaking engagements. Through McCaskey, John Stobart heard about our efforts to engage yo ung people in both current maritime prac tices and an appreciation for the pas t, and he eagerly signed on board and offered to exhibit his paintings and prints at the museum fo r 2017. The new art exhibition and the boatbuildi ng programs work in tandem to offer a holistic experience that combines artistic expression with hands-on experience. The Stobart exhibition, fea turing coas tal scenes of New England and ofNew England vessels in faraway waters, dovetails perfectly with the appre ntice program we are reconfiguring to help prepare Cape Cod 's youth

Kids work with museum boatbuilding instructors as part ofthe museums STEM Gains STEAM program.

oil on canvas, 23 x 36 inches fo r careers at home in our marinas and the many boatbuilding and repair businesses in the area. We are excited to balance the maritim e history and future of our region, through the combination of art and realworld job opportunities. The museum has been running wooden boatbuilding programs for a number of years with local teens and at-risk yo uth, th ro ugh school collaborations and through the museum's outreach program . This is our third yea r running the STEM Gains STEAM program, which goes beyond a Oyster Cove Kate C. Stevens, oil on canvas, 10 x 14 inches

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017

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The Black Ball Packet Orpheus Leaving New York in 1835, oil on canvas, 19 112 x32 112 inches

conventional STEM curriculum by weaving maritime themes into science, technology, engineering, math, and art classes. By adding a maritime art exhibition of this caliber, the program becomes much more than just about vocational training. One local high school is developing art classes using the Stobart exhibition as a teaching tool, including studies of the artwork a nd a curatorial project based on an artifact from the museum's collection . This confluence of art and commerce stakes new gro und for the museum, achieving its mission while improving its releva nce to the Cape's cultural and business community. Beyond the opportunity to earn a certificate that serves as a stepping-stone to a potential career path , the youth programs serve as a way to capture the attention a nd im aginations of students deem ed at risk of dropping out of school. And the choice of Stobart's art is no coincidence. As he became a master of his craft , John Stobart also understood his responsibility to serve as a role model for up-and-coming artisans. His lifetime's work painting m aritime subj ects h as given him a deep appreciation for those in the maritime trades whose work is critical ro preserving the ships and boats he has long studied, revered, and depicted in his art. By m arrying the Stobart collection with student education, the Cape Cod Maritime Museum hopes to gain the attention of multiple generations and multiple facets of Cape Cod society-among them maritime aficionados, art lovers, local schools, and the boating community. 32

We expect John Stobart's p aintings will serve as a potent inspiration to the yo ung adults enrolled in the boatbuilding program. They ca n view the scope of life along our harbors and envision themselves as part of that history, contributing to it much as a great artist does. By providing the opportunity to view these incredible works of art upstairs in the museum gallery and to gain hands-on experience in boatbuilding dow nstairs in the shop, the Cape Cod Maritime Museum looks forward to sh arin g the wonders of sailing-its past and its future-with a new and engaged audience. j:,

Apprentice boatbuilders in the shop, and later out on the water conducting sea trials.

Join John Stobart at the museum for the opening reception on 15 July, and come back in July for a Sunday afrernoon conversation with the artist, who will give a presentation on his life, art, and the work of the Stobart Foundation: 16 & 23 July. T ickets must be reserved in advance. Cape Cod Maritime Museum, 135 South St. , H yan nis, MA; Ph. 508 775 -1723; www.capecodmaritimemuseum.org. The nineteen paintings and twelve prints in the exhibit are courtesy of the Kensington-Stobart Gallery in Salem, MA.

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017


Your Purchase of this john Stobart Print Will Directly Support the NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY! Generously donated by renowned artist John Stobart and the J. Russell Jinishian Gallery to benefit the Society, "New York, Lower South Street, c. 1885," signed prints.

Through this special offer from the National Maritime Historical Society, you can acquire this stunning print that portrays a bygone time in New York City's most historic waterfront areaa tranquil era of cobblestone streets, lantern light, and horse-drawn wagons. Each lithograph is personally approved and hand signed by the artist, John Stobart. Image size 18" x 26" on 25" x 33" paper, unframed. Special price for NMHS members: $350 each+ $30 s/h.

To order, call 1-800-221-NMHS (6647), ext. 0, e-mail nmhs@seahistory.org, or visit our website at www.seahistory.org. NYS add applicable sales tax.


Worms and Barnacles and Algae, Oh My!

V

Keeping Ship Bottoms Free of Marine Growth

isitors to USS Constitution in Boston this summer while the historic ship is out of the water (until 23 July-see article on pages 16- 17), will first notice the bright copper plating covering the ship's entire bottom. This was the go-to anti-fouling treatment at the end of the 18th century and well into the 19th century, as copper was discovered to be toxic to marine growth.

The underside of USS Constitution is covered in copper plating to prevent marine organisms from attaching to the ship's hull.

Ships and boats that spend most of their time in the water (as opposed to leisure boats that are usually launched by trailer for the day, and hauled back out by sunset) have to contend with tiny plants and animals attaching themselves to the hull beneath the waterline. Not only does this marine growth slow down a vessel's speed, but organisms can penetrate the hull and damage it. For wooden vessels in seawater, some organisms-specifically the teredo worm, teredo navalis-will bore through the wood with such efficiency that the hull would soon be peppered with holes and tunnels. To combat this situation, shipowners treat the underwater portion of their vessels' hulls. In ancient times, boats were often slathered with tar, wax, oils, or tallow (animal fat) mixed with animal hair. Sometimes shipbuilders tacked on an additional layer of wood that could be sacrificed and replaced when it got too full of holes, thus protecting the actual hull planking. In the 17th century, mariners used sheets of lead to sheathe their hulls to deter marine growth, only to discover that lead h astened the corrosion of iron fastenings that held the ship's planks to the frames . Coatings called anti-fouling paints that contain substances toxic to marine organisms h ave been around for hundreds of years, but not until the mid-1850s were formulas developed that were effective enough to be adopted on a wide scale, reducing the need for expensive copper plating. Left unchecked, marine growth could slow a vessel's speed through the water considerably, a serious concern for fighting ships that relied on speed to catch enemy vessels or make an escape in a dicey situation. In the 1700s, the British Royal Navy had the largest fleet in the world; finding a solution to this problem would be the key to maintaining its dominance on the high seas.

14

Naval shipyards experimented with various substances; the use of copper produced the most consistent and favorable results. In 1758, the British tested this theory by covering the bottom of the 32-gun frigate HMS Alarm with hundreds of sheets of copper plating and sending her on a voyage to the tropical waters of the Caribbean, where teredo worms and marine plants inflicted more d amage on seagoing vessels than enemy warships. While the copper plating did indeed successfully prevent marine growth, it was also discovered to react with the ship's iron fastenings, causing excessive corrosion. This was not too difficult to overcome; copper-alloyed fastenings were swapped out with iron bolts and hardware, or other materials were used as a buffer between the copper and iron used in shipbuilding. Despite the significant added expense that coppering a ship's hull entailed, in the 1770s, the Royal Navy mandated that ALL its ships would be sheathed in copper plating. Not only would this save money by prolonging a ship's working life, but it meant that warships could spend longer periods at sea without the need to come into port for repairs and bottom-cleaning. The US Navy followed the British example and coppered its first warship-USS Alliance-in 1781; when it built USS Constitution and five other sister frigates to build up the size and strength of the US fleet, all were sheathed in copper plating below the waterline.

Try dragging all that around next time you go sailing.

In the commercial fleet, merchant shipowners who could afford the initial cost followed the navy's lead and had their ships copper bottomed, but this was impractical for iron-hulled ships, which became more prevalent in the 1800s, so experiments with paint were taken up again. By the 1860s, new ships were launched with painted hulls instead of copper-plated bottoms. Anti-fouling paint ingredients-then and now-are a mix of a toxic material to kill off m arine growth (traditionally copper, arsenic, or mercury); solvents (like turpentine or alcohol) that will evaporate once the paint is brushed on; and a binder to ensure the final coat has the right amount of flexibility and durability. Even fib erglass boats often are coated with anti-fouling paint. While not threatened by teredo worms, they do collect marine plants and organisms if left for any length of time in sea water. ,!,

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


Who Sails Tall Ships? â&#x20AC;˘A-Aâ&#x20AC;˘ /V

y first sailing ship experience was aboard a 125-foot schooner. I \ was a college student onboard for a week in the summer to get out on the ocean, see some whales, learn how to handle sails and steer the ship, and have a really fun time doing it. I was a stranger to everyone else on board, and that was just fine. I had never been on a ship like that before, never been on the ocean for more than a ferry ride, and had never heard of half the terms and expressions the crewmembers used as part of their regular speech. While the ship itself was spectacular and the sailing was exciting-not to mention getting to see breaching humpback whales-what I was most in awe of was the crew. Who were these people? Most of them were around my age-how did they know all this stuff? I assumed that most-if not all-of them had grown up around boats and the ocean, as it seemed like something that must have taken years to learn. It turns out this was not remotely true! The second mate was from dairy-farm country in Vermont, the chief mate was from inland Texas, a deckhand was from suburban New Jersey, and the captain grew up sailing in small boats in rivers and along the Gulf coast of Florida and only got exposed to deep-sea sailing as a young man in the navy. Me? I grew up in central New Jersey, and while I knew a fair amount about canoeing in lakes and messing about in ski boats, I knew very little about sailing, and had never done an ocean passage. I had next to no vocabulary pertaining to ships, commands, and nautical terms and expressions. A few years later, I was working as the ship's second mate, running a watch, and teaching others how to sail the ship. I had crossed the Atlantic Ocean and

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sailed tens of thousands of miles in both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, and my daily vocabulary was sometimes unintelligible to my landlubber family. My experience, while not typical of my hometown friends' experiences, was hardly unusual in the sailing world. What I learned was that anyone can go sailing on these ships, and if you immerse yourself in that world and are open-minded about learning new things, you can become quite proficient in a relatively short period of time. If you visit the Tall Ships America website (www.sailtraining.org) or buy their guidebook Sail Tall Ships!, you'll find hundreds of sailing ships all across the United States that take on people of all ages as trainees, most with no experience on boats whatsoever. The ships, from huge square-riggers to smaller schooners or sloops, all run educational programs that are open to the public and school groups. Some go out for just a few hours, and some sail around the world on extended voyages. More typical programs run from about a week to a high school semester at sea. If you don't think you are ready for tall ship sailing, lots of waterfront communities teach sailing and boating in small boats. Search on line for "community boating" in your area and see if there are listings for programs near you. As Rat said to Mole in Kenneth Grahame's Wind in the Willows, "Believe me, my young friend, there is nothing-absolutely nothing-half so much worth doing as simply messing about in boats." !. -Deirdre O'Regan, Editor, Sea History My first tall ship captain started out in an Opti, just like these kids are doing. Community boating programs across the country teach sailing to people of all ages. These kids are learning to sail through Bourne Community Boating on Cape Cod (www.bournecommunityboating.org). ~

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he Royal Navy ship Rattler was ailing southbound off the coast of Chile in late June 1794. At round eight o'clock at night, the men on watch heard something strange over the side. Rattler's captain later described it: "An animal rose along-side the ship, and uttered such shrieks and tones of lamentation so like those produced by the female human voice, when expressing the deepest distress as to occasion no small degree of alarm among those who first heard it." Captain Colnett explained that the animal's cries were the closest thing he'd ever heard to the human voice. It went on for three hours and

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a female seal that lost her "cub." Or maybe a seal pup had lost its mother. The crew, however, saw the wailing of the animal over the rail as an evil omen. The cries "awakened their superstitious apprehensions." So was this actually a mother seal or her pup? And why were the sailors so disturbed? Colnett and his crew might have seen a South American Fur Seal, but perhaps the safest guess is that they heard the cries of the larger, more common, South American Sea Lion . Both species of marine mammals are found in this part of the world, feeding on fish and squid in the Peruvian Current and hauling out on islands to mate and give birth.

Dr. Claudio Campagna, who recently participated in a study of the vocalization s made by South American Sea Lions, told me: "It could have

A "Sea Lion " from The Natural History of Quadrupedes (1766) by R. Brookes, who wrote "The noise they make is very loud and of different kinds, sometime grunting like Hogs and at other times snorting like Horses in full vigor. "

been a sea lion female. Sea lion females call their pups with sounds that may be described as a human female in distress." We'll never know why thi s particular sea lion might have been crying out near Colnett's ship for three hours, but seals and sea lions are known to be exceptionally vo cal. They commun icate both in the water and on shore. Males use their voices to intimidate other males and to attract mates. Mothers and pups use their voices to find each other in dense colonies. About a week after giving birth , mother South American Sea Lions leave their pups on the beach while they go to sea to find food . When the mothers return, sometimes days later, they must find their own among hundreds clumped together in the colony. SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


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tious feeling about seals, arising not only from their peculiar tones and semi-intelligent faces, seen peeringly uprising from the water alongside." Then the sailors in Moby-Dick find their superstitious fears about the cries reinforced . just a few hours later, one of their shipmates fell from aloft and drowned . As for the Rattler, nothing terrible happened directly after they heard what was probably a female South American Sea Lion bellowing out to them for a full three hours, but about a week after rounding Cape Horn an enormous wave crashed over the back of the ship, filled it with water, smashed in some of the stern, and ruined the captain's charts. By the time they made it to St. Helena in the South Atlantic, not only was the Rattler "almost a wreck," but a couple of their men were ill from scurvy and still traumatized . "We had one man indeed who was [still] literally panicstruck by the appearance and cries of the seal in the Pacific Ocean," Col nett wrote about their approach to St. Helena. "If we had remained twentyfour hours [more) at sea, he would not have recovered ." You can view more "Animals in Sea History" at www.seahistory.org or educators.mysticseaport.org. ,t

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Maritte Art News In case you missed the inaugural National Marine Art Conference last fall, you won't want to miss your second chance at attending this wholly worthwhile gathering of marine artists, enthusiasts, gallery owners, art historians, printmakers, and collectors at this year's national event, organized the the American Sociery of Marine Artists (ASMA), to be held in Mystic, Connecticut, next October. Plan to arrive the day before, because the schedule is packed and the day starts bright and early on Thursday morning, 19 October. Presentations, tours, receptions, and a plein air paint out will take place on the grounds of the Haley Mansion of the Inn at Mystic (the host venue), just down the road at Mystic MV Prud ence Seaport Museum, and at the La Grua Center in nearby Stonington. Thursday will open with a presentation by renowned artist C. W Mundy on his insights regarding the technique of painting upside-down. We'll also get a demonstration by Don Demers on the conception and development of a marine painting, fo llowed by scultor Scott Penegar who will give a demonstration on stone carving. On Thursday afternoon, the first 95 to sign up can take a sunset cruise out of Mystic aboard one of the historic 1911 steam ferries-either MV Prudence or MV Patience-operated by Greenwich Harbor Cruises. Friday's line-up includes an ASMA Fellows' plein air session at Mystic Seaport with Christopher Blossom, William Davis, Don Demers, Lisa Egeli, Len Mizerek, C. W Mundy, Len Tantillo, Sergio Roffo, and others. Additional presentations on Friday and Saturday include: a curators' discussion on Mystic Seaport's special collections, Russell Jinishian's insights into the business aspect of of marine art as it pertains to galleries, and presentations by artists Loretta Krupinski and Russ Kramer. The conference keynote speaker is Alan Granby, co-owner of Hyland-Granby Antiques, who will share his insights on some of the most important private maritime collections of our time. Russ Kramer At the Saturday evening banquet, ASMA will recognize Russell Jinishian with its 2017 Lifetime Achievement Award. Sunday's full schedule will conclude with a special artists' reception at Mystic Seaport's Rudolph Schaeffer Gallery, the final venue for the ASMA 17th National Exhibition, which opened for the first time in Williamsburg at last year's conference. There's nothing quite as satisfying as viewing contemporary art in an exhibition, and having the artists who created it milling about, ready to answer questions and engage in conversation in an informal setting. Early registration for NMHS and ASMA members will be available at a special price again this year for a limited time, through June 30th. Details on the venues, program, artists, and registration information is available on the ASMA website at www.americansocieryofmar ineartists.com. ..t

Moonlighting Down East-Seining Herring at Night Penobscot Bay, Maine, by Loretta Krupinski, oil, 22 x 29 inches

38

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SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017


MARITIME HISTORY ON THE INTERNET

by Peter McCracken

Searching Museum Collections Online

I

n the 21st century, most museums track their artifacts through electronic inventory management tools that are simi lar to electronic library catalogs. More and more museums are raking advantage of these tools to make their collection inventories, either in part or in their entirety, accessible online. Quite a bit of interesting information can be gleaned about artifacts in a museum's collection; nearly every museum has many times more artifacts in storage than on display, and it can be useful to discover what items are in those collections, how one can access them, and what information the museum has about them. At Mystic Seaport, for example, one can start at www.mysticseaport.org/research/, then click on "Explore the Collections" to search the museum's inventory. Most records are quite brief, but if yo u seek information about a specific person or vessel, you may discover something useful and find it's worth a trip to the seaport for an on-site research visit. Other museums have similar portals, such as the UK's National Maritime Museum's beautiful sire of themed research paths at www. rmg.co.uk/discover, or different paths to discovery in the San Francisco Maritime National Historic Park's collection at www.nps.gov/safr/learn/historyculture/catalogs.htm. Several major museums take a very active approach to making these resources available online; the British Museum has over 2.3 million records available online at www. britishmuseum.org/research/collection_ online/search.aspx, and more than one million of those entries feature artifact images. The National Museum of American History h as a similar search tool at www.americanhistory.si.edu/collections, as do most of the other Smithsonian Institution museums at their respective websites. When yo u're seeking an inventory system on a specific museum's webpage, try following links for "research," "explore," "discovery," or "collection," to locate its artifact collection. From the New Bedford Whaling Museum home page at www.whalingmuseum.org, for instance, put your mouse over "Explore," then "Collections," then "Search Collections," and you'll end up at a search inCollections Search ..... terface that will allow you to explore many of the mu=-~·.:-'7...-.:.::.~-:.:....~-n. ,..._ .................-...... .._..... .. --·~- ... --.~·--__ seum's artifacts . Remember, however, that this database _., ___ .._ ........... ... ..,,,_.,_.,_""..-.i .......will almost certainly be a different database from the =~::..'".=.:-=---====.=.:-institution's library collection: The quality, interface, available information, and other data will vary greatly, and the library database itself for a specific institution .,........,.lioidlo,i,_"....,..' '"""""""_lo_ _....._..,,_,,..i ...................... ..,...,.....i,,•.-, ................ may not be accessible online at all. If you don't know where to start to do a search, one ,_....,_.. ......, interesting source is www.pastperfect-online.com, published by a company that creates and sells one of these collection management tools. Nearly PASTPERFECTONLINE ..... - - _ _.. "-''- - .. six million records from nearly 800 collections are accessible here. Of course, it only includes collections that use the Past Perfect software, but it is a great way to discover collections ,.,,.,, _.,,"' ""'"''A that might be new to you. Through Past Perfect, I discovered the Deltaville Maritime Museum, in Deltaville, Virginia, for instance; $@1@MH6 UWM Art Colle<tion its collection of artifacts is accessible at www. deltaville.pastperfectonline.com . ... .... ,.., ... ,... e - . - ... - - - ·...... NovaMuse (www.novamuse.ca) brings together several hundred thousand objects from about 55 museums throughout Nova Scotia, Canada, making selected portions of their holdings available online. Suggestions for other sites worth mentioning are welcome at perer@shipindex.org. See www.shipindex.org for a free compilation of over 150,000 ship names from indexes to dozens of books and journals. !,

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.SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS Scientists at the Department of Culture and Heritage in the Canadian territory of Nunavut h ave begun examining the DNA of the remains of sailors from the doomed Franklin expedition, and were surprised to learn that women might have been part of the endeavor. The 1845 undertaking, led by British Royal Navy captain Sir John Franklin, set out in two ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, to find a sea route linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The ships were trapped in thick ice in 1846, and the crews indicated in a message sent out in 1848 that they were abandoning the ships to attempt the journey south to safety, bur none survived. Researchers have been trying to piece together the story of their final journey ever since. The wrecks of the Erebus and Terror

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were discovered in 2014 and 2016, respectively. The remains of more than twenty of the crewmembers have been found along the route away from the wreck sire. Initial examination of the crew's skeletal remains points to incidences of scurvy and also the possibility of cannibalism, bur what has been the most startling discovery is that four of the individuals appear to be women. While it is possible that the age of the DNA evidence might have reduced its reliability, the DNA appears to be that of European women, indicating that the remains were not those of women native to the region, but women who were part of the ship's company. The research team hopes that, through studying the remains, it can piece together more of the story of what happened to the crewmembers in their final days . In

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1992, the wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror were designated as a national hisroric site under the Historic Sites and Monuments Act, despite neither shipwreck having been fo und at that time. Parks Canada and the Kitikmeot Inuit Association cooperatively-manage the wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site, the first national historic site cooperatively managed in N unavut. (Vis it the Parks Canada website on the Franklin Expedition for more information on the proj ect, plus videos of the field work, photos, and more: www.pc.gc.ca/en /c ulture/ franklin.) ... Researchers from the Maritime Archaeology Project (MAP) team, working with American and European maritime archaeologists to study how sea-level change affected early human societies around the end of the last ice age, were surveying the Black Sea off the coast of Bulgaria last summer and discovered an array of shipwrecks. In all, rhe team found more than forty vessels. TI1e oldest dates back to the Byzantine Empire; the majority of them range from the 14'h to 19'h centuries. The shipwrecks are in particularly good shape because the waters of the Black Sea at depths below 500 feet are devoid of oxygen and thus rhe dreaded reredo, or "shipworm," which bores through wood timbers, cannot thrive there. Working from MAP's research vessel, the SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 20 17


Stril Explorer, the team lowered remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to the wreck sites and generated images using photogrammetry, a process of taking extensive measurements and high-resolution photos, which are then combined for detailed images of the sires. (www.blackseamap.com) .. . A recent survey of the 1934 ocean liner Queen Mary reveals the shipturned-hotel is in dire need of major restoration work to prevent Hooding or internal structural components from collapsing. The former Cunard liner RMS Queen Mary, which captured the Blue Riband in her first year of operations, has been a dominant fixture on the Long Beach, California, waterfront since 1967, where she was converted and has served as a popular hotel and event venue ever since. The ship, owned by the city of Long Beach and leased to outside companies, has weathered major challenges before, and is currently open for business. Urban Commons LLC, a real estate company based in Los Queen Mary

Save the Date! - 26 October 2017 NMHS Annual Awards Dinner at the New York Yacht Club The 2017 NMHS Annual Awards Dinner chairman George Carmany III and vice chairman Chris Culver invite you to join us Thursday, 26 October, at the New York Yacht Club in New York Ciry. We are honored to present the NMHS Distinguished Service Award to American shipbuilder and preservationist Brian Brian D'Isernia, who built a steel hull replica of Columbia, the historic 141-foor Gloucester fishing schooner built in 1923 at the A. D. Story shipyard of Essex, Massachusetts, and designed by William Starling Burgess. The 24th Commandant of the US Coast Guard, Admiral Robert Papp Jr., will present the award. We are honored to present our Distinguished Service . . Award to Bert Rogers, Executive Director of Tall Ships Amenca. Sea History editor Deirdre O'Regan will make the presentation. We are excited to recognize NMHS overseer and the fo undi ng chairman of the National Maritime Awards Dinner, Philip Webster, with the David A. O'Neil Sheet Anchor Award. Richard du Moulin will serve as Master of Ceremonies.

Angeles, took over the lease in 2016. The company has submitted ambitious plans to the city to restore the ship and make it the focal point of a new complex called Queen Mary Island, which would include an outdoor amphitheater and an indoor adventure park, plus 700,000 square feet of retail space, a refurbished hotel, a halfmile bayfront boardwalk, and more. But first they need to deal with the imminent problem of a seriously deteriorating ship after many decades of deferred maintenance and neglect. The engineering study, which was started in October 2015 and released to the public in March 2017, recommends immediate repairs to the hull and interior spaces to the tune of $235-3 00 million. According to a recent series of reports in the Long Beach Press-Telegram, the survey warns that the ship is in danger of "approach ing the point of no return," with 75 SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017

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percent of the repairs deemed "urgent." The corrosion and rust within the hull is extensive, as well as interior spaces, especially the engine room. The bilge system has long been inoperable, making regular pumping of large amounts of water difficult, if not impossible. If the ship were to experience major flooding, it is likely she would sink and settle at the bottom of the lagoon where she is moored. As part of its 66-year lease agreement with the city of Long Beach, Urban Commons has agreed to pay $23 million for critical repairs. While the unsafe areas of the ship have been closed off to the public, the hotel and other areas are still open and serving customers. The ship is beloved in Long Beach, as well as by admirers of that class and era of ocean liner, bur response to the current crisis leaves Long Beach residents in a quandary about how much public money should go into a sinking ship. RMS Queen Mary was built in Clydebank, Scotland, and the news of her current condition has caught the attention oflocal press. Gil Paterson, Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for Clydebank, commented: "The Queen Mary is one of the finest vessels ever built and her grandeur and craftsmanship have never been replicated. I would be horrified to think that because of deterioration in the superstructure, we could lose what is quite frankly irreplaceable. Ir should really be a protected heritage site and the whole world should rake notice. There should be an international fundraising campaign to help repair this ship." (www.queenmary.com; www. urbancommons.com) .. . The remains of a US Navy coxswain, who survived the attack at Pearl Harbor, have been interred on thewreckofVSSArizona. On 7 December 1941, Raymond Haerry, a 20-year-old coxswain serving aboard USS Arizona, was eating breakfast when the attack on Pearl Harbor began. As he was making his way toward the ammunition locker on deck, he was blown into the water and, according to his son, Raymond Haerry Jr., swam through flaming water, sweeping his arms in front of him to push the flames our of the way. Her made his way to Ford Island and manned a machine gun there and opened fire on Japanese aircraft. He would survive the attack, which killed more than a thousand of his shipmates, and later retired from the Navy in

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1964 after 25 years of service, as a master chief. H aerry died in September 2016 at the age of 94, and on 15 April his remains were interred on the ship in a ceremony conducted by the US Navy and the National Park Service, with his granddaughter and other family members in attendance. Haerry never returned to Pearl Harbor because, his family said, the memories were too painful, but in his later years he told them he would like to be laid to rest with his fallen shipmates. The US Navy allows USS Arizona survivors to be interred on the ship's wreckage. After a full military funeral on the Arizona Memorial, the urn holding the deceased's cremated remains is handed to divers, who place it under one of the gun turrets . Haerry is the 42°d survivor to be interred on the ship. O nly five more USS Arizona survivors remain. (The USS Arizona Memorial is part of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, a National Park Service site. 1845 Wasp Blvd., Bldg. 176, Honolulu , HI; Ph. 808 422-3399; www.nps .gov) . . . The Naval Academy Prep School (NAPS) in Newport, Rhode Island, has partnered with Oliver Hazard Perry Rhode Island (OHPRI) to send its midshipmen on board for five-day sail training voyages onboard the 200-foot full-rigged ship Oliver Hazard Perry. The NAPS is the US Navy's fourth oldest school, and serves to prepare candidates for the US Naval Academy. Students who have applied to the US Naval Academy and are deemed qualified, but in need of another year of preparation to handle the academic rigors of its program, are offered an appointment to NAPS for a ten-month academic year of instruction. In preparing these candidates SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017

43


for a career in the Navy, the introduction to sail training in Oliver Hazard Perry "gave our midshipman candidates a taste of the sea that we can't give them with our current resources," said NAPS Commanding Officer M ike Doherty. ''At the Naval Academy, midshipmen have two designated times when they will get underway with some navy ship, submarine, or aviation squadron, but we don't have that opportunity at NAPS. The expectation is that these individuals are going to be the core leader-

ship of their class, and if they go down [to the Naval Academy] with some seagoing experience and a little salt, it will make their experience richer." Just back from his time onboard in early May, midshipman candidate Jordan McDaniel noted that the crew "taugh t [them] a lot abo ut teamwork-how in the navy, like here, a large vessel would take dozens of people to make sure everything is done correctly." Oliver Hazard Perry is a modern, steel-hulled vessel purpose-built for training and educa-

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Celebrations marking the 35'h anniversary of the return of the 1894 schooner Ernestina-Morrissey to Massachusetts get underway th is su mmer, with a fundraising gala at the New Bedford Whaling Museum kicking-off th e fes tivities on 9 June. The Ernestina sailed home to New England from Cape Verde, arriving

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at Newport, Rhode Island, on 29 August 1982. NMHS was an important partner in the efforts to repatriate the former Effie M . Morrissey after the newly independent Republic of Cabo Verde offered to re turn the vessel as a gift to th e people of the United States. Ernestina crossed the Atlantic under sail with a crew of six A merica ns and eight Cape Verdeans. Since 1894, after serving in multiple and varied careers (fishing, Arctic exploration, service in the US Navy, and as a Cape Verdean packet sh ip), she was fully restored by the State of Massachusetts under the guidance of Captain D aniel Moreland. The schooner then operated as a sail training vessel and living history museum until she lost her USCG certification in 20 05 due to the deteriorating condition of her hull. She is currently out of the water at Boothbay H arbor Shipya rd in Maine, undergoing a multi-year restoration , organized in three phases. Phase I of the project includes a complete overhaul of the hull, which involves replacing the frames and other deteriorated timbers . When this phase is completed, the vessel is expected to mee t all US Coas t Guard requirements for recertification for ocean voyaging. Phase II of the project involves installing the ship's m achinery, system s, pumps, and the ri g. Phase III restores the ship to a livable arrangement with the construction of interior spaces: bunks, galley, heads, etc. As of this printing, the SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

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shipyard has completed the frames and is currently installing the keelson, stringers, and clamp. O ld-growth fir from Vancouver has been ordered for the deck. The restoration plan aims to return the vessel to her original fa ir lines and meet modern safety standards. Phase I should be completed by the end of2017. The schooner's future includes moving back to Massachusetts and returning to ocean sail training and h istoric interpretation for both the publ ic at large and for cadet training with the Massachusetts Maritime Academy in Buzzards Bay, MA. The Schooner Ernesti na-Morrissey Association announced in Jan uary that it received a $375,000 challenge grant from the Manton Foundation to support the fina l stage of the restoration. Other funding for the $6-plus million effort comes fro m the Commonwealth of Massachuserrs and private donors dedicated to the cause. Donations to help with the matching grant are welcome. (www.ernestina.org) ... The Mariners' Museum and Park recently announced the discovery of the first maker's mark found on the turret from USS Monitor. Last August (2016), the conservation staff at the USS Monitor Center began using dry-ice blast-

ing technology to remove co rrosion on many of the large wro ught-iron artifacts within the Monitor collect ion. Among the cleaned artifacts were engine room structural bulkheads, gun slides, and the forward and aft diagonal support braces from the ironclad's turret. During the cleaning of the aft diagonal brace, as the corrosion Baked off, a maker's m ark was found stamped into the iron spelling "ULSTER." Research indicates that U lster Iron Works was located in the town of Saugerties in U lster County, New York, about 100 miles north of New York C ity on the Hudson River. Ulster Iron Works was built in 1827 and produced an annual capacity of 6,700 net tons of iron products. During the Civil War, one of the primary sources of its

income came from US Navy contracts. While this firm was never mentioned as a supplier during the Monitor's construction at Continental Iron Works, it is now believed that U lster provided materials for modifications to the ship while it was undergoing sea trials at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. The museum staff is still working on deciphering the lineage of the company. The Mari ners' Museum is home to the USS Monitor Center in Newport News, Virginia. (100 Museum Drive, Newport News, VA; Ph. 757 596-2222; www.marinersmuseum.org) ... The 1908 steamboat Sabino will resume operations on the Mystic River in July, after a 2 1/z-year restoration effort at the Henry B. duPont Preservation Shipyard at Mystic Seaport. The Sabino is the oldest wooden, coal-fired steamboat in reg ular operation in the United States. She was built in East Boothbay, Maine, and spent most of her working li fe ferrying passengers and cargo between Maine towns and islands. She has been at Mystic Seaport since 1974 and runs to urs down the Mystic River from the museum in the summer months. The vessel was hauled late in 20 14 so that a number of maintenance issues could be addressed ,

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including reframing much of the stern, replacing keel bolts, installing new planking and decking, and restoring portions of the superstructu re. In addition, the steamboat has a new custom-made boiler to provide steam fo r the vessel's original twocylinder expansion engine that was manufact ured by J. H . Payne & Son in nearby Noan k, Connecticut, in 1908 . The new boiler was designed and fabricated by Potts Welding & Boiler Repair, Inc., a company in Delaware that specializes in the building of boilers and related parts. The new boiler is fa bricated out of steel and had to be reverse-engineered from the previous unit, as no blueprints were available. The steamboat's old boiler dates from 1940 when the US Navy operated the vessel in Casco Bay, but the design goes back to the late 19 th centu ry. The old boiler was m anufac tured by the A lmy Water-Tube Boiler Company of Providence, Rhode Island. It was the th ird boiler installed since Sabino was built; it powered the steamboat fo r nearly threequarters of her li fe on the water, including passenger service in M aine, as a private attraction in Massachusetts, and fi nally for more than forty years on the Mystic River. It is now on display in the lobby of the Thompson Exhibition Building. (75 Greenm anville Ave. Mystic, CT; Ph . 860 5720711; www.mys ticseaport.o rg) J, SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 201 7

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CALENDAR FESTIVALS, EVENTS, LECTURES, ETC.

•Sea Music Festival, 8-11 June at Mystic Seaport Museum. (75 Greenmanville Ave. , Mystic, CT; Ph. 860 572-5331; www.mysticseaport.org) •Tall Ships Challenge Series, 17-22 June in Boston, MA. The series is organized by Tall Ships America in Newport, RI. See pages 18-20 for more information. (www. sailtraining.org; www.sailboston.com) •The Boatmaker, a film by Casey McGarry and Robert Allan, 22 June (7PM) at the Santa Barbara Maritime Museum (113 Harbor Way, Santa Barbara, CA; Ph. 805 962-8404; www.sbmm.org) •Windjammer Days Festival, 25 June-1 July in Boothbay Harbor, ME. (www. windjammerdays.org) •26th Annual WoodenBoat Show, 30 June-2 July, organized WoodenBoat magazine and held at Mystic Seaport. (www. thewoodenboatshow.com; 75 Greenmanville Ave., Mystic, CT; Ph. 860 572-5331; www.mysticseaport.org) •Lake Union Wooden Boat Festival, 1-4 July at the Center for Wooden Boats in Seattle. (1010 Valley Street, Seattle, WA; www.cwb.o rg) •Thunder Bay Maritime Festival, 4 July at the Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Center in Alpena, MI. (500 W Fletcher Street, Alpena, MI; Ph. 989 356-8805; www.thun derbay. noaa.gov) •Maine Windjammer Great Schooner Race, 6-7 July. Race day is 7 July; the race course goes from Islesboro to Rockland, ME. (www.greatschoonerrace.com) •33rd Newport Regatta, 7-9 July off Fort Adams State Park in Newport, RI. (www. sailnewport.org) •22nd New Bedford Folk Festival, 8-9 July in New Bedford, MA. (www. newbedfordfolkfestival.com) •Lake Champlain Maritime Festival, 27-30 July in Burlington, VT. (www.lcm festival.com) •53rd Annual Antique Boat Show & Auction, 4-6 August at the Antique Boat Museum. (750 Mary St., Clayton, NY; Ph. 315 686-4104; www.abm.org) •Festival of the Sea, 19 August at the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco. (www. maritime.org/events) •"19th Century Naval Ordnance," a lecture by John V. Quarstein, director of the

SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017

USS Monitor Center, 12 August (2:3 0PM) at the Mariners Museum in Newport News. (100 Museum Drive, Newport News, VA; Ph. 757 596-2222; www.mariners museum.org) •Sea Chantey Festival-Maritime Museum of San Diego , 13 August. (1492 North H arbor Drive, San Diego, CA; Ph. 619 234-9 153; www.sdmaritime.org) •3Sth Annual Antique & Classic Boat Festival, 26-27 Aug ust at Brewer Hawthorne Cove Mari na in Salem, MA. (Information and boat entry: Ph. 617 6668530; www. boatfestival.org) •Greenport Maritime Festival, 22-24 September, in Greenport, Long Island, NY. (www.eastendmaritimefestival.org) EXHIBITS

•Kodachrome Memory: Both Sides ofthe Mighty Mississippi, Photographs by Nathan Benn, now through 27 August at the Minnesota Marine Art Museum in Winona. This exhibition is part of the museum's on-going Mississippi River Exhibition Series that explores a range of artists' expressions inspired by the river. Also at MMAM, the 17th National Exhibition, American Society of Marine Artists, 23 June-24 September. The exhibition will then travel to Mystic Seaport Museum in Connecticut for its final venue. (MMAM, 800 Riverview Drive, Winona, MN, Ph. 507 474-6626; www. mmam .org. ASMA, www.american societyofmarineartists.com) •24th Annual Maritime Art Exhibit, 8 July-23 September at the Coos Art Museum in Coos Bay, OR. Featured artist is Steve Mayo; jurors are June Carey, Paul Daneker, and Ivan Kelly. (235 Anderson Avenue, Coos Bay, OR; Ph. 54 1 267-3901 ; www.coosart.org)

•A Century of Women in the Rosenfeld Collection, now through 24 September at Mystic Seaport. (47 G reenmanvilleAvenue, Mystic, CT; Ph. 860 572-5388; www.mys ticseaport.org)

•Rock Bound: Painting the American Scene on Cape Ann and Along the Shore, now through 29 October at the Cape Ann Museum in MA. (27 Pleasant St., Gloucester, MA; Ph. 978 283-0455; www.capeann museum.org) •Drones-Is the Sky the Limit?, a new exhibit at the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space

Museum in New York C ity. Also at the museum until 1 October is On the Line: Intrepid and the Vietnam War. (Pier 86, W. 46th St. & 12th Ave., New York, NY; www.intrepidmuseum.org) •Swift Boats at War in Vietnam, now through 12 November at the Maritime M useum of San Diego in California. (1492 N. H arbor Dr. , San Diego, CA; Ph. 619 234-9153; www.sdmaritime.org)

•Ballast Technology: Saving Ships, Lives, and the Environment, through August at the National Museum of the Great Lakes in Toledo. (1701 Front St., Toledo, OH; Ph. 419 214-5 000; www.inlandseas.org)

•See the Light: the Preservation ofMidcoast Maine Lighthouses, now through 22 October at the Maine Maritime Museum in Bath. (43 Washington Street, Bath, Maine 04530; Ph. 207 443- 1316; www. mainemari timemuseum.org) CONFERENCES & SYMPOSIUMS

•Canadian Nautical Research Society Annual Conference, 10-12 August in Halifax, Nova Scoti a, at the historicAdmiral ry House, home of the Naval Museum of Halifax. Conference theme is "Canada and Canadians in the Great War at Sea, 1914-19 ." (www.cnrs-scrn.org) •American Historical Association,131st Annual Meeting 4-7 January 201 7 in Washington, DC. Conference theme is "Race, Ethnici ry, and Nationalism in Global Perspective." (www. historians.org) •Society for Historical Archaeology, 4-8 Jan uary 201 8 in New Orleans, LA. Cal/for-Papers deadline is 30 June. Conference theme is "Landscapes, Entrep6ts, and Global Currents." (www.sha.org) •2017 McMullen Naval History Symposium, 14-15 September at the US Naval Academy. (www. usna.edu /Histo ry/Sym posium/) •2017 International Congress of Maritime Museums (ICMM) Conference, 15-20 October at the C hilean National Maritime M useum in Valparaiso, Chile. (www. icmmonline.org) •2nd National Marine Art Conference, American Society of Marine Artists (ASMA) , 19- 22 October in Mystic, CT. (See notice in "Marine Art News" on page 38 of this issue. www.americansocieryof marineartists.com)

49


Reviews Slavish Shore: 1he Odyssey of Richard Henry Dana Jr. by Jeffrey L. Amestoy (Harvard University Press , Cambridge, MA, 2015, 365pp, illus, notes, index, ISBN 978-0-67408-819-1; $35hc) For my money, a skilled and nuanced biographer of a historical figure does three things: teaches us more about someone whose significance we've underestimated or oversimplified; leads us to reinterpret current events in the shadow of history; and carries us along with a story and voice that keeps us turning the pages. In Slavish Shore, a new biography of the iconic sailor and lawyer Richard Henry Dana Jr., Jeffrey Amestoy goes three for three. This is at least the fourth published biography of Dana, although it's the first in nearly forty years. If you're hoping to learn more about Dana's 1834-36 voyage to California aboard the brig Pilgrim, his time along the California coast, his return aboard the Alert, and then his authorship of Two Years before the Mast (1838), this biography is not for you. Two Years is a foundational text for the study of sea literature and American maritime history, in part because it was the first narrative oflife

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as a common merchant sailor. It was a bestseller at the time. Yet Amestoy breezes through young Dana's time at sea, barely questioning Dana's account of the events and using the young man's highly crafted narrative as nearly the only primary source. (See instead, for example, Robert Gale's 1969 biography of Dana.) Amestoy's concern is what Dana did afterwards. He shows that as a trial attorney and politician, Dana had a firm moral conscience and a relentless skill, drive, and idealism. Dana's career has been overshadowed by the influence and staying power of Two Years before the Mast. The son of a poet and born to blue-blood privilege with a direct line to US presidents and federal justices, Dana grew up at the edge of Harvard's campus. When he returned from his time at sea, Dana excelled in law school and was set up for a golden road. Yet, Amestoy reveals, from his first cases and throughout his professional life, Dana fought for what he believed to be the moral path, rather than the route of greatest personal gain. Amestoy argues that this path was influenced by what Dana saw while at sea, especially the famous account

of witnessing his shipmates flogged by the tyrannical and capricious Captain Frank Thompson. Throughout his career, Dana regularly represented penniless mariners right off the ship and rural clients with little money to pay him. In February of 1850 in Concord, Massachusens, with his friend Ralph Waldo Emerson in the audience, Dana spoke publicly against slavery as a member of the Free Soil Party. A month later, when he read that Daniel Webster-a man for whom he had previously had enormous respect-sought to placate the southern states by supporting the Fugitive Slave Act so that he could win the presidency, Dana wrote to his brother: "The truth is, with all his gigantic powers there is one thing [Webster] lacketh. He lacks the confidence in the moral sentiment of the people. He will run no personal risk for a principle." Dana's principles lost him money, friends, and nearly his life. His highest profile cases were a set of trials and arguments that rebelled against this Fugitive Slave Act. This not only placed him on the wrong side of Daniel Webster and the lawyers and politicians in Cambridge, but in opposition to his wealthy clients, who then boycotted Dana's practice. Undaunted, by research and skill of elocution, Dana won case after case. Amestoy, the former attorney general of Vermont and a member of the state's supreme court, recreates these scenes, both in and out of the courtroom, with masterful drama and suspense. Dana successfully defended fellow lawyers against a host of charges related to the attempted capture of slaves who had escaped and found homes in the Boston area. At one point Dana secured an acquittal for Robert Morris, the only black lawyer among the 24,000 licensed attorneys in the United States at the time. Then, in his losing defense against the rendition of the escaped slave Anthony Burns, Dana made, according to Amestoy, "one of the finest summations in the hisrory of American law" in what was "the most notorious fugitive slave case in American history." The case had Boston on the edge of riots and martial law. The night after the decision, Dana was walking near Stoddard Avenue with a colleague. Two men rushed after him and bashed him with a pipe over his right eye, knocking Dana, unconscious and bloody, to the street. SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017


::-Dana survived the attack. But his career never quite recovered from the social ostracism and the economic boycott of his practice. Dana's influence on national governm ent and the state and federa l judiciary would continue to be significant, however, including his establishment that steamships must give right of way to sa iling vessels as a genera l rule of safe navigation- no small thing to the readers of Sea History. Though D ana never achieved his political aims, over the course of his life he met wirh John Q uincy Adams, provided crucial legal arguments to support Abraham Lincoln's strategy to bring the C ivil War to its end, and influenced the fiction of Herman Melville and Harrier Beecher Stowe. Mosr inspiring in light of today's political climate is how Richard Henry Dana Jr. earned rhe respect and gratitude of disenfranchised sailors and men and women of color. Dana so ught ideals and truth, rather than political gain. Amestoy writes: "Dana was not a calculating man-he was a romantic one." RICHARD KING, PttD Mystic, Connecticut

The Ma ritime Landscape ofthe Isthmus of Panama by James P. Delgado, Tomas Medizabal, Frederick H. H anselmann, and Dominique Rissolo (University Press of Florida, Ga inesville, 2016 , 283pp, illus, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-0-8130-62877; $84.95hc) The Maritime Landscape ofthe Isthmus ofPanama is an ambitious scholarly monograph rhat delivers both much more and somewhat less than wh at is suggested in its preface. Although rhe authors state that the book is "not a maritime history, nor is it a comprehensive review of Panamanian archaeology,'' it is acrually both. The book covers the maritime history and archaeology connected w irh rhe Isthmus from preEuropean times up through rhe present day; the authors shift back and forth between historical context and archaeological sires and evidence. Drawing on an impressive range of published primary sources, classic and recent research, rhe book offers a wealth of murually reinforcing historical and archaeological details about the maritime environmental and culrural history associated wirh rhe Isthmus of Panama. The Maritime Landscape documents large-scale human-influenced changes to SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017

th e region's physical landscape and ties them cogently to important large-scale economic, technological, and political events and processes rhar have, at specific times, resh aped this "grand maritime interaction zone." The distinguishing maritime culrural characteristic of rhe Isthmus is irs long history as a place of inrernarional economic significance. The arrival of the Spanish and the expansion of Spain's maritime empire into the Pacific made the Isthmus a physical nexus poinr in the growing global economy. Despite m assive global ch anges, the Isthmus remained a strategic cenrer of economic exchange and potential conflict zone for nearly five cenruries. The tension between the Isthmus's geographic conflicting roles as borh barrier and bridge is amply revealed through descriptions and correlations of historical evidence, the conremporary physical landscape, and archaeologica l record. The book's linkage of individual si res, specific localities, maritime region, and global processes is impressive and will be of substantial value to currenr and futu re scholars. The authors' efforts to produce a volume gro unded in theory prove less effective rhan rheir excellenr documenrarion and correlation of history and regional archaeology. Their observation rhar rhe vasr flow of commerce that p assed through the Panama Canal Zone, "wasn't very beneficial, economically or oth erwise to the residents of the Isthmus" is consisrenr with Immanuel W allers rein's World's System Theory, bur in this statemenr and throughout the book, the overall application of Wallerstein's theory is more implied than robustly applied . By contrast, the book's embrace of Maririme C ulrural Landscape theory pioneered by anthropologist Crister Westerdahl seems forced in places, and inconsistently applied ; iris unclear whether there is one maritime landscape fo r the Isthmus of Pan ama or many. The book rakes it borh ways witho ut addressing this tension. In their discussion of rhe Pacific Mail Route, rhey apply Wesrerdah l's concept of cognitive landscape in describing the acquisition, inrernalizarion, and codification of shipmasrers' navigational knowledge. While their explanation of Wesrerdahl's concept is accurate, their application adds little new to our understanding of rhe intel-

.

\

lectual processes of maritime knowledge acquisition. G iven rhe richness of the material, the authors could have done much with the text and refined ideas such as maritime cognitive landscape. In general, the authors' application of maritime landscape theory yielded mostly empirical lists of impo rtant human- made landscape fearures . Whi le these such lists are useful for scholars srudying the Isthmus of Panama region, they do nor contribute to a larger scholarly understa nding of m aritime culrural process. C ultu ral landscape theo ry offers a promising but muddy and difficulr-to navigate avenue for pursuing interdisciplinary- based coastal and m aritime history and archaeology. Although rhe authors applied ir wirh some success in this volume, rhey ultimately fai led to establish a clear methodological parh for furure scholars to follow. Delgado, Mendizabal, H ansel mann, and Rissolo have produced an important contribution to the scholarship of rhe Isthmus of Panama, one of most important patches of maritime space in modern global history. The inrermixrure of history,

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have been lost, the visual material makes up most of rhe lighthouse's history. The most prominent character associated with the lighthouse is Kate Walker, who served as lighthouse keeper at Robbins Reef from 1894 until 1919. Arriving in 1885 with her husband, John Walker, and her son from a previous marriage, she soon was appointed assistant keeper, and when John died in 1890 she stayed on as keeperby then with a daughter as well. In 1895 she was officially appointed keeper, her son Jacob, assistant keeper. In this tiny world our in the harbor, she raised her family, Perspective Robbins Reef A History of kept the lamps burning, rescued mariners Robbins Ree/Lighthouse by Erin M. Ur- in distress-all without running water oir ban (Noble M aritime Collection, Staten electricity. Forced by age requirements to Island, NY, 2016 , 97pp, illus, ISBN 978-0- retire in 1919, she settled in a cottage on Sraten Island, not far from her beloved 96230-175-9; $25pb) This small paperback, published by harbor. Photographs from the Walker Famthe Noble Maritime Collection, will be ily Collection provide an intimate glimpse sought after by lighthouse lovers, maritime into a bygone era. history buffs, and anyone addicted to New A slim book (97 pages), a little lightYork Harbor, and a must for anyone giving house (48 feet tall) and a diminutive lighttours of same. The work of artist John house keeper (4' 11" tall) recall an Emily Noble is familiar to regular readers of Sea Dickenson fragment: "the North star is of History; the work of the Noble Collection, small fabric bur it implies much." Perhaps housed in Building D of the former Sailors' the Noble Collection will next turn poets Snug Harbor, should be equally recognized. and writers loose on Robbins Reef LightThe mission of the museum, initially house. In the meantime, a pilgrimage to dedicated to the work and legacy of John Building D at Sailors' Snug Harbor on A. Noble, has expanded-thanks to a Staten Island is in order-preferably by solid core of volunteers, strong leadership, ferry, with a passing benediction to the and many grants and awards-to include lighthouse on the way. preservation of the buildings and grounds ARDEN SCOTT of Sailors' Snug Harbor and, since 2010, Greenport, New York nearby Robbins Reef Lighthouse. This Choosing War: Presidential Decisions modest sparkplug lighthouse emerges from the waters of New York Harbor, just off in the Maine, Lusitania, and Panay Inthe northeast tip of Staten Island, and cidents by Douglas Carl Peifer (Oxford while it is just off the regular route tran- University Press, New York, 2016, 336pp, sited several rimes a day by the Staten Is- notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-0-19026land ferries, most ferry passengers are 868-8; $34.95hc) probably unaware of its presence as they In Choosing War, Douglas Carl Peifer pass by. Alerting the public to this little emphasizes from the outset that he is not gem in their midst is one of the missions seeking a formula for predicting the outof the museum, which resulted in this book come of future naval conflicts similar to and its corresponding exhibition at the those faced by past presidents of the Unitmuseum. As part of its outreach, the No- ed States, such as when USS Maine exble Maritime Museum invited a number ploded and sank in the harbor at Havana of visual artists to visit the lighthouse, in 1898; and when a German U-Boat torusing it as inspiration for new works of art. pedoed and sank RMS Lusitania in the Of added interest in the resulting exhibi- Irish Sea in 1915; or when Japanese bombtion are nineteenth-century views of the ers and fighter planes bombed, strafed, and harbor and lighthouse and John Noble's sank USS Panay on the Yangtze River in sketches. As much of the historical records China in 1937. Rather, he outlines the com-

archaeology, and physical landscape is highly skilled and draws on the prodigious knowledge of the authors, and it is an important example for future scholars. It places the Isthmus in global and historical context and provides a strong introduction to contemporary archaeological scholarship and policy issues for the region. It is a genuine scholar's book of impressive dimensions, but not one written for the general maritime history audience. JOHN 0. JENSEN, PHD Pensacola, Florida

SEAHISTORY 159, SUMMER2017


plexities of each incident to emphasize the interplay of pressures on the president fro m his party, Congress, the press, public opinion, and the context of the situation. H e also highlights the influence such incidents in the pas t have had on the specific scenario under consideration. President William M cKinley faced heated pressure from the public, the press, and Congress to act against Spain after the Maine explosion. H e consulted his cabinet and close advisors, while seeking every possible way to avoid wa r. President Wood row W ilson, in contras t, was awa re of the concerns of the press, the public, and Congress, but he had quiet time to come to a co nclusion and determine policy after the sinking of the Lusitania without the pressure fo r action faced by McKinley. And, whereas McKin ley sought out his advisors, W ilson paid his little heed, instead depending onand satisfi ed with-his own judgment. Under extreme pressure, McKinley's government declared war two months after the Maine blew up and sank in H avana H arbor. In contras t, W ilson asked Congress to declare war on Imperial Germany a full two yea rs afte r the destruction of the Lusitania, during which time his administration struggled to keep the United States out of the European wa r. Diplomatic notes were exchanged, demands made, and co ncessions offered, while German submarines continued to sink ships and take American lives. W hen Germany took off the gloves and pursued unres tricted subm arine warfa re in February 1917, Wilson had little choice but to ask Congress to declare war. McKinley was under press u re to be firm with Spain, while W ilson was u rged to be cautious in h is dealin gs with Germa ny a nd bala nce his com pla ints w ith similar ones aimed at G reat Britain after the torpedoin g of the Lusitania. Pres ident Franklin Roosevelt was fo rced to tread with extreme caution in his dealings with Imperial Japan because public opinion and the media we re overwhelmingly isolation ist, and Congress, of course, responded accordingly. In fac t, Congress was considering a Co nstitutio nal amendment that wo uld require a popular vote before war could be declared . Roosevelt's defr management of the Panay incident helped defeat the Ludlow amendment and reduce the pressure fro m isolationists. SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

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Peifer expounds at length on the limitations of knowledge of past incidents to predict the outcome or advise on how to manage similar current conflicts. But he also sets out the value of such understanding of the past and how it affects the present. The expositions on the three naval conflicts are well written and worth reading in this day of similar incidents and the centennial of the First World War. DAVID 0. WHITTEN. PHD Auburn, Alabama

Sailing into History: Great Lakes Bulk Carriers ofthe Twentieth Century and the Crews Who Sailed Them by Frank Boles (Michigan State University, East Lansing, 2017, 234pp, ISBN 978-1-611-86223-2; $40hc) In his new book, Sailing into History, Frank Boles, director of Central Michigan University's Clarke Historical Library, provides a general overview of the circumstances that fostered the twentieth-century boom in Great Lakes shipping, the economies that supported the system, and the people who ran the inland seas trade. In his own words, the twentieth-century history of the Lakes "is the story of brave crew serving on well-built boats; bur it is also the story of accountants ensuring the profitability of the ships, government aiding and regulating commerce, technology interacting with all aspects of the business, and labor-management relations." Boles's definition applies almost verbatim to all global cargo shipping, including the bulk carriers that Sailing into History treats as well as the many other cargo shipment types that run the world's economy.

54

As Boles perceives, Great Lakes shipping became an economic powerhouse thanks to considerable government intervention. The lakes' natural limits constrained ships from becoming ever larger with technological advances. Economies of scale favoring fewer, large-quantity shipments precluded keeping ships small. Instead, Great Lakes shipping interests lobbied the federal government to "improve" the lakes so longer ships with deeper drafts. could navigate with safety. Using mind-boggling statistics, Boles explains well just how vital Great Lakes shipping was to the twentieth-century American economy. The amount of iron, coal, and stone moved across the lakes during the century, for example, weighed the equivalent of 55,541 Chicago Willis Towers; 12,043 Mackinac Bridges; or 1,869 Hoover Dams. Yet while these statistics indicate the gargantuan amounts of cargo that crossed the lakes, thus sustaining the American economy, other passages call out for more judicious editing. Common throughout are notations such as "limestone falls between iron ore and coal in the space needed to transport it, requiring about 29 cubic feet per ton" (11); the service lineage of cement carriers, tugs, and barges (75); or the exact characteristics ofloading docks (107). This information, while useful, might better have been saved for the endnotes. As published, it interrupts Boles's otherwise lucid writing. To the reader's benefit, Boles illuminates the true significance and nature of Great Lakes shipping. Perhaps most significant is his realistic description of the lake mariner's life, often far removed from the weathered captains' romantic wanderings that many associate with the lake-borne economy and culture. The monotony of daily work, starkness of shipboard accommodations, and long periods of separation from loved ones all detracted from sailors' lives . Boles's observations that "idyllic evenings spent by content sailors ... could happen, but usually did not. The reality was quite different ... " applies equally well to blue-water seafarers. Elsewhere, Boles draws out the significance of geography: Great Lakes shipping is intrinsically transnational. He mentions also a nineteenth-century legislative situation that indicated how the United States would approach international shipping agreements well into the future . Passing Congressional legislation in 1864 that included significant rules for safe navigation, the country declined to sign a similar, earlier, international treaty set up by the British Board of Trade. The present-day American preference for homegrown rulemaking, then, is not an innovation: the United States long has participated in the international shipping economy without adopting multilateral agreements in toto. Given my position as director of programs of the North American Maritime Ministry Association, which focuses on seafarers serving in the international shipping economy, I found Boles's rich descriptions of sailors' lives particularly fascinating. Taking a broader view, Sailing into History's treatment of the Great Lakes represents, in many ways, modern shipping history everywhere. Anyone seeking an approachable narrative history of this historic powerhouse of the American economy as well as an example of the trends and issues affecting all shipping will profit by reading Sailing into History. MICHAEL SKAGGS, PHO South Bend, Indiana SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER2017


Special Review: A New Maritime Book for Young Readers The Whaling ArtJournal ofAbigail M. Case by Chris Galazzi and Kristina Rodanas, illustrated by Kristina Rodanas (Cape Cod Maritime Museum, Hyannis, MA, 2016, 39pp, illus, gloss, ISBN 978-1-68418-193-3; $19.99pb) Me to my teenaged son: Do you know what echolocation is? Son: Yes. Me: Really? How do you know that? Son: I'm not going to lie-I learned it from Finding Nemo. Getting young people engaged in history can present a challenge, and if a blockbuster Pixar/Disney movie can take care of some piece of it, all the better. Finding Nemo is, of course, not about history or even a historical subject, but the leap from a whale's echolocation to whaling history isn't that far. A bigger leap fo r getting this generation interested in whaling history is getting past the task of killing whales and the gruesomeness of cutting them up and processing their body parts into marketable goods, when today's youth are growing up in a culture where we promote conservation and appreciation for our natural world. Most kids want to save whales, not celebrate killing them. About a month ago, I picked up a new children's book produced by the Cape Cod Maritime Museum on whaling history, The Whaling Art journal ofAbigail M. Case. Abigail Case is a fictional character whose story pulls in a number of real-life stories involving whaling, sea captains who took their families to sea, and women who were taught how to navigate by their captain-husbands or captain-fathers. The book is aimed at yo ung people and seeks to not only get them interested in whaling history in particular and maritime history in general, it also aims to provoke interest in maritime material culture and folk art, as represented by artifacts on exhibit at the Cape Cod Maritime Museum. To these ends, it succeeds. Check. I try to keep my own over-enthusiasm for maritime subjects in check when assessing books, museum exhibits and programs, and things of this nature, especially when it comes to presenting them to young people.Just because I find it engaging, doesn't mean our electronic-device-obsessed children will. To that end, I sometimes seek the response of teenagers to gauge how well an article, book, documentary, or museum exhibit might be received by their peer group. Conveniently, I happen to have two teenagers in my house, one of whom I asked to read this book and tell me what he thought about it. He genuinely loved the illustrations, which admittedly are fantastic renderings, and was engaged enough in the story to want to talk about it and ask how much of it wou ld have been realistic. Hence, the conversation above that evolved from talking about scooping spermaceti from a dead whale's skull to the topic of echolocation. The story itself is well told, and those who think that "girl power" is a current phenomenon should reminded of the story of Eleanor Creesy, who went to sea with her captain-husband aboard the famous record-breaking clipper ship Flying Cloud and is credited with shortening the length of its New York to San Francisco voyage, having studied current and wind charts and planned the most expeditious route around Cape Horn. Joanna Colcord was born in 1882 at sea aboard the barque Charlotte A . Littlefield and spent her entire childhood sailing across the world's oceans, learning to speak and express herself in the language of her environment-nautical terms. Then there was Mary Patten, who as a teenager assumed command of the clipper ship Neptune's Car after her captain-husband became incapacitated with illness; she brought the ship safely to port in San Francisco, having sailed around Cape Horn to get there. These real-life characters make the fictional tale of Abigail Case's remarkable experience and her life at sea believable. The Whaling Art journal is beautifully presented, with sketches and watercolors by the talented and skillful Kristina Rodanas. Its leather cover and parchment-style paper evokes the look of an old-time journal. And the story itself, co-written by the museum's executive director, Chris Galazzi, and Ms. Rodanas, will pull in young readers and engage them in Abigail's story, and thus in the story of whaling and seafaring, When my son was finished going through the book, he said he thought it was good and that he thought other kids wo uld enjoy it. My son has no interest in humoring his mother on just about any topic these days (did I mention he's a teenager?), so I'll take him at his word. When I told him that the examples of scrimshaw illustrated in the book are real artifacts currently on display at the Cape Cod Maritime Museum, he said he'd really like to go there to see them in person. Check mate. -DEIRDRE O 'REGAN, Editor, Sea History, Cape Cod, Massachusetts SEA HISTORY 159, SUMMER 2017

55


NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY AFTERGUARD

J. ARON CHAR ITABLE FOUNDATION, I NC.

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RICHARD A . & Lois MEYER VANCE MORRISON

CAPT. ERIC N IELSEN

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DAVID PROH ASKA

DR . G. MICHAEL PuRDY

MARTIN RESNICK

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CDR WILLIAM H. SKIDMORE

CHARLES TosIN

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THOMAS A . MORAN

RICHARD B. R EES

RADM DONALD P. ROANE, USN (RET.)

DR. JOH N Dix WAYMAN

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MICHAEL] . RAUWORTH

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CHARLES HAMR ICK

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THEODORE ECKBERG, M.D.

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MR . & MRS . ANDREW A . RADEL WILLIAM E. RICHARDSON

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CAPT. DWIGHT GERTZ

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WILLIAM L. HENRY

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Sea History 159 - Summer 2017  

10 At War Before the War-SS City of Flint's Ordeal Under the Nazi Flag, by Dr. Donald E. Willett • 16 Copper Bottomed-USS Constitution Rest...

Sea History 159 - Summer 2017  

10 At War Before the War-SS City of Flint's Ordeal Under the Nazi Flag, by Dr. Donald E. Willett • 16 Copper Bottomed-USS Constitution Rest...