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No. 154

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

SEA

SPRING 2016

5 HI~TORY.

THE ART, LITERATURE, ADVENTURE, L RE & LEARNING OF THE SEA

Chesapeake Bay Log Canoes Last ofthe Arab Dhows Ocean Literacy at Cal Maritime Captains Navigatingfrom Sail to Steam International Congress ofMaritime Museums Sea History far KIDS!

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SEA HISTORY

No. 154

SPRING 20 16

CONTENTS 10 The 2016 National Maritime Awards Dinner NMHS and the Naval Historical Foundation present the 2016 National Maritime Awards Dinner. j oin us for our annual gala event at the National Press Club in Washington, D C! 12 ICMM in Hong Kong, the 2015 International Congress of Maritime Museums, by Burchenal Green and Deirdre O'Regan For the first time in its history, the ICMM held its biennial conference in Asia this past November, where attendees from institutions around the world, large and small, had a unique opportunity to network, debate, support, and encourage best practices for the maritime museum community. 16 So Old a Ship: Twilight of the Arab Dhow, by Marion Kaplan In 1974, photojournalist Marion Kaplan embarked on an expedition to document the last generation ofArab dhows, sailing with the monsoon along ancient trading routes. Here, she shares glimpses of that journey, and ofthe way oflife of the dhow captains and crews. 22 Racing the Goldplaters-the Tradition Continues, by John C. No nh II Summer visitors to Maryland's Eastern Shore are treated to a spectacle ofathleticism, tradition, history, and good fun at the annual Chesapeake Bay log canoe races. There is a history to the evolution ofthese remarkable vessels that have sailed and raced for more than 100 years. 30 We Know Ocean! Improving Ocean Literacy at Cal Maritime, by Colin Dewey, Alexander Parker, Steven Runyo n Recognizing the critical link between the health ofthe oceans and the survival ofourplanet, California Maritime Academy is taking the lead in improving ocean literacy among ourfuture professional master mariners and leaders shaping environmental and economic policy. 34 Historic Ships on a Lee Shore: KitJones is Waiting for You, by W illiam C. Fleetwood Jr. Leisure yacht of the rich and famous, wartime fireboat, and scientific research vessel-the 1939 Sparkman & Stephens designed Kit Jones has had a remarkable career. Currently, she sits abandoned in a Biloxi boatyard, awaiting her next reincarnation. 38 The Brothers Eldridge: Extraordinary Mariners in an Extraordinary Age, by Vincent M iles Nineteenth-century ship captainsfaced professional obsolescence with the transition from sail to steam, a new technology that required the skills ofan engineer over the expertise ofthe sailing master. Three brothers from Cape Cod, however, prevailed, becoming elite ship masters ofboth.

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Cover: The Wait/Flying Cloud, by Marc Castelli. Watercolor, 22 x 15 inches. (See article on pages 22-27 for more on Chesapeake Bay log canoes.)

DEPARTMENTS DECK LOG LETTERS NMH S: A CAUSE IN MOTION MARINE ART NEWS 42 SEA HISTORY FOR Krns 4 5 8 28

Sea History and the National Maritime Historical Society Sea History e-mail : editorial@seahistory.org; NMH S e-mail: nmhs@seahistory.o rg; Web site: www.seahistory.org. Ph: 9 14 737-7878; 800 22 1-NMH S MEMBERSHIP is invired. Afrerguard $ 10,000; Benefactor $5,000; Plan kowner $2,500; Sponsor $ 1,000; Donor $500; Patron $250; Friend $100; Co ntributor $75; Family $50; Regular $35.

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46 SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS 57 CALENDAR 58 MARITIME HISTORY ON THE INTERNET 59 REVIEWS 64 PATRONS

All members ourside rhe USA please add $10 fo r postage. Sea History is senr ro all members. Ind ividual copies cosr $4 .95 .

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SEA HISTORY (issn 01 46-93 12) is published quarterly by the National Maritim e Hisro rical Society, 5 John Walsh Blvd., POB 68, Peekskill NY 10566 USA. Periodicals postage paid at Peekskill NY 10566 an d add'! mailing offices. COPYRIGH TŠ 20 16 by the Natio nal Maritime Hisrorical Society. Tel : 9 14 737-7878. POSTMAST ER: Send address changes ro Sea History, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


DECK LOG Don't Give Up the Ship "Don't give up the ship." The battle cry carries special meaning for our maritime heritage community; it reflects our dedication to the fight to preserve the historic vessels entrusted to our care. Nothing compares to the hands-on experience of seeing, touching, and-especially-operating a historic vessel. The physical ship itself can provide a powerful experience-for many, a life-changing one. But ships are created from perishable materials, and if we do not preserve them, or if we fail to preserve the skills that are used to build, maintain, operate, and navigate them, a great opportunity to preserve our maritime history wi ll be lost. With our regular feature, "Historic Ships on a Lee Shore," we encourage people to step up and join the effort to preserve a given vessel. In this issue, read about the historic tugturned-research vessel Kit Jones (see pages 34-36; then be sure to read the updates on ships listed on pages 46-56 in "Ship Notes," many of which have been featured "Lee Shore" ships in past issues of Sea History. From the This issue's "Historic Ship on a Lee Grear Lakes to the C hesapeake, from the Pa- Shore" is the Kit Jones, in Mississppi. cific coast to New York and New England, to across the Atlant ic to Germany, it is encouraging to see important vessels get muchneeded restoration work and being adapted to new educational mission s. In addition, vessels with a solid foundation of support are being maintained to ensure future decades HMS Surprise (ex-HMS Rose) in San Diego is back in the water af of service. How gratifying it is to see these ter a much-needed haulout. success stories, and what incredible dedication it takes to make this happen. As Bert Rogers, The Flying-P Liner Peking executive director of will head back to HamTall Ships America, burg, Germany, her origiSS Columbia departed Detroit nal homeport, in 2016 last fall and is currently in Buffalo, (who will speak at our en route to her new home in New annual meeting in Newport-see pages 8-9) told me not too long ago, the maritime heritage field York City. is so important chat, "if we were not all doing what we are doing, someone would have to invent us so it could get done." We salute the ship- and boatbuilders, naval architects, sailors, educators, maritime artisans, historians, sponsors, supporters, and all those who work in this small bur critically important industry. We especially salute all those who may have been discouraged, unThe M assachusetts-based schooner Ernestina-Morrissey is in Booth- derfunded and overworked-those who might bay Harbor, Maine, undergoing a have been tempted, but did not give up the ship. -Burchenal Green, NMHS President multi-year restoration. 4

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NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

PUBLISHER'S CIRCLE: Perer Aron, G uy E. C. Ma idan d, Rona ld L. Oswald OFFICERS & TRUSTEES : Chairman, Ronald L. Oswald; Vice Chairman, Richardo R. Lopes; Presiden t, Burchenal Green; Vice Presidents, D eirdre O ' Regan, Wendy Paggiotta, N ancy Schnaars; Treasurer, Howard Slomick; Secretary, Jean Wort; Trustees: C harl es B. Anderson; Walter R. Brown; Wi lli am S. Dudl ey; David S. Fowler; William Jackso n Green; Karen H elm erson; Robert Kamm; Richard M . Larrabee; Guy E. C. Maitland; Capr. Brian McA.l lisrer; CAPT Sally Chin McElwreath, USN (Rec.); Capr. James J. McNamara; Michael W. Morrow; Richard Patrick O 'Leary; ADM Roben J. Papp Jr. , USCG (Rec.); Timothy J. Runyan; Richard Scarano; Ph ili p J. Shapiro; CapL Cesare Sorio; Roberta Weisbrod; Trustees-Elect: Erik K. O lstein; Wi lli am H. Wh ire; Chairmen Emeriti: Walter R. Brown, Alan G. Choate, G uy E. C. Mairland, Howard Slotnick; President Emeritus, Peter Stanford FOUNDER: Karl Kortum (1917- 1996) OVERSEERS: Chairman, RADM David C. Brown , USMS (Rec.); RADM Joseph F. Call o, USN (Rec.); live C ussler; Richard du Mou lin ; Alan D . Hurchison; Jakob Isbrandtse n; Gary Jobson; Sir Robin Knox-Johnsron; John Lehm an; H. C. Bowen Smith; John Scobart; Philip J. Webster; William H. Whire; W illiam Winterer NMHS ADV1SORS: Chairman, Melbourne Sm irh; George Bass, Oswald Brett, Fran cis Duffy, John Ewald, Timothy Foote, Steven A. H yman, J. Russel l Jini shian, Gunnar Lundeberg, Co nrad Milster, W illi am G. Muller, Stuart Parnes, Lori Dillard Rech, Nancy Hughes Richardson, Bert Rogers, Joyce Huber

SEA HIS TORY EDITOR IAL ADVI SORY BOARD: Chairman, T imorhy Runya n; Norman Brouwer, Robert Browning, William Dudl ey, Daniel Fin amore, Kevin Fosrer, John Jense n, Joseph M ea ny, Lisa No rling, Carla Rahn Phillips, Wa lter Rybka, Quentin Sned iker, Wi lli am H. W hi te NMH S STAFF: Executive Director, Burchenal G reen; M embership Director, Na ncy Schn aars ; M arketing Director, Sreve Lovass-Nagy; Comptroller, Anjoeline O suyah; Sta.ff Writer, Shell ey Reid; M embership Coordinator, Irene Eisenfeld

SEA HIS TORY: Editor, Deirdre O ' Rega n; Advertising, Wendy Paggiotta; Editor-at-Large, Peter Stanford Sea H istory is printed by The Lane Press, Sourh Bu rlingron, Vermont, USA.

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


We Welcome Your Letters! Please send correspondence to:

LETTERS

seahistory@gmail.com or Editor, Sea History, 7 Timberknoll Rd., Pocasset, MA 02559

In Command of USS Constitution W illiam Thiesen's article on Hugh Campbell (Sea H istory 153) fo cuses on his career in the US Revenue C utter Service and some of h is service in the US Navy, and ends just as he takes command of U SS Constitution in May of 1806 . Campbel l was the fri gate's fourth commander in nearly three yea rs on sta tion in the M editerra nean . 1he wa r against T ripoli h ad been concluded fo r nearly a year, the region appea red stable, and the A merican squadron had dwi ndled to just two ships. Campbell 's crew by then was a hodgepodge of men composed of those who had originally sailed in her in 1803, and o thers w ho h ad been reassigned at various times from warships ordered home. By M ay 1807, it was an increasingly restive group, ever more anxious to go home. Incidents of indiscipline were growing more frequent, perhaps kept in check by the news that the fri gate Chesapeake was on its way to relieve them . In September, news of the latter's defeat by HMS Leopard arrived and the fa t was in the fire. Then, prepa rin g to leave a Spanish port, Campbell 's crew refu sed the order to take stations for leaving port. Constitution's first mutiny! C ommodore Campbell, seasoned skipper th at he was, took prompt and d ra m atic action: He ordered the forwardmost 18-po under long guns on either side of the quarterdeck hauled inboa rd, loaded with cannister, and aimed fo rward along either gangway, the guns' captains standing ready with lighted slow m atches. At his order, the boatswain and his m ates repeated the call to take stations . They got underway. At the next port of call, C ampbell received orders from the Secretary of the Navy to shut down the squadro n and return home. (In her hold on that homeward-bound trip, Constitution carried more than fifty crates of sculpted C arrera ma rble, which would become the Tripoli Monument when assembled in Washing ton . This, the nation's first war memorial, today is to be seen at the US Naval Academy.) TY M ARTIN

Tryon, North C arolina Which Ship is That? I believe that the H alifax- docked ship reader Dave Read asks about in the las t issue of Sea H istory (see photo, top ri ght) is a diesel-

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

Mystery vessel: Halifax, Nova Scotia, in Wo rld ~r II. powered Can adia n Ba ngor-class minesweeper, built in the early-to-mid 1940s. There appears to be a characteristic m aple leaf insignia on the fu nnel, and it sports a 4-inch shielded gun m o unt for wa rd, a unique feature of this class sub-group. Beyond that, I cannot say, since magnification of such a sm all, grainy photo only helps to sm all degree in identifyi ng which individual ship it might be-m aybe another reader w ill com e through w ith tha t. Th anks, in any case, for the challenge! G O R DON E. H OGG Lexing ton, Kentucky I believe th at the ship in question ship is a RCN minesweeper. The photo dates before June 1945 , when K519 LaSalle (pictured to the left in the photo), departed H ali fax to be decommissioned . It could be the Burlington or Mahone, which were both there in 1945, or a few others that were also statio ned there in that time frame. I can eliminate many of the RCN sweepers using

Ken M cPherson & Ron Ba rri e's fin e work, The Ships of Canada's Naval Forces, 19 102 002, 3 rd edition . The vessel in the photo is certainly not any U nited States Coast G uard vessel, and I'm 99% sure of that. H ope th is helps. H MC ] AMES T. FLYNN ] R ., USNR, (Ret.) Philadelphia, Pennsylva nia Remembering El Faro's Crew Thanks to Sea H istory fo r the coverage of El Faro in the last issue. It was sad to observe the apparent indifference in the m edia to the tragic loss of this A merican ship and its la rgely A merican crew. It rem ains for El Faro to find her Go rdo n Lightfoo t to commemorate in moving words and music this profoundly sad event. ] OSE PH

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M EANY

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A lbany, New Yo rk Captain-and-Wife Teams In winter issue's "Letters," a reader wrote in about capta in-and-wi fe team s aboard

Join Us for a Voyage into History Our seafa ring heritage comes alive in the pages of Sea Histo1y, from the ancient mariners of Greece to Portuguese navigators opening up the ocean world to the heroic efforts of sailors in modern-day conflicts. Each issue brings new insights and discoveries. If yo u love the sea, rivers, lakes, and

bays-if you appreciate the legacy of those who sail in deep water and their workaday craft, then yo u belong with us.

Join Today! Mail in the form below, phone 1 800 221-NMHS (6647), or visit us at: www.seahistory.org (e-mail: nmhs@seahistory.org)

Yes, I want to join the Society and receive Sea History quarrerly. My contribu tion is enclosed. ($ 17.50 is for Sea History; any amo unt above that is tax deductible.) Sign me up as: D $3 5 Regu lar Member D $50 Fam ily Member D $ I 00 Friend D $250 Pa tron D $500 Donor Mr./Ms.

----------------------~ZIP _ Return to: National Maritime Histori cal Society, PO Box 68 , Peekski ll , NY I 0566

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ships in the Age of Sail (Exy and Irving Johnson, and Mary Ann and Joshua Patten were noted). I would like ro submit Eleanor C reesy, captain's wife and navigaror of the clipper ship Flying Cloud, for the 1853 voyage from New York ro San Francisco, a speed record that srood for nearly 150 years.

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San Salvador Miscommunications In the last issue of Sea History (#153, p. 52), reference was made to the July launch of the sailing vessel San Salvador. The statement reads "San Salvador was launched in July after a several-month delay adjusting the logistics of getting her into the water once it was discovered she was significantly heavier than first ca lculated." This contains a fa lse statement that must be corrected. As this ship is to be issued a USCG Certificate oflnspection (COI), the weight and consequent intact, damaged, and sailing stability characteristics of the vessel were of critical importance from the very beginning of the design and construction . The shape of the hull and displacement characteristics, driven by the weight of the structure and appointments, are critical factors ro get right from the beginning and follow throughout the build. The weight of the ship, as well as positions of the centers of gravity, were meticulously calculated and rigidly followed throughout the design and construction of the vessel. At each stage of construction advancement, the vessel was analyzed for weight and adjustments made as necessary so that associated weight-related engineering calculations could be performed with acc uracy. This was essential when it came rime ro move the ship from her build location in a parking lot to a place where she could be easily and safely lifted and gently placed in the water. We knew precisely what her weight was at the time for moving/launching and the likely final weight when completed-placing her exactly on the designed B.otation lines. One of the scenarios for launching the ship involved moving her overland along the San Diego waterfront and launching her by barge crane from a pier adjacent ro the Maritime Museum of San Diego. A local tug service company generously offered the use of its barge crane for this delicate operation. However, this equipment had a

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San Salvador launch physically weighed by a local house-moving company, utilizing specialized hydraulic pressure sensing equipment. Unfortunately, from the field the measured weight was misstated significantly ro the low side. Subsequent check of the stated weight versus our calculations exposed the error and the weight was corrected. The accurate weight of the vessel, together with our calculated weight for launch co ndition with all necessary crane rigging and support, indicated that we wo uld be too close ro the crane's lift limits for reasonable comfort, and thus we determi ned ro find a different solution for lau nching the ship. Unfortunately, the combination of a misstated low weight and exceeding the safe weight limit on the barge crane with the actual weight somehow led to the false narrative that the ship was "too heavy," "heavier than expected," or as in the Sea History notice "significantly heavier than first calculared "-none of which is true. The act ual solution ro moving the ship from her build site and to a launch area involved careful engineering and cooperation among many of San Diego's finest maritime companies and was handled with the highest professionalism and minimal muss and fuss. When launched, the ship B.oared at the d raft marks as expected for the level of co mpletion at the rime. Bur we guess that this story is too bland for the average interested party and it is more fun to tell tales w ith more intrigue and less acc uracy. Thank you for allowing this expression of rhe true record. DOUGLAS SHARP, NA Sharp Design Group of Companies San Diego, California

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


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NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION National Maritime Historical Society 2016 Annual Meeting 22-24 May in Newport, Rhode Island

Join us at the City by the Sea for our 2016 NMHS Annual Meeting Program chair Walter Brown is pleased to invite members of the National Maritime Historical Society to join us for a most informative and fun activity-packed meeting in historic Newport, Rhode Island. He thanks our overseers chairman, RADM David C. Brown, USMS (Ret.), for his indispensable help organizing this year's meeting. Our 53'd annual meeting w ill be held on Monday, 23 May, at the Officers C lub of the United States Naval War College in Newport. We will enjoy a continental breakfast durin g morning registration beginning at 8:3 0AM, with the business meeting immediately fo llowing at 9:30AM. We' ll be joined by leaders from the local maritime heritage community, who will give reports highlighting maritime history and activity in and arou nd Newport. We' ll hear from Captain Richard Bailey on Rhode Island 's new tall ship Oliver Hazard Perry, and Terry Nathan, president of the International Yacht Restoration School, on their work

Captain Richard Bailey and Rhode Island's new fall-rigged ship Oliver Hazard Perry

teaching the new generations shipbuilding and restoration techniques, and an update on the restoration of the classic schooner Coronet. The Steamship Historical Society of America and Tall Ships America are headquartered nearby, and we are honored to have their leadership join us and discuss their respective organizations and current activities. Founded in 1935, the Steamship Terry Nathan, !YRS Historical Society of America has grow n to become the world 's leading organization on the history of engine-powered vessels, with close to 3, 000 domestic and international members in more than fifreen countries. SSHSA executive director Matthew Schulte will speak on behalf of their organization. Tall Ships America's executive director (and NMHS advisor) Bert Rogers will speak on the challenges facing operational sailing ships in the 21 sr cen- Matt Schulte, SSHSA rury and what Tall Ships America is doing to suppon them, promoting sai1 training and traditional sail through its annual Tall Ships Challenge series, and supporting the continuing professional education and safety standards for those manning today's tall ships.

Bert Rogers, Tall Ships America 8

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


Bert began his seafari ng career in 1978 aboard the brigantine Romance under Captain Arthur Kimberly, winner of the 2008 NMHS Karl Kortum American Ship Trust Award . After a luncheon buffer at the Officers C lub, acclaimed author and naval historian Dr. John B. Hattendorf will give a presentation on "Navies in Na rragansett Bay to 1865," a nd then lead us on a tour of the Naval War College Museum, of which he is

D r. john Hattendorf, US Naval W0r College director. Professor H attendorfis a longtime NMHS member and former president of the North American Society for Oceanic History. The E. J. King professor of maritime h istory at the Naval War College since 1984, he has written and edited more tha n forty books on American and British m aritime history and naval warfare, and the US Naval Institute Proceedings has descri bed him as "o ne of the most widely known and well-respected naval h istorians in the world." The Naval War College Museum is one of the US Navy's nine official museums nationwide. It is operated by the Naval History a nd Heritage Command in cooperation with the Naval War College. Located in wh at was built in 1819 as the poo r house of Newport County, the facility became the Naval War College's first building in 1884. Ir was here that A lfred Thayer Mahan gave hi s lectures that led to his famous book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon H istory (1890). The current special exhibits are Operation D eep Freeze! and The Face ofAdmiral Lord Nelson . The cost of the NMHS Annual Meeting, including conti nenral breakfast, luncheon, presentation and tours, is $65. We hope you'll be able to join us on Sunday, 22 May-the day before the annual meeting-for a 1:00PM private guided tour aboard Rhode Island 's newest rail ship, Oliver Haz ard Perry, by

Adirondack II

Captain Richard Bailey. At 200-feer, the steel-hulled Oliver Hazard Perry is a C lass A rail ship a nd the largest civilian sail training vessel in the country. The ship wi ll be docked at Bowen's W harf by the Newport Harbor Hotel and Marina, where we will be stayin g (the annual Newport Seafood Festival wi ll be raking place on the wharf as well). For those who can stay through Tuesday, 24 May, we have chartered the Adirondack II for a sail around Newport Harbor from 11:00AM until l:OOPM. The schooner was built at Scarano Boatbuilding in A lba ny, where NMHS trustee R ick Scarano and his brother John have built many beautiful passenger vessels, many of them sailing vessels. Adirondack JI, built in 1999, is an elegant 80-foor, turn-of-the-century-s tyle pilot schooner. 1he cost of the sail is $55. Spaces are limited and early reservations are strongly recommended. NMHS chairman Ronald L. Oswald encourages yo u to join us. Ir is not just that Newport is such a fascinati n g m aritime location, with ships and yachts, sailing, and maritime historic activities in one magnifi cent location . Ir is not just that we have fabu lous speakers and activities planned for the m eeting. Ir is that for the Society to flourish and grow, it is important that its leaders and members m eet and sh are ideas to ch art the Society's course into the future. This has kept us viral for half a century and is never more importa nt than right now. When we post the group photo of everybody at the m eeting, we hope you will find yourself there. - Burchenal Green, NMHS President

We have booked a block of rooms at the Newport Harbor Hotel, directly adjacent to Bowen's Wharf a nd overlooking where Oliver Hazard Perry will be berthed on Sunday. Newport H a rbor Hotel is ideally located for easy walking aro und the Newport waterfront. It is a short drive to the Naval War College; for those who want to enj oy the area on foot, it is about a 40-minute walk. The block of rooms is reserved from 22-25 M ay. "City View" rooms a re $ 159 per night; a "Harbor View" room is $ 189 a night. State and loca l taxes apply. There is a fee of $22 per vehicle per night and only one vehicle per room is permitted. The room block is set aside for reservation s under the "National Maritime Historical Society" until 21 April, or until all the rooms have been booked. Reservations can be made online at www.CityByTheSea. com/NMHS; or by phone at 401 847-6820. As a reminder, Newport is a hugely popula r destination, especially in May. Please make yo ur reservations right away.

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

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THE NATIONAL MARITIME AWARDS DINNER 21APRIL2016 • WASHINGTON, DC Please join us for the National Maritime Awards Dinner, hosted by NMHS in partnership with the Naval Historical Foundation, on Thursday, 21 April, at the renowned National Press Club in Washington, DC. Leaders from across the country representing the maritime heritage community, the United States Navy, the US Coast Guard, yachtsmen, philanthropists, environmentalists, marine artists, government officials, and the maritime industry will join us in celebrating the contributions of three highly valued members of rhe maritime community. Philip Webster, founding dinner chairman and NMHS trustee, is pleased to announce this year's National Maritime Awards Dinner chairmen: Dr. Timothy J. Runyan, maritime historian, NMHS trustee and Sea History Editorial Advisory Board chair; and CAPT James Noone, USNR (Ret.), managing director of Mercury Public Relations and a director of rhe Naval Historical Foundation. Our master of ceremonies will be world-class sailor, television commentator, author, past president of US Sailing and vice president of rhe International Sailing Federation, America's ''Ambassador of Sailing," Gary Jobson. The United States Merchant Marine Academy Midshipmen Mariners Chorus, from Kings Point, New York, under rhe direction of Dr. Katherine Meloan, will be performing.

Steve Phillips A third-generation waterman, Steve Phillips grew up closely involved in his family's crab business and has spent his whole life working in rhe crab industry. In 1956 rhe Phillips family opened rhe Phillips Crab House in Ocean City, MD, as a means to sell off rhe abundance of blue crabs and blue crab meat from their original hometown seafood packing plant on Hoopers Island, Maryland. The "crab shack" expanded into a full-service restaurant, eventually joined by two more locations. After earning his bachelor's degree in business from the University of Miami, Florida, he began his involvement in rhe management of the company, which continued to expand. Recognizing rhar the supply of domestic blue crab was being depleted, Steve turned to Southeast Asia as a potential new source for crab mear-rhe blue swimming crab. He built a processing plant in rhe Philippines, hired fishermen, supplied their equipment, and taught them to crab. This new source of crab led to rhe founding of Phillips Foods, Inc., which grew to include plants in Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries, as well as Ecuador and Mexico. In order ro better protect rhe Southeast Asian crab population from rhe fishing practices which had diminished the Chesapeake Bay crab supply, Phillips works with rhe fisheries to promote sustainable fishing practices, and formed the Blue Swimming Crab Producers Association (APRI) in Indonesia, and rhe Philippine Association of Crab Processors (PACPI) to promote sustainability measures in rhe industry overall. Phillips was recognized for his contributions to sustainable aquaculture wirh the 2011 Seafood Champion Award and rhe 2011 Maryland Governor's International Leadership Award. For his efforts in establishing and encouraging an industry-wide commitment to crab sustainability, NMHS is proud to recognize Steve Phillips as the recipient of its Distinguished Service Award. David Rockefeller Jr., the 2010 recipient of the NMHS Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Maritime Education for Sailors for the Sea, an organization founded to give a voice for ocean conservation, will present Steve Phillips with his award. In 2010, rhe Sailors for rhe Sea sailing vessel Ocean Watch completed a 25,000-mile circumnavigation of North and South America, visiting thirty towns and cities to educate their citizenry about the health of our oceans.

Charles Robertson Charles Robertson is founder, chairman and CEO of American Cruise Lines, Inc., Pearl Seas Cruises, Chesapeake Shipbuilding, and affiliated companies. His firms have designed and built 14 cruise ships and approximately 70 other commercial vessels, up to 350 feet. Engaged in rhe maritime industry since 1973, Mr. Robenson pioneered rhe small ship luxury cruise industry in rhe United Stares with his founding of American Cruise Lines, now rhe largest cruise company in rhe country. American Cruise Lines offers a wide variety of river cruises, as well as cruise experiences rhar incorporate programs on the rich history of rhe rivers, including packages that focus on rhe American Civil War, rhe Lewis and Clark Expedition, and rhe life of author Mark Twain. Robenson holds a USCG Master's License and First Class Pilot's License for unlimited tonnage, and he is a recognized expert on cruise ship regulation; he has been an expert witness for rhe United Stares Coast Guard before rhe NTSB and Congressional Committees. 10

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An avid racing sailor, Robertson has won many national and international events, including the Newport Bermuda Race, Queen's C up, and the National C hampionship in the Atlantic Class. Robertson is chairman emeritus of Operation Sail, Inc. , and serves as a trustee on a number of non-profit boards, including Mystic Seaport M useum, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, and the Chesapeake Bay Maritime M useum. He was recognized in 2014 with Mystic Seaport's America and the Sea Award. NMHS is proud to recognize C harles Robertson with its Distinguished Service Award for his accomplishments in the American small ship cruise industry and for promoting understanding of our river heritage through American Cruise Lines's programs, and for his lifelong support of our nation's maritime museums . Robert L. James, former New York Yacht C lub Commodore, international yacht racing champion, and former chairman and CEO of the global advertising agency network McCann Erickson, will present the award to Mr. Robertson.

Andrew Taylor Andrew Taylor is the executive chairman of Enterprise Holdings Inc. , the largest car rental company in the world, founded in 1957 by his father Lieutenant Jack Taylor, who served as a combat pilot aboard USS Enterprise (CV 6) with Carrier Air Group 15-the "Fabled Fifteen"-and brought hard-earned lessons of character, integrity, courage, effort and teamwork to the Enterprise Holdings he founded, and to the military history and service programs he supported. Enterprise Holdings operates-through an international network of regional subsidiaries and independent franchises-the Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Alamo, a nd National Car Rental brands, as well as more than 9,000 fully staffed neighborhood and airport locations in more than 75 countries. Mr. Taylor joined Enterprise at the age of 16 in one of the original St. Louis offices, washing cars during summer and holiday vacations and learning the business from the ground up. After earning his Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from the University of Denver and a three-year stint for another company, Mr. Taylor returned to Enterprise; he became chief executive officer in 1991, chairman in 2001, and executive chairman in 2013 . . His long-standing commitment to the US Navy and its heritage is demonstrated through his support for USS Enterprise (CVN-65) and his participation in events honoring USS Enterprise (CV-6) and her World War II veterans, as well as his support for the programs at the National Naval Aviation Museum, the US Naval Institute, and the Naval Historical Foundation. Enterprise Holdings partners with national programs to hire transitioning military personnel, veterans, members of the National Guard and Reserve, and military spouses; it has been designated a Military Friendly Employer" by Victory Media, publisher of G. I. Jobs, and among the Most Valuable Employers (MVE) for Military" by Military Transition News. For this longtime support of the US Navy and its history and American veterans, Andrew Taylor will be recognized with the Naval Historical Foundation Distinguished Service Award. Admiral James A. "Sandy" Winnefield Jr., USN, ninth vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the nation's second highest-ranking military officer, will present the award. Among his commands at sea was USS Enterprise (CVN 65); he led "Big E" through her 18th deployment, which included combat operations in Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom immediately after the terrorist acts of September 11th, 2001. The National Maritime Awards Dinner will feature a dynamic auction with superb items, including: a trip for two to Cuba with Pearl Seas Cruises, dinner for eight at a Phillips Seafood Restaurant, original War of 1812 prints, a trip for twenty guests aboard the schooner Sultana for the parade-of-sail before the Great Chesapeake Bay Schooner Race, ship models, antique maps, director-guided personal tours of great maritime museums, and more. You don't need to be present to bid; we can assign a personal bidder for yo u. To learn about these exemplary award recipients, the dinner, the great items in the auction, how you can support the event, or to get tickets to attend, please visit our website at www.seahistory.org, call 914 737-7878, ext. 0, or emai l us at nmhs@seahistory.org. We have reserved a block of rooms at the J. W. Marriott Washington, D C, 1331 Pennsylvania Avenue NW (next to the National Press C lub). Standard guest rooms for single or double occupancy are $319 per night, plus applicable taxes. The room block is set aside until 23 March, or until all the rooms have been reserved. Reservations can be made by calling 202 393-2000. Please identify yourself as part of the National Maritime Historical Society.

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International Congress of Maritime Museums, Hong Kong 2015 by Burchenal Green and Deirdre O'Regan To bring a more global perspective to o ur work in the 21st century, NMHS attended the 17th International Congress of Maritime Museums in H ong Kong last November, the first time this Congress had been held in Asia since the organization was fo unded nearly fifty years ago. NMHS ch airma n emeritus and treasurer Howard Slotnick, NMHS president Burchenal Green, and Sea History editor Deirdre O'Regan traveled to Hong Kong to represent the Society. While NMHS is admittedly not a brick-and-mortar museum, the perspecti ves, issues discussed, and themes are relevant to our work and to everyone co ncerned with preserving and promoting our maritime heritage. ICMM member institutions-museums, historic ships, educational centers, research institutions, and historical societies-gather every two years to share new methods, research, and vision for best museum practices. In a field such as maritime history, where the very nature of maritime implies movement and global connections, the museums that interpret this history are best served when their leadership maintains those global connections that many before them did in the practice of sailing the wo rld 's oceans and meeting with peoples on distant and hitherto-unknown shores. (l-r) Deirdre O'Regan, Howard Slotnick, and Burchenal Green in Macau, representing NMHS at ICMM 2015.

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hen Marika Hedin started her new job in 2013 as director of the Museum G ustavianum at Uppsala University in Sweden, she expected all the regular challenges of taking on a new post at a museum-getting to know the staff, the history of the institution, its collections, business practices, problems and successes-so she could forge her own path, while helping the museum to run smoothly and expand its reach. W h at she wasn't expecting was having to negotiate the delicate subject of how best to manage the museum's collection of human remains. Back in 1884, a little before Dr. Hedin's time, the Royal Frigate Vanadis returned to Sweden from a voyage to the South Pacific and brought with it a number of skulls, the remains of native people from Tahiti and French Polynesia. The skulls had been collected in the name of research, but in the 21st century, their presence in a museum storage facility halfway aro und the world from where they had been buried posed a problem, both for Polynesians interested in having their ancestors' remains repatriated, and for the museum, which needed to handle the situation wit h sensitivity and through proper legal channels.

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Dr. Hedin was no stranger to working in museums with human remains in their collections. She had come to Uppsala University from the Vasa Museum in Stockholm, where she worked as the museum's director for five years. The Vasa wreck contained the remains of seventeen people, which have been studied extensively, including DNA analysis and forensic facial reconstruction. Six of the skulls have been used to reconstruct the faces of the Vasa crewmembers, and these are now displayed in one of the museum's more popular and fascinat ing exhib its. Dr. Hedin's experience represents a perfect example of how an international gathering of professionals-experts in their field-can benefit from sharing the challenges they face with each other. Dr. Hedin brought up important questions that were best posed and answered in a gro up that included representatives from different ethnicities, cultures, religions, and from different types of research institutions and museums. Regarding human remains in collections, she suggested museum professionals ask the questions that could be asked of many other types of artifacts: How did they get to the museum in the first place? How have they been used? How are they used today? Should they be exhibited? Can we do research on these collections? Are they even ours to keep? Comments from the audience included those from other museum direcrors and curators, who shared their practical experiences. A pointed comment Dr. Margaret Chu came from Dr. Margaret Chu of the Royal Commonwealth Society-Hong Kong Branch. She asked for museum directors to consider the spiritual significance that other cultures place on the sanctity of human remains before (left) Dr. Marika Hedin ofMuseum Gustavianum poses questions ofethics and cultural sensitivity in her talk at ICMM 2015.

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SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


making decisions abour using them in their exhibits, or of keeping them in their collections for that matter. With the acknowledgement that most cultural museums have so me form of human remains in their collections comes the responsibility to m anage them with sensitivity to other cultures, not just the host museum's. Scenarios like this are best managed when they can be freely debated and discussed in a community such as those who attended ICMM 2015 . China has more than 4,500 museums, 140 of them m aritime related . Most of these institutions are state run ; the C hinese government has embarked on an impressive effort to both professionalize their museums and help their citizens and the rest of the world expand their understanding of C hina's 5, 000 yea rs of m aritime history. Richard Wesley, our host at the Hong Kong Maritime Museum, explained that the rise of the middle class in China is, in part, driving this surge in museum building, but that they do not always have. the artifacts in place or museum professionals on staff to develop them. Many representa tives from C hinese maritime museums participated in the conference, in additio n to helping organize conference tours in Macau, Hong Kong, and mainland China to allow delegates to experience first hand the wide range of history these museums are wo rking to interpret.

gan ization does, and wh at it will continue to do when in 2017 the Congress is held for the first time in South America in Valparaiso, C hile, at the Museo Maritimo Nacional." The museum leaders from China who spoke at the conference explained that their citizenry's understanding of m aritime history is usually focused on an individual, as opposed to embraci ng the more far-reaching components of what is included in maritime activity, such as ports and economics, shipbuilding and seafaring traditions, support industries, and naval activity. The voyages of Admiral Z heng He's fleet into the Indian Ocean in the early 15th century dominate the telling of their maritime past, as well as the prevalence of stories of famous Chinese pirates. Maritime museum directors in Ch ina are tasked with broadening this interpretation and ensuring that how they interpret it is of the highest academic and professional standards.

Richard Wesley (Left), our host at the Ho ng Kong Maritime Museum, talks with keynote speaker Lincoln Paine.

Zhou Qunhua (far right) ofthe China Maritime Museum in Shanghai chairs a session on "New Approaches in Chinese Ma ritime Museums" at the I CMM conference. Steve White, president of M ys tic Seaport and the newly elected president of the International Congress of Maritime Museums, said: "It was importa nt that ICMM hold its 2015 Congress in Asia. The maritime museum community is expanding throughout Asia, and the Congress both acknowledged a nd celebrated that growth, giving us all a fresh perspective as a result. We expanded our network and deepened our understanding of global manume iss u es. That is what this or-

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Lincoln Paine, author of The Sea & Civilization: a Maritime H istory ofthe World and a form er editor of Sea H istory, discussed the significa nce of maritime history and global connections in his excellent keynote speech, which kicked off the conference. "As I see it, the greatest challenge faced by maritime m useums is how we make ourselves releva nt in the 21st century," he rem arked. "We need to achieve this, knowing that m aritime activities and the people responsible for them have moved away from urban centers-and in the case of some oil and LNG unloading faci liti es, offshore a nd out of sight of la nd altogether. Fewer and fewer people are aware of the scope or significance of m aritime commerce and the degree to w hich we are all connected by the sea a nd sea trade." Paine stated that what m akes m a ritime history useful and relevant is that globali zation is and always has been fund amentally a maritime phenomenon. N inety percent of wo rld trade travels by sea, and in a world dependent on the internet and rapid communication, it is vital to know that a mere 300 undersea cables carry abour 99 percent of all intercontinental data. In other words, a lot of the cloud is under wa ter. According to Paine, maritime museums are uniquely positioned to help people reimagine not just maritime history but human history. He went on to explain how evolutionary biologists have demonstrated that our ancestors' adoption of and ability to secure for themselves a fish-based diet was essential to the enlargement and evolution of the huma n brain. ''Archaeology has also revealed that som e of humankind 's earliest and most daring feats 13


of technological innovation came at sea, as people began taking boats between intervisible islands from Southeast Asia to Greater Australia 50,000 years ago, and completely out of sight of land-also in the western Pacific-about 15,000 years ago. These undertakings required the development of nautical technologies and skills that even in their most primitive form must be counted among the greatest triumphs of human ingenuity and social organization." M aritime museums can also promote the importance of rivers as avenues of communication, commerce, conflict,

solvi ng critical problems we are fac ing globally, like environmental changes, piracy, and education for seafarers. "Shipping is the lifeline of humanity," Kenney stared, and he pledged to have the IMO work with rhe ICMM to build maritime awa reness. There were many fascinating presentations by maritime museum heads, who discussed projects, issues, and methodology. We gor to hear Fred Hocker of Sweden's Vasa Museum discuss the importance of supporting new research, and C hristopher Dobbs of the Mary Rose in Portsmouth, E ngland, talking about the

"When I returned and was asked what I experienced, I felt like the archaeologist Howard Carter, when asked by Lord Carnarvon whether he could see anything when he discovered King Tut's tomb and peered inside for the first time: 'Yes, wonderful things."' -BurchenaL Green

conquest, or contagion. They are "uniquely situated to explore and explain rhe links between human society and environmental change. After all, the first communities to be directly challenged by global warming, ocean acidification, overfishing, and solidwaste pollution are those whose history and traditions mar itime museums celebrate ....While fishermen and mariners may be rhe proverbial canaries in rhe coal mine of environmental change, half the world's population lives within 200 kilometers of a seacoast, most of the world's megaciries are in coastal plains already threatened by flooding and extreme weather events, and most of the other half of the world 's population live on or near navigable rivers, often in a floodplain . Thus simple demography tells us char understanding the sea as an environmental and cultural milieu is going to be increasingly meaningful to people worldwide." Succinctly, we are dependent on our maritime enterprises, and they strongly influenced and shaped our very civilization . Frederick J. Kenney, Director of the Legal Affairs and External Relations Division of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), flew in from London to give the other keynote presentation, reminding those in arrendance-some 100 delegates from twenty-two countries representing rhe major maritime museums around the world-how maritime capabilities h ave grown as technology has adva nced. He explained IMO regulations to secure rhe safety of shipping and discussed major problems faci ng the maritime industry. He acknowledged the need for rhe promotion of understanding of the world's maritime heritage as an aid to

Frederick J Kenney ofthe International Maritime Organization gives the second keynote address at ICMM 2 015.

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value in implementing new technologies and approaches to enhance rhe visitor experience. Ulla Tofte of Denmark discussed the issues in transforming the 100-yea r-old Maritime Museum of Denmark when it moved to a new museum space. Robert Domzal of rhe Polish Maritime Museum in Gdansk shared how a recently discovered map helped them flesh out the derails of the remarkable 1771 sea journey that Courn Maurycy August Beniowski made fr om Kamcharke to Macao, and Hanna Hagmark-Cooper from the Aland Maritime Museum in Finland discussed how her museum is making the transition from simply displaying artifacts collected and donated by ship captai n s to employing professional museum practices and research while raking irno accourn rhe cornributions and motivation of the museum's founders. We heard from Maritime Museum of San Diego president Ray Ashley and his vice president, Susan Sirota, on their growing fleet of historic ships and replica vessels and rhe powerful role rhe physical ship can play in irnerprering our maritime pas t. Ir was especially informative to have so many varied presentations from museums in Asia. Richard Wesley and his colleagues ar rhe Hong Kong Maritime Museum shared a good many of their stories, successes, and challenges. In Asia, he explained, maritime museums were originally built aro und individual shipwrecks or ports, or to document shipbuilding skills, but now they seek to interpret traditional maritime achievements in the cornext of modern issues. Bill Jeffery from rhe University of Guam and the Hong Kong Maritime Museum spoke of the underwater cultural h eritage of the Maritime Silk Road; Zefeng You recourned rhe story and significance of the Chinese wooden junk j unk Keying traveling to London in 1846, contrasting rhe ship with the Cutty Sark, which traveled to Shanghai rwerny-six years later. Margaret C hu from rhe Royal Commonwealth Society of Hong Kong cackled rhe complexities of"Maritime Vernures and the Principles ofRulership in the Early Ming D ynasty," describing how Ming Dynasty maritime exploits set the basis for the global perspective of modern China. Our meetings were held in the Hong Kong Maritime Museum, whose exhibits highlight China's role in developing a waterborne industry, and Hong Kong as a major maritime cerner. From there we traveled to alternate venues in Hong Kong, Kowloon and Macau. We visited the Hong Kong Museum of History and had sessions at the Jao Tsung-I Academy, a historic building complex repurposed as an arts and culture center. We traveled by ferry to M acau, the hub of Portuguese trade in China in rhe 16rh SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


century. Today, most of Macau is heavily developed and overrun with casinos. Nevertheless, visitors to M acau's Historic C enter, which was designated as a World H eritage Site in 2005, can find evidence of Portuguese colonization and its strategic influence on the region. It provides an interesting contras t to the British influence in nearby H ong Kong. Another excursion took us alo ng a narrow and winding road to Tai 0 , a sm all fishing community that, we were told, is one of the few surviving fi shing villages within Hong Kong that retains its look and culture from what wo uld h ave been seen there a hundred years ago. We traveled by train to visit the Guangdong Museum with its 160,000 artifacts, highlighting the importance of C hina's m aritime roots and G uangzhou- formerly known to the W est as Canton-as a majo r m a ritime trading center. W e then took a six-hour bus trip through m ainland C hina to H ailing Island, Yangjiang, to visit the M ari time Silk Road Museum, which houses the rem ains of a Chinese wooden merchant ship that sank in the South China Sea during the Song D ynasty. The N anhai No. 1 shipwreck is a major maritime discoverynot just for the Chinese, but for the world. It is the world 's largest, oldest, and best-preserved ancient oceangoing trading ship di scovered to date. Its hold was packed w ith more than 80,000 cultural objects, including copper and iron wares, gold jewelry, bronze coins, religious statues, and tens of thousands of ceramics. The most important arti fac t of them all, of course, is the ship itself. It sank along the C hinese Maritime Silk Road 800 yea rs ago, and it can provide historic information on the trading route and lives of Chinese seafarers from the tenth century. In 2007, the ship was raised intact, including the mud on the seafloor into which it settled, and placed in a tank in a purpose-built museum. The ship and its artifac ts are being conserved in the museum within the "Crys tal Palace," where visitors can watch the conservators and archaeologists at their work with the shipwreck and its artifacts completely visible on all sides.

(l-r) NMH S chairman emeritus and treasurer H oward Slotnick and Steve White, president ofMystic Seaport museum and the new president of ICMM, are welcomed to the Maritime Silk Road Mu seum by Bo Jiang, director ofthe Institute of Underwater Archaeology in Beijing; and H uang Tiejian, curator of the Maritime Silk Road Museum of Guangdong. Of the upcoming 201 7 conference, Steve White said "The bi-a nnual Congresses provide opportunities to sh are examples of our work, our challenges, and our questions. We are a community of interested parties . .. we need to keep everyone interested through effective communication." To participate in that communication, future issues of Sea H istory will present fea tures from the ICMM, like the story of the unique sea journey of C ount Maurycy August Beniowski from Kamchatke to Macao in 177 1, the story of Nanhai No. 1 shipwreck, and much more. !, We would like to thank Howard Slotnick for his generous sponsorship, which allowed NMHS to send representatives to I CMM 2 015.

(left) In 2 007, the ship wreck Nanhai No. 1, which simply translates to South China Sea No. 1, along with the surrounding seabed was raised intact within a massive caisson, then transferred to the museum built fo r it. (right) A view through the glass of the "Crystal Palace" shows a layer oftightly packed p orcelain in the hold of the ship. The ship itselfis there, but difficult to make out in a p hoto.

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

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So Old a Ship: Twilight ofthe Arab Dhow

by M arion Kaplan

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iving and working in Kenya as a freelance photojournalist in the 1970s, it was my good fo rtune to be assigned by National Geographic to do a story on Arab dhows. These wooden ships had withstood change in the Indian Ocean for more than 2,000 years, bu t their numbers were then in rapid decline. In the early yea rs of the 20'h century, betwee n 600 and 700 wooden dhows with their great billowing sails would arrive each year in M ombasa, Kenya, with the monsoon from Muscat and Oman, A rabia and India. In the 193 0s and '40s, their number exceeded 200, but by 1970 the dhows were being pushed off t heir ancie nt trading ro utes by speedy freighters and containerization. Th e year I embarked on my expedition, the number making the seasonal voyage had diminished to fewer than fifry. I spent five months on the venture. In Kuwait, I joined the crew of a small dhow as a passenger fo r a trip th rough the Persian G ulf; in Dubai, I transferred to a large seagoing dhow called a "boom" fo r a voyage down the African coast, ultimately bound for Mombasa. My 3,500-mile journey was very probably the las t close look at dhow people, dhow trading, and dhow life before those lovely wooden vessels were gone forever.

Kuwait In 1973, Kuwait was a city with an ambiance of Islam, oil, and money. G owned men rattled rosaries against steering wheels

of big American cars. The night sky glowed with oil-burning flares from the desert. Big cargo ships were handled in Shuwaikh port, while the small dhows lay along the waterfront in Seif port. Out in the green water,

vast fre ighters steamed pas t tiny scimitar sa ils. None of the great deep -sea sailing craft were left. The remains of probably the las t true engineless boom were propped on a beach beside a college sailing club.

Aziz I had arra nged passage aboard the Aziz, a plump little 94-ton double-ender w ith a 70-foot deck and a 150-horsepower engine. Ahmed Jassim, the nakhoda- or captain, was yo unger than his crew but always indisputably, confidently, master of his ship. His long ro be and headcloth, even at sea, rem ained immaculate. H e was handsome and dashing-in striking contrast with the nine seamen-a motley lot, unsh aven, in ragged clothes, broken-toothed, cross-eyed,

(top) Setting the huge lateen mainsail. (left) In the 1970s, dhows were still being built in Kuwait with local teak, by master shipbuilders who had learned and passed along their trade for generations.

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and, in one case, more than a little simple. All the men were Iranians from Kangan, a Persian port they pronounced "Kan goon." The men spoke Arabic among themselves, not the Persian language, Farsi. Were t hey Arabs or Irania ns? I asked the captain. Well, it depended, he said, but rea lly they were both. Or either. Aziz was a Kuwait-registered ship built five years earlier in Qatar, where Jassim's brother ran the fam ily's merchant trading business. Aziz sailed the eastern waters of the Gulf and called at all the Persian Gulf ports of Iran. I slept at night, or dozed really, wrapped h alf around the helmsman on the shelf of the wh eelhouse. There was no room to stretch out. This little hutch was also the captai n's cabin, but all the time we were at sea, AhmedJassim maintained watch from his place on the crates, snatching perhaps an hour or two of sleep at dawn or after the midday meal. I never knew where, among all the boxes jam med on deck, everyone else slept. Even the ship's cat seemed constantly to be looking for a comfortable spot. Our nakhoda took no bearings. He navigated by keeping a close eye on landmark flares ashore, the patterns of the sky, the barely perceptible breeze, and the flow and color of the water. Our sai l required little adjustment-one rope eased to starboard and a couple hauled in to port, an operation that infinitesimally modified the angle of the ya rd to the mast and the sail to the wind. Because a dhow has no standing rigging, a shift of the sail can be, and usually is, a rousing exertion.

The seventy-foot Aziz was my first experience voyaging in a trading dhow. (below) Their version ofa lead line: taking soundings in the Persian Gulf

Abu Dhabi In the 1970s, Abu Dhabi was home to the richest people in the world; under the emirate's 25,000 square miles of desert, lay oil reserves estimated at twenty billion barrels. The harbor, for all that prodigious wealth, was modest at best. Abu Dhabi, though, was never a major dhow center. We had expected to stay in Abu Dhabi no more than two or three days. We were there a week. In time o ur business was finished, the ship was cleared, a manifest issued, and we were off-all the way to the lee side of the harbor wall. In the last day or two the wind had piped up and the sea became a choppy grey. Here we tied up to SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

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Before harbor facilities were built in Salalah, on Oman's Dhofar coast, dhows sent goods ashore via hand-stitched surjboats. a rusty freighter and stayed put. Two days later, Aziz at last ventured out of the harbor. The sea was still steep and the wind fresh, but clear skies and sunshine convinced our nakhoda to proceed. All the chests and remaining boxes were given extra lashings, and out we went, pitching and rolling, to Dubai.

Dubai In the 21 " century, Dubai is an urbane and wealthy city-state oozing success and ultrasmart technology. Its long streets are filled with skyscrapers. Yet beyond the refinement of handsome hotels and five-star shopping, pas t the fancifully shaped man-made islands and the allure of a glittering holiday destination is a monotonous desert to one side and the vastness of the sea on the other. In the great khor, or creek, an Arab Grand Canal that is Dubai 's prime geographic feature, the blue waters still present a grand parade of teak hulls, bustling ferryboats-all the signs oflively trading and a prosperous people. It is a fine picture of development and progress. It is also a picture where significant elements of the pas t h ave been obliterated.

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As we made our approach to Dubai, the sea around us suddenly filled with ships. They came from all directions-kotias, fast booms, sambuks, dhows-with the flags of Kuwait, Qatar, Iran, India, all the states of the Arab Emirates and beyond streaming from their jackstaffs. In Dubai, Aziz headed into the khor, where dhows were massed as closely as fish in a shoal. Aziz tied up to a row of vessels eight-deep. One of these, someone said, was going to Mombasa-my ultimate destination. Ahmed Jassim negotiated in Farsi with the nakhoda of the larger dhow, a boom. Her captain, Issa Abdullah, was not eager to take me with them as a passenger, but terms were agreed upon and it was time to say goodbye to my shipmates in Aziz.

cargo she carried , perched two saloon cars, two pickup trucks, a miscellany of bedsteads, plywood and poles, and two Honda motorbikes. The work of the ship was arduous. Not only did the men have to keep

Mihandust Mihandustwas considerably larger than the Aziz. More than a hundred feet long, she had a registered capacity of 170 tons. Loaded, she drew sixteen feet. She had been built twelve years before as a sail-only vessel, but a 250-horsepower engine had been installed four years before. On top of whatever other

A "boom" at sea, riding high on the water. SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


watch and sail the ship, but they were also her stevedores and dockworkers as well. They loaded and lashed and stowed every piece of ca rgo. When the time came, they unlashed and unloaded. Issa sailed with his two sons on the crew; one of whom, Mohammed, served as second captain. They carried a curious assortment of equipment. They had a clock with a loud chime that was set to twelve each sunset, but no ship's bell. TI1ere was a sextant-Mohammed would point it at th e horizon each noon according to his wristwatch-but no chronometer, nor a barometer. There were two compasses, one housed in a binnacle by the wheel and another on a shelf in the wheelhouse. C harts with a cardboard rose and a card were frequently put to use to get us from point to point, island to landmark, all the way from Dubai to Mafia Island offTanzania. There was no derrick for moving cargo; the mast and rigging were used to offioad heavy gear like our longboat or the four vehicles we carried to Salalah, Oman. An old capstan was put to use in these situations. There was not much traffic at sea. We saw tankers entering and leaving the Gulf through its narrow mouth between Iran and the Masandam peninsula. We saw a few Indian kotias, two lovely wooden ships from Muscat, and, near the shore, a scattering of white lateen sails of local fishing boats. At Dhofar, we dropped anchor in Salalah Bay. Cargo had to be unloaded by surfboat, a picturesque but impractical task. A new harbor under construction at Risut, to the west ofSalalah, would hasten the end of the stitched surfboats that had performed this task for centuries. We unloaded the four vehicles at Risut because the harbor had the platform floats that could carry them, but the rest of the cargo went by surfboat. Hour by hour, day by day, our cargo went ashore. In addition to the vehicles and motorcycles, Aziz had carried a pile of wooden shutters and numerous bags of onions, window frames and sheets of corrugated iron, doors, and bedposts, cartons of tinned ratatouille, Chinese thermos flasks , American dishwashers, evaporated milk, South African Groovy brand cola, Iranian rosewater, timber, a vast number of busting bags of sugar, 300

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

Setting sail aboard Mihandust. Privacy was non-existent, .from the zuli (toilets) lashed offthe stern (below) to finding a place to sleep on a deck loaded with mangrove poles (bottom photo).

19


bags of Finnish cement, and, finally, a seemingly endless supply of canned fruit and juice. The nakhoda also carried a supply of Persian carpets, of which we sold thirty to individuals in the English community in Salalah, some of whom where engaged in development and construction work, as well as a number of army officers. After our arrival in Mombasa, Mihandust's crew began preparations for her port chores, in particular, her shehamu-the oiling and coating of the hull with animal fat to protect it from damage by marine borers. They would also provision and top off the water and diesel tanks. Mohammed told me that they needed to decide where to go this year for their boriti, a cargo of mangrove poles highly sought after for Iran's building construction projects. Mangrove poles in 1973 were the only commodity that made the long voyage from the Persian Gulf to Mombasa worthwhile. Issa decided to head to the Rufiji River delta in Tanzania, where the best poles were to be found, but the work of acquiring and loading them had a reputation for being taxing on the crew.

Alan Villiers once called the motl ey mouths of the Rufiji River a "delta of misery," and so it was. It rained most of the time. Mihandust anchored outside-where there were no mosquitoes-a nd Issa commuted by small boat to a convenient base within to do business. Mangrove pol es, unlike most logs, sink, and therefore h ad to be carried out to the ship in cutters and lighters rather than Boated out. Local protocol required that food had to be taken to the men who manned the vessels hired to ferry the cut poles to the dhows. Mihandust worked in company with three other booms. The ships sailed together, ordered the poles together, and dealt as a group with the local headmen and forestry officials. Soon thousands of slippery poles were sent out in lighters, tossed onto the decks of the dhows, and passed to seamen stowing them in the dark a nd humid hold. When th e hold was filled, more were stacked on the main deck, whose sides had been built up by severa l feet. A month after we had departed Mombasa, we returned to a much different scene

th a n we h ad left-th e monsoon had changed. Uneven winds were blowing from the southwes t, which would help the dhows on the homeward-bound leg of their seasonal journey. I would not join them and disembarked, after a voyage of five months, and bid farewell to my shipmates in Mombasa, as they headed seaward , bound for home waters. Today, Mihandust, a direct descendant of dhows going back to Phoenician times, and her sister ships are gone. ,!,

Photojournalist and author Marion Kaplan lived in Africa for twenty years working as a freelancer for a wide range ofnewspapers and magazines, including National Geographic, which published her article, "Twilight ofthe Arab Dhow" in 1974. This article for Sea History is adapted from her new book, So Old a Ship: Twilight of the Arab Dhow

(Moho Books, 2015, ISBN 978-0-9557-2082-6), which includes many previously unpublished photographs ofher voyages in Aziz and Mihandust. She nows lives in the southwest ofFrance. Mombasa Old Port in 1973.

20

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


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Racing the Goldplaters-theTradition Continues by John C. No rth II ohn D. William s starred it all. In 193 0 he was a middle-aged gentleman of dive rse talents and interes ts running two businesses. H e owned a late-1 800s school building located on the corner of H arrison and South Streets in Easton, Maryland, (now the Academy Art M useum), where he both sold furniture and conducted a funeral home. For reasons lost to history, M r. W illiams decided to commission the building of a log canoe. Sailing log canoes-doubleended sm all craft native to the C hesapeake-had their origins as oys termen's boats, but by 1930 no new boats had been constructed for mo re than a decade, and the few that carried a sailing rig were retired from the commercial fishery and used exclusively for racing. Undo ubtedly William s's interest had been fueled at least in part by all the publicity attendant to the

Governor's C up, newly esrablished at the Miles River Yacht Club, located on Long Haul Creek just outside the Town of St. Michaels. Mr. William s appro ac hed Talbot County's premier boatbuilder, John B. H arrison, at Tilghman's Island with his plans. The approach had to be a careful one because Captain John B., as he was known, was not one to accept a commission casually. H e was thought to be the best boatbuilder along the Eastern Shore, with an unsurpassed record fo r constructing wooden vessels of all types to the very highest standard. H e was meticulous in wo rkmanship and possessed an extraordinary ability to design boars, which we re both fas t and particularly elegant. Captain John B. was an extraordinarily intelligent, highly talented artisan who had only rudiments of a formal education. His limited time in

j ohn B. Harrison, an accomplished boatbuilder at nineteen, desigrted and built innumerable bugeyes, schooners, pleasure boats, and the log canoes John B. H arrison, Albatross, Jay D ee, and Flying Cloud. He was universally acknowledged as a genius of his craft. the schoolroom never seemed a handicap. H e was known to work out complex mathematical and geometrica l problem s seemingly by instinct. Ar this stage of his life, he wo uld only build what he wa nted to build. W illiams explained that he had been following the recent revival of interes t in log canoe racing and that he would like to have a boar of his own. What he had in mind, however, was not a racing canoe but rather a somewhat larger, more stable vessel appropriate fo r carrying friends out fo r a pleasure sail or perhaps simply to spectate at the races. H e had a traditional sail plan in mind, bur of a moderate size. As a gentlem an's pleasure craft , she should, of course, have a bit of va rnish work and her fittin gs would be brass or bronze, not galvanized iron . Captain John B. decided that this was an interesting assignment and proceeded to develop a half model indicating a length

1he first "goldplater, "Jay D ee, on a Sunday outing off Oxford, Maryland, in 193 1. Captain Buck Richardson can be seen here, standing, wearing a white hat. 22

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


on deck of thirty-fi ve feet with a maximum beam of eight-and-a-half feet. She would be hewn out of the finest loblolly pines and would have wide decks of Honduras mahogany supported by white oak timbers and knees. H er mas ts wo uld be spar pine, straight grained, knot-free Douglas fir to be brought in by rail from the West Coast. This would be the fi rs t log canoe built on the Eastern Shore in more than twe nty years. Talk of her proposed size and exceptional fittings became the principal subj ect of waterfront conversation. Articles started appearing in local papers. How would she be used ? Who would be her captain? What was her name? Such was the public interest that Mr. W illiams decided to run a contest to name his new boat, with ten dollars in gold to go to the winner. Many names were submitted to the Easton Star-Democrat, and the winning entry was . .. Jay D ee, which somehow struck Mr. W illiams as just exactly right. W hile con struction was underway, several sa ilors sugges ted that this new boat really should be raced, that it wo uld be a pity for j ay D ee not to be a part of the recently invigorated competition, especially fo r the impressive new G overnor's C up. The builder was heard to comment, "If I knew they were going to race her, I'd have built a race boat." In any event, the new super log canoe deluxe was completed in 193 1, h er trail board spelling out "XIX-XXXI'', not the technically correct "MCMXXXI," but clearly "19-31." She was a showboat from stem to stern, a very glamorous wineglasssh aped stern at that. H er strip-planked decks -much wider was hboa rds than usual-were not only varnished, but were finished like the finest Gar Wood runabo ut, with a thin white pinstripe between each na rrow strake. H er m asts were equipped with the latest 5/8-inch bronze track, and her outrigger and rudder were fitted with brass strapping held by copper ri ve ts. Somewhere along the way her sail plan got much larger, h er centerboard went deeper, and supports grew on her decks to accommodate no fewer th an six springboards. So much fo r the gentleman's daysailer-] ay D ee h ad become a raci n g powerhouse!

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

Jay Dee setting a jib, foresail, mainsail, and "light" rig: twin foresail, fore square sail, and main square sail, called in this state a "Grecian temple on the water. " The G overnor's C up became the goal, but there were problems- serious problems. The rules for the big cup provided , among other things, that all competi ng boats had to be of traditional design and h ad to be sh arp-sterned . Both th e owner and the builder ofj ay D ee were not ignorant of this requirement, but paid no attention to it, since she was not originally intended to race. N ow, in an effort to m ake the best of the situation, the argument was adva nced that, despite having a square stern, j ay D ee was, thanks to her wi neglass tran som , sh arp-sterned at the wa ter li ne where it really counted . This argument fell on deaf ears, tradition was maintained, and to this day Jay D ee is barred fro m Governor's C up raci ng. This disqualification did no t affect her ability to p articipate in other log canoe races, or in races against much larger sailing yachts. She was skippered by Captain "Buck" Richardson of Oxford, M aryland, reputedly one of the best, if not the best, canoe and workboat racer on the Bay. Cap-

rain Buck started his racing career in 1892 as jib tender on the Island Blossom, under the famous C aptain John G ibson. As master of j ay D ee, Captain Buck recruited the most talented crew he could find, including his son Fran k and Captain John B.'s son Ben H arrison. Stinting nothing, owner W illiams provided his crew with the finest white uniforms and his boat with the best and the most sails that could be bought. She had an inventory of canvas that went on and on-two or three jibs, two foresails, one double fo resail, a fisherman staysail, a kite, a fo re squaresail, a m ain squaresail and two mainsails. Under full dress, one commentator remarked, "She looked like a Grecian tem ple on the water." In her fi rs t season, participating in every sailboat race she could find, she won thirty-fo ur out of thirty-five races. After the las t race of the year, Captai n Buck ordered a broom hoisted to the top of the fo remast, fo llowed by the A merican fl ag ... and the spectator fleet exploded! All very well and good, thought Mr. 23


Johnson G rymes, former president of New York Shipbuilding who had recently retired to the Eastern Shore, bur obviously this super boat needed competition. He called upon Captain John B. and explained that he wanted a canoe capable of challenging and beating Jay Dee. Ir was decided that the new boat would be called Flying Cloud, after the famo us clipper ship of the 1800s. H er hull form would be very similar to jay Dee's, bur a little deeper and heavier to deal with the rough water of the open C hesap eake, where races with larger cruising boars were held. Disregarding any interest in the Governor's C up, Flying Cloud, too, would have a non-traditional square stern with the graceful wineglass transom . A huge inventory of sails was ordered from sailmaker Dave Pritchard of Oxford, Maryland, and white sailor uniforms were secured for her crew. But there was a dilemma-what to do for a helmsman ? Who could compete against the wizard Buck Richardson ? The answer, it was decided, was to persuade Captain Buck to jump ship and take the helm of the boat designed to bea t jay Dee. Once this was acco mplish ed , the nautical air was filled with colorful invective and commentary. John Williams was anything but amused . The rumor mill was in full fo rce. Loyal crewmen became disloyal. Money was said to have exch anged h ands! Bad blood between bro thers. Shades of the Civil War. What nex t?!

I Flying Cloud in 1932 with jib, foresail, mainsail, kite,

fisherman staysail, and main square sail set. C larence Dobson was next. Captain Buck's cousin and fellow crewman on Island Blossom was named as the new captain of j ay Dee. Clarence was Buck's exact opposite. Captain Buck was a soft spoken, quiet man, always smiling, who enjoyed having a little drink or two with his crew after the race

was over. Captain Clarence was a powerfully built, stern-visaged man known for his skill in capturing diamondback terrapin with his bare hands and selling them "to the city" for $120 per dozen. H e was also a dedicated Seventh Day Adventist and had no use for strong drink. But everyone knew that he, too, was skilled at the tiller and that Buck wo uld have his hands full competing against his former com mand. Flying Cloud had a hard time at first breaking in a new crew, adjusting mast rake, re-cutting sails. H er sail area was larger than Jay Dees-perhaps a bit too large. However, it soon became apparent that, not surprisingly, the two super canoes were very well matched, with j ay Dee a bit faste r in mild air. Both skippers were talented, but Captain Buck seemed ro have the advantage in the handling of "light" sails-i.e., squaresails, staysails, and kites. As the 1932 season ended, Johnson Grymes decided that he wanted to try for Flying C loud in 1933 before her stern was

''sharpened, "at Town Creek, Oxford, Maryland, where she is receiving a pre-race coat ofpaint. 24

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


the Gove rnor's C up. There was only one thing to do-modify that square stern to the traditional sharp configuration . Captain John B. was not happy about changing his original design, but the big three-gallon si lver cup was certainly a trophy wort h winning. So Flying Cloud underwent surgery with adze and broad axe and emerged with a rounded posterior just sharp enough to be approved by the inspection committee at the M iles River Yacht C lub. And, of course, she went on to win rhe Governor's C up in 1934, just as everyone predicted. There was considerable debate as to whether she was faster or slower with her new after lines, bur the consensus seemed to be rhar there was lirrle appreciable difference. John Wi lliams was not one to sir idly by while the competition rook the Governor's C up, bur he had no heart for carv ing up j ay Dee's curvaceo us transom . The answer? Build another ca noe, another super boar, big and able like jay Dee and Flying Cloud, bur more traditional in form with a true sharp stern. H e sought our Captain C larence Dobson, known for his skilled hand, who had definite ideas about hull shape. He well remembered sailing in the Island Blossom crew of the 1890s, when Blossom was consistently our from, consistenrly the boar to bear. The model he carved was, as he explained ir, basically rhe same as Blossom bur larger, deeper, and w ith the old boar's underbody fore-and-aft hollows eliminated. Captain C larence discussed his model with Wi lliam s and with his fri end and fellow resident of Oxford, Price Sinclair, who was foreman at Oxford Boatya rd. Sinclair had rhe skill s and the equipment to build most anything in wood. He was impressed by Captain Clarence's half model, and he came to terms with Williams to start construction. Precisely w h at was agreed to fin ancially is lost ro time, but presumably the price was likely similar to th at ch arged by Captain John B. for j ay Dee-$1,200, spars included . Rem ember, these were rhe days of the Grear D epression. The boat construction at Oxford was a great puzzlement, with much rumor, much conjecture, and little fact. Williams apparently enjoyed the talk and speculation and concluded that an appropriate name for his newest project would be Mystery. Completed in 1932, she turned our to be SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 20 16

!1

/;

(l-r) M agic, Flying C lo ud, Mystery and Jay Dee, circa early to mid- J930s. All are still actively raced in these same waters today. a good boat, fully competitive with fay Dee and Flying Cloud, but ultimately perhaps not quite as successful. Capta in D obson contended that "with f ay Dee's rig in her" she was the fastest of the three. Captain Buck was as ked his opinion of the big trio and said, "I always liked j ay Dee." In any case, John Williams's pursuit of the Governor's C up was never successful, although Mystery did win the big trophy many yea rs later, in 1962, under different ownership j ay Dee, Flying Cloud, and Mystery were each larger, better equipped, and generally faster than the rest of the fl ee t"goldplaters," if yo u will. The goldplaters continued inro the '30s, racing a mong themselves and against the old traditional canoes, large cruising boats, a nd the remarkable new boat, Noddy, built in 1932 by Oliver Duke. While the big three captured the public's attention in the 1930-40s era, their presence was not embraced with enthusiasm by the owners of the older canoes. Many felt that the new boars were intruders, that the slick new hulls with their fancy sails and professional uniformed crews were just too much, a nd the handicap system was unfair in that it failed to rake into account that these new beamy, deep hulls could carry much more sai l than the traditional ca noes could m anage. The handicap calcu lation was a si mple one, and had been in effect well before the turn of the century. Each canoe was m easured for length on deck, from the inside of rhe srem post to the outside of the sternposr. This measurement gave rhe boar irs

rating. The handicap provided a time allowance between canoes of "six seconds per foot per mile of the course." This meant, for example, that a thirty-foo t ca noe had to allow a twemy-eighr-foor boat twelve seconds for each mile of the course, or 120 seconds total for a ten-mile race. Thar system seemed to be equitable in practice so long as rhe hulls were all, roughly, of the same type. Bur the thirty-five foot Flying Cloud, for example, could ca rry perhaps a third more sail than the thirty-four foot Magic, and only have to give up a modest time allowance to the much smaller-rigged boar. A new handicap calculation was proposed based upon nor one, bur three hull m eas urements: length on deck stem ro stern, plus maximum beam , plus "after qu arter beam," i.e., beam m easured at a point half way between the after ("main") m as t and the srernposr. This new system was adopted by som e race sponsors a nd rejected by others. Naturally, the owners of rhe older boars favored it, while the afrerguards of the new boars were nor impressed . Perhaps it was just as well that World War II intervened before rhe controversy got really nasty. 1he global conflagration put the brakes on raci ng of every so rr- boats, planes and automobiles. After rhe wa r, both John Williams and Johnson Grymes decided rhar their racing days were over, and so the three goldplarers were put on the m arker. There was a new day coming and many new log canoe chapters to be written. For reasons known only to him, John Williams decided to advertise Jay Dee for

25


sale in the Wall Street j ournal. A phone call came through from Wall Street. 'Tm very interested," the caller said. "IfI come down to O xford, can yo u get the boat and a crew ready for a short sail?" W illiams was eager to accommodate; a m eeting date was set two weeks in advance fo r a spin on the Tred Avon River. The prospective buyer arrived in style in his seaplane, went out for a lively sail, agreed to the price, wrote out a check, and headed back to New York-never to return, never to set eyes on f ay Dee again . Before dep arting, Mr. New Yorker made arrangements with one of the pick-up crew, Captain Jim Rich ardson of Cambridge (no relation to the famous Captain Buck Richardson), to take charge of the Jay Dee and berth her at his small boatya rd near C ambridge. It was understood that the new ow ner would be billed periodically for storage and maintenance and that Captain Jim and his family could use the boat whenever they wish ed . This was a happy arrangement all around. The owner kept promising year after year to return to the Eastern Shore, but because of his busy schedule this never happened . In 1949 Jay Dee appeared once more in full racing form at the O xford regatta fo r her first competitive outing since the late 193 0s. Conditions were unusual, to say the least. The old pre-war handicap argument reared its ugly head, when it became understood that the races were to be run under the three-meas urement rule, considered favo rable to the older traditional canoes . Those in ch arge of j ay Dee, Oliver's Gift, and N oddy-all newer, b eamier boats-decided that they would ignore the race put on at the Tred Avon Yacht Club for the Commodore's Bowl. Instead , they would stage their own unsponsored, unsanctioned race out in the wide Choptank River. This left Magic and Island Bird as the only legitimate regatta entrants, with Magic capsizing and Bird going on to her fi rs t pos t-war victory. Jay Dee continued to live at the Richardson yard, where she was highly valued and looked after as part of the fa mily. H er shorter raci ng mai nmas t was stepped in the fo re partner and sh e enjoyed casual daysailing rigged in sloop fashion. But log canoe racing was starting to heat up once again . New trophies were 26

established at the Miles R iver Yacht C lub and elsewhere. Spectators were showing up in profusion to watch the springboard gymnas tic feats on the part of the racing crews. j ay Dee, the super racer now a daysailer, was doubtless, down deep, anxious to get back in the fray. The identity of Mr. New Yorker remained a mystery. Those in charge at Cambridge had no reason to wish any changes to take place, and so despite inquiries from brokers and prosp ective purch asers, the owner's identity stayed secret. But then . ..a revelation. The New Yorker magazine printed a biographical profile describing a gentleman of many parts-owner of the H otel Carlisle, first man to swim aro und Manhattan, vintage car collector, noted sailor with boats of all sorts, cruisi ng boats, fe rry boats, even a strange high-powered

sailing vessel called, ofall things, a Chesapeake Bay log canoe. The gentlem an's n am e? Robert D owling. Immedi ately an invitation went out suggesting that M r. D owling come to St. M ichaels to go sailing on Island Bird or Island Blossom and inspect a small collection of vintage cars at the same time. A warm correspondence was developed that went on for a period of years, although no visitation ever occurred. Then, in 1972, out of the blue, a letter was delivered from the Bank of New York. M r. D owling h ad become incapacitated , and the bank, on behalf of h is fa mily, was disposing of the several Dowling collections. The M aryland corres pondence had come to lightwould there be any interes t in purchasing jay Dee? There definitely was, and in due course the big boat joined her older cousins Island Bird and Island Blossom in St. M ichaels. H er second racing career was about to commence. Mystery, in the mea ntime, h ad also fou nd a new home. She had been acquired by Fred Touchton ofWhitehall C reek, Annapolis, and rigged as a sloop fo r daysailing. Touchton was immensely pro ud of the boat and spoke of the thousand sheers of sandpaper he had applied by hand to restore her to yacht-like condition. Touchto n was also the owner, fo r a very brief period, of Island Bird (1946 to 1948). In 1954 Mystery was sold to John W hittum of Chestertown. She was sailed back to the Eastern Shore and was again rigged

as a rwo-mas red canoe. H er second racing career was about to get underway. Flying Cloud was k ept in storage through rhe war years and in the !are '40s was sold to D r. James Thompson of C ambridge. Dr. Thompson sailed Flying Cloud under h er full racing ri g. Then tragedy struck: In 1947 the boar was tied up at the Cambridge Yacht Club between races when a bad storm rolled through . One of the crew, fo urteen-year-old James Richardson Jr., son of rh e well-known boatbuilder, crawled under Flying Cloud's foredeck to get our of rhe rain. Lightning struck rhe fo remas t and the boy died instantly. Dr. Thompson removed the racing rig and, pursuant to plans developed by the scholar/ historian H oward C h apelle, she was made into a cruising boat of sorts with a small removable cabin, an air-cooled engine, a metal centerboard , and a greatly reduced sail plan. H er two unstayed masts were now nearly equal in length and were equipped w ith boom s, rather th an the usual log canoe sprit and club rigs . In 1952 Dr. Thompson sold her to Fred Kaiser of H ampton, Virginia, and he sailed her down the Bay to her new home in more southern waters. Accom panying him on the voyage was Robert Burgess , distinguished author and curator of The M ariners' Museum at Newp ort News. In his book, Chesapeake Circle, Burgess recounts the trials of rhe lengthy sail th rough endless rainstorms, brightened by Flying Cloud's amazing speed and balanced helm. For several yea rs Ka iser ac tively sailed Flying Cloud over rhe waters of H ampton Roads, where she was much admired fo r her graceful lines and comforta ble daysailing abilities. Becomin g inreresred in a larger vessel, Kaiser sold Flying Cloud to a frie nd, the well-known marine artist John Noble of Staten Island . At her new berth in Kill Van Kull, New York, she was tied up near N oble's houseboat/s tudio. She continued to be actively sailed and, of course, greatly admired, even in those waters so fa r removed from her native C hesapeake. John No ble passed away in 1983 and Flying Cloud became the property of his rwo sons, Allan and John, who determined that the old girl sh ould be restored and returned to racing condition. John H arrison's grandson, D avid M cQuay, was employed for wh at tu rned out to be a SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 201 6


Silver Heel in 2 015. Currently out of Chestertown, Maryland, the 1902 Silve r Heel is an active participant in the ongoing tradition of racing the Chesapeake Bay log canoes along Maryland's Eastern Shore. Spectators can get a .front-row seat at next summer's races .from excursion vessels operated by the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum in St. Michaels. m ajor re bu ilding effort ar his sm all marine railway on H arris Creek, only a few miles away from where she was originally built at Tilghman's Island. A nother new racing career was about to get underway. Jay D ee, Flying Cloud, and Mystery all remain active competitors in rhe log canoe fleer and can be seen sailing on rhe C hes ter, M iles, and Tred Avo n Rivers on weekends from June to September. The

Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, among orhers, offers opportunities to observe rhe races from a spectator boar. U n like ar rhe rime of rheir introduction in rhe 193 0s, these three boars no longer srand our fro m rhe rest of rhe fleer as better-fi nanced or domina nt boars, so perhaps rhe "goldplater" label has wo rn off, but each is still competitive and has won races in recent seasons . .!,

j ohn C. North II has been sailing Chesapeake Bay log canoes for 67 years. H e is retired as a judge ofthe circuit court in Maryland and as chairman ofMaryland's Chesapeake Bay Critical Areas Commission. This article is based on his new book, C hesapeake Bay Sailing Log Canoes: A Study in Tradition, Speed, and Elegance, forthcoming in 2 016, published by the Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum.

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Maritte Art News fhe At1tericat1 Society of Marit'le Artists Uebuts the First Natiot'lal Marit'le Art Cot1feret1ce For the first time in its nearly four-decade history, the A merican Society of Marine Artists is debuting the National Marine Art Conference (NMAC), to be held in Williamsburg, Virginia, 8-11 September 2016 . Artist demonstrations, workshops, lectures, exhibitions, and plein air sessions will be the focus of this four-day event that will bring together som e of today's most acclaimed contemporary marine artists, including John Stobart, Sergio Roffo, Len Tentillo, John Barber, Russ Kramer, and others. World-renowned marine artist John Stobart will kick off the conference as its first keynote speaker. Mr. Stobart is a fellow emeritus and founding member of ASMA. Conferees will also hear from Peter Trippi, editor of Fine Art Connoisseur, who will offer an engaging lecture on marine art and maritime history. Technical art lectures w ill be given by artists such as C. W. Mundy, John Ba rber, Russ Kramer and others. Sergio Raffo and Len Tantillo will lead workshops, and live demonstrations will be held by Len Mizerek, Peter and Lisa Egeli, William Duffy, Jerry Smith, and Mike Killelea. Plein air painting sessions will take place on the historic grounds of Colonial Williamsburg and local environs.

Chesapeake ~ay Schooner A11ta11r/a lewis by Peter Egeli, Fellow Emeritus, ASMA, 28 inches x 40 inches, oil

On the second day of the conference, ASMA w ill launch its 17th National Exhibition at the M uscarelle Museum at the College of William and Mary. The exhibition will remain on display at the museum through 11 November 2016 before traveling on to multiple venues over a period of sixteen months. The fina l venue w ill be at Mystic Seaport Museum in Mystic, Connecticut, with the exhibition closing in January 2018. This dynamic exhibition features wo rks from the finest marine artists of our time. Don't miss it! Details and updates will be posted online at www.americansocietyof marineartists.com. Space for many workshops and events is limited, so be sure to register early.

Paint with ASMA Fellow Sergio Roffe along the waterfront at Jamestown Settlement, Alla Prima approach. Mr. Roffe will focus on the techniques and principles ofplein air painting of coastal marine landscapes.

Pathto Shore by Sergio Roffe, Fellow, ASMA, 18 inches x 3 0 inches, oil on linen

Can't wait until September? Be sure to catch the 2016 ASMA North Juried Exhibition at the Minnesota Marine Art Museum, 15 April through 24 July 2016. ASMA members are invited to attend the exhibition's artist reception on Thursday, 14 April, at the museum. (MMAM, 800 Riverview Drive, Winona, MN 55987; Ph. 507 474-6626; www.mmam.org) 28

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


Get a fabulous limited edition print by Charles Raskob Robinsonand support NMHS at the same time

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The Magic and the Mystery Chesapeake Bay Sailing Log Canoes Racing off St. Michaels by Charles Raskob Robinson Signed and Numbered Limited Edition Print of 784. 100% rag paper, PH neutral. Image Size: 22 1/2" x 15 7/8" Price: $125 plus $20 s/h The artist is donating all his proceeds from the print sales to NMHS. To order call l-800-221-NMHS (6647), ext. 0. e-mail nmhs@seahistory.org, or visit our website at www.seahistory.org. NYS residents add applicable sales tax.


\.Ve Know Ocean/-Improving Ocean Literacy at Cal Maritime by Colin Dewey, Alexander Parker, Steven Runyon

ever has it been more important for people to "know their oceans," and there's no place better positioned to study and teach ocean-related questions than at our nation's maritime universities. Faculty and students at the California State University Maritime Academy in Vallejo have formed the Cal Maritime Ocean Initiative (CMOI) to lead the effort to understand and improve ocean literacy among America's rising maritime professionals. Daily, it seems, we are bombarded with new, sophisticated, scienti fie data along with news of complex policy proposals crafted to address environmental issues. Polling data show that the public is generally alarmed over the environmental health of the oceans, yet less than two percent of the American adult population say that they feel sufficiently knowledgeable to engage in meaningful conversations about policy decisions (NEEFT, 2005). Given the unique position of the US maritime academies within

Cadets at our nation's maritime academies will be the next generation ofseafarers operating massive cargo ships, tankers, passengers vessels, ferries, and military vessels across the world's oceans. Many will go on to shape national policy regarding use and health ofthe oceans.

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the higher education landscape, these institutions have both an opportunity and an obligation to promote ocean literacy to ensure char their maritime graduates are prepared to participate in meaningful dialogue abo ut ocean policy. While their peers at other, more conventional universities may only have the opportunity to vote on issues char affect the oceans, it is the graduates of maritime universities who are more likely to be directly engaged as leaders who will shape ocean policy-and as merchant marine officers who will continue to bear the primary daily burden of responsible and ethical ocean management. In the forty-six years since the first Earth Day was celebrated in 1970, a complex convergence of scientific research, legislation, and public opinion has led to a series of progressive environmental legislation in the United States. This legislation has sometimes been driven by catastrophic marine accidents, such as the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in Alaska in 1989 that led Congress to draft and pass the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90). In addition, pressure from American citizens alarmed about pollution helped to bring abo ut the US Clean Air Act (1963), the US Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972), and MARPOL 73/78 (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, modified 1978). Stil l, many Americans have reported char they believe they are unable to make informed decisions about matters related to the ocean environment because they have little grasp of marine sciences.1 Their lack of knowledge may also result in less engagement in environmental activism than in the pasr. 2 Nevertheless, we can find encouragement in other studies that indicate Americans also believe their individual actions can have a positive effect on ocean health, a trend that has increased over the past decade. In 2000, the US Congress passed the Oceans Act, calling for the establishment of a comprehensive national ocean policy. In response, the US Commission on Ocean Policy and the Pew Oceans Commission published separate reports (2003, 2004) , both of which called for educators to rake rhe lead in promoting ocean literacy at all levels. Through the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), together with other concerned scientists and educators, produced a guide for how to accompli sh rh is. Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences for Learners ofAll Ages (2005 , rev 2013) provides a derailed roadmap for reaching ocean literacy organized around seven core principles that can be incorporated into curricula across disciplines (see Table 1, next page). According to COSEE, an ocean literate person: • understands the essential principles and fundamental concepts about the ocean; • can communicate about the ocean in a meaningful way; • is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources. SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


Table 1: Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences for Learners ofAll Ages Principle 1-The Earrh has one big ocean wit:h many fearures. Principle 2-The ocean and life in rhe ocean shape rhe fearures ofEarrh. Principle 3-The ocean is a major influence on wearher and climare. Principle 4-The ocean makes rhe Earrh habirable. Principle 5-The ocean supporrs a grear diversiry of life and ecosysrems. Principle 6-The ocean and humans are inexrricably inrerconnecred. Principle 7-The ocean is largely unexplored.

In response to the need for better marine science and environmental education among the general population, in spring 2014 faculty at the maritime academy established the Cal Maritime Ocean Initiative to assess and improve ocean literacy on our campus. The interdisciplinary group was supported by a CSU Maritime Scholarship of Teaching and Learning grant and consisted of Dr. Alexander Parker, assistant professor of oceanography; Dr. Steven Runyon, assistant professor of chemistry; Dr. Colin Dewey, assistant professor of English; and independent researcher Dr. Cynthia Cudaback. We wanted to know if students who select their university specifically to train for a maritime career arrived with greater concern for and understanding of the ocean, compared to the general American college population. Similarly, we thought, the unique educational experience tied directly to training for oceanrelated careers should lead ro graduates who have substantially improved ocean literacy. Now in its second year, our scientifically valid survey, based on Dr. Cudaback's previous work (2006,

Cal Maritime Ocean Initiative table at "0- Week, " duringfreshman orientation in August 2015. (l-r) D r. Steven Runyon, Cadet Emily Walker, Dr. Alex Parker, and D r. Colin Dewey.

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

and 2008, 2009), includes questions that assess understanding of scientific concepts, as well as attitudes and values related to ocean stewardship. The initial results were intriguing. An overwhelming number (greater than 90%) of students were aware that the surface area of the ocean covers slightly more than 70% of the Earth 's surfacea good starting point. In contrast, students were nearly even ly split between thinking that the average ocean depth was "approximately 1/10 of Earth 's diameter" (42%) or, the correct answer, "like a thin skin" on the surface of the Earth (44%). The vast majority of students (97%) were aware than the ocean environment remains largely unexplored. Incoming student knowledge abo ut life in the ocean was mixed. For example, a large majority of students (82%) were aware that the ocean holds much of the biodiversity on Earth and that much of the phorosynthesis on Earth occurs in the ocean, but at the same time they were unclear on evolutionary relationships among organisms. When asked which of several groups of organisms were "closely related," a similar percentage of students correctly chose the group "human, cat, dog, seal"-all mammals(44%), as picked "fish, jellyfish, starfish, crayfish," which are related only by having "fish " in their name (36%). Incoming freshmen correctly identified sources and impacts of human activity in the ocean. Students accurately predicted the consequences of seawall construction on surrounding erosion, and correctly identified ship ballast water as the leading cause of marine bio-invasions. Somewhat less clear was the source of oil spills in the ocean: half of the students correctly identified the largest source of oil in the ocean as runoff from srorm drains, while slightly more than 25% blamed oil spills on ships at sea. Two of the survey questions asked students about ocean/climate interactions and the consequences of climate change on the ocean. A vast majority of students recognized the link between the ocean and Earth 's climate, with 93% correctly predicting more extreme weather on Earth witho ut the ocean. Perhaps the most revealing results from the survey came from questions about values and attitudes towards the ocean: 87% of students believe that human-made stresses are endangering coastal ocean regions. Our survey res ults indicate that incoming Cal Maritime students overwhelmingly feel they have a personal role to play in the health of the oceans: 90% of students make a link between their actions and ocean health; nearly 80% feel a personal responsibility ro work toward improving the health of the ocean. When asked about their understanding of ocean environmental issues, a slight majority of students (60%) felt they were "familiar with the issues" facing the global ocean but fewer than one in five felt that they had "enough background knowledge" to write a letter to their congressional representative expressing concern for a particular ocean environmental issue.

31


Later in the semester, we administered the same survey to seniors who were graduating that yea r. The seniors' knowledge about the ocean was remarkably similar to the freshmen's. Greater differences between the groups appeared in their attitudes and values. A little more than 70% of seniors concurred that their individual behavior plays a role in the health of the ocean (down 18%, compared to freshmen), while 68% of seniors said that they have a personal responsibility to work towards bettering the health of the ocean (down 12% from freshman responses). Slightly more sen iors felt well-informed about issues facing coastal California (68%, versus 60% of freshman), while fully half of all seniors reported feeling that they possess enough information to write a letter to their congressional representatives about an ocean issue (up 30%, compared to incoming freshman) . Next, we compared our survey results with the earlier published results obtained by our colleague, Dr. Cudaback, from students enrolled in marine science courses at o ther education al institutions. H er work polled students at Truman College (Chicago), North Carolina State University, the University of San Diego, and Mountain Brook High School (A labama). We found similar patterns in the results across populations and appear to transcend educational demographics; put simply, Cal Maritime students closely resemble their peers across the United States at other more conventional schools. While it is useful for us to know that our students are similar in many ways to their peers at other universities, given our unique position in higher education, we feel that the maritime academies have a responsibility to lead other universities in addressing ocean literacy priorities. A lthough Cal Maritime has offered a minor in marine science since 1976, many cadets still seem to think about the ocean in abstract terms. In 2014- 15, just over 35% of the graduating class majored in marine transportation, the path for future ships' deck officers a nd capta in s; 19% chose to become engineeri ng officers; and 17% graduated as mechanical engineers, some of whom earned a US Coast Guard

third assistant engineer's license in addition to their engineering degree. The fastest growing area, however, and where Cal Maritime expects to see the most future growth, is in our global studies and m aritime affairs program and our international business and logistics program, which togerher accounted for 26% of the recent graduating class. The CMOI has taken the posirion th ar all Cal Maritime students, whether their careers take rhem to sea or place them in leadership roles supporting ocean transportarion or making policy, should experience a curriculum that supports ocean stewardship. In response to the survey res ults, we have more closely aligned our marine science curriculum w ith ocea n literacy standards and developed new marine science courses-especially in life sciences- to ensure that we are capturing the breadth of understanding necessary to ach ieve ocea n literacy. Cal Maritime has also increased student participation and collaboration with fac ulty in marine-related research. Perhaps more significantly, because not all students enroll in marine science classes, fac ulty across the campus have begun to discuss ways to incorporate ocean literacy and ocean studies topics in their curricular and research planning, regardless of their academic discipline. In January 2015, students at Cal Maritime established an Oceanography Club on campus, supported by CMOI faculty, which has hosted talks by marine science researchers and educators and helps students to explore marine science careers. Beginning this year, the CMOI team at Cal Maritime will be joined by facu lty from the State University of New York (SUNY) Maritime College and the Massachusetts Maritime Academy, who wi ll survey their students and help expand our understanding of how maritime cadets "know the ocean." The CMOI team is also actively seeking new research partners at other universities and colleges in the United States and abroad. We hope that new partnerships and research will further help us to improve our curricular and extracurricular offerings to serve the needs of our students-and our oceans-in the years to come. j:,

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California State University Maritime Academy operates the 500joot training ship Golden Bear to give cadets hands-on experience to prepare them for work in various maritime industries. In addition to its training mission, the Golden Bear also serves as a ballast water management system testing.facility, called "Golden Bear Facility" (GBF). The GBF, created in partnership with the US Maritime Administration, is the first testing.facility ofits kind. Cadets assist the GBF team in evaluating the mechanical and biological efficacy ofthese systems in a real-world, onboard environment. The GBF fulfills the CSU mission of applied research to serve California, and provides a unique opportunity for Cal Maritime cadets to gain hands-on experience working on environmental issues that impact the maritime industry.

32

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


matics at Cal Maritime since 2010. He has done extensive work in assessing student Learning as weff as course and program review. SOURCES

Dr. A lex Parker (center) with cadets performing marine science research on the Cal Maritime pier in Vaffejo, California. Colin D. Dewey is an assistant professor ofEnglish at Cal Maritime. Dr. Dewey's research on B ritish Literature and seafaring careers both inform his teaching in courses such as maritime culture and oceanic studies. At Cal Maritime since August 2013, Dr. Dewey was named "Outstanding Teacher" for 2014-15. Alexander Parker is a biological oceanographer with work focused on nitrogen biogeochemistry, especially in the urban ocean. As assistant professor of oceanography at the academy since August 2013, Dr. Parker stresses undergraduate engagement in research and scholarship as p art of the expanding marine science curriculum . Steven Runyon has been an assistant professor of chemistry in the department of sciences and mathe-

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Survey Report, 2004. Belden Russonello & Stewart, and American Viewpoint, 1999, "Review of Existing Public Opinion Data on Oceans," Conducted for the Ocean Project. Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), 2013. Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles ofOcean Sciences, K-12. Available online at: www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/ documents/OceanLitChart. pdf. Cudaback, C. N, 2006; "What Do College Students Know About the Ocean?" EOS: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 87 (4 0). cynthiacudaback.org/Education/ Resulrs / 2006E0400003.pdf. Cudaback, C. N., 200 8; "Ocean Literacy: There's More to it than Content," Oceanography, 21 (4) Cud aback, C. N., 2009; "Some Observations on the Impacts of Marine Education," Current: The Jo urnal ofM arine Education, 23 (2). McKenzie-Mohr D. , NemiroffL. S., Beers L., Desmarais S., 1995. "D eterminants of Respon sible Environmental Behavior. j ournal ofSocial Issues. 51:139-56. NOTES 1 2

Ocean Project 1999; AAAS 2004. McKenzie-Mohr 16.

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Kit Jones is Waiting for You by William C. Fleetwood Jr.

HISTORIC SHIPS ON A LEE SHORE

oatyards can be interesting, but oftentimes melancholy, places. Scattered among the newer boats getting fresh varnish or bottom paint, there are always a few rusting, past-their-prime hulks-once somebody's darling but now derelict and forgotten, liabilities more than assets, a step away from the chainsaw or cutting torch. In every one there is probably a story, but the old wooden rug now at Bay Marine Boat Works in Biloxi, Mississippi, has seen enough characters and drama over both Atlantic and Gulf waters to make her name a fond remembrance to some of the world 's foremost marine scientists. When launched into the waters off Sapelo Island, Georgia, in March 1939, the sixty-foot rug Kit Jones already was of sterling pedigree. Her design sprang from the draftsmen of none other than Sparkman and Stephens, famed New York naval architects and designers of custom watercraft

for yachting cognoscenti. R. J. Reynolds Jr.-tobacco king, bon vivant, and one of the wealthiest men in the country-need-

ed a vessel to carry supplies and passengers to Sapelo Island, which he had recently purchased from northern industrialist Howard Coffin. Reynolds, an accomplished sailor and yachtsman, hired local carpenter and shipwright Holger Sparre to build the rug on Sapelo, using live oak and pine cut and milled on the island. It was not his first Sparkman and Stephens vessel. Reynolds had named his other Sparkman and Stephens yachts Blitzen and Scarlett O'Hara, after the beautiful women in his life, 1 and the new rug was no exception. C hristened Kit Jones (after Katharine Talbott Jones, the wife of Bill Jones, Coffin's island manager and business partner), the new boat was a craft of her times, representing the owner's money, the designer's art, and the builder's skill. As she was launched in 1939, on the horizon were momentous changes that the coming war years would bring-including the advent of polyester resin and Owens-

Kit Jones was designed by Sparkman & Stephens in New

Kit Jones Sparkman & Stephens Model No. 236 Length Overall (LOA) 60.33 feet Beam 16 feet Draft 4.5 feet

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York City but was built locally on Sapelo Island in Georgia for tobacco magnate R. J Reynolds Jr. to ferry passengers and supplies between the mainland and the island, where Reynolds had an estate.

1 "Blitz" was aa nickname used by Rey nolds's first wife, Elizaberhh McCaw Dillard. His second wife was starlet Mariannne O'Brien, who bore a resemblance to Scarlett O 'I-Hara in Gone with the Wind, played by actress Vivien I Leigh.

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SEA fHISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


j ust after her 1939 launch. Ki t Jones was designed to be able to carry a truck or car.

Corning's fiberglass, and the w idespread availability and use of plywood in boat construction, new m aterials that would signal the decline of traditional, plank-onfra me wooden boat constr uc tion. When the United States joined the Second World War in 1941, Reynolds enlisted in the N avy, earning a commission as a lieutenant comm ander, wh ile his vessel, Kit J on es, was requ isitioned by the Coas t G uard. H er w hite paint was replaced with deep red , and she was put into service as a fireboat out of Savannah . Retrieved by Reynolds a fter the war, Kit J ones spent m any a happy d ay ferrying cargo, residents, and guests to and from Sapelo Island . To help preserve the natural env iron ment of the barrier islands and marshlands, Reynolds fo unded the Sapelo Island Research Foundation in 1949, and Kit J ones began a new career as a research vessel. The fo undation funded research by Eugene O dum, whose 1958 p aper, "The Ecology of a Salt Marsh," won w ide acclaim in scientific circles. O dum's pap er revealed the frag ility of the cycle of n ature in the wetlands, and his resea rch don e on Sapelo and from the deck of the Kit J ones helped launch the modern ecology m ovement. W hen Rey nolds left Sap elo for good in the early 1960s, he donated large portions of th e island and Kit J ones to the Sapelo Island Research Foundation and

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

the University of Georgia Marine Institute. Kit Jo nes spent 25-odd years as the primary research vessel fo r the UGA, her decks alive with the excited voices of marine scientists, educators, and their students as she served as their platfo rm fo r saltwater exploration. By the mid-1 98 0s, UGA had replaced her with newer, more moderni zed vessels and was looking to dispose of the

old tug. The University of M ississ ippi expressed interest; D r. Bob Woolsey, di rector of the new Mari ne Minerals Technology Center (M MTC) at O le Miss, had done his own doctoral research aboard Kit J ones and knew well her value and capabilities as a resea rch vessel. W hen the U niversity of M ississippi acquired the vessel from the State of Georgia in 1986, she was sitting in the marsh of Sapelo Island, partially underwater and in sore need of attention. Several MMTC employees traveled to Georgia and refitted her, while also conducting a series of research proj ects on the Georgia coast. Within months Kit Jones was fully operational aga in, seaworthy, and ready fo r the long trip to her new homeport in Biloxi. Once in Biloxi, the KitJones was transformed into a more spacious vessel to accommodate a crew and equipment for ex tended oceanic cruises . Improve ments incl uded state-of-the-art n avigati onal equipment, a C ummings diesel engine, and a hydraulically operated "A:.' frame for the deployment and recovery of research equipment. Ole Miss mechanical systems engineer M att Lowe recalls some rough times on board the Kit Jo nes. "We did a core sampling job around Little Lake on the M ississippi-

Kit Jones circa 1972 with an A-frame on the stern, when she was op erated as a research vessel with the University of Georgia Marine Institute.

35


Louisiana line," Lowe said. "I remember while trying to sail back to Biloxi, we had to endure a nine-hour storm in the Mississippi Sound. It was the worst storm I've ever been in, but Kit Jo nes rode it out." Like m any vessels in that tempest, Kit Jones was half-sunk and capsized by Hurrica ne Katrina in 2005 , but MMTC staff we re undeterred in their efforts to salvage and repair her. It was a difficult job, with no services available in far reaches of the bayo u where she had been taken to weather the storm . The Ole M iss crew, led by Dr. Woolsey, h auled the vessel our of the mud, righted her, and, after a stint in the (left) July 1986, Skidaway Island, Georgia, sailing for the University ofMississippi. (below) August 2 005: RV Kit Jones after H urricane Katrina.

shipya rd, re-launched her into her hom e waters on the Mississippi Sound. "Without a doubt, she's a very strong, well-built boat," said Ladd Schrantz, a retired marine technica l specialist and former port captain for the Kit Jones. "Even those 18-to-20-foot waves couldn't sink her. I believe she'll keep right on sailing as long as there are agencies in need of her services," he added. But the University of M ississippi won't be one of them. Today she sits-high and dry and rust-stained-in a Biloxi boatya rd, awaiting her next incarnation , with a rich history of voyages made, and of the celebrities, scientists, and other characters that once trod her decks. Dr. Woolsey and the University of Mississippi rescued her oncebut who will do it now? Heavily built with traditional m aterials and skills rarely seen in modern times, her aging hull represents the pinnacle of wooden workboat con struction in the South, and the birthplace of much Southern maritime research. Though 76 is old for a wooden vessel, there is a window of opportunity to repair the ravages of the yea rs and storms, restore her beauty, and let her continue to help new generations understand and explain the complexities of the Gulf coas tline. As the famed naval architect Tom Gi llmer, restorer of USS Constitution, once wrote, "Who among us wo uld not want that for themselves"?2 ,t Author and boatbuilder William C. "Rusty" Fleetwood J r. is a wooden boat enthusiast, resident of Tybee Island, Georgia, and the author ofTidecrafr: The Boats of South Carolina, Georgia and Northeastern Florida 1550-1950.

The Kit Jones presently sits out of the water (see photo, right) in a shipyard in Biloxi, Mississipp i, at the end of a long and storied career. The University ofMississippi has no budget for her maintenance or operation. Since the time of this printing, the Darien (Georgia) Downtown Development Authority has been actively engaged in pursuing the acquisition of the Kit Jones, with the goal of returning her home to Mcintosh County, Georgia, where she was built almost 80 years ago. Plans include restoring her to her original configuation. H er future is thus hopeful but by no means secure. Tax-deductible contributions are sought to help in this effort, and can be sent to H istoric Darien, Inc., c/o Darien Downtown D evelopment Authority, PO Box 452, Darien, GA 3 13 05. Inquiries can be made by email: ddadirector@ darientel.net, or telephone 912 437-6686, ext 6 The University ofMississippi Foundation has also established an account to accept online tax-deductible contributions to be directed 100% toward saving the Kit Jones: www.umfoundation. com/makeagift. Please be sure to 2 "Old Ironsides: rhe Ri se, D ecline and resurspeciJY that gift is for the Research Vessel Kit Jo nes Account. More information is online at rec tion of the USS Constitution" (1 993 , International Marine Press) www. kit)ones-reprise. tumblr. com.

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SEA HIISTORY 154, SPRING 20 16


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The Brothers Eldridge: Extraordinary Mariners in an Extraordinary Age

T

by Vincent Miles

e decades following the War of 181 2 rought both triumph and turbulence o America's elite sailing ship masters. Triumph, because their expertise under sail enabled the young United States to become a major force in international trade. Turbulence, because the relevance of that expertise was threatened by the advent of steam power, only to be reaffirmed by the success of the fast and lofty clipper ships. The difficulty these developments created for master mariners can be gauged from the small number of captain s known to have commanded vessels from each of the period 's most important classes: transAtlantic sailing packets, clipper ships, and transAtlantic steamships. Remarkably, three of the few to achieve this feat were brothers from a small village on Cape Cod, whose careers are highly instructive about the era. John, Asa, and Oliver Eldridge were born in the village ofYarmouth Port, Massachusetts, in 1798, 1809, and 1818 respectively. Their fat her had been a shipmaster who left the sea early to go into politics and died just before Oliver was born, and so had no chance to train his sons in the seafaring tradition. For John and Asa, that task likely fell to their uncle, who lived nearby and operated a sloop in the coastal trade between Yarmouth and Boston. He, too, had passed away by the time young Oliver went to sea, presumably under the Asa Eldridge rutelage of his older brothers. All three made rapid progress in their careers, wi nning command of ocean-going ships by their early twenties. The first appearances of John and Asa in the historical record were as captains of ships known as "regular" traders. Despite that adjective, these vessels did not sail on regular routes or schedules, but went wherever and whenever they could find cargoes. Their freedom to do so increased dramatically when the War of 1812 drifted to a conclusion in 1815, bringing an end to long-standing restrictions on foreign trade imposed by Great Britain-by law before American independence, and by interference thereafter. ELDRIDGJ;.. BROTHERS

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PHOTO~

The subsequent movements of the Eldridge brothers illustrate the geographic diversity of the trade that then developed. In rhe 1820s and early 1830s, for example, John could be found sailing from various ports on the East Coast of the United Stares to Calcutta, Mexico, Sr. Thomas, and Constanti nople. By 1830 Asa also had his own ship, which he rook to Liverpool, Denmark, Russia, and India-setting a new record in 1833 for the run from Boston to Calcutta. Later that decade, his voyages to Asia extended to Manila and China, and in the early 1840s he was working the "cotton triangle" between the southern states, Liverpool, and Boston. By that rime the brothers would have been hoping for elevation to the most covered position in their profession, the command of a transAtlantic packer ship. In contrast to regular traders, packets did sail to a fixed schedule, an idea regarded as foolhardy when it was first implemented in 1818. Until then, vessels crossing the Atlantic typically waited until their holds were full before sai ling, which maximized their income bur often meant long and uncertain delays for cargoes and passengers. Recognizing an opportunity, in 1817 four New York shipowners decided to organize their vessels into a "line" that would offer one monthly sailing in each direction between New York and Liverpool, with each ship leaving on a fixed day, whether or not it was full. Many observers were skeptical, predicting half-empty ships and financial ruin. But rheywere wrong. Customers loved the certainty of fixed departure dates and were willing to pay for it. The new Black Ball Line soon had many competitors. The most successful were US companies, due partly to the superior capabilities of the America's shipbuilders, but mostly to those of its mariners-as even the British reluctantly conceded. Prominenr amiong the Black Ball Line's competitors were dhe Blue Swallowtail and Dramatic Lines, wvhich in 1843 and 1844 gave John and Asaa Eldridge the positions they were looking f for, appointing them to, respectively, the Liiverpool and the Roscius, COURTESY HISTOIUC,\L SOCIET\' OF OLD YARMOUTH

SEAHISTO}RY 154, SPRING 2016


The Black Ball Line Packet Ship New York off Ailsa Craig, 1836, by William Clark (1803-1883), oil on canvas, 24 x 36 inches. two of the largest ships on the New YorkLiverpool route. By rhe time that the Eldridge brothers attained these high-ranking positions, however, the dominance of the American sailing packers was under threat. Having failed for decades to march American excellence under sail, the British turned to a technology in which they had long been leaders-steam power. Two English steamers inaugurated transAdantic service in 1838, and by 1840 there were four steamship lines operating on the Atlantic, all British. Three did not survive, bur, after struggling initially, the fourth began to prosper, in large part because of a government subsidy in the form of a contract to carry mail. Although its formal tide was much longer, the line quickly became known by the name of its founder, Samuel Cunard. Most US shipowners saw little to fear from the new steamships, deriding them as smoke-belching "tea kettles." One crucial exception was Asa Eldridge's employer,

Edward Knight Collins, founder of the Collins Line.

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

Edward Knight Collins, a fellow native of Cape Cod and owner of the Dramatic Line. Quickly recognizing the inevitability that steam would displace sail, Collins began lobbying Congress for a contract to carry mail across the Atlantic by steamship, akin to the one Cunard had won from the British government. After several years, Congress did award such a contract, but to another company for a minor route to Ger-

many. In 1847, however, Collins finally prevailed, winning a contract for the key route between New York and Liverpool. After a year's further delay while he sold off his sailing packers, he was able, at last, to start building four large steamships for his new venture, which everyone soon called the Collins Line. With his employer's abandonment of sail, Asa Eldridge faced a decision that would soon confront many other sailing ship captains: how to respond as their livelihoods were threatened by steamers. Asa's own response was unique. He resigned his command of the Roscius and immediately joined her new owners in another venture they were starting, a steamship company called the Pioneer Line. Although this venture failed before too long, it brought him to the attention of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who then invited Eldridge to captain his private steam-powered yacht on a summerlong cruise around Europe. Around that same time, many other sailing ship mariners found a sudden and unexpected demand for their services-a new class of sailing ship enjoying a boom

39


because of the Californ ia G old Rush, the clipper ship. W hen the news that gold had been discovered reached the East Coast, the only way to reach San Francisco was to sail fifteen tho usand miles around Cape H orn. To meet fre nzied demand for fas ter passages, naval a rchitects designed a nd shipbuilders produced longer, sha rper vessels carrying huge a reas of canvas. These extreme clippers continued to flourish even after most gold-seekers switched to shorter ro utes that involved coas tal steamers a nd overland crossings of Panama or N icaragua; basic commodities commanded such h igh p rices in San Fra ncisco th at h a ndsom e profits could be m ade by shipping them there. And just as that m arket started to cool, a gold rush in Australia created new demand fo r ships capable of long voyages at speed. The very firs t clipper ship to reach San Francisco from New York was the Memnon, in 1849. She also happens to have been the first clipper commanded by an Eldridgenot on that voyage to California, but on her m aiden voyage fro m New Yo rk to Liverpool the prev ious year. The Eld ridge in question was the younges t bro ther, O liver. Although twenty years younger than Joh n and nine yea rs yo unger than Asa, he had already built an impressive resume: com-

m and of a sailing packet operating between New York and Louisiana, a stint as John's first mate in the Liverpool, and several years shuttling between India and China as captain of a speedy barque, the Coquette. After bringing the Memnon back to New Yo rk, he immediately received another significant assignment, com mand of the packet ship Roscius, the sh ip his bro ther Asa had just relinquished . For a while Asa himself was too busy with his steamship venture and Va nderbilt's yacht to test his m ettle on a clipper, but when he fi nally did so, the outcome was spectacular. In January 1854 he delivered the Australia-bo und Red jacket to Liverpool, arriving just over thirteen days afte r leaving New Yo rk; even today, this is still the fas test-ever crossi ng of the Atlantic by a sailing ship. Prompted perhaps by sibling rivalry, in the ensuing m onths John and Oliver also recorded excellent times taking new clippers to Liverpool, but without quite m atching Asa's speed . U n fo rtunately fo r elite mas ter m ariners, the clipper-ship boo m d id not las t. As gold fever wa ned, so did the premiu m that cusro m ers were w illing to pay for fas ter passages . G iven the large crews required to m anage their vast areas of sail, clippers became uneconomical; their con-

Under the command ofCaptain Asa Eldridge, the clipper ship Red Jacket (below) set a transAtlantic record on her maiden voyage across the Atlantic (New York to Liverpool) in 1854. Captain Eldridge would be lost at sea along the same route two years later, when his ship, SS Pacific, departed Liverpool, bound for New York, never to be seen again.

struction actually p eaked the year before Asa Eldridge set his record . As he and his peers looked elsewhere fo r new assignments, attrac tive opportunities became scarce. The m ost pres tigio u s position s were on th e transAd antic steam ers, but theâ&#x20AC;˘e were only eight of th ese in total am on g th e three Am erican lines operating to Euro pe. The best of the eight we re the Collins liners, which were bigger, faste r, and more luxurio us th an any o the r shi ps on th e ocean , including C una rd 's. A ll h ad firml y entrenched captains, however, so when one of the lesser lines offered Eldridge a comm and in August 1854, he rook it. The fo llowing year he la nded the position he really wa nted, when he was chosen to succeed the re tiring captain of the Collin s liner Pacific. Alas, his new assignment proved tragically brief. In Ja nua ry 1856, on the return leg of h is second voyage, the Pacific steamed o ut of Liverpool and was never seen again. The wi nter that year was particularly brutal, and the consensus at the time was that the steamer had collided with aJarge m ass of ice in the Atl antic and sank.' Coming as it did just sixteen m onths after the sinki ng of another Collins shi p, SS Arctic, the loss of SS Pacific had devastating consequences for the American presence o n the Atlantic ro ute. Back in 1852, Congress had reluctantly approved a big increase in the C ollins Line's subsidy for carrying mail, but included a prov iso that the increase could be revoked o n six m onths' notice. After two disasters in quick succession, Congress now gave that notice. 1h e line limped along for two more yea rs and then fo lded. So, roo, did the lines operating to Germany a nd France, when Congress opted no t to ren ew their m ail contracts. European steam ship lines then h ad the ocean to them selves, and dominated it fo r much of the next century. Betwee n 185 0 and 1856, the Collins Line had wo n and repeatedly improved both the eas tbound and wes tbo und reco rds for cross ing the A tlantic; no American ship wo uld hold either record again until 1952 . 1 Th is expl anation hms been called into questio n after a wreck was d iscoverred off the coas t of Wa les in 1992 and identified as Paccific's re m ain s. Th is cla im has not been verified , howevver, and in the author's view the origi nal t heory st ill 'stands.

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SEA HISTroRY 154, SPRING 2016


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United States Mail Steam Ship Pacific Capt. L. Blye rescuing the crew of the barque Jesse Stevens by means of Francis metal- ~ lie life boat, during a heavy gale December 4th, 1852, in Lat. 48, Lon. 40. Lithograph by Day & Son. Captain Asa Eldridge was in command ofSS Pacific, when the ship was lost at sea in 1856. Th e collapse of the country's tra nsAtlantic steamship companies further reduced the options fo r America's top shipmas ters. O live r Eldridge, for example, had been one of the lucky few to captain a Collin s linertaking over the Atlantic shortly after the Paciji'c disappeared- but then had nowhere to go after the line folded in 1858 . When

the C ivil War broke out in 1861 , he and his brother John, who had already retired, re turned briefly to action in command of fo rmer C ollins liners that had been requisitioned as troop ships (giving John his first experience of transAtlantic steamships, although not in their original role). Before the War was over, however, both brothers

The Collins Line had lost another ofits four steamers, SS Arctic, in 1854 (above). Following the loss ofSS Pacific just sixteen months later, Congress cut the company's subsidy for carrying mail by more than half Without the fa ll subsidy, the Line folded. SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 201 6

were permanently back on land-Oliver to pursue a second career as an agent in San Fra ncisco, John to retire again to Cape Cod . The long association of the Eld ridge bro thers with the sea was over. In the course of that long association, the brot hers had participated in most of the key developments during a crucial period of America's maritime histo ry: the opportunistic success of regular traders doing business w ith Europe, India, and China; the dominance of the transAd antic packet lines; the assault on that dominance by British steamers; the all-too-brief clipper ship boom; the similarly brief ascendancy of the Collins Line; and the surrender of the Atl antic to European steamship lines. Few periods in peacetime have seen such remarkable changes in the country's fortunes at sea. A nd few have seen such a rem arkable fa mily of m ariners as the brothers Eld ridge. 1,

Vincent Miles is the author ofThe Lost H ero of Cape Cod: Captain Asa Eldridge and the Mariti me Trade That Shaped America, published in 2015 by the Historical Society of Old Yarmouth. 41


Animals in Sea History n the April 1936 issue of the magazine Popular Mechanics, beside a report about the invention of an automobile windshield washer that one could operate from the driver's seat inside the car, was a story about a shipping clerk named Joseph Agna from Provincetown, Massachusetts.

Joseph Agna displaying one of his painted swordfish "swords" in the April 1936 issue of Popular Mechanics.

Agna painted swordfish bills. He lopped off the bills from dead fish , then sanded , polished , and painted them with a variety of designs. He then attached carved wooden handles on the ends to make them look like actual battle swords. Mr. Agna decorated one swordfish bill with images of vessels of the US Navy and sent it to the White House as a gift to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Joseph Agna did not invent t he idea of making art out of swordfish bills. In the last issue's "Animals in

42

by Richard King

Sea History," I told you about how the author of MobyDick, Herman Melville, described ship-spearing swordfish in his fiction of the 1850s. The large, fast-swimming impaled the hulls of wood fish occasionally ships and boats. In Melville's day and earlier,

sailors on long voyages used objects they found , or items from sea animals they caught, to create art. Maybe you've heard of scrimshaw made from whale's teeth, in which tiny scratches are made in the enamel and filled with ink to create art. Sailors and fishermen did the same thing with swordfish bills-wh ich are an extension of the fish 's upper jawbone, similar to a beak of a pelican or a rostrum in a lobster. At least as far back as the 1800s, artists ashore decorated these bills by using more traditional painting techniques. Unlike the bills of a marlin or sailfish, swordfish bills are actually wide and flat with sharp edges, tapering to a point, which is the reason swordfish are sometimes called "broadbills." In early Polynesian cultures, warriors used swordfish bills as actual and ceremonial weapons. : SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 20 16


This past fall, I invited writer Matt Rigney to visit the collection at Mystic Seaport. Matt is the author of In Pursuit of Giants, for which he spent five years traveling around the world learning about the most massive swordfish, marlin, and tuna (learn about Matt on page 44). The curator led us into the back vault and slid out a drawer that had fourteen swordfish bills decorated and painted in all sorts of ways. The longest of them, with two small hearts carved into the base, is about 3.5 feet long, which means, since swordfish bills are approximately a third of the length of the fish, that it might have come from a swordfish that was over 10 feet from tip to tail! Mystic Seaport has swordfish bills going back to at least the 1870s. The bills are engraved , scrimshawed , and painted with coastal scenes, sailing ships, steam ships, American flags, fish, and women. It seems at least one of them might have been used as a ceremonial " Neptune's sword " for equatorial crossing parties, in which veteran sailors created theatre to initiate those who had yet to cross the line. Author Matt Rigney examines the collection of decorated swordfish bills at Mystic Seaport.

Matt told me that there are still artists painting swordfish bills in Nova Scotia, and in a few areas in the United States, including the Florida Keys. Look up, for exam ple, the art work of Peter Aga rdy (www.peteragardyfineart.com). Though painting swordfish bills is not a topic covered in Popular Mechanics magazine anymore, Mr. Agna would be proud. In the next issue: do you know the only state that has a saltwater species as its official state bird and on its state seal? And do you know why? To check out previous "Animals in Sea History," visit www.seahis tory.org. ;t SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

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att Rigney is an author of both novels and nonfiction books. H e is also an ocean environmentalist who has written a book about "great fish" and the people who fish them. M att is as passionate about the sport and business of fi shing as he is about the fish themselves. To conduct resea rch fo r this book, he spent five years a nd traveled more than 75,000 miles to seek out the great fish of che seamarl in, bluefin tuna, and swordfish-and to explore che causes of their population's sharp decline. That book, In Pursuit of Giants: One M an's Global Search fo r the Last of the Great Fish, was published in 201 2. "The great fi sh of the sea are unknown to most people, fi sh ermen still use traditional but when I tell them that a Pacific blue marlin can be over h andlines for catching bluefin 18-feet long and weigh nearly a ton; or that an adult bluefin tuna, some of which can sell fo r tuna is the size of a cow but can keep up with your car on hundreds of thousands of dola highway (except it's going through water); or that a broad- Jars. In Australia, he observed two 1,000-pound bill swordfis h hums more than half a mile deep, in total black marlin near the Great Barrier Reef, and in N ew Zeadarkness, and that it can attack a mako shark using its sword land he sailed 200 miles offshore with the world 's greates t as a weapon-and win, then people begin to understand swordfishing captain, who h as put his clients on m ore that the world is far larger and more 500-pound-or-greater swordfish than anyone on the planet. Finally, M att's beautiful than they ever imagined, and that che creatures who inhabit research took him to the M editerrait are worthy of our protection." n ean aboard the Greenpeace ship Matt has been an avid fisherman Rainbow Warrior, where environmenhis whole life; how did he go fro m cal activists were working to h alt ilfi shin g to writing? In college, h e legal bluefin tuna hunting o ff the took a class in creative writing. His north coast of Africa. Throughout his professor told che studencs to find a travels, he shot thousands of photos photograph chat interested them and video, interviewed all kinds of and make up a story about it. "I sat people, and took copious notes about dow n at my desk in my dorm room every thing. And when he was done, he went home to write. and bega n w riting. When I put my When h e is in writing mode, pen down four hours later, I sa id to mysel f, 'W hat just happened ?' I had Matt.photographed this hu~e black Matt is usually ac his desk by 7:00AM. encered what is called flo w- a menmarlin near the Great Barner Reef H e writes and revises as long as he can ta! state of being in the z one, where you feel an incredible, maintain the brainpower to do it well, usually between three energized foc us, and total involvement in what you are do- and six hours at a time. Writing is cough work, and not ing. I knew then I had tapped into something new and vital everyone can do it. M att says that the best training he did to me." for this kind of work was to read a lot. "Studying the works N ot all w riters do the kind of research chat M att did fo r of ocher writers is essencial, as well as allowing others to give his book. H e traveled to N ova Scotia co join commercial feedback on your writing as you go along." H e warns wouldharpoon fi shermen offshore as they hunced swordfish . H e be w riters to be open to criticism, advice, and even rejection, flew to Cabo San Lucas in M ex ico to witness a hundred but to hold strong to you r own convictions. "You must striped marlin feeding on sardines, and then swam w ith a develop the ability to dare greatly, and to resume the quest 30-foot whale shark. H e next flew to Japan to check out the when your great daring results in hundreds of pages of failed world 's largest fish ma rket, called Tsukiji, and then writing. W riting is a discipline, and to be successful at it, visited the northern Japanese town of Oma, where you must be driven and simgular in your purpose." ,!,


@>sHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS Captain Daniel Moreland, master of the world-voyaging, sail training ship Picton Castle, has been awarded the Tall Ships America's highest honorthe Lifetime Achievement Award. Presented on 30 January in Quebec City at the joint conference of Sail Training International and Tall Ships America, the award is given to an individual who has dedicated his or her life's work to getting people to sea under sail and who has worked to preserve the traditions and skills of sail training. Moreland began his career at sea by sailing sloops and schooners in the Caribbean before signing on as m ate aboard the brigantine Romance for a wo rld circumnavigation under the command of Captain Ar thur Kimberly. Receiving this award in front of an international audience was especially fitting, as Moreland's seafarin g career was forged in ships h ailing from E urope and Scandinavia, the Ca ribbean , the United States, Canada, and beyond. In his acceptance speech, Cap tain Mo reland recognized his Danish captains from his sea time in the Danmark as important m entors, and

Capt. Dan Moreland accepts the Tall Ships America Lifetime Achievement Award. commended the ongoing work in maritime education and sail training of the Danmark and the D anish training ship Georg Stage. After his award-winning restoration and operation of the 1894 schooner Ernestina-Morrissey in the 1980s, development of the sail training program aboard the US Brig Niagara,

Come Experience the Hundred-year Voyage Aboard the Lagoda The Lagoda - the world's largest whaleship model - has been wowing visitors from around the world at the Museum for ioo years. Ensconced within the equally impressive Bourne Build ing, the ship and its story is just as remarkable today as it was in i916. Photo: The whaleship Lagoda sails into its second century of service as the Museum's signature exhibit and most unique learning tool. www.whalingmuseum .org

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and working as m aster and mate aboard various sail training vessels, Moreland turned his attentio n to Picton Castle. He selected, d es igned, converted, and rigged the ship, and then proceeded to command her for most of the past twenty years, including six world circumnavigation voyages. Picton Castle's trainee crew participate fully in a11 aspects of shipboard life: standing watches, taking the helm, handlin g lines and sails, and assisting with the maintenance of the ship. Through this effort, they play a part in preserving traditional seamanship skills, and, perha ps more importantly, develop the skills required to work with others as responsible, resourceful citizens. Many leaders and crewmembers of the sail training community have trained under Moreland in one or more of his ships in his long career and credit their skills, knowledge, appreciation for ships, seafaring, and the sea to his tutelage and influence. (Picton Castle: POB 1076, 174 Bluenose Drive, Lunenburg, NS, Canada BOJ 2CO; Ph . 902 634-9984; www.picton-castle.com. TaJl Ships America, POB 1459, 221 3rd Street, Building 2, Ste. 101 , Newport, RI; Ph. 401 846-1775; www.tallshipsamerica.org) ... NOAA announced plans in January to consider possible expansion of the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary, off the North Carolina coast. The proposed boundary expansion would protect the single greatest concen tration of WWI and WWII shipwrecks in American waters and includes sunken vessels from US and British naval fleets, merchant ships, and Germ an U-boats. The USS Monitor shipwreck site became the first national marine sanctuary in 1975. Com ments on the proposal may also be submitted through 18 March via the Federal eRulemaking Portal at www.regulations.gov (docket # NOAA-NOS-2015-0165). For more info rmation contact Monitor National Marine Sanctuary superintendent, David Alberg at David.Alberg@noaa.gov. (www. monitor.noaa.gov) ... In January, the Connecticut State Bond Commission appnoved $2 million in state funding to ass;ist with the construction of the new Thompson Exhibition Building at Mystic Seaport museum. The

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016


facility will house a 5,000-square-foot exhibition sp ace th at will provide for gallery-based educational programs, and feature soaring ceilings and demountable walls to accommodate objects of varying size and installations of all types, from watercraft to priceless wo rks of fine art. The Thompson Building is scheduled to open in September 2016. (www.mys ticseaport.org) . . . SS Columbia, the 207foot excursion steamship that carried passengers from Detroit to Canada's Bois Blanc Island (known to most as BobLo Island) for 89 years, is on her way to the Big Apple. In September 2014, the steamship left Detroit for the

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Southport Island, Maine www.southportsiIver.com las t time and was rowed to a shipyard in Toledo, Ohio. A $1.6 million restoration of the hull was completed there to enable her to make the long transit across the G reat Lakes, up the St. Lawrence River, down the Atlantic coast and up the Hudson River. Last September, Columbia was rowed 250 nautical miles to Buffalo, where she is wintering over and preparations are being made for the ship's transit to New York C ity. In spring 20 16, she will make the fin al leg of her journey, heading first to a shipya rd in Kingston, NY, where she will undergo a bow-to-stern, wheelhouse-to-hull, sustainable restoration. This includes fi guring out how to "green" her steam engines. Columbia is the oldest surviving passenger excursion steamboat in the United States. The ship is owned by the non-profit SS Columbia Proj ect, whose mi ssion is to restore the vessel and enable her to serve as a cultural flagship reconnecting New York City to the waterfront cities and towns along the scenic Hudson Valley, where excursion steamboats were long a familiar sight. (SS Columbia Project, 232 East 11th Street, New York, NY 10003; Ph. 212 228-3128; www.sscolumbia.org) ... Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Inc. is in the final phase of a multi-year, $850,000 USCG-

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mandated restoration of its iconic sloop and sailing classroom. Beginning in 2009, repairs were made on the forward and aft thi rds of the vessel. In fall 2015, wo rk began on the midships section to replace the frames and planks below the waterl ine, including the centerboard

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trunk, centerboard trunk bedlogs, part of the keelson, frames, and hull planks. A New York State Historic Preservation grant is providing partial funding; the organization needs to raise $25 0,000 to complete the project for the 2016 sailing season. Clearwater was founded in 1966 by musician and activist Pete Seeger, who sought to address and remedy the pollu-

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The 1921 schooner Bowdoin is currently u ndergoing a sign ificant renovation in prep aration for h er centennial celebration in 2021. In October, the schooner's masts were removed and the hull was delivered to Lyman-Morse Boatbuilding Company at Wayfarer Marine in Camden, M aine. Repairs include the replacement of the deck, top timbers, covering board, and cap-rail, along with a number of planks above the waterline. System s

Schooner Bowdoin

upgrades include a new generator, watermaker, electrical sys tems, and an en gine rebuild and tankage expansion . The work is expected to be completed in time for the 2016 season. Bowdoin's resroration work is funded by the $1.6 million Bowdoin Centennial Campaign, which aims to keep the ship exploring, sailing, and trai ning for the next 100 years . Bowdoin was built in 1921 as a sailing Arctic exploration and research vessel. Her 88-footlon g hull is solidly built and specifically des igned for A rctic wo rk. Maine Maritime Academy acquired the schooner in 1988 for the purpose of trai ning future mariners. Bowdoin is also designated as a National Historic Landmark and as the official vessel of the State of Maine. Yo u can follow the restoration work on the "Arctic Schooner Bowdoin" Facebook page. A $25, 000 matching gift challenge for the Bowdoin Centennial Campaign is currently underway. D on ations can be made online via the Maine Maritime Academy web page, by selecting "Bowdoin Centen nial Campaign" as the donation 's designation. Or, mail a check to MMA, D evelopment Office, One Pleasant Street, Castine, ME 04420. Please write "Bowdoin Campaign" on the memo line. (F urther information is available by contacting Kay Hightower at kay.high tow<er@mma.edu; www.mainemaritime. edu ii waterfront/schooner-bowdoin)

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 20 16


The 1894 schooner Ernestina-Morrissey is at Boothbay Harbor (Maine) Shipyard for a $6.3 million, multi-year, complete restoration of her hull, with $5.3 already committed through a private-public partnership . Capt. Harold Burnham is the owner's representative for the MA Department of Conservation and Recreation, the administraror for the historic ship, which has been designated as the official vessel of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Burnham is working closely with shipya rd presidem Eric Graves and project manager David Shorr to ensure the hull meets US Coas t G uard requiremem s for Ocean Certification. The restoration is being don e in accordance with the secretary of the imerior's "G uidelines for the Preservation of Historic Vessels." A main priority is to return Ernestina-Morrissey closer to h er original lines. To achieve this, the crew is recreating her lines by studying historic photographs and records oflines taken in 2008, t

Artists conception of SS United States after conversion. line announced p lans last mont h to that the 64-year-old ship could return to renovate it and return it to sea. The joint transAtlamic service from New York and announcemem by Crys tal Cruises and additional American ports came as a surthe SS United States Conservancy, the prise to many. In the pas t few years, the non-profit organization that owns her, Conservancy has been focused on trying

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2015 , and some from 193 1 that were drawn by Southmayd Hatch & Thomas A. Soyster and preserved at Mystic Seaport. Work began in May 2015, with the removal of the masts, machinery, and interior structures. The engine and generators will be rebuilt and other equipmem evaluated ; the original wheel and steering gear will be restored. Ceiling planking plus 100,000 pounds of lead and poured concrete ballast were removed to reveal st ructu ral floors and futtocks (frames). A new sternpost and rudder p ost and box are nearing completion. For photographs of the ongoing shipya rd work, and information on how yo u can help, visit www. ernes tina.org. . . . Decades of struggle to save the famed ocean liner SS United States from the scrapyard appeared to have paid off, when a lu xury cruise ship

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to rerurn che 99 0-fooc ship, currendy mochballed in Philadelphia, to New York for a new life as a sracionary anrac tion with a hotel, museum, and retail, offi ce, and conference space, but finding a permanem sire fo r the ship and a developer wi ll ing and able to do that and has proved frustrating. "W e would be remiss if we would pass up an opportunity to res tore such an important symbol of luxury travel and a bygone era of Americana," said Cryscal chief execucive Edie Rodriguez. Crys tal C ruises will pay che $60,000 -amomh carrying charges to keep the ship docked in Ph iladelphia, while srudying che feasibility of upgrading the ship. If the determination expected by the end of che year is favorable, Cryscal Cruises will negotiate the purchase of che ship from the Conserva ncy. C rysral would reconfigure the exterior of the ship to add balconies on its sides in keeping with most modern cruise ship d esign, giving the United States a slighdy more boxy look amidships. While changing the classic rakish lines of the ship mighc offend some preservacioniscs, the Conservancy deems it better than losing the ship to che scrapyard. "We think this is the best way to save the ship," said Susan G ibbs, the Conserva ncy's executive director and granddaughter of che ship's designer, the late William Francis Gibbs. Rodriguez said rebuilding the vessel, whose interior has already been guned , will cost in excess of $700 million, potentially somewhat cheaper than building a similar ship from che keel up. That figure includes che cosc of an environmental cleanup of PC Bs and other pollutants, plus install ing a new propulsion system. "Failure is not an option," Rodrig uez said. She said the only thing that would stop the project from moving forward would be if the Environmental Proceccion Agency determines that pollution within the ship's structure cannot be remediated. If C rys ral buys che ship, it would be che third oceangoing vessel for the Los Angeles-based company. The United States carried 2,000 passengers when it was launched in 1952. It would be transformed into an 800 -guest vessel wich 400 luxury suices measuring about 350 squa re feet each. Original features, including rhe Promenade D eck and

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 20 16


Navajo Lounge, will be retained . If the renovation goes forward, Gibbs said, the Conservancy would focus on building a museum as hore, ideally in N ew York City, where the United States originally sailed from Pier 86. "My grandfather would be thrilled to see his ship reemerge as a technologically innovative, beautiful , luxurious, and modern vessel," G ibbs said. "The essence of her will rem ain front and center." The ocean liner's maiden voyage in 1952 set the still-current reco rd fo r the fas test transAd antic crossing fo r a passenger ship. Her role supersed ed by passe nger jets, the United States was ra ken out of service in 1969. The rusting hull, larger than the Titanic, has been moo red in Philadelphia for nearly two decades. (SSUS Conservancy, www.ssusc.org. Submitted by journalist Bill Bleyer.) HMS Surprise (ex-"HMS" Rose) returned to her berth at the Maritime Museum of San Diego in July 2015, after three months in dry dock at Marine Group Boatworks in Chula Vista, California. The m ajority of the shipyard wo rk

soring overnight progra ms on the vessel through its edu cation department. Surprise is expected to set sail aga in in 2016. HMS Surprise was launched in 1970 from the Smith and Rhuland Shipyard in Lunenburg, Nova Sco tia, as "HMS" Rose, and operated as a sailing school vessel on the East Coas t before being purchased and transferred to the West Coast to play the role of H MS Surprise in the 2003 H ollywood movie, Master and Commander: The Far Side ofthe World, starring Russell C rowe and Paul Bettany. W hen production fo r the movie was over, ownership of the vessel was transferred to the M aritime Museum of San Diego. Also at the Maritime Museum of San Diego, the replica galleon San Salvador, which was launched last summer, is at the museum being rigged on site. As of press time, her masts were stepped and main ya rd was crossed, with wo rk continuing in the interior spaces and aloft. The twomas ted , traditionally rigged vessel was designed to represent the Spanish galleon sailed by Juan Rodriguez Castillo up the coast of Califo rnia in 1542. The museum

San Salvador's main yard going aloft. expects the ship to be ready for sea trials in 2016. (M aritime Museum of San Diego, 1492 No rth H arbor Drive, San Diego CA 92101 ; Ph. 619 234-9153, ext. 101 , fo r general information; www.sdGloucester's 1926 maritime.org) storied schooner Adventure had a momentous year in 2015. In M ay, Captain Stefan Edick rejoined the N ational Historic Landmark dory-fishing vessel as m as ter and took on the additional role of executive director, and in June the vessel was issued her first USCG Small Passenger Vessel Certificate of Inspection since 1988. A busy sailing season followed, including port stops in Massachusetts in

HMS Surprise was performed by museum staff, w ith the Marine G roup personnel taking care of painting the hull. Extensive repa irs were made to the hull, with at least 25 frames replaced, along with as m any planks, the ga rboard scrake, and upwa rds of 5,000 fas teners. Repai rs were made to one of the mas ts, and the paint was refreshed above the waterline and on deck. The enti re hull below the waterline was re-caulked and coated with an epoxy sealer. Several coats of bottom paint were then applied to the hull. Th is work was necessary to improve the stability and seaworthiness of the sh ip, as well as to ensure she could have her COI (Certificate of Inspection) renewed by the US Coast G uard, which will allow the museum to resume spon-

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Call for Book Proposals The University Press of N ew England, along with the Williams College-Mystic Seaport M aritime Studies Program, is seeking book proposals fo r its "America and the Sea'' series in three categories: •Suggestio ns for timely reiss ues of forgo tten , out of p rint American works of li terary and cultural dis tinction, with new introductions that frame and engage the work for a modern audience. • Proposals for anthologies and/or selected edi tions of writers' work. • Proposals for books of original scholarship or of general interest, according to the series' mission statement. Underrepresented voices and "blue" environmental studies are especially enco uraged. For more information or to submit an in itial two-paragraph proposal, email: Step hen H ull , Acquisitions Editor, UPNE/ ForeEdge at Stephen.PHull@dartmo uth.ed u; or Richard King, Wi lli ams College-Mystic Seaport at Richard. Ki ng@williams.edu. There is a rolling deadline, but first consideration will be given to proposals submitted by 20 March 20 16.

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Boston, Provincetown, Marblehead, and N ew Bedford, plus a quick trip up to Portland, Maine, at the end of the summer. During the 2015 season, sh e carried over 2,000 passengers and students, and even some cargo in collaboration with the Maine Sail Freight proj ect. In 2016, Adventure will continue to expand her sailing and education programs in New England waters, celebrate the 90'" a nniversary of her launch w ith a series of events, and

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complete a lengthy restoration process by rebuilding the captain's cab in to its original configuration. For more information or to learn how to become a member or supporter, visit www.schooner-adventure. org. (Schooner Adventure is docked at Maritime G loucester, Harriet Webster Pier, 23 H arbor Loop; G loucester Adventure, Inc., POB 1306, G lo uces ter, MA 0193 1; Ph. 978 281-8079) The 1885 iron-hulled, full rigged ship Wavertree is at Caddell Drydock and Repair in Staten Island, New York, undergoing a $10.6 million stabilization and restoration of her hull. Plans also call fo r fully rerigging the ship when she returns to her berth at South Street Seaport Museum in New York C ity. In other square-rigger news coming out of South Street Seaport, the four-masted barque Peking will depart Manhattan in 2016 and return to Hamburg, Germany, where she was built. O ne of the Flying P Liners of F. Laeisz Lines, the 1911 Peking was made fa mous by Irvi ng Joh nson's A round Cape Horn, the minidocumentary of his 1929 voyage from Germany to Chile and the book Round the Horn in a Square Rigger, w hich was later re-released by Sea History Press as The Peking Battles Cape Horn. Peking came to the South Street Seaport Museum in 1975, joining the Liverpool-

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

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built Wavertree of 1885, the lightship Ambrose, and the schooners Pioneer and Lettie G. Howard. In recent years, however, South Street determined that financial realities wo uld not support two such large ships, given the cost of maintaining them in good condition. Peking will make the voyage as cargo aboard a heavy-lift transport vessel. (South Street Seaport Museum, 12 Fulton St., New York, NY 10038; www.southstreetseaportmuseum.org) ... Mayflower IL the 60-year-old replica of 17th-century ship that brought the Pilgrims to Massachusetts in 1620, is back at the shipyard at Mystic Seaport for the second phase of a multi-year preservation project. Shipwrights will be replacing the half-deck area, as well as working on the 'tween deck and topmast rigging. The vessel will spend winters and springs at Mystic in the shipyard, and

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the courtroom, where a Connecticut Superior Court judge dissolved Amistad America, Inc., the organization that operated the ship, wh ich was embroiled in a scandal involving the mishandling of funds, including a failure to file taxes with the federal government and more than $2 million owed to creditors. A new nonprofit, Discovering Amistad, was formed to purchase the ship, effect repairs over the winter, and get the sh ip back into service. The state of Connecticut is providing $342,000 towards this effort. Plans call for the schooner to sail along the Connecticut coast in summer 2016, rebuilding her educational mission and reputation. The Amistad, built at Mystic Seaport and launched in 2000, was inspired by the schoo ner that was seized in 1839 by its enslaved African passengers, who were captured by the US Revenue Cutter Washington, wh ile attempting to sail the vessel to Africa. The ensuing trial went eventually to the US Supreme Court, where the captives were found to b,e free men under the law. According to Connecticut Attorney General George Jepsen, "The Amistad is worth

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRJNG 201 6


saving, not just because state of Connecticut has made significant investments over the years; the sh ip is a vital historical and cultural asset, with a powerful, moving and relevant story to tell." . . . The 1895 lumber schooner C. A. Thayer has just had new masts stepped, as the next phase of her full restoration continues. The 219-foot threemasted schooner was built in Northern California for the lumber trade, but she also went on to work in the salt-salmon and cod fisheries in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. She is part of the fleet of historic ships at Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco, owned by the National Park Service. Between 2003 and 2007, the 156-foot wooden hull was completely rebuilt at the Bay Ship and Yacht Yard in Alameda, California. Ongoing projects

from the Barents Sea in the west to the Bering Strait in the east. Vaygach left from the Siberian side of the Bering Strait on 17 December and covered more than 2,200 nautical miles before reaching its destination in the White Sea in just 185 hours (7Y2 days). Russia owns the largest fleet of icebreakers in the world, more than Norway, Canada, Demark and the US combined. Vaygach is a shallow-draught nuclear-powered icebreaker, built in 1989. At 490 feet LOA and beam of 92 feet, it is amongst the largest polar icebreakers ever built. Walt Meier, a research scientist for NASA

Map of the Arctic region showing shipping routes Northeast Passage, Northern Sea Route, and Northwest Passage. and co-author of NOAA's 2015 ''Arctic Report Card " on sea ice, said the successful transit is a sign of changing ice conditions in the Arctic. "Doing it this late in the year is pretty unusual and is an indication that the ice is pretty thin .. .. They have confidence that they can get through without too much trouble." j:,

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A crane hoists the 109-foot mainmast over the C. A. Thayer, just after an 1895 gold piece was placed on the mast step at an Alameda shipyard. include replacing her rigging, completion of her forward deckhouse, and finishing the interior spaces. (San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, 2 Marina Boulevard, Building E, 2nd Floor, San Francisco, California 94123; www.nps.gov/safr) In December, the Russian icebreaker Vaygach completed the fastest transit of the Northern Sea Route on record. Alon g w ith setting the speed record, the icebreaker also completed the trip more than a month after the shipping season usually ends in the Arctic. The Northern Sea Route runs along Russia's Arctic coast

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CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIUMS

•Canadian Nautical Research Society Annual Conference, 18-20 August in New Westminster, British Columbia. Confere nce theme is "Where Rive rs Meet Oceans." Call fo r Papers deadline is 31 March. Proposals should be sent to C hris Madsen, 74 1 East 10th Street, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7L 2G2; email: CNRS201 6@gmail. com. (www. cnrs-scrn .o rg) •National Council on Public History and Society for History in the Federal Government Joint Meeting, 16-19 March in Baltimore, MD . (www.ncph. org) •North Carolina Whales & Whaling Symposium, 9 April at the North Carolina Maritime Museum in Beaufort. (3 15 Fro nt Street, Beaufo rt, NC; Ph. 252 72873 17; www. ncmaritimemuseums.com) •Council of American Maritime Museums Annual Meeting, 25-27 April , hos ted by rhe Kalmar Nyckel Foundation in W ilmington, Delaware. (www.co un ci l ofamericanmaritimemuseums.o rg; www. kalmarnyckel.org) •Joint North American Society for Oceanic History (NASOH), North Atlantic Fisheries History Association (NAFHA), Society for the History of Naval Medicine (S H NM) Conference 2016, Portland, ME, 11- 15 May. (www.nasoh.org) •National Maritime Historical Society Annual Meeting, 22-24 May, in Newpo rt, RI. (Derails on pages 8-9, and online at www.seahistory.o rg) •19th Annual Cape Cod Maritime History Symposium, 6 June at the Cape Cod Museum of Natural History. (CCM N H , 869 Route 6A, Brewster, MA; Ph . 508 896-3867; www.ccmnh.org. General informa tion at www.capecodchamber. org) •National Marine Art Conference, American Society of Marine Artists, 8- 11 September in Williamsburg, VA. (Derails on page 28; www.ameri ca nsoci eryofmarineartisrs.com) EXHIBITS

•Illuminating the Sea: The Marine Paintings of James E. Buttersworth, 1817-1894, thro ugh 31 May at rhe Maritime M useum of San Diego. (1492 N . Harbor D r., San Diego, CA; Ph. 619 2349153; www.sdmaririme.org) SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

•The 2016 American Society of Marine Artists (ASMA) North juried Art Show, 15 April-24 July at the Minnesota Marine Art Museum in W in ona. Also, River Life: Recent WOrk by David Eberhardt, th ro ugh 24 April. (M MAM: 800 Riverview D r. , W inona, MN; Ph. 507 4746626; www. mm am. org. ASMA: www. americansocieryofmarineartisrs.co m) •Voyaging in the Wake of the Whalers, new exh ibit at Mystic Seaport. (75 Greenm anville Ave., Mys tic, CT; Ph. 860 572533 1; www. mysricseaporr. org) •Mapping Ahab's "Storied waves"Whaling and the Geography of MobyDick, at the New Bedfo rd Whaling Museum , (18 Johnny Cake Hill , New Bedford, MA 02740; Ph. 508 997-0046; WWW. whalingmuseum. org) •wavelength: The Story of Signals at Sea, th ro ugh 15 May. (43 Washington Street, Bath, Maine 04530; Ph. 207 44313 16; www. mainemaririmemuseum. org) •Across the Top of the WOrld: the Quest for the Northwest Passage, through May at the Vancouver Maritime Museum. (1 905 Ogden Avenue in Vanier Park, Vancouver, BC; Ph. 604 257-8300; www. vanco uvermaritimemuseum.com) FESTIVALS, EVENTS, LECTURES, ETC.

•USS Constellation Returns from Dry Dock, 12 March in Baltimore. The ship will depart the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay at approximately 1OAM, and is expected to arrive at Pier 1 between 11 :30AM and 12:3 0PM. She will reopen to the public the following day, Friday, 13 March at 1 OAM. (Historic Ships in Baltimore, Pier 1, 301 East Pratt Sr. , Baltimore, MD; Ph. 41 0 539- 1797; www.historicships.org) •"Slavery at Sea: Human Trafficking in the Seafood Industry," by speakers from G reenpeace and Prevent Human Trafficking at the Mariners' Museum, 24 March. Also, "Brilliant Beacons," by Eric Jay Dolin, 23 May. (100 Museum Drive, Newport News, VA; Ph. 757 596-2222; www. m arinersm useum .org) • "Finest Hours," a talk by author M ichael Tougias, 3 1 March at the Epoch Living Center in Brews ter, MA. Additional speaking engagements in New England posted on the author's website at www.mi chaeltougias.com.)

•7Sth Anniversary of the Commissioning of the Battleship North Carolina, 9 April. Active du ty sailors and marin es fro m the 2d Tank Battalion, 2d Marine D ivision, Camp Lej eune, will join the US Marine Corps Historical Company and the battleship's living history crew to celebra te and interpret the ship for visitors. (1 Battleshi p Rd. NE, Wilmington , NC; Ph. 9 10 25 1-5797; www. barrleshipnc.com) •Chicago Maritime Festival, 16 April at the O ld Town School of Folk Music, organized by Common T imes, with the Chicago Maritim e Museum , the Old Town School of Folk Music, and the Chicago History Museum. (OTSFM, 4544 N Lincoln Ave, Chicago, IL; Ph. 773 728-6000; www.chicagomaritimefestival.org) •Bay Bridge Boat Show, 15-17 April in Stevensville, MD. (www.annapolisboarshows.com) •42ndAnnualWoodenBoatShow, ?May in Beaufo rt, NC. (To participate in the boat show, contact Francoise Boardman, North Carolina Maritime Museum registrar, at 252 728-73 17 ext. 31; derails at www.nc maririmemuseums.com) •Tacoma Maritime Fest, 16- 17 July at the Foss Waterway Seaport in Tacoma, WA. (705 Dock Sr. , Tacoma, WA; www. racomamaririmefesr.org) • "Lagoda: A Favored Ship and Her Legacy," lecture by Michael P. Dyer and Arthur Motta at the New Bedford Whaling Museum , 24 March. Also, "The Rebirth of the Ernestina-Morrissey," lecture by Chester Brigham, H arold Burnham, and David Short. Lectures are part of the museum's Sailors' Series. (1 8 Johnny Cake Hill, New Bedford, MA 02740; Ph. 508 997-0046; www.whalingmuseum.org) •23rd Annual Cape Cod Maritime Days, month-long maritime-themed events in May across all of Cape Cod. (Derails online at www. capecodchamber.org) •Father's Day Sail Aboard the Tall Ship Californian, 18 June in San Diego. Advance tickers required. (1 492 N. H arbor Dr. , San Diego, CA; Ph. 61 9 234-9 153; www.sdmaritim e.org) •24th Annual WoodenBoat Show 24-26 June at Mystic Seaport. (www.rhewoodenboarshow.com; Mysti c Seaport, 75 Greenmanville Ave., Mystic, CT; Ph. 860 572533 1; www.mys ricseaport.org)

57


MARITIME HISTORY ON THE INTERNET

by Peter McCracken

Finding Manuscript Collections with ArchiveGrid a nuscript collections are fa ntas tic pl aces to do adva nced , in-depth research on nearly any subject, m aritime history certainly included . Oftentimes, the information you seek is available, bur remains hidden in a m anuscript collection or archive because that aspect of the collection wasn't relevant to the work of those who have written about it. Analyzin g and extracting relevant information from these collections is rough . But just finding the data you want to analyze can also present a big challenge. The m ain database rhar most seek our is WorldCat, the enormous library holdings catalog, bur it can be frustrating to use because, in most cases, the results will not show yo u what ins titution holds the collection that interests you. The reasons for this are arcane; solutions exist, bur they're difficult to put into action. There is a better way of searching, however. ArchiveGrid (www.beta.worldcat.org/ archivegrid) is a research project by a unit of Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), the huge library cooperative, and its goal is to m ake the content in ma nuscript collections visible and findable . Ir does this by identi fyi ng everything that might be a "m a nuscript" item in Wo rldC ar, then combines that w ith data from "findin g aids" that are accessible online. A findin g aid is a document, usually written by an archivist or a special collections librarian, that describes the contents of a particular m anuscript collection . W riting findin g aids rakes a long rime, and the process is derailed and tedious. The fin al documents summa ri ze, rather than analyze, wh at is held in a particular collection. Their goal, of course, is to make the collection more accessible to resea rchers. ArchiveGrid contains m ore than 4 million records, wit h content from over a thousand different institutions. Much of rhe content is based on algorithmic searches of W orld Cat, so yo u m ight find a single cassette recording of a lecture, or you might find content that appears twice: once from W orldCar's bibliographic record for the collection, and once fro m rhe findin g aid that was created by the collection's archivists and then harvested by the ArchiveGrid computers. Yo u can use keywords ro search the entire collection, or yo u can limit your search to a specific collection . A search fo r "Benjamin Packa rd," for instance, will re turn a link to a photograph of the fa m ous ship in a scrapbook held and digitized by the State Library of Wes tern Australia, fo und by way of its record in World Cat. The search will also find a record of a crew list from an 1897 voyage, mentioned in a fi nding aid for a collection at the San Francisco Maritime National Historic Park. While most users of A rch iveG rid arrive there via an online search engine, there's a lot to fi nd if you start directly on rhe A rchiveGrid hom epage. You can locate archive collections near you, a nd then search just within those collections. To do thi s, find an institution using the map or drop-down menu, then find its collection number (it's the number after "contributor:" in the U RL). For example, M ystic Seaport's contributor number is "46." A search fo r "contriburor:46" plus your search term, for this example, "contriburor:46 schooner" will fi nd reco rds at Mystic Seaport with "schooner" in them. Of course, to search without limiting to a single location, just type in "schooner," or another term of interest. If you search for "parachute ship," you'll find logbooks fo r the whaler Parachute held at half a dozen different locatio ns. In this example, you'll see that m a ny of the results after the first page refer to the closing of a rope and twine factory in Ca li fo rn ia; yo u could narrow your search to "(parachute AND ship) N OT twine" to exclude those irrelevant entries. The fact that A rchiveG rid displays which collection owns a pa rticular resource is enough to m ake it the best place to start fo r m anuscript research. The absence of published books and journals is also a great benefit, as is the combination of both WorldCar holdings and findin g aids. Institutions can request that ArchiveG rid include their findin g aids in its regular searches; this is particularly usefu l if a sm all organization does nor contribute its holdings to W orldCat. A rchiveGrid has a developer and a project m anager assigned to it, though of course they have many other responsibi lities, as well. Righ t now, there's not a lot of new development going into ArchiveGrid, but, even as it currently stands, it's a useful tool fo r locating relevant m anuscript collections. Suggestions for other sires worth mentioning are welcom e at perer@sh ipindex. org. See www.shipindex.org for a free compilation of over 150,000 ship n am es from indexes to dozens of books and journals. ,t

M

58

SHIP INDEX

.OR G

SE A HJ STORY 154, SPRING 20 16


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.Reviews Lincoln's Trident: The West GulfBlockading Squadron During the Civil War by Robert M. Browning Jr. (U niversicy of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 20 15, 712pp, illus, maps, noces, biblio, index, ISBN 9780-8173-1846-8; $69.95hc) Blockading squadrons commissioned to hale che Confederacy's trade-and thus destroy the South's economy-faced a serious challenge during the Civi l War. The coast they had to cover was 3,500 miles long, with thousands of inlets that gave the advantage to the blockade runners . Inshore waters were often too shallow for vessels designed and built for bluewater service. Moreover, the blockading commands had to deal wich both rive r and coastal crade, anocher challenge for a navy esrablished to prorecc the coasts of che n acion and projecc American naval power abroad. To better deal wich an immense assignm ent, the blockading navy was divided into six commands: A d antic, N onh Atlam ic, South Atlamic, G ulf, East G ulf, and West G ulf Blockading Squadrons. Lincoln's Trident: The West GulfBlockading Squadron During the Civil War is Robert M. Browning Jr.'s chird work on che Union blockade. His earlier srudies address the histories of the North Atlantic and South Atl antic squadrons. The trident-symbol and tool of che Greek god Poseidon-is used here to denote the power of che president of the United Scares, Abraham Lincoln, to project naval power against che enemy of the nation, the Confederate States of America, in the west Gulf. Browning writes in minute detail. H e provides the names of vessels involved in hund reds of conflicts between the ships of the U nion and the forces of the Confederacy. He includes names of officers on board and the precise time of engagement and conclusion. And, of course, he evaluates the resulcs of the conflict. Such detail is noc to be confused as a cover for poor writing. Browning's narrative reads like a novel, yet

SEA HISTORY J 54, SPRING 2016

the information is verified with documenratio n as detailed as the text. Although the foc us of the work is the conflict becween the USA and the CSA, the politics of war are nor ignored and descriptions of the internal conflicts between competitive officers are sprinkled throughout the narrative. Subdivisions within chapters ease the reading of a highly detailed narrative. The naval segment of the C ivi l War is a srudy in technological change not slighted by Browning. The combacing navies fought with vessels powered by sail alone and protected by heavy oak timbers. At the same time, steam power was being added to the naval fleer, either as auxiliary power to sails or as the main propulsion itself. Armor was anached to ships to protect to their most vulnerable parts. The addition of steam machinery altered naval logistics, as coal to fire the boilers became as important as provisions to feed the crews. Read ers barely familiar with the Civil War know Admiral David Glasgow Farragut, the central character in Browning's work, for his aggressive assault on Mobile, Alabama, encapsulated in his order: "Go ahead sir, dam n the torpedoes." W hat might surprise them, and even Civil War buffs, is how much the admiral did beyond the Battle of Mobile. For example, he led the successful assault on New Orleans and the painfully slow Battle of the M ississippi while maintaining the blockade in his region of responsibility. The Gamecock led from the front, never shy about risking his life along with the lives of the men in his command. There are no negatives to direct at this work of the chief historian of the United States Coast G uard. The book is well documented, good reading, a valuable resource for srudents of the American C ivil War, and a genuine contribucion to naval history. D AVID

0.

WHITTEN

Brilliant Beacons: A History ofthe American Lighthouse by Eric Jay Dolin (Liverigh t Publishing Corporation, a division of W. W. Norton and Company, New Yo rk, 20 16, 560pp, appen, notes, index, ISBN 978-0-87 140-668-2; $29.95hc) Wh ile library shelves are weighted down with books on America's li ghthouses, this new book by Eric Jay Dolin is a must-read for anyone interested in lighthouses or America's maritime history. Mr. Dolin, an environmenta l policy scholar and author of Leviathan: The Histo ry of Whaling in America (2007), is soon to release his latest effort, a well-written and detailed history of American lighthouses. In Brilliant Beacons, he exam ines the critical roles individual lighthouses played in colon ial America, the War for Independence, the War of 1812, and the US Civil War. Even those who have read extensively on the subject will find themselves fascinated by this book. Dolin arg ues that America's li ghthouses were vastly inferior to those in Great Britain and France until their reflectors were replaced by Fresnel lenses, which he

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59


BEYOND THE GOLDEN GATt A Maritime Hi story of Ca liforn ia

Timothy G. Lynch, Ph.D., SUNY Maritime College's Provost and Vi ce President of Academic Affairs has released his latest book, Beyond the Golden Gate: A Maritime History of California. It is an immersive look at the maritime history of California that will inspire additional scholarship in this overlooked but critically important field. Beyond the Golden Gate: A Maritime History of California (ISBN 9780989939) is published by the Fort Schuyler Press, and is ava ilable at www.sunymaritime.edu/Fort Schuyler Press/ index, or at Amazon.com Question? Please call 718-409-7247

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describes as "rhe crown jewels oflighrhouse illuminarion" for rheir superior abiliry ro projecr lighr. The adoprion of rhe Fresnel lens, according ro Dolin, was rhe single mosr importam change ro rhe American lighrhouse sysrem rhar rransformed irs lighrhouses imo "brilliam beacons." While celebraring rhis landmark move, Dolin is crirical of penny-pinching Treasury official Srephen Pleasomon (1776-1855), whom he believes hamsrrung rhe coumry's efforts ro adopr rhe revolurionary lens earlier. Brilliant Beacons is abour more rhan jusr rhe technology of American lighrhouses, however. Ir discusses rhe hisrory of rhe US Lighrhouse Serv ice, including an imponam srndy of rhe personnel involved wirh lighrhouses-people like rhe Founding Farhers, skillful engineers, inspiring leaders and heroes, and even saboreurs. Mosr importandy, Dolin's book rells rhe srories of rhe keepers, borh male and female, who fairhfully kepr rhe lighrs burning rhrough calm and srorm, ofren wirh rhe assisrance of rheir families. The only weakness in rhe book's reach is irs lack of coverage of America's floating lighrhouses-lighrships. 1hough rechnically rhey were nor " li ghthouses," and therefore need not be covered, many do consider them in rhe same caregory and may be disappoimed rhat they are not discussed. Thar said, this omission does nor detract from the value of rhis book. Ir makes an excellem companion volume ro Dennis Noble's Lighthouses & Keepers: The US Lighthouse Service and Its Legacy (1997) . This hisrory of American lighthouses is borh engaging and enjoyable, whether for academics, who will nor be disappoimed in rhe rhoroughness of rhe author's research, or for lighrhouse hisrory buffs who will enjoy irs compelling narrarive. It is highly recommended for both.

c. DOUGLAS KROLL Keizer, Oregon

The Sea Mark: Captain john Smith's Voyage to New England by Russell M.

Published by Arcadia Publishing and Galveston Historical Foundation $21.99. 128 pages, 200 photographs Autographed copies ava ilable at (409) 763- 1877, or online at:

www.tsm-elissa . org 60

Lawson (Universiry Press ofNew England, Hanover, NH, 2015, 228pp, 9 781611685169; $29.95hc) John Smirh had a specific role when he ser sail for the New World in 1606. He was sem there more than just ro explore; his rask was ro promore. His eyewi rness accoums of reeming warersJ anciem foresrs,

and orher ab undam natural resources were meant to inspire a sense of advemure in rhe common Br itish citizen. His accounts, while fascinating, may not reveal his true characrer or represent an accurare reponing of his experiences. They are nor journals; rhey are adve rtisements.

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So, how do we get at the true personaliry of]ohn Smirh?Amhor Russell Lawson believes thar we can do so through a careful analysis of his reports from rhe New World. Moreover, he believes we should strip ourselves of any perceived knowledge of Smirh and his life gained from reading rhe words of any of his chroniclers and biographers, who reported on him years, decades, and even cenrnries afrer his dearh. Smith 's actions, as recorded in his own wriring, rel! us all we need ro know. For instance, Lawson poims ro Smirh 's use of the word "salvages" insread of "savages" in describing rhe Narive Americans whom he encoumered. While many adventurers used rhe laner term as an expression of eirher religious or moral character deficiencies, Smith regularly chose rhe former, defining the Native Americans primarily as forest dwellers, wirhour placing judgmem upon them. From rhis fact Lawson draws his illustration of Smith 's compassion (relative to the age, for he also describes Smirh as a violem man in a violent rime) and his diplomacy. Lawson also hyporhesizes rhar Smirh only began his coastal exploration of New England after failing ar his intended tasks. Sm irh believed he would fish, whale, and mine when he reached the coast of New England. When neither whaling nor fishing panned out, he lefr some men behind ro fi sh, and rook orhers in and our of rhe rocky coves and inlets of Ma ine, and down to rhe sand ier shores ofNew Hampshire and Massachusem. Smith did his best ro coax his fe llow co urntrymen across rhe sea, tirelessly writiing abour rhe boundless lands

SEA JHISTORY 154, SPRING 20 16


and their offer of freedom of gentlemanly pursuits like hunting and fa lconry. Lawson details Smith's life to the very end , well beyo nd his yea rs of exploration, into those fr ustrating days later in his li fe when he tried, repeatedly ye t unsuccessfully, to ge t himself financed fo r ano ther journey to the New World. U ltimately, Smith him sel f became a sea m a rk, his adventures a lesson to be learned from for wo uld-be followers of the paths he blazed .

The voyage will be long BRING A. GOOD BOOE

JOHN GALLUZZO

H anover, M assachusetts

TORCH: North Africa and th e Allied Path to Victory by Vincent P. O 'H ara (Nava l In stitute Press, Annapolis, MD, 2015, ix+ 374pp, illus, appen, notes, biblio, index, ISBN 978-1-61 251-823-7; $49.95) In TOR CH No rth Af rica and the A llied Path to Victo ry, nava l hi sto rian Vincent O 'H ara lays out in detail the first Allied amphibious invasion of Axis-infested E u ro pe and No rth Afri ca-"Operation To rch "-to establish a basis fro m which to evaluate the success or fa ilure of the undertaking. Readers wi ll find t hat the bulk of O'H ara's work addresses the experience of navies in the operation: the US Navy, the Roya l Navy, Ax is navies, and, perhaps the most interesting and fru strating of all, the French navy. Sea H istory read ers who h ave read Sa muel Eliot Morison's descri ption of Operation Torch in History ofNaval Operations in World War fl Operations in North African Waters (1947) will find his on-the-scene reporting holds up well in comparison with O'H ara's 2015 analysis, with in fo rmation from all sides in the co n Aict and seven decades of accumulated fac ts and opinions. O 'H ara and Morison both detail landings and naval conflict. Every landing was successful, in that none of the soldiers were pushed back to their transports. Nevertheless, every one was confused in its execution and produced res ults fa r di ffe rent from what the planners anticipated; US Marine invaders in the Pacific Theater of Operations experienced simil ar confusion. A lesson learned from Torch on la nd and sea was that untrained soldiers and sailors could not be expected to fulfill planners' expectations. Landing crafr losses of boats piloted by US Coast G uard trained coxswains was considerably lower than losses of boats piloted by men untrained on their vessels.

SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 2016

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Lack of training also cost lives and materiel at the transports, where "green" sailors fumbled about trying to get landing craft into the water and soldiers imo the landing craft. Landing craft were scarce throughou t the war. Every craft lost m eam a reduction in the number of men landed in support of those who m ade it ashore in the first waves. Landing craft were also necessary to supply the men on the beach. A loss slowed dow n the movemem of essemial supplies. The importance of training for fighting m en and those supporting chem was a lesson learned in Torch . O ' H ara declares Operation Torch a success, despite producing results fa r from wh at planners amicipated-a three-week operation extended to six momhs. There will never be a defi nitive answer to the question of Torch 's success or failure, but O'Hara's conclusion is probably among the m ajority of opinions. D AVID

0.

WHITTEN

Auburn, A labama

Beyond The Golden Gate: A Maritime History of California by T imothy G. Lynch (Fort Schuyler Press, ew York, 2015, 318pp, illus, notes, biblio, I SBN 978-09899394-2-3; $29.95hc) California's 1,264-mile coastline has only a handful of natural harbors, and on ly one-San Francisco Bay-doesn't require dredging or other human imervemion to make it navigable for ocean going cargo ships . Nonetheless, Californi a's history is preeminemly m aritime. Its first known inhabirams lived near the sea or rivers and lakes, and relied on waterways for transportation, sources of food, sites of conflict, and every other imaginable use. The first nonindigenous persons to encounter California came by sea. Explorers from Spa in, England, and Russia wou ld lay claim to the region. California was "conquered" in 1846 by US Marines a nd sail o rs, landed from Navy warships during the Mexican-American War. During the Gold Rush just a few years later, thousands of argonauts arrived in San Francisco by sea in their quest to reach the Sierra Nevada foothills . Within a few short yea rs, San Francisco would support a naval base, gove rnment offices, and numerous m aritime industries. The end of

the Gold Rush era saw incredible m aritime activity, including the lucrative fi shing and whali ng industries.

BEYOND THE GOJ.D(N GATE A Ma_ritime History of Ca li for nia

D espite the state's long and rich maritime history, relatively few books address it as their primary foc us, and some of chose were penned by amateur histo rian s, o r cover just San Francisco and the Gold Rush period. James Delgado's To California By Sea (1996) is one example of the latter. The self-published Califo rnia's Ma ritime H eritage (1987) by M artin Riegel is one of the few books on the maritime history of the whole state, but it is no longer in prim. Likewise, Jam es Hitchman's A Maritime H istory of the Pacific Coast: 1540- 1980 (1990), while a more academic study, covers the entire Pacific Coast and foc uses primarily on the growth in the volume and value of m a ritime commerce. Timothy Lynch , a former fac ult y member at the California Maritime Academy and now provost and vice presid ent of academic affairs at the State University of New York Maritime College, has authored a book chat wi ll be the primer on the m aritime history of the San Francisco Bay area. H e analyzes not only the evem s, but also individuals that distinguish the maritime history of the region. Beyond the Golden Gate is the first academic m aritime history of California written by a professional schola r. This much-needed maritime history of the "City by the Bay" begins with the story of how the region developed and how the indigenous popula tion relied on and used California's sys tem of waterways, a nd then proceeds to examine its use by Spain, England, Russia, Mexico, and finally the US. Lynch covers Pacific fishing and whaling and the social impact each had on the SEA HISTORY 154, SPRING 20 16


region. He does the same with shipbuilding along San Francisco Bay, which became one of the most important shipbuilding and repair centers in the world. With the growth of ship-related industries, issues of concern to maritime labor made the region a hotbed of union activism, and this turbulent and important part of the region's maritime history is included in the author's analysis. The Coast Guard and its predecessor agencies were among the most visible symbols of federal authority in frontier California, and played a formative role in the state's maritime history. The US Navy's presence on the West Coast began with its establishment of a large shipyard and repair faci lity at Mare Island in 1853. Not to be overlooked, the recreational use of California's waters-from yachts and cruise ships to everyday boaters-is also given its due. Based on research from hundreds of primary sources, Beyond the Golden Gate is an excellent overview of the San Francisco Bay area's maritime past. Scholars will find the text, copious notes, and extensive bibliography of value. Unfortunately, it has no index. One point for potential readers to be aware of is that the subtitle is somewhat misleading: It is not a maritime history of California as a whole, but rather a more focused study of the San Francisco Bay area. A study of California's maritime history would have to discuss, or at least mention, the huge artificial harbor constructed at Los Angeles/Long Beach, the US Navy's former presence in Long Beach, and the importance and size of the naval presence in San Diego. These subjects are absent from this otherwise fine book. Timothy Lynch has given us a wellwritten and well-researched history of the San Francisco Bay area and is to be commended for his contribution of a welcome addition to the small but growing number of books dealing with West Coast maritime history. Beyond the Golden Gate is a book that should be in the library of anyone interested in the maritime history of the San Francisco Bay area, and the maritime history of California in general.

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Sea History 154 - Spring 2016  

10 The 2016 National Maritime Awards Dinner • 12 ICMM in Hong Kong, the 2015 International Congress of Maritime Museums, by Burchenal Green...

Sea History 154 - Spring 2016  

10 The 2016 National Maritime Awards Dinner • 12 ICMM in Hong Kong, the 2015 International Congress of Maritime Museums, by Burchenal Green...