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SPRING 201 5

ART, LITERATUlffi, ADVENTURE, LORE & LEARNING OF THE SEA

War of 1812's Last Salvo Rescue Mission to the Arctic Sea Monsters-Hazards to Navigation Resurrecting D-Day's Last LCT Marine Art: Fire at Sea


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SEA HISTORY

No. 150

SPRING 2015

CONTENTS 10 "Rough Weather All Day"-A Firsthand Account of the Jeannette Search Expedition, 1881-1882, by David Hi rzel The crew on a mission to find a missing polar expedition ended up itselfstranded in the Arctic; a machinist mate's journal fjves us a personal account of both adventure and hardship in the search for the crew ofthe Jeanneue. 16 "I Shall Bring Home Two Frigates," Captain Charles Stewart and the Last Sea Battle of the War of 1812, by John A. Rodgaard Trapped in the harbor for months, Constitution's Captain Stewart was finally able to sail out of blockaded Boston in December 1814. He made the most of the opportunity, engaging two British warships, and securing victory in the final battle of the war. 20 The War of 1812's Final Chapter: At Sea and at the Negotiating Table, by William H. White William H White wraps up the ~r of 1812 with a look at Stephen Decatur's daring run out ofNew York Harbor in USS President and the terms ofthe Treaty of Ghent. 24 Old Maps, Ships, & Sea Monsters: A Dangerous Combination, by Chet Van Duzer Maps and charts from antiquity were often more creative works of art and imagination than navigation tools; they told a story ofp eril at sea. Map historian Chet Vtm Duzer interprets the fantastic sea creatures that populate some ofthe earliest world maps. 28 Ships Afire At Sea, by Fraser and Jourdan Houston Three of the most famous shipwrecks from fire in the 1800s were experienced first-hand by contemporary artists, who later would recreate the incidents on canvas. 34 The Resurrection ofLCT 7074, a D-Day Survivor, by Nick H ewitt The humble LCT was vital for the success of the D-Day invasion at Normandy. The only surviving LCTfrom D-Day is being restored to tell the story. 36 Schooner Sherman Zwicker: Making the Transition from Sail to Power on the Grand Banks, by James Wilkes Designed with shortened sailing rigs and powerfol diesel engines, vessels like the Sherman Zwicker broached the gap between sail and power in the fishing industry. 42 National Maritime Historical Society's 2015 Washington Awards Dinner Cover: Squally Day on the Chesapeake, by William Penniman Storck William Storck is one of the featured artists in this year's ~shington Awards Dinner Art Gallery, where sales of original works of art benefit both the artist, the National Maritime Historical Society, and the Naval H istorical Foundation. (See pages 42-45.)

DEPARTMENTS 4 O EcK Loe AND LETTERS

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NMHS:

A CAUSE IN MOTION

MARITIME HISTORY ON THE I NTERNET

41 46 SEA HISTORY FOR Krns

50 57 59

SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS CALENDAR REVI EWS

64 PATRONS

Sea History and th e National Maritime Historical Society Sea History e- mail: editorial@seahistory.org; NMHS e-mail: nmhs@seahistory.org; Web site: www.seahistory.org. Ph: 914 737-7878; 800 221-NMHS MEMBERSHIP is invited. Afrerguard $10,000; Benefacror $5,000; Plankowner $2,500; Sponsor $ 1,000; Donor $500; Parron $250; Friend $100; Conrriburor $75; Family $50; Regular $35.

All members ou tside rhe USA please add $10 for posrage. Sea History is sem ro al l members. Individual copies cosr $4.95 .

SEA HISTORY (issn 0146-9312) is published quarterly by rhe National Maritime Hisro rical Sociery, 5 John Walsh Blvd. , POB 68, Peekskill NY 10566 USA. Periodicals postage paid ar Peekskill NY I 0566 and add'! mailing offices. COPYRlGH TŠ 2015 by rheNarional Maritime Hisrorical Sociery. Tel: 9 14 737-7878. POSTMASTER: Send address changes ro Sea History, PO Box 68, Peekskill NY 10566.

NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY


DECK LOG 2015 Charles Point Council Lecture Series N M HS holds monthly seminars in Peekskill, New York, bringing in wo rld-class speakers to give presentations on maritime topics, fro m authors of the lates t books on maritime history to muse um curators and di recto rs to ship restoration professionals, who share their experiences with current projects in maritime heritage. Called the Charles Point Council- named for the point of land along the banks of the Hudson River where the NMHS offices are ho used-this gro up provides a template for members across the country who migh t be interested in organizing councils or chapters of their own. NMHS would like ro support this sort of effort in other locations; as such, I am listing the Charles Point Council program for 20 15 to give you an idea of both the diversity and caliber of our local lecture series. For further details on any of these seminars, please refer to our website at www.seahistory.org or call our offices at 1-800-222-NMHS . To get on our email list to receive anno uncements about upcoming events, send your email address to nm hs@seahistory.org.

21 March, Saturday, 10:30AM-Presentation: "Preparing for Victory: Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps" with David Ulbrich-Hendrick Hudson Free Library, Montrose, NY. Explore the dramatic expansion of the Marine Corps as author and historian David Ulbrich explains how Commandant Thomas Holcomb helped establish it as the America's premier amphibious assault force and a major contributor to victory over Japan in World War II. 30 May, Saturday, 10:30AM-Presentation: "The Genius of Naval Architect John W. Griffiths and the Record-Setting Clipper Ships" with NMHS Chairman Ronald Oswald, Matthew Carmel and The John Willis Griffiths Gravesite Project- Hendrick Hudson Free Library, Montrose, NY. Enjoy a panel discussion on American naval architect John W. Griffiths (1809-1882), known for his record-setting Rainbow and Sea Witch clipper ships and books on ship design and construction. D espite being considered a "naval architect genius" Griffiths is buried in an unmarked grave in Queens, NY. Join NMHS in raising awareness to gain funding for a well-earned heads tone. 24 June, Wednesday, 6:00PM-Presentation: "USS Slater: History and Restoration of the Last World War II Destroyer Escort Afloat in the US" with TimothyC. Rizzuto-Hendrick Hudson Free Library, Montrose, NY. Executive Director Timothy Rizzuto of the Destroyer Escort Histo rical Museum in Albany, NY, recounts the fascinating history of USS Slater, a destroyer escort that served in the United States Navy during World War II. After a painstaking 15-year restoration, Slater is now the only surviving destroyer escort in the world still in its World War II configuration. 25 July, Saturday-Hudson River Cruise aboard the Sloop Clearwater-King Marine, Verplanck, NY. Pete Seeger founded and built the traditional Hudson River sloop Clearwater with a mission to protect the Hudson River. We will take advantage of her award-winning onboard environmental education programming and discover how to tie knots, how to identify fish, and much more! After leaving the dock, it's all hands to the halyards to help raise the mainsail to the rhythm of a traditional sea chantey, and then a three hour sail while we become acquainted with the environment of the river. Limited seating. $60 per person. Early reservations suggested. -Burchenal Green, President (2015 Charles Point Council Lecture Series Calendar is continued on page 6)

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NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY

PUBLISHER'S CIRCLE: Perer Aron, G uy E. C. Maitland, Ronald L. Oswald OFFICERS & TRUSTEES: Chairman, Ronald L. Oswald; Vice Chairman, Richardo R. Lopes; President, Burchenal Green; Vice Presidents, Deirdre O 'Regan, Wendy Paggiorra, Nancy Schnaars; Treasurer, Howard Slomick; Secretary, Jean Won; Trustees: C harles B. Anderso n; Walrer R. Brown; Thomas Daly; Wi lli am S. Dudley; David S. Fowler; Wi lliam Jackson Green; Karen Helm erson; Robert Kamm; Ri chard M. Larrabee; Guy E. C. Maitland; Capt. Brian McAllister; CAPT Sally Chin McElwrearh, USNR (Rer.); Capt. James J. McNamara; Michael W Morrow; Richard Parrick O'Leary; Timothy J. Runyan; Richard Scarano; Philip J. Shapiro; Capt. Cesare Soria; Roberta Weisbrod; Trustee elect: ADM Robert J. Papp Jr., USCG (Rer.); Chairmen Emeriti: Walrer R. Brown, Alan G. Choare, G uy E. C. Maitland, H oward Slomick; President Emeritus, Peter Stanford FOUNDER: Karl Kortum (191 7- 1996) OVERSEERS: Chairman, RADM David C. Brown, USMS (Ret.); RADM Joseph F. Callo, USNR (Rer.); C live Cussler; Richard du Moulin; Alan D . Hurchison; Jakob Isbrandrsen; Gary Jobson ; Sir Robin Knox-Johnston; John Lehman; H. C. Bowen Smith; John Srobarr; Ph ilip ]. Webster; W illiam H. W hire; W ill iam Winrerer NMHS ADVISORS: Chairman, Melbourne Smirh; George Bass, Oswald Brett, Francis Duffy, John Ewald, Timothy Foote, William Gi lkerson, Sreven A. H yman, J. Russell Jinishian , Gunnar Lundeberg, Conrad Milster, Wi lli am G. Muller, Srnart Parnes, Lori D illard Rech , Nancy Hughes Richardson, Bert Rogers, Joyce Huber Srnirh SEA HISTORY EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD: Chairman, Timorhy Runyan; No rman Brouwer, Robert Browning, William Dudley, Daniel Finamore, Kevin Fosrer, John Jensen, Joseph Meany, Lisa Norlin g, Carla Rahn Phi llips, Walter Rybka, Q uentin Snediker, Willi am H. W hire NMHS STAFF: Executive Director, Burchenal Green; Membership Director, Nancy Schnaars; Accounting, Peter Yozzo; Marketing Director, Sreve Lovass-Nagy; Executive Assistant to the President, Jessica Macfarlane; Membership Coordinator, Madelein e Fenarnore SEA HISTORY: Editor, Deirdre O ' Regan; Advertising, Wendy Paggiotta; Copy Editor, Shell ey Reid; Editor-at-Large, Peter Stan ford Sea History is primed by The Lan e Press, South Bu rlington, Vermom, USA.

SEAHISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


We Welcome Your Letters! Please send correspondence to:

LETTERS

seahistory@gmail.com or Editor, Sea History, 7 Timberknoll Road, Pocasset, MA 02559

Saving the Originals Your story in the wi nter issue, "SS Columbia To Be Saved!" was a recent topic of discussion within my family. My sister-in-law read it wi th particular interest. As a little girl she once skipped along the decks of that now-withering hulk, in rhythm to joyous dance bands! She recalls many stories aboard that fabled passenger steamer: "I read that she is now New York bound, with som e additional information I h ad not known. I can tell yo u that some of my best childhood memories are from goi ng to Boblo Island, like the article says, and both the boat ride and the amusement park were awesome. On the way home, we always took the las t boat out, when they had bands playing in the ballroom and we danced . It was a riot. I went every yea r of my yo uth, at least once. I guess we'll be heading to New York once she's refurbished." Take it from a landlubber: Sea History lives in a whirl of excited memories! BILL BURGESS

Arlington, Texas I read the recent letter soliciting support for the replica and historic vessels in need ("Deck Log" Sea History 149), and while I agree wi th just about everything that yo u have written about with regards to the uncertainty of funding for many-if not m ost-of the current historic vessels still afl oat, there is one facet of the situation that no one ever to uches on. It is something that has bothered me since the 1970s, when I first went to work in the maritime industry in the shipyard at Mystic Seaport M useum. What really concerns me is the substantial amo unt of funding raised fo r rep li ca vessels, while the real ships languish or molder away. The Charles W Morgan is a counter weight to that issue, but it is the exception and not the rule. Further, I know that Matthew Stackpole (a fri end) and others labored long and hard to garner the money that was used to restore her. In fac t, although sending such a singular "artifact" to sea was troubling, it was probably the only way they could have gathered enough funding to restore the ship! Even so, a significant portion of the monies raised was necessary just to bring her up to US Coast Guard standards so that she could go sailing. There is a huge problem when orgaSEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

nizations successfully obtain millions to build a new replica vessel, but then the funding either dries up or the organization foun ders because the incom e, the will, or the abi li ty to hold it all together falls apart. Fo r example, money can be foun d to build something like the new replica of the Bluenose in Canada, but there is little or no funding to restore the real thing, the fishing schooner L.A. Dunton. There has been money for Amistad but not for the lumber schoo ners out o n the west coast. The 1894 schooner Ernestina has been languishing for years but is now finally getting som e money for repairs and restoration, while the Mayflower replica is getting $2 million from the Commonweath of Massachusetts. Other Massachusetts historic vessels are rotting into compost. I'm not sure how the fo lks in Glo ucester obtained the m oney to rebuild the schooner Adventure, but good for them. She is the real thing. The sail training schooners Harvey Gamage, Spirit of Massachusetts, and Westward at least had some spark of authenticity to them and I guess the Mayflower does too, but I look at the poor old Dunton and wonder about the inequities. New tall ships are being built as we speak. Why do we keep building new ships and schooners when the old ones should command our help? VIRGINIA CROWELL ] ONES

West T isbury, Massachusetts

Historic Ships Still Working I read every issue cover to cover with great interest. I most enj oyed Walter Rybka's catalogue of ships "on a lee shore." An insightful listing and analysis and, like the author himself, deep and well thought out. I co ncur with Capt. Rybka's choices, although, as he said, there is plenty of room for reasonable debate. W hen reading this excellent piece I am also reminded of the Maine W indjammer schooners, and, as remarkable as they are, how little attention they receive. This remarkable fl eet of commercial sailing ships, something like fo urteen substantialto-large schooners in this fleet and with only a couple exceptions, all are Age of Sail vessels. Many of them have never had power installed and several of them have a record of continuous trade unbroken fro m their day oflaun ch , in some cases a century or even more ago. Amazing. That these vessels sail today on their own bottoms, making their own livings on what the market will bear, contending with 2 1st-century regulatio n without compromise, and asking no one for donations or h ando uts should be a point in their favo r as well, and an interesting story point as well . Threemasted cargo schooners, old coasting schooners, fis hing schooners, oyster schooners, pilot schooners and others all making a living, keeping traditions alive and fresh and accessible, giving their young crews

Join Us for a Voyage into History Our seafaring heritage comes alive in the pages of Sea History, from the ancient mariners of Greece to Portuguese navigators opening up the ocean world to the heroic efforts of sailors in modern-day conflicts. Each issue brings new insights and discoveries. 1f you love the sea, rivers, lakes, and

bays-if you appreciate the legacy of those who sail in deep water and their workaday craft, then you belong with us.

Join Today! Mail in the form below, phone 1800221-NMHS (6647), or visit us at: www.seahistory.org (e-mail: nmhs@seahistory.org)

Yes, I want to join the Society and receive Sea History quarterly. My contriburion is enclosed. ($ 17.50 is for Sea History; any amount above char is tax deductible.) Sign me up as: 0 $3 5 Regular Member 0 $50 Fam ily Member 0 $ 100 Friend 0 $250 Parton 0 $500 Donor Mr./Ms. - - - - - - - --

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(continued from page 4, Charles Point Council Lecture Series) 26 September, Saturday, 10:30 AM-Presentation: "Research Vessels: Geophysical Expeditions to Antarctica and Mapping 160 Miles of the Hudson" with Dr. Robin Bell-Hendrick Hudson Free Library, Montrose, NY. Dr. Robin Bell has worked for over 20 years at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory coordinating nine major aero-geophysical expeditions to Antarctica and Greenland in order to study polar ice sheet collapse. Closer to home, since 1998 she has also led the Hudson River Estuary Project team, mapping over 160 miles of the Hudson _ River from Staten Island to Albany and discovering dozens of sunken ships and historical artifacts along the way. 14 November, Saturday, 10:30AM-Presentation: "Neptune: The Allied Invasion of Europe and the D-Day Landings" with Craig L. Symonds-Hendrick Hudson Free Library, Montrose, NY. Join nationally renowned CRAIG l . SYMONDS author and scholar Craig Symonds, winner of the Commodore Dudley W Knox Naval History Lifetime Achievement Award, as he presents his book on the Normandy landings of the Allied ~ """' "'" invasion during World War II (code-named Operation Neptune). The largest seaborne invasion in history, the operation was the culmination of years of planning and debate. Symonds presents the complete story of the Herculean effort, involving transports, escorts, gunfire support ships, and landing craft of every possible size and function.

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5 December, Saturday, 10:30 AM-Holiday Potluck and Presentation: "Trade, Wealth, Innovation & Adventure in the Age of Exploration" with Captain Lada SimekCortlandt Yacht Club, Montrose, NY. Join the eclectic former chemistry teacher, parachuting instructor, dive boat operator, wreck researcher, marine educator, writer, master scuba diver trainer, USCG master and senior director at Beneath the Sea for a varied discussion on the Age of Exploration-from Magellan and Cook to scurvy. Stay for the potluck! Bring a dish, drink or dessert that serves six to eight.

2015 lectures we have enjoyed so far 14 February, Saturday, 10:30 AM-Presentation: "The British Raid on Essex: The Forgotten Battle of the War of 1812" with Jerry Roberts-Hendrick Hudson Free Library, Montrose, NY. The British Raid on Essex, the new book by Jerry Roberts, presents the dramatic history of the largest single maritime loss of the War of 181 2, which has been virtually left out of rhe history books.

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28 February, Saturday, 10:30 AM-Presentation: "Give Me a Fast Ship: The Continental Navy and America's Revolution at Sea'' with Tim McGrath-Hendrick Hudson Free Library, Montrose, NY. Author and historian Tim McGrath takes us back to 1775 with America on the verge of revolution and disastrous defeat in Give Me a Fast Ship, the epic tale of war on the high seas and the definitive history of the fledgling American Navy.

training under sail alone in many cases, and experiences for a lifetime. No, they do not carry fish to market or cordwood to town, or coal to Iqueque-they carry people. And give them a precious experience unavailable anywhere else in the world. Sea History gives many worthy column inches good-heartedly to struggling historic vessels and even some dubious 'rebuilds' and wrecks of ships long past their 'use-by date,' languishing, often in museums, in the hopes of helping somehow. A spread celebrating the remarkable story of savvy and nimble marine success in these classic vessels might be a welcome breath of fresh air in addition to the mix of all that is fascinating between the pages of Sea History. The last wooden engineless sailing ships built in America number in this fleer too. And if they are commercially operated and thus not non-profit, well, all the better! Apart from naval installations, maritime museums around the world are nothing more, nor anything less, than monuments to commercial enterprise and capitalism under sail. All of them-every single one-Charles W

Morgan, Elissa, Pommern, Cutty Sark, Falls of Clyde, Balclutha, Star ofIndia, Passat, Peking, W'avertree, L. A. Dunton and all the rest, were built and operated to make money for their owners. That the remarkable and powerful schooner Ernestina (ex-Effie M Morrissey) made money for her owners from 1894 to 197 4 was amazing. That there is a fleet of kindred vessels doing the same thing today along the coast of New England from Maine to Martha's Vineyard is astounding-and worthy of note to the members of NMHS and the Sea History readership. We celebrate marine artists in Sea History routinely, why not the subjects of their art as well? We have just sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and from Cape Town in the Picton Castle, bound for St. Helena on this our sixth world voyage. We have a good gang aboard with crew from Canada, the USA, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the UK, Australia, Tonga, Fiji, Grenada and even Latvia. DANIEL D. MORELAND

Master, Barque Picton Castle, at sea You can learn more about the Maine Windjammer fleet by visiting Maine Windjamer Cruises at www.mainewindjammercruises. com and the Maine Windjammer Association at www.sailmainecoast.com. SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


Rules of the Road From the Editor: I recently renewed my master's license (M MC, or Merchant Mariner Credential) and, in the process, was refreshing my memory on the Rules of the Road . It was n't particularly difficult, considering that most of the rules haven't changed much since I was studying fo r my first MMC some twen ty-plus years ago and the rhymes I was taught are still stuck in my head all these years later. O f course, everyone knows "red-right-return," but there are many more: "red-red-red, vessel filled with lead" (vessel constrained by its draft); "red over white, fishing at night" vs. "white over red, pilot ahead." "Red over green, sailing machine" and the dreaded, "red over red, captain is dead" for a vessel not under command are still on th e tip of my tongue, as are many others. While I was still in the process (never a quick task) , coincidentally, one of our members sent in an email with the following, which was published in 1948 but still applies today. W ith spring right around the corner, we thought we'd share to get you inspired fo r the 201 5 sailing season. Many thanks to Capt. Bill Eggert fo r sending it in.

MAINE WINDJAMMER CRUISES KEEPING THE TRADITION ALIVE! SINCE 1936

- from A Manual fo r Small Yachts by Commander R D Graham , 1948 Cap t. Eggert is the author of Gentlemen of the Harbor: Stories of Chesapeake Bay Tugboats and Crews, published in 201 3 (ISBN 978-06 1577-632-3; see www.gentlemen

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NMHS: A CAUSE IN MOTION NMHS returns to the US Naval Academy in Annapolis on 9 May for our 52nd Annual Meeting Over a decade ago, James W. Cheevers, senior curator of the United States Naval Academy Museum in Annapolis, Maryland, hosted our 2004 annual meeting at the US Naval Academy. Since then, members have asked us if we might return, and Jim has graciously invited us to do so. I am pleased to announce that our 2015 annual meeting is indeed returning to Annapolis, Saturday, 9 May, with ac tivities planned Friday through Sunday. NMHS annual meetings are open to all members; we look forward to seeing you there. Highlights of this year's meeting include:

Meeting in the newly renovated US Naval Academy Museum. Jim Cheevers will give us an overview of the museum, yard and crypt ofJohn Paul Jones, located beneath the chapel. The museum brings to life the story of the US Navy from the Revolution to today's modern . fleet and operations. You'll get to see Oliver H azard Perry's famous US Naval Academy campus on the Severn River. "Don't Give Up the Ship" flag from the Barde of Lake Erie and artifacts from USS Monitor. The Rogers Ship Model Collection is the ' nu afl, home to the u, rrS'"'AM largest collection of 17th- and 18th-century ship models on public display in N orth 1 v.n useum. Pre bie America. More than seventy models illustrate 200 years of develo pments in warship design. Maritime Heritage Reports. Internationally acclaimed historian RADM Joseph Callo, USNR (Ret.), author of john Paul]ones, America's First Sea Warrior, will talk about John Paul Jones. Lee Tawney, execurive director of the National Sailing Hall of Fame, will give us a presentation about the museum and its role along the Annapolis waterfront and as a national institution. Luncheon at the beautiful, historic US Naval Academy Club. The Club is located on the grounds of the Academy and combines military history and prestige with fine dining and superb service. The cost of the 2015 NMHS Annual Meeting, including breakfast, luncheon, presentation and tours is $65. Behind-the-Scenes Visit to the National Sailing Hall of Fame on 8 M ay, Friday, at 2PM. The National Sailing Hall of Fame is located in a temporary facility at Annapolis City Dock adjacent to the Academy. Its classic boat collection includes the replica sandbaggers Bull and Bear and the Concordia yawl Lacerta. The Tom Morris Library Reading Room houses the Walter Cronkite Collection as well as volumes from Gary Jobson's library. Come sailing with us aboard the 74-foot schooner Woodwind, Sunday, 10 May, on the Chesapeake Bay. Inspired by the pleasure yachts of the 1930s, Woodwind was built in 1993 by the Scarano Boar Builders in Albany, New York, and is owned and operated by Ken and Ellen Kaye. A fast and nimble sailer, Woodwind has won the Great Chesapeake Bay Schooner Race many times. The sail is from 11AM until 1PM. $48.75 adults, $46 seniors (over 60). Places are limited and early reservations are recommended. We have a block of rooms reserved at Loews Annapolis Hotel at 126 West Street, from 7- 11 May. Rooms for single or double occupants with 2 double beds or a king bed are $ 189 per night, plus all applicable taxes. Discounted valet parking is $ 15/ day and self-parking is $ 12; limited on-street parking is available. lhe room block is set aside until 7 April, or until all the rooms have been reserved. Reservations can be made by telephone or online. Please identify

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yo urself as part of the National Maritime Historical Society Group when making yo ur reservation through Loews Reservations Center, 800-526-2593. If you prefer to book online, visit their website at www.loewshotels.com/ annapolis, select your arrival and departure dares, choose "Group" from the Parmer/Gro up Rares dropdown, and enter our group code, NAT507, in the code field. This is a lovely hotel and we found the food and service excellent. SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


Annapolis in Early May- A Wonderful Time to Visit! The "Athens of Colonial America," also known as "Crab Towne," Annapolis is a marvelous locatio n for those with maritime imerests to visit in early May, when the weather is at its best. The C h esapeake Bay, Severn River, Spa C reek, and South and Magothy Rivers provide prime places to sail, motor, paddle, and fish . The town is full of historic architecture dating from the 1730s to the presem, such as the oldest state house in cominuous use, the third oldest college in America (S t. John's College, 1696), and the monumemal Beaux Arts structures of the Naval Academy. Among the other sites not to be missed are the histori c Maryland State House; the l 8'h-cemury Georgian m ansion William Paca House, the H ammond-Harwood William Paca House and C hase-Lloyd Houses; St. John's College; the waterfront with its Alex Haley Memorial and market ho use dating from 1857; and the shops and restaurants of Main Street, State C ircle, and Maryland Avenue. 1he Banneker-Douglass Muse um features local African-American histo ry and culture. The Annapolis Maritime Museum covers local watermen's trade and maritime ar t. The Maryland Federation of the Arts on State C ircle displays work of local artists and the Mitchell Gallery at St. John's College will be hosting its annual communi ty art exhibition while we are in town. To the north and south of the four-mile C hesapeake Bay Bridge are the 1883 Sandy Point Shoal Light and the 1885 Th o mas Point Screwpile Lighthouse. The Annapolis Yacht C lub will be hosting the SERC Spring Regatta on 9 May. The Annapolis Symphony Orchestra will be performing at Maryland Hall for the C reative Arts on 8 and 9 May; man y Annapolis watering holes feature live entertainmem on weekends. There is a gorgeous new Jewish C hapel at the Naval Academy for Friday night service. On Sunday the Naval Academy's impressive main chapel has a 9AM Catholic Mass and an l l AM interdenominational Protestant service, featuring the sevemh largest pipe organ and wo nderful choirs. - James Cheevers

Two great reads from Sea H-istory Press ... A Dream of Tall Ships

The Skipper & the Eagle

How New Yorkers came together to

by Captain Gordon McGowan,

save the city's sailing-ship waterfront

USCG (Ret.)

by Peter and Norma Stanford

with an Introduction by

with an Introduction

Admiral Robert]. Papp, Jr. , former

by john Stobart, RA

Commandant, US Coast Guard

This lively account of a great urban adventure begins in the 1960s with two New Yorkers who were committed to creating a maritime museum in Manhattan's old sailing ship waterfront-the South Street Seaport Museum. They moved to save the old buildings as an historic district, and breathe new life into New York's old Street of Ships. The idea of recreating the old sailing-ship waterfront inspired young and old, rich and poor, Wall Streeters and blue-collar workers, seamen, firemen , policemen and teachers to work together to found a museum showcasing the ships that built the port, which built the city, which built the natio n. Hardcover, 596 pages, 20 pages of photos and illustrations â&#x20AC;˘ $34.95 + $6.95 s/h in US; call for international rates

In the yea r 1946, amid the post-war confusion, Commander Gordon McGowan, US Coast Guard, found himself the mas ter of a three-masted barque, a battered prize of war. With her carry-over crew of Germ an seamen and neophyte Coast Guard personnel, he transformed her into a well-found Coast Guard training ship able to make a trans-Atlantic voyage under sail. In Adm iral Papp's words," .. . in his sim ple effort to documem a small portion of Eagle's history, [McGowan] related a story of courage, initiative, humili ty and devotion to dury which stands the test of time, and should serve as both a lesson and example .. ." Hardcover, 255 pages, 36 illustrations â&#x20AC;˘ $25.00 + $6.95 s/h in US; call for international rates

To order, visit the NMHS Ship's Store at www.seahistory.org, or call 914 737-7878, ext. 0. SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15

9


Rough Weather All Day: A Firsthand Account of the Jeannette Search Expedition, 1881- 1882 by David Hirzel n the late 1870s, a fascination with the exploits and perils of the unknown Arctic was taking the nation by storm . Newspapermen, among them New York H erald owner James Gordon Bennett Jr., sold papers with news stories rife with danger, human suffering, and heroism. But Bennett was not only a savvy publisher, he was an A rctic enthusiast in his own right. In 1878 he purchased a three-masted steam-powered barque, a former British naval vessel, and through a joint expedition with the US Navy, commissioned her to sail to the Arctic in hopes of reaching the North Pole. W hen the ship returned, its crew wo uld tell the world-or the readers of the New York H erald at any

I

The Jeannette as she looked in 1878, just before she departed France for San Francisco, where she would be outfitted and reinforced for Arctic voyaging.

Patrick Cahill (1848-1931) was a 32-yearold married father offour in 1880 when he joined the navy as a machinist's mate. The following spring, he volunteered to join the crew of a rescue mission that was being put together to go after USS Jeannette, a polar expedition that had gone missing in the Arctic.

rate-just what was to be found there. Renamed USS Jeannette after Bennett's sister, the ship sai led from Europe to Mare Island Shipyard in San Francisco to prepare for her Arctic voyage. New boilers were installed and the hull was reinforced to strengthen her ability to maneuver through rhe ice pack they were sure to encounter. Manned by a crew of US Navy volunteers and under the command of Lt. C mdr. George W. D elong, Jeannette departed San Francisco on 8 July 1879, bound for the North Pole. H er planned course wo uld take her through the Bering Strait and into the Arctic Ocean, then wes tward to Wrangel Island above Siberia. From that remote outpost, she was to sail northwards to the Pole. She sailed, instead, into oblivion. It was not uncommon in those days, long before rhe advem of radio, for a vessel to be out of touch with the rest of the wo rld

for extended periods of rime, but when the next spring came and no word of"all well" had been sent home by a passing whaler, the navy began to worry about the Jeannette. News p ap ers across the country sounded the alarm , and soon the citizenry became wrapped up in the story of the missing expedition. Finally, in March of 1881 , Congress appropriated funds to purchase and fir out a vessel to go search for the ship and her crew. These events took place in the middle of the navy's long transition from sail to steam, which changed not only the design and operation of its ships but also the makeup of a ship's crew. Rather than focus on the sails overhead, it was the engineering department down below that kept rhe ship going day and night, through every wa tch, from port to port. These ea rly marine steam engines were complicated affairs,

Mare Island Naval Shipyard, 1880. Both the Jeannette (1879) and USS Rodgers (1881) were sent to the Mare Island Naval Shipyard north ofSan Francisco on San Pablo Bay in preparation for their respective Arctic expeditions.

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i

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10

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


prone to minor p ro blem s requiring the constant attention of a specialist. The task of oiling, adjusting, mending, fo rging, and rebuilding the engines and auxiliary systems fell to the machinist's mate. In the spring of 188 1, when word passed through the navy seeking volumeers fo r the hazardous duty going after J eannette, a young m achinist's mate, Patrick Cahill, answered the call. The n avy purchased a new steam whaler n amed Mary and Helen and sent her to M are Island, where, like USS Jeannette, her hull would be reinforced before heading into the polar ice. Renamed USS Rodgers, the 155-foot vessel was steam powe red but carried "a great spread of sail " across three m asts. H er crew was going to need that canvas; though only two yea rs old, h er boilers and steam engines were always on the verge of breakdown and in constant need of repai r. Before departing for the Arctic, Patrick Cahill co ntacted the San Francisco Chron icle and offered to act as its correspondent during the voyage. "I explained that I had never tried this kind of work, but agreed to do so if anything wo rth reco rding happened," he later w rote. A lthough Cahill kept daily notes about the expedition, he makes no mention of sending them home via telegraph or passing ship. Evidently, they didn't make it to the States before he did, and remained instead in rough manuscript form. Patrick Cahill 's log, like the formal ship's log, recounts the days' events in succession, without fa il, whether they were tumultuous- like the day the ship burned to the waterline-or mundane. In either case, he is never short on detail, and it is in those derails, in his wry commentaries and acerbic observa tions on the fo ibles of his companions, that the true charm of his narrative comes th rough . USS Rodgers departed Mare Island Navy Yard on 16 June, headed fo r Petropavlovsk in Russia, their first port of call. The men on USS I ndep endence cheered as we sailed by and must have been very much surp rised to hear the crew of the "Rodgers" singing a "Shantee," as it is not allowed by the US navy offi cers, but everything goes to-day, even the ride is

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15

(a bove) San Francisco, 1880. View is to the northeast, toward San Pablo Bay. (below) 1he former steam whaler Mary and H elen, renamed USS Rodgers, preparing to depart the California Coast, bound for the Arctic in 1881.

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with us. After starting m ain shaft, box heated and we stopped about ten minutes to cool it off, then started again. I h ad charge of the engine room. No one could h ave known that their venture, and the Jeanette-the obj ect of their search-were already doomed . The missing ship had been trapped in the sea ice in the Arctic O cean since 6 September 1879. She was damaged but still afloat in May of 188 1, carried by the drift and current to a new "fa rrhes t north ." It was an honor most of her men would not survive long enough to claim; a few days before

USS Rodgers departed , the sea ice crushed Jeannette and she sank in the East Siberian Sea. H er crew took to the ice, taking three ship's boars for when they would reach open water. Of the thirty-three men who embarked on the expedition, twenty would perish, including their captain . [16 June 188 1] Several vessels, the Sausalito, Hartley, Gov. Irwin, and Holyoke, with friends and music accompanied us as far as Fort Point, and flags were dipped and whistles blown as we sailed by, and hundreds of people lined the wh arves, cheering us as we sailed by.

11


The firsr rwo legs of the trip were anything but comfortable. [1 7 June) Very rough and stormy all day. A big sea came on board and got in the forecastle and done lots of damage to the sailor's bunks and clothing. I overhauled the hoisting engine to-day; put it in order for work; had to fix bearing. Ca rpenter is getting to be a nuisance in our room; there are five us in a room 7 x 10, and he should be taken to [sick) bay... I think going to sea isn't hi s strong point. [June 28) Engine run all day and we shipped a big sea; it ca me into our room and floated sea chest and loose bedding all around washed up to DeTracey's bunk. It began to clea r up toward evening. Our poor carpenter thinks he will never get well. They sai led through the Bering Strait, stopping first at Herald Island. "Boat returned and reported no trace of any men ever having visited the Island. A board was put up marked USS Rodgers, date Aug. 24, 188 1, Robt. Berry, Com mander. The island is alive with birds of all kinds, geese and ducks have nests, and gulls are very numerous and act as if they were never hunted. We 145' E

16 ' E

could hit them with our oa r, they were so near to us." The expedition reached Wrangel Island the following day, landin g three parties to explore the place, looking for signs of the missin g ship. Cahill was not among them ; the m achinist's mate had more important things to do. "Again had the day's duty on ship; wo rked all day on the boiler; it is full of patches and plugs now."

[24 August) Lookout has been up in the crow's nes t watching for the survey parties. I find the men begin growling and want to run things. There are twenty-five very good seamen on thi s ship, but a continual growl is a regular thing. Several fights have occurred since my row with Rhode. O ur officers are very nice abo ut this and walk away so as not to witness an encounter. I think the only way to settle things on boa rd ship is to let the men fight it out. No trace of the Jeannette. Dense ice pack blocked the way northwa rds and prevented much explorin g or discovery in that direction. Srill, the Rodgers set a record. [September 20) "At day break cast loose from ice, and began to butt aro und in the 17 ' W

155' W

13 ' W

Chukchi Sea Wrangcl Is.

-"'Herald Is.

EASTERN SIBERIA

Bering

ALASKA

/ strait St. Lawrence Bay

pack-once ran heavi ly into a projecting piece of field ice; it was fasr getting foggy and cloudy... Today we reached rhe farthest point No rth that any vessel on this side has gone, 73° 45'. Th e ice was now all around us, solid to the north-no sign of a lead could be seen." W ith winter closing in and srill no sign of the Jeannette, the Rodgers retreated back along rhe coast. The passage was particularly difficult.

[l October] The storm increases to a gale, and we hove to and rode it out. This is one of the worst days we have had; many of the men are sick. Water at times one foot deep on rhe floor .... It was all a man's life was worth to be on deck; too dark to see anything; carried away the jib; it ran up the masrhead, and continued to Rap and shake until it tore off. We w ill remember this night until a wo rse one comes. The Rodgers called at St. Lawrence Bay and, preparing to take up winter quarters, made the acquaintance of the native Siberians. [20 October) Men, wo men , and children come here, day after day, and sit on the deck getting what they can to eat. We give them all we can, but rhere are so many of them, that some of them have to go hungry ... They are very inquisitive, ask how many men, rifles, big guns; h ow much powder and lead we have; how much feed there is on board, and are entirely puzzled abo ur this ship; it is not a whaler or a trade vessel- rhe only kinds of ships they have any idea of. It m akes us feel a littl e squirmish to see such a lot of narives rake no re of everyrhing so minurely;

7°N

Petropavlovsk

Bering Sea

f

165' E

12

175' W

155' W

(left) USS Rodgers first called at Petropavlovsk on the Kamchatka Peninsula on its way to the Chukchi Sea via the Bering Strait. The ship stopped at both Wrangel and Herald Islands looking for the missing Jeannerre before heading to St. Lawrence Bay in Eastern Siberia. It was there that they would lose their own vessel. SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


there are hundreds of them in rhe neighborhood, some desperate men. In rhe ea rly morning of 30 November, disas ter struck. Ar 8:45AM smoke ca me up rhe pipe fro m rhe chain locker, and Morga n we nt aft and reporred the ship on fire in the fo rehold . .. the fire pumps had been disconnected to keep rhem fro m freez ing.. .. For a rime ir seemed as if we we re gaining on the fire, but it fin ally drove the men fr om betwee n decks; then rhe h atchways were battened down and sa il made to run rhe ship into shallow water to scuttle her. . .. We were rhen ordered to launch rhe boars, and every man that was able to do anything rook hold; all rhe boars were gotten over, and the officers and men got the few clothes they had saved into their boats. There was some pemican, Hour, beans, sugar, and coffee, enough for fifteen d ays' ratio ns, saved and got into the boars .. .. Ir was a grand sight, one long to be remembered by us who wirnessed it, to see the burning vessel; thousa nds of ca midges were stored in the hold, and, as the fire reached rhem, rhey were exploded. Steam was nor blowing off from the main and donkey boilers, the fire room and decks being in a blaze; the fire was running up the rigging; masts, yards and sa il were in a blaze; the reporrs when oil, alcohol, or powder was exploded, and sheets of flame sweeping rhe enti re length of rhe ship-all helped to make a grand picture.

The fire down below soon got out of control. In time the cartridges and powder in the hold exploded and sent flames up the masts and tarred rigging, igniting the sails aloft. barren land of fa r-eastern Siberia. For centuries they h ad m anaged a subsisrencelevel existence on the meager resources of the land and sea. Starvation was a given th reat th rough the long harsh winters, when the scarce game was barely enough to sustain their own population. Now they were expected- a nd w illing- ro sh are what little they h ad in foo d and sh elter with th irty-six A merica n sea men and their Rus-

sian dog driver while they wa ited for the return of rhe whaling Heer rhe fo llow in g spring. There was not enough of either to go around . The men crowded into the existin g "yaranga" hu ts in fo ur isolated villages, making their beds in the cramped quarters amid the squalor and forced intimacy of family life in huts too small in floor plan ro accommodate everyone.

Natives ofEast Cape Village, Siberia, 1885. The houses pictured are similar to the yarangas that the crew from USS Rodgers shared with the Chukchi during the winter of 1881-82.

All rhe men made it safely to shore, with the few supplies they were able to salvage. They would be spending the winter in Siberia with the natives, a true culture shock to both sides of rhe arrangement. N either rhe host peoples nor their uninvited guests were prepared for their sudden cohabitation, but both sides made the best of it. The nati ve Tchoutkichi (also spelled C hukchi) people-"Chook-Chees" to the sailorslived in low hide-covered hurs gathered into small isolated villages scattered around the

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

13


[2 D ecember] I went to Ra naow's hut; the snow was brushed off my clothes .... M y boots and pants I took off in the outer part of the hut; then I followed the native, crawling under the deerskin curtain to the only room the hut contained . All the inmates, three women, two men and fo ur children we re naked. It was very wa rm in this place, and the smell was sickening. [l January 1882] Our hut is ten feet by seven deep and five feet high; one can't stand up in it; eight people sleep here on an average; I have slept or tried to sleep when there we re fo urteen in the room , with an open bucket used by all fo r a water closet all the long night, from 5:30PM till 9AM-fifteen hours and a half. Cahill 's notes preserved insights into native customs. On hygiene: "It is one of their h abits to wash their bodies and all cooking utensils, even the tin and spoons we have to eat from, in urine; I told the old woman not to wash my spoon or tin in urine, so now she cleans them with her

tongue." On nutrition: "At night I ate a mess of stuff that I thought very tender, and noticed it was quite slimy; felt kind of sick after eating; asked what it was. Tuccare said it was young walrus. So it was, but it had never been born . I vomited it up and felt better." On medici ne, life, and death : "Early this m orning the natives strangled an old man; his boy was sick, and they think to save the boy's life by giving death to another victim ." The threat of starvation was a constant companion throughout the winter. Cahill suffered and nearly died from scurvy, but he never stopped keepin g hi s daily record of the events and people aro und him. [February 28] "I have to keep in bed today... Another month gone." [March 8] "We have no ambition to read and I a m too ill to think of any subject long at a time. This part of the Search Expedi tion wasn't figured in ."

In M ay of 1882, the New Bedford whaler North Star on its way north to the Bering fishery found the stranded sailors and brought them off. Mos t of the crew transferred to USS Corwin fo r the return to San Francisco. Cahill recovered from

Affordable Luxury When You're Anchored in Boston

his nea r-death experience from scurvy and returned to the East Coast. H e left the navy, packed up his fa mily, and they moved to California. Fo rty- two years after the event, a reporter fo r the Oakland Tribune settled him in for an extended interview to enlarge upon his experiences as an Arctic explorer. His recollections as reported in the paper sometimes seem more elaborate, even more lurid than the words of his diary kept in the field. But then, the object from the beginning always was to sell newspapers. ,!,

D avid H irz el is a maritime histo rian and author specializing in A rctic and Antarctic explo ration from the 1820s through Shackleton's Endurance exp edition. As the volunteer coordinator for the Living H istory Program at San Francisco Maritime National H istorical Park since 2 005, he has gained a deep insight into the lives of the everyday seaman during the great Age of Sail. H is new book Rough Weather All Day (Terra Nova Press, 2 014), is available th rough A maz on.com, along with non-fiction works on the Irish Antarctic explorer Tom Crean, Antarctic Voyager and Sailor on Ice (with Robert Falcon Scott) and H old Fast (with Ernest Shackleton).

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The SS JOHN W BROWN ;s one of the lost operat;n9 surv;vors from the 9 reot fleet of over 2, 700 Wor-bu;/f Uberty Sh;ps and the last operatfonal lroopsh;p of World War fl. The sh;p ;s a marH;me museum and a memor;al lo the sh;pyard workers who bu;/f, merchant mar;ners who sa;led, and the U.S. Navy Armed Guard who defended the Uberty sh;ps dur;n9 World War fl. The JOHN W BROWN ;s fuf!y restored and ma;nta;ned as close as Poss;ble lo her World War It confi9uratfon. VisHors must be able lo walk up steps lo board the sh;p. This exciting 6 hour day cruise ;ncfudes lunch, mus;c of the 40's, per;od enferfafoment and flybys (cond1Hons permHt;n9) of Wart;me afrcraft. Tour on-board museums, crew quarters, br;d9e and much more. See the ma9n;ficent 140-ton lr;ple-expansfon steam en9foe as H Powers the sh;p through the Wafer. . k ts online a t·. www.ss10 • Order your t:c e : 410-558-0164 fi intOrm a . Co ndi tio ns a n d pe na lt1es app y • or . 4 days before the cruise . on rofit organization. 1 La st day to order. tickets . Baltimore base d ' all volunteer, n P

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"I Shall 'Bring Home Two Frigates" Captain Charles Stewart and the Last Sea Battle of the War of 1812 by John A. Rodgaard

W

ith the cold air of late autumn settling in upon Boston in 1814, Captain C harles Stewart h ad ensured his comm and, the frigate Constitution , was ready for sea. The previous eleven months had proven frustrating for him. H e h ad taken his ship out to sea during the first fo ur months of 1814, only to return to port ea rly because of a sprung mai nmast. This did not bode well for Stewart; he found himself standin g before a court of inquiry that required him to answer to why he cut short h is ship's war cruise. Ultimately, he suffered on ly a reprimand and was sent back to his ship, but Stewart's problem s continued to mount throughout the summer months. No r only were provisions he needed in short supply, but recruiting the men required to effectively man his fri gate proved diffi culr. He was competing with privateers, who could offer higher pay and the chance to ea rn prize money. Stewart was even co mpeting for men within the navy itsel f. While he was actively seeking our crew to man his sh ip, Secretary of the Navy William Jones was paying bonuses to able sea men willing to serve on the Great Lakes. Stewart's troubles were further enhanced by the knowledge that the Royal Navy's blockade outside Boston Harbor would prevent his ship's departure. Nevertheless, in rime Constitution was mann ed and supplied and ready for sea when an opporru n ity to sneak out of the harbor wo u Id present itself. The day finally arrived. On 17 D ecember, wo rd came that the three Royal Navy wars hips that had been holding station outside the harbor were nowhere to be seen, and by the afternoon, Constitution was fin ally back at sea. The ship's chaplain , Ass heton Humphreys, recorded in his journal that all on board "felt no little degree of importance when the circumstance of our bei ng the only American fri gate at sea .. . We felt that the eyes of the country were upon us." 1 Stewart clearly felt the need to 1 The USS Constitution's Finest Fight, 1815: The journal of Acting Chaplain Assheton Humphreys, USN,

Ed. Co 111111 and erTyron Martin , USN (Rer.) (Mou nt Pleasant, SC: Na utical and Aviation Publ ishin g 0 111pany of Alllerica, 2000), 4.

16

demonstrate that this cruise wo uld be more successful than the first, and he surely remembered his las t conve rsati on with his wife, Delia, before he depa rted. Stewart had asked her what she wa nted him to bring her on his return. Mrs. Stewart asked him for a British frigate. Her husband replied that he would bring her back two.

Captain Charles Stewart (1778-1869) Following the Secretary of the Navy's orders, Stewart sailed Constitution to a position in range of the convoy routes that led south from Ca nada to Bermuda and then on to the West Indies. Using a strategy of deception, he had a Red Ensign sent up the flag halyard and had his crew repaint the fri gate's white stripe around the gunports with the distinctive yellow band used by the Royal Navy. On C hri stmas Eve, he found his first success with the capture of the British brig Lord Nelson. Stewa rt continued southwards along the shipping lanes toward the West Indies in the first few weeks of 1815, fi nding nothing. W ith the seas devoid of British shipping, he altered course and headed toward the major shipping routes off Western Europe. The only vessels Constitution wo uld encounter were neutral Portuguese mercha ntmen. On 8 February, however, the winds of change blew upon Stewart and Constitution. Thar morning Stewart stopped and board-

ed the barque Julia, flying German colors. The captain was quick to inform the A merican naval commander that a peace treaty had been signed in Ghent, Belgium. This was rei cerated later that day when Constitution stopped a Russian brig at sea. Two Americans were aboard and they had newspapers with them reporting that peace had indeed been negotiated. No netheless, without official word, Stewart decided to continue with his war cruise. Stewart pressed on and by 10 February, the A merican frigate was just fifteen miles off Cape Finisrerre, Spain, hunting for prey. Sailing southwa rds along the Iberian Peninsula, Stewart kept his crew busy chasi ng unknown sa il in the shipping lanes, when, on 12 February, out of squally weather, they sighted a fri gate. Chaplain Humphreys made an amusing entry in his journal regarding the event. According to Humphreys, the ship's dog, a terrier n am ed Guerriere, was playing on the heels of "the ship's first lieutenant and myself.. .all unconscious of any craft near us... G uerriere jumped upon the hammock clothes and stretching his head to windward began to bark most vehemently; upon look ing to discover what had attracted his notice lo and behold! There was a great frigare." 2 The unidentified ship dropped astern of Constitution and Stewa rt rook up the chase. They beat to quarters and cleared for ac tion only to discover that the frigate in question was Portuguese. On 16 February, Constitution was just off the Rock of Lisbon when Stewart received news from a passing Portuguese ship char the fri gate HMS Voluntaire with the Duke of Bedford and his family onboard was en route to Britain from Lisbon . They spent the day chasing down various vessels but fo und no Duke of Bedford. A few days later, on 19 February, Stewart ran across a British merchantman carrying hides and tallow from Buenos Ai res. The Susan was quickly seized and sent off to New York. The next day began wi th moderate breezes and hazy cloud-filled skies. Constitution was heading north on a starboard tack under easy sa il. With the Iberian 2rbid, 20-2 1.

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


USS Constitution under the command of Captain Charles Stewart takes on HMS Cya ne and HMS Levant, 2 0 February 1815. Peninsula fa r off the beam, in the afternoon a lookout aloft on the mainmas t ca lled out "sail ho on the starboard bow." Shortly afterwa rds a second sail was spotted off the port bow. It was then observed that the first sail had changed course toward them . All onboard understood that no merchantman would act this way. The app roaching ship set signal flags, which Stewa rt could not answer. Recognizing that Constitution was not friendly, the unidentified ship squared away, piled on sail and headed wes t towa rd the second ship, sending add itional signal Aags aloft and dischargin g a number of her guns. Stewart ordered his crew to take up the chase. Constitution quickly set more sa il, includi ng sruddingsails. One wo nders if he was thi nki ng of his parting conversation with his wife and h er request for a frigate. Aro und 3PM Stewart ordered his bow chase guns to fire on the first ship, but the ro unds fell short. With the chase in full swing, suddenly all aboard heard what must have been a very distressing sound, espe-

SEA HI STORY 150, SPRING 2015

cially fo r those who had been aboard during the previous cruise. The ma in royal mas t snapped and was carried away. Stewart immediately shortened sail and, with men aloft clearing the wreckage whilst the ship's carpenters prepared a replacement, the distance between the pursuer and the prey lengthened . No netheless, repairs were m ade in great has te and with in an hour Constitution began to gain on the two ships. Aro und 5 PM, w ith tw ili ght setting upon the broad Atlantic, Constitution fired off her bow chasers. These roo fell short. Just before 6 PM the two enemy ships finally closed upon one another and formed a line-ahead formation. Having fa iled to gain the weather gauge on the Americans, the enemy ships prepared for action, with the smaller of the two vessels in the lead . W ith Constitution sailing down upon the two ships, Stewart cleared his frigate for action. The captai n ordered the Stars and Stripes set, with the rwo enemy ships res ponding in kind by sending their Red Ensigns and U nion flags aloft. Ar an approximate ra nge of300 yards,

Stewart ordered a single shot fired at the two enemy ships to port. Immediately, both British vessels answered with broadsides. Constitution immediately responded with her own. Ar this point, Constitution fo und herself "ar the apex of an isosceles triangle, her opponents column formin g the baseline."3 Stewart positioned himsel f at his fri gate's portside ent ry port to get a better view of the British ships. It nearly cost him his li fe . A single ball fro m the first en em y broadside killed two of h is men stationed close by. A brief but intense exchange of cannon fire followed. The enemy ships were firin g rapidly and with some accuracy, despite the fac t that both ships carried mostly shore-ra nge carronades as their m ain armament. With the sun setting off the port quarter of the combatants and space between them choked with smoke, Stewart h ad his me n cease fi ring. Constitution had moved 3

Tyrone G. Marcin , A Most Fortunate Ship (An napolis: Naval Institute Press, 1997) , 196.

17


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ahead of the aftermost ship- HMS Cyane of 22 guns-and was now abeam the leader, a 20-gun sloop of wa r, HMS Levant. Glancing as tern at Cyane, Stewart could see that the light friga te was maneuvering to close upon the American's stern. If she managed to bring her carronades to bear, Cyane's "smashers" wou ld rip through his ship's stern gallery and down her entire length with devas tating affect. Stewart ordered another full broadside into the lead vessel and immediately thereafter ordered his main and mizzen topsails aback. This maneuver halted her forward momentum and even got the frigate moving astern. Another broadside was unleashed into Levant, causing heavy damage upon the luckless corvette. Cyane was by then ahead of Constitution and attempted to steer back and position herself across the bows of the American. Stewart countered by ordering the helm h ard to port and the lee braces manned. Amid the choking smoke and the deafening sounds of battle, Stewart's crew ably swung Constitution's topsail yard s around to get sailing again. The ship leapt forward and sailed ahead, between the British ships. Constitution fired her starboard guns into Levant's stern. O ut of control, Levant faded from view and into the darkness, as the American frigate continued turning to port and toward Cyane. Cyane's captain, Gordon Thomas Falcon, was desperately trying to position his vessel across Constitution's bow, but Stewart continued to swing his frigate to port, crossing under Cyane's starboard stern. Outmaneuve red again and with the two ships only fifty yards apart, Falcon struck his colors. At 6:45rM Cyane was finished . By 8PM, Captain Falcon and his officers had been brought over to the Constitution. With a prize crew aboard Cyane, Stewa rt ordered borh ships ro search for the fleeing Levant. The Levant was hardly fleeing, however. Captain George Douglas, having brought his heavily damaged ship and shaken crew under control, was navigating his vessel back toward the action with the intention of returning to the fight. As Constitution sailed west, our of the darkness came the Levant, and Stewart found his ship closing the plucky Brit bow to bow. Around 8:40PM, the two sh ips passed

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~:t=. ~·-·· _··_··_·_,.~_.._·~~ ~~·~\"-------------""""""'"""-------------' ~ USS Constitution was cruising off the Iberian Peninsula when she encountered the Royal Navy ships Cyane and Levant. When the battle was over, Stewart took his prizes first to a quiet anchorage in the Cape Verde Islands before heading across the Atlantic to New York.

starboard ro starboard at a range of just fift y yards and exch anged broadsides. Douglas turned Levant to port and began to run with the wind. Stewart turned Constitution ro sta rboard and fell in behind the fleeing vessel. With Constitution now piling on more canvas, she soon narrowed the gap between them. Recognizing that he wo uld not escape, Capta in Douglas struck his colors, hove to, and fired a single gun to leeward. Stewart sailed his ship and rwo prizes to St. Jago (now known as Santiago) in the Cape Verde Islands and anchored there on 7 March. Four days later, three Royal Navy ships stumbled upon them and successfully recaptured the Levant, denying Stewart his opportunity to return to the United States with two prizes. Nonetheless, he eventually sailed into New York Harbor to a hero's welcome. Stewart and his men wo uld later receive both prize money and Congressionally mandated medals-gold for Stewart and silver for his officers. So ended this remarkable ac tion. It would be the last victo ry for the Americans in the War of 1812, and USS Constitution's las t battle. Nor to rake away from Charles Stewart's achievement, bur the fight against the Cyane and Levant was truly one-sided. Stewart had the advantage of a larger, superbly built ship, powerful long-range firepower, and a highly trained crew. Combined with Stewart's leadership, masterful shiphandling, and seasoned tactical skills, Constitution clearly had the advantage. The findings at Captai n Douglas's court martial came to the same conclusion. "The court is of the opinion that the cap ture of

the Levant is to be attributed to the ve ry superior force of rhe enemy's ship, aided by his superior sailing."4 Captain Falcon's co urt martial concluded the same. Charles Stewart was USS Constitution's most successful fighting captain, and through his sixty- two years of service in the US Navy, was perhaps the most influential naval officer in its first half century, ye t, remarkably, his name and history are largely unknown. ,!, Joh n Rodgaard is a retired US Navy captain and naval intelligence officer. This article is adapted from his book, co-written with Claude Berube, A Call to rhe Sea: Captain Charles Stewa rt of the USS Constitution (Potomac Books, An Imprint of the University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 2 005, ISBN" 978-1-57488-518-7). About the artist (image, page 17): Patrick O'Brien's striking paintings capture the glory and grandeur of the Age ofSail. H is awardwinning artwork has appeared in books, posters, billboards, and magazines, including several times on the cover of Sea History. In 2 012 The National Maritime H istorical Society recognized O'Brien with the D istinguished Service Awardfor his body ofartwork. Patrick O'Brien is available fo r commissioned works. Visit his website at www.Patrick OBrienStudio. com. 4Record of the Court Martial of Captain, The Honourable George Douglas, Late Commander of HMS Levant, held onboard HMS Akbar, at Halifax on 28 June 18 15. File of Naval Records Collection (Atlantic and Mediterranean) , J 775-1910, The National Archives, Wash ingto n, DC.

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


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The War of 1812's Final Chapter: At Sea and at the Negotiating Table

by William H. Whire

Since the start of2012, Sea History has published an ongoing series covering the War of 1812, paying special attention to events that bore on the outcome or offered insigh t into little-known battles. The series began with a broad overview covering each year of the war and was followed by articles that examined specific incidents and varying points of view. The following is the final entry and will offer an outline of the Treaty of Ghent, with which peace was restored, as well as a little information on the financing of the war, both during, and after peace was restored. But first, a note on a little-known-but important-sea battle, which represents the single time the Royal Navy bested a US heavy 44-gun frigate. y spring of 1814, Srephen Decawr had had abour enough of his squadron being blockaded off New London, Connecricur, by a pair of Brirish 74-gun line-of-barrle ships. H e had pur to sea from New York a year earlier in his flagship, USS United States, accompan ied by USS (formerly HMS) Macedonian, bur was chased back into Long Island Sound

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Macedonian and went to New Yo rk to persuade the navy to give him another ship. Afrer a full year of bei ng held caprive by the presence of those two ships, he was desperare to get back out to sea and into what was lefr of the fi.ghr. H e got his wish; Navy Secrerary William Jones assigned h im to take command of USS President, sisrer ship to his flagship and USS Constitution. The President was lying in New Yo rk, ready for sea. With a reputarion as a fast and "fi.ne swimmer," the President had been highly praised by her two previous commanders, John Rodgers and William Bainbridge. By December of 1814, Decarur had a ship, a crew, and sadly, once again, a blockade preventing him from sailing. The Brirish had successfully closed the port of New York by srationing most of a squadron in rhe warers berween Long Island and Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Of course, D ecatur could nor know rhat the war was within days of irs conclusion, but most likely, even if he had

k nown it, he wo uld have pushed the secre rary of rhe navy to ger him a ship rhar mighr make it off soundings, even if only fo r a few days. The entrance to New York Harbor, unlike the mouth of the Thames River at New London, is wide wi rh many sand bars outside it, and, Decarur reasoned, under rhe right circumsrances he mighr be able to slip past rhe blockading ships. What he hadn'r recko ned wirh was rhe facr that it was only abo ur eighr miles from the entra nce of rhe harbor to rhe tip of Sandy Hook, and it was aro und this narrow body of water (now Ambrose Channel) thar most of rhe rreacherous sandbars were locared. No nerheless, on rhe night of 15 Jan uary 1815, the veteran caprain took his ship to sea into rhe reeth of a raging snowstorm, hopin g rhe dreadful weather might have driven the blockade offshore, thus giving him the opportunity to slip out unnoriced through the dark and stormy night. Ir was pitch black and the wind-whipped snow was fa llin g so fast and heavily that he had

Stephen Decatur (1119-1820)

by a powerful Brirish squadron off Monrauk Point. Running into rhe relarively shallow Th ames River, rhey rook shelrer under rhe guns of rhe porr ofNew London. Realizing rhar rhey needn 'r chase rhe American fri gares into rhe river (nor to mention, rhey were too deep-drafr fo r rhe Thames River), rhe Brirish simply srationed rhe 74s at the mourh and waired. Over rhe course of rhe following yea r, Decarur used every ruse he could conceive to make hi s warders leave, including a pre-arranged ship-to-ship duel berween his ships and rheir Royal Navy counterparts, all to no avail. Finally, in April of 1814, he ordered the dismasring of borh United States and

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USS Presidentvs . HMS Endymion, 15 January 1815, by Thomas Buttersworth (1768-1842)

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


sailors assigned to shovel it from the decks. Visi bility was worse than bad and, shortly after cleari ng the narrows at the harbor entrance, without the ability to get any bearings from shore, USS President ra n agro und. Through his skillful shiphandling, Decatur go t his fri gate off the hard, but the grounding had damaged her rudder, causing the big ship to sail sluggishly. As he felt his way along the south coast of Long Island, his crew sighted shapes looming out of the swirling snow to weather. His once superbly capable ship co uld not outrun them. H e tried everything he could think of to evade, but with shallow water to leewa rd, dreadful visibility, a barely manageable ship, and three British warships bearing down on him, he chose the on ly option open to him- fight. HMS Endymion (40 guns), Pomone (38 guns), and Tenedos (38 guns) were close enough to engage, and so they did, with devastating res ults. After giving them a good fi ght, but wi th predictable results agai nst such overwhelming strength, Decatur had little choice but to strike; Presidentwas badly wounded and a fifth of her crew was dead or hurt. But before he surrendered his ship, he at least disabled Endymion with his highly accurate gunnery. President, for this commission, mounted 52 guns, both 24-pounder long guns and 32-pounder carronades, but without her usual superior sa iling ability and facing the combined weight of metal of over a hundred guns, she succumbed and was captured. Of note here is that once the British realized whom they had captured , they immediately released Decatur and his officers on parole. His reputation for the kind and humane treatment of HMS Macedonian's crew and officers, when he captured that ship in October of 181 2, was cited as the reason . Less than a month later, on 11 February, the Treaty of G hent finally arrived in New York, having been signed by both sides on 24 December, more than three weeks before D ecatu r surrendered his ship. The treaty had been signed in the Flemish city of G hent on Christmas Eve, 1814. Once the representatives from England and the U nited States reached an agreeme nt, copies were sent to London and New York SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15

''A Hundred Years Peace," The Signature of the Treaty of Ghent between Great Britain & the United Stares of America-24 December 1814, by Sir Amedee Forestier (1854-1930). fo r ratification by the warring governments. The King of England signed his copy on 30 D ecember, bu t with a winter Atlantic crossing to accomplish, the American copy did not reach our shores until nearly six weeks later. The treaty was carried to Was hington C ity on fast horses and reached the Senate quickly; it was ratified on 16 Feb ruary, putting an end to the expensive and frustrating war. In recognition of the fa r-flung nature of the war, one article (Article II) set forth the effective dates of the ratified treaty in different geographic areas, ranging from twelve days following ratification on the Atlantic coast of North A m erica to thirty days in the Atlantic Ocean north of the Equator (including the British Isles), and sixty days for the waters south of the Equator. This article spoke directly to the raking of prizes and w hether or not they wo uld be adjudicated lega l upon ar rival at

a neutral port. What else did it provide? The broad view was simply a return to the status quo ante beLlum-the way things were just before war was declared. Peace wo uld resume between the two countries and all their territories without exception, and all hostilities both on land and sea wo uld cease. Territory captured (by the British, including Castine, Maine, which had been occupied by the British for nearly a year!) was restored without delay to the rightful owners, alon g with forts and property, both private and public. Included in "personal" property were the slaves liberated by the British during their rampages in the C hesapeake Bay area. While the treaty was silent on the subject, American merchants wo uld now be able to trade aro und the world with whomever they wished and do it without fea r of their seamen bei ng pressed at sea into the Royal Navy. What many people ask, given

Although the scourge of impressment was just one of the factors that drove the Americans to declare war in June of 1812, ''Free Trade and Sailors' Rights" became a rallying cry that fired up the citizenry to support it.

21


that the treaty called for a return to the status quo as it existed before the war: why did the Royal Navy agree to stop impressm ent? About a week before war was declared by the M adison administration back in June of 1812, the Admiralty in London had abandoned the Orders in Council regard ing impressment, but without any fast means of communication this information fai led to make it across the Atlantic in time to avert war. W h en the war was fin ally concluded two-a nd-a-half yea rs later, they had to live with this decision in perpetuity. Prisoners of war wo uld be returned to their rightful countries as quickly as possible after they had paid any debts incurred during their captivity! And an important article delineated-again-the borders between the United States and Ca nada. Any disputes wo uld be resolved by reverting to the lines set by the T reaty of Paris signed in 1783, ending the American Revolution. Wh ile it didn't happen, the treaty also called for a cessation of hostilities between the United States and all nations and tribes oflndians with whom there had been fighting during the war. In a "feel-good " article of the treaty, it also required the Indians cease and desist all hostilities as well (q uestion able, as the Indians were not signatory to the treaty). Finally, a very short article within the treaty suggested both sides should work toward the abolition of slavery (which the British accomplished long before the Americans did). The return of the " liberated " slaves never happened; after more than a yea r of negotiations, the United States agreed to accept a payment of $35 0,000 in lieu of the ac tual return of the slaves, though it is doubtful that the funds ever made it back to the individuals who h ad incurred the loss. While the Treaty of Ghent was not as all-encompassing as either side had wa nted, both countries had grown tired of the war and were suffering from severe shortages of cash; compromise, as is frequently the case with negotiations, seemed the right course of action. But while England had a more substantial treasury on which to fall back, as well as a long established system of taxation, the United States, still reeling financially from expense of the War oflndependence, was in dire straits. Let us look for a moment at how the United States managed to pay for the W ar 22

of 1812. W hen war was declared in June of 1812, the federal government was still struggling to rebuild a treasury drawn down to nothing by the Revolutionary War. Several wealthy individuals stepped up and made voluntary contributions to pay the troops, buy materiel, and keep the country running. One of those generous patriots was Robert Morris of Pennsylva nia, a Liverpool-born American merchant who was signatory to the D eclaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the US Constitution. In 1781, Morris became the US superintendent of fi nance, charged with rebuilding the country's finances and managing the economy of the fl edgling Un ited States. At the sa me time, he served as Agent of Marine, a position he took without pay and from which he controlled the Continental Navy. H e was one of Pennsylva nia's original pair of US senators, servi ng from 1789 to 1795. Ironica lly, some poorly timed personal investments led to personal bankruptcy in 1798, and he spent several months in debtors' prison, until Congress passed a bankruptcy act to release him . After he left prison in 1801 , he lived a quiet, private li fe in a modest home in Philadelphia until 1806 when he died, barely more than a pauper. Albert Gallatin, treasury secretary from 1801 to 1814, wanted to use tax revenue (excise taxes, mostly) to cover the day-today needs of the government and take out loans to finance the war. His plan called for doubling customs duties and reinstating the excise taxes that had cost the Federalists the election in 1800. Needless to say, the Republicans wanted nothing to do with the excise taxes h e proposed ; they were fearful it would not only make their party unpopular, but would hamper the war effort as well. Nonetheless, shortly after war broke our, they did agree to double the customs duties. Any shortfall in covering the costs of the war, they offered, wo uld be met by loans and interes t-bearing treasury notes. Unfortunately, the charter of the Central Bank, formed by Alexander H amilton in 1791, had just expired in 1811 and had fa iled to draw sufficient votes for renewal. This eliminated a major source of fundin g at the federal level, and many states, most notably those in New England where the idea of a new war was particularly unpop-

ular, refused to contribute funds for military operations on a national level. Several refused to pay for their own militias! Without a central monetary authority, the local banks began to print their own currency, further aggrava ting an already strained situation. A yea r into the war, everyo ne realized the funding in place was insufficient to cover the substantial expenses involved in pursuing the conflict, and Congress voted to impose the hated excise taxes that Gallatin had earlier proposed. And the new taxes were even more punitive than anything the Federalists had proposed; in fact, the new taxes would be the most comprehensive taxes to be passed right up until the C ivil War. Even this endeavor was inadequate and, in the summer of 1814, public credit collapsed completely. The government was unable to borrow the money it needed that year, and all bur a few of the most patriotic contractors refused to accept treasury notes in settlement of their bills. This was followed by the suspension of specie payments; no longer would banks exchange p aper notes for gold or silver. So many local banks had issued so much currency that it had become more or less worrhless. 1 Compounding the problem, banks stopped honoring each other's paper notes, thus preventing the administration from using the banks to move funds around the country. The federal government, however, continued to accept the depreciated locally issued paper currency at face value in payment of taxes and loans, wh ich further reduced public revenue and exacerbated the already perilous situatio n. Truly a debacle, the war continued by expenses being met with credit, ap peals to patriotism, and pluck. Fortunately, the p eace treaty came in the nick of time! Taxes, customs duties, and the formation of a new central bank in 1816 ultimately restored the country to some level of solvency, despite the new bank 's turbulent first seven yea rs that were fraug ht with mismanagement and fraud. 1 With no cenrralized federa l bank, individual banks printed currency, which was generally acceptable to the public and usually was backed by silver or gold . In late 1814, the ad ministration proposed (again) the creation of a national bank. The war ended before ag reement was reached.

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15


So, what did it all accomplish? Perhaps, most importantly, who-if anyone-won? Considering thar rhe entire conflict was precipitated by misperception, poor documentation, arrogance, ignorance, and a reluctance to compromise, it is no wonder that there was no clear victor to whom might go the spoi ls. I have often characterized the war as the one that none of the combatants losr, bur that really isn't exactly correct either- the Indians lost. Many of them were fighting for both sides, bur the War of 1812 would prove to be the beginning of the end for them. Did it accomplish anything? Well, the Canadians weren't looking for anything except to be left alone-by both the Crown and their neighbor to the south, and the British certainly weren't looking to rake the American states back as a colony. And of course, neither of them started it. Did the Americans get anything out of it? They did. The Americans went to war in the cause of "free trade and sailors' rights." Following the implementation of the Treaty of Ghent, American merchants were rhen able to trade around the wo rld with whomever they wished and do it without fear of

their seamen being pressed at sea into the Royal Navy. America also proved to the world rhat this experiment in a republican form of government could indeed work. I have to agree with my friend, author and historian Joe Callo, who offers that: what the victories and defeats, mistakes on both sides, and the good and bad luck of the War of 1812 all added up to was a phenomenon that is still playing our. That phenomenon was the emergence of the United States as a global-eventually preeminent-naval power. Our security and prosperity, as well as that of much of the world, is, to a significant extent, based on American naval power, a global force that came forth in a brilliant flash of history between 1812 and 1814. Ir was a marriage of democratic political concepts ro sea power. The conjunction of American theories of liberty with global sea power in 1814 is, in my opinion, the single most important outcome of the War of 1812. And it was an enormously important outcome that h as borne heavily on world history. We ignore that message from history at great risk. ,!,

Award winning author, historian William H White specializes in the Age ofFighting Sail. In addition to the many articles he has contributed to Sea History, Mr. White is the author ofseveral nonfiction and navalfiction books, including The 1812 Trilogy: A Press of Canvas; A Fine Tops'! Breeze; and The Evening G un. In 2012, he authored" ... Our Flag Was Still There," The Sea History Press G uide to the War of 1812- Its History and Bicentennial Commemorations, published by NMHS. His most recent efforts have been in creating the Edward Ballantyne Series: When Fortune Frowns and Gun Bay-his next installment in this series will be published later in 2015. Mr. White is a life trustee of the USS Constitution Museum, a fellow of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and a trustee ofLYNX Educational Foundationserving as consultant to the reproduction 1812 p rivateer Lynx. For many years he was a trustee and officer of NMHS; he currently serves as an NMHS overseer and is an active advisor on the Sea History Edito rial Board. For more on the author and his books, see www.seafiction.net. His books are also available at www.seahistory.org.

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23


Old Maps, Ships, & Sea Monsters: A Dangerous Combination by C her Van D uze r

T

e history of sea mo nsters on maps is a long one. We have good reaso n to believe that Ro man m aps included sea m onsters, even though almost no maps survive from classical antiquity. The Ro man poet O vid in hi s Metamorphoses, which he co mpleted around the yea r 8, describes the gates of the Palace of â&#x20AC;˘"t 'l1 he Sun , on which there is a m ap-like image of the wo rld . This ""-"c''- ,M_ q,~1UAi: ORJ)" 1â&#x20AC;˘A1t11. NovA, image includes va rious sea creatures and m onsters in the ocean that surrounds the la nds, includin g whales and fish carrying deities on their backs. Ir is temp ting to thin k th at this descrip tio n was inspired by Rom a n wo rld maps that O vid had seen that included depictions of sea monsters. O n surviving medieval maps, sea monsters are fo und o n those fro m the tenth century onward , a nd, until the seventeenth century, are com mon on larger and more elaborately decorated maps. The depiction of ships on m aps has a similarly long and illustrious history, a nd ma ny m edieval and Renaissance m aps h ave depictions of both sea m on sters and ships. Yer, there is a tension betwee n these two sets of imagery: dep iction s of ships on m aps proclaim the ability of humans to nav igate safely across the m ain- they are images of confidence-while depictions of sea m onsters testify to the dangers of the deep, the perils of the unknown, and uncertainties implicit in any voyage across the wa tery element. So it is natu ral fo r ships and sea monsters to come into conflict on m aps, and in this article I will illustrate and discuss several examples of th at conflict. Sometimes maps show the prelude to the monster's arrack on ships. In this close-up (below) from Diego G utierrez's m ap of the A mericas "1he Americas, or A New and Precise D escription of the Fourth Part of the World" (1562) by Diego Gutierrez and engraver H ieronymus Cock. In the detail (below), a sea monster is threatening ships in the North Atlantic. Gutierrez had been commissioned by the King ofSpain to produce a large-scale map of the western hemisphere. H e was the first cartographer to apply the name "California" on a published map. H ieronymus Cock, the engraver from Antwerp, is credited with having added the artistic flourishes and mythical creatures.

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SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


Two ships being attacked by a giant octopus and a flying dragon near the phantom island ofBrasil in the North Atlantic on the 1367 nautical chart by brothers Francesco and Domenico Pizzigano (from jomard's facsimile ofParma, Biblioteca Palatina, Carta nautica no. 1612).

from 1562, for example, the monster-a brutish varia nt of a whale with fore limbs and a spiked back-looks menacingly towards the two ships. G iven the monster's enormous size, the ships are potentially in grave danger, but the attack has not begun and the ships do no t seem aware of the imminent catastrophe. More common was for medieval and Renaissance ca rtographers ro show the attack underway. On a hand-painted nautical chart (above) made in Venice in 1367 by the brothers Francesco and Domenico Pizzigano, two ships are shown in the Arlantic well out from mainland Europe flying Mallorcan fl ags. One of the ships is being attacked by a huge ocropus, which is pulling a sailor over the side, while a flying d ragon carries away anot her mariner. Accompanying tex t explains that "while these ships were goi ng ro port, dragons and ocropuses came and carried away men from the ships and bore them into the sea a nd left rhe ships empty." A second legend adds that "dragons lifted two men up into the air from these ships and carried them away." The ships appea r robe visiting an island in the Atlantic, and one wo nders what J,.Jas the ships were thought robe procuring there ¡ that would impel the sailors t0 undergo such rllllA perils ro reach it, bur the map provides no answers. Sirens were one of the most popular sea monsters used ro decorate maps, and according ro the earliest account of them in Homer's Odyssey, rhe creatures sing seductive songs to sai lors, inducing them to leave their ships while luring them ro their death s. Returning to Diego Gutierrez's m ap of the Americas of 1562 (right), we see two sirens facing a ship wes t of the Strait of Magellan. Both are holding mirrors and combing their hair ro emphasize their beauty-and their vanity-as they try ro entice the sa ilors from the ships.

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(right) Two sirens preen themselves and try to lure sailors off a ship in the south Pacific on the Gutierrez map.

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRJNG 2015

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A very different type of attack on a ship is depicted on a map of Asia and the Indian Ocean at the end of the 1538 Basel edition of Solinus's Polyhistor, a compilation on the wonders of the world probably written in the third century AD. On this map, a large sea monster vomits water on a ship, causing it to founder (below). In the text, Solinus describes just this type of attack by sea monsters and explains that the creature is the physetera, or spouter, a type of whale: In the Indian Ocean there are whales that measure more than two acres, which they call physeteras. They are huge, railer than great pillars, and they lift themselves up higher than a ship's masts, and having sucked in water through their blowholes, spew it out such that with this downpour they sink the ship with its crew.

Solinus's Polyhistor: (detail, below left) 1he physetera or spouter, a type ofwhale, vomits water on a ship to sink it . The Indian Ocean, distant from Europe and largely unknown, was an ocean that cartographers often populated with sea monsters. In 1539 the Swedish geographer and ecclesiastic Olaus Magnus published a map of Scandinavia and the North Sea titled Carta marina, or sea chart. Ir has a particularly rich collection of sea monsters, and a number of them are shown attacking ships at sea. This map includes one of the classic images in this category: a giant sea serpent winds itself around a ship and devours a sailor (below). In a book he published some years later, in 1555, titled Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (History of the Northern Peoples), Olaus supplies more details about this monster than he had room for on his first map:1

A giant sea serpent attacking a ship, and eating a man, on Glaus Magnus's "Carta marina. "

'Olaus Magnus, Historia de gentibus septentriona!ibus: Romae 1555 =Description of the Northern Peoples: Rome 1555, ed. Peter Foote, trans. Peter Fisher and Humphrey Higgens (London: H akl uyt Society, 1996-98), vol. 3, p. 1128.

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SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


Those who do their work aboard ship off the shores of Norway, either in trading or fishing, give unanimous testimony to something utterly astounding: a serpent of gigantic bulk, at leas t two hundred feet long, and twenty feet thick, frequents the cliffs and hollows of the seacoast near Bergen. It leaves its caves in order to devour calves, sheep, and pigs, though only during the bright summer nights, or swims through the sea to batten on octopus, lobsters, and other crustaceans . It has hairs eighteen inches long hanging from its neck, sharp, black scales, and flaming-red eyes. It assaults ships, rearing itself on high Detailfrom "Carta marina" shows whales attacking a ship as the sailors jettison like a pillar, seizes men, and devours them. barrels and a man on the ship plays a trumpet to scare the monsters away. Nevertheless, there was hope for human beings navigating the wide ocean: Olaus Magnus also describes a technique for protecting ships from sea monsters. On his map (detail, above), a ship is being m enaced by two large whales, while on the ship's stern, he has drawn a man playing a trumpet. O laus explains in his History ofthe N orthern Peoples that "Voyagers to India confirm the enormous size of these brutes, and say that... the sound of shouting and trumpets repels and disperses them ." 2 The sirens sang songs to seduce unwa ry sailors, but humans, it turns out, could protect themselves from sea monsters by playing music of their own. Cartographic depictions of sea monsters began a slow decline in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as maps became more precise and as their production came to be increasingly under the control of state agencies. Depictions of ships on maps, indicating their confidence on conquering the oceans, continued somewhat longer, but soon these decorations tended to be discarded as well. The increasingly mathematical nature of maps made them better tools for sailors , but with the passing of sea monsters from maps, they lost one of their most appealing and engaging elements. J,

Chet Van Duzer's book Sea Monsters on Medieval and Renaissance Maps, first published by the British Library in 2013, was issued in paperback in September of2014. 2

Olaus Magnus, Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus, vol. 3, p. l 088.

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SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

27


Shi s Afire at Sea

by Fraser and Jourdan Houston

Burning of the Packet Ship Boston, 1830 by Fitz H enry Lane (wa tercolor, 19.5 x 27 inches) earing the cry "Fire!" is alarming no marrer where you are, but fire aboa rd a ship at sea, where the only place to escape the Hames is the open ocean, is especially terrifying. In the Age of Sail, wooden ships carrying huge spreads of canvas and rigged with tarred fiber and wire rope were particularly vulnerable, not to mention their sometimes-flammable cargo sto red below decks. A burning ship is double jeopardy, for one must first survive the fire and then the sea. In the nineteenth century, th ree M assachuserrs vessels lost to fire are notable because each doomed ship happened to have a Bos ton artist aboard, and their recollectio ns of their fiery escapes h ave contributed to these disasters' historical record in a visually meaningful way. After su rvivin g the burning of the packet Boston off C harleston, South Caro28

Jina, in 1830, portraitist Samuel Stillman Osgood (1808-1895) went to G louces ter, Massachusem , to work with a yo ung Fitz H enry Lane to produce a painting of the disaster; Lane, of course, would later emerge as on e of the centu ry's premier m arine painters. In 1848, Nathaniel Southwo rth, a reserved artist of miniature portraits, no t only escaped the conflagration of the packet Ocean M onarch off Liverpool, but he also helped salvage the captain's reputation. Finally, in 1870, when the Boston barque Sunbeam burst into flames and exploded off the coast of Chile, a nineteen-year-old seama n-a "sh ip's boy"-fo rgo t little. Later, Marshall Johnson wo uld commit his experience to canvas in a detailed work that has only lately re-emerged. Johnson's painting and a solitary lerrer together document a concatenation of harrowing and nearmi raculous events.

The three Boston artists whose ships were consumed by fire were awa re that their contemporaries were no strangers to disaster at sea. O sgood knew of the fa te of the Boston-trained artist Nathan Negus (18011825), who achieved success and acclaim as a portrait painter but died yo ung fro m trauma after shipwreck. In May of 1825, Neg us was sailing from Alabama to M assachusetts when his ship was lost at sea and he fo und himself adri ft for nearly a month in the G ulf of M exico. Sufferin g from consumption, Neg us arrived home in early July, only to die within days of his return. Boston, 1830 Osgood h ad traveled to Charleston after spending part of a decade at sea as "a common sailor" (his words). 1 In the late 1820s, he painted portraits across New England, setting up rooms in state capitols and en-

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRJNG 201 5


virons. (Several of his portraits h ang in the National Portrait Gallery.) In 183 0, intent on studying art in England, Osgood booked passage across the Atlantic in the 350-ron Boston, built in 1828 at Thatcher Magoun's Mystic River shipyard in Massachusetts. Servin g the Boston-Liverpool trade, the Boston sailed first to C harleston to load cotton before heading across the ocean. On the evening of 18 M ay, the Boston, under the command of Captain H arvey C offin M ackay, put to sea from Charleston. Eight days out and nearly 400 miles offshore in "fresh breezes and squally weather," by evening the Boston was laborin g in heavy seas and dodging thunderstorms. Shortly after ll PM, a burst of lightning knocked down the stewa rd and a sailor "and filled the ship with electric fluid ." The vessel appeared unscathed until someone discovered that the "cotton in the main hold was on fire, fo re and aft, on both sides, burning li ke tinder." The situation immediately became desperate: "the fire had burst th ro ugh the decks and out the larboard side of the ship . . .. All on board exerted themselves to the utmost to save the ship, but without avail- about three hours had changed one of the best ships that ever floated into a complete volcano." 2 Osgood managed to stuff notes into two wine bottles communicating location and fa te of the ship, should no one survive. Twenty-three persons, including the elderly British admi ral, Sir Isaac C offin, fo und themselves "adrift on the open ocean." A tubercular passenger, Miss Ansella Boag of Manchester, England, died in a lifeboat-the sole death from the disaster. After watching the ship burn over the course of two days, the survivors encountered a brig that transferred them to the packet Camilla, bound for Bos ton. Arriving at the wh arf, O sgood recalled: "thousands had collected to see the unh appy sufferers. The young p ainter was once more in his native place, bur without a h ome."3 In the end, Sir Isaac Coffin's gratitude and friendship would help further Osgood 's career. Osgood 's recollections of the Boston ordeal contributed to an early painting by Gloucester's Fitz H enry Lane (18 04-1865). Using a sketch drawn by the Boston's fi rst officer, Elias D avis Knight, who was as-

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

sisted by O sgood, Lane portrayed the fiery disaster in a 19.5 -x-27-i nch watercolor-his earliest surviving work. Knight later wrote: Ag reeable to yo ur reques t that I wo uld w rite so meth ing to attach to the picrure in yo ur possession of the Burning of the Packet Sh ip Boston in 1830, yo ur obj ect I suppose is more fully to establish that it is really one of the earl iest productions of our fellow townsman . ..drawn the same year by Mr. Lane fro m a sketch I made soon after the disaster aided by one of the passengers S. S. O sgood, Esq. afterward a distinguished portrait painter. Mr. Lane had made no pretention [sic] . . . at this time as an artist and pro bably had received no instruction.4 Should Lane's watercolor be considered a "prim iti ve?" H is eminence as a marine artist began with the essentials: a ship almost to tally engulfed in flame, no apparent headway, a list to port, and crowded lifeboats in the fo reground. The artist's biographer, John W ilmerding, has suggested that the fiery scene bears elements of "Chinese scroll painting or Japanese prints."5 Lane's career was beginnin g in an era wh en portra it paintin g trumped both landscape and its cousin, mari ne painting. By mid-century, however, with photography over-running portrairure and with shifting tas tes, all that wo uld change. Boston mi niarurist Nathaniel Southworth (1806-1858) was still painting portraits at mid-century. Sailing fo r Italy in the fa ll of 1847, this Cape Cod sea captain's son certainly was awa re that several of his fellow Boston painters had survived a shipwreck months earlier. In May, lifeboats carrying landscapists Benj amin Champney (18 17- 19 07), H amilton G ibbs Wilde (1827-1884), and W inckworth Alan Gay (1821-19 10), landed on an island after the new clipper Anglo-Saxon struck a ledge off Nova Scotia, with no fa talities. 6 Irresistibly perhaps, C hampney sketched fellow passengers and the wreck. One image that included the sh ip "on her beam ends and full of water" was soon lithographed by Lane & Scott- none other than Fitz H . Lane, proprietor.

Ocean Monarch, 1848 A fter n early a year abroad , Southwo rth boarded the Boston packet Ocean Monarch in Liverpool. Underway, Southwo rth shared breakfas t with the ship's captain, Boston ian Jam es M urdock (1808-1883), wh o h ad ta ken command of the 1,300 -ton Ocean Monarch at its launch barely a year ea rlier. D esigned for the emigrant trade and built by Donald McKay of clipper ship renown, the Ocean M onarch served in Enoch Train's line of Liverpool packe ts. For th is 1848 passage, O cean M onarch had 396 souls aboard-322 of them in steerage. OffOrmshead along the northern coast of Wales, a steward sounded the alarm of "fire below," sayin g "o ne of the steerage passengers h ad m ade a fire in one of the ventilators without reflection ." Despite maneuvering the ship to position the flames downwind of the vessel and other efforts to suppress the fire, M urdock recalled, "in less than five minutes the whole stern of the ship was completely enveloped in the fiery elemen t. ... All was now a scene of the utmost confusion, noise and disorder. My orders could not be heard ... . In their maddened despair, women jumped overboard with their offspring in their arms, and sunk to rise no more. Men followed their wives in frenzy, and we re lost." Shortly, the "mizzenmast went overboard, and the main mas t soon followed." 7 The O cean Monarch tragedy was the subject of three sequential paintings by British artist Samuel Walters (1811-1882); the second of the series is reproduced here (see image next page). In the scene, the foremas t remains intact, with humanity crowded for wa rd-even on the jibboom , and rescue vessels are nearby. The vessel to the left is the cutter yacht Queen ofthe Ocean, which was first on the scene and picked up thirty-two survivors. To the right is the Brazilian naval steam fri gate Ajfonzo, also participating in the rescue. H ad not these and several other vessels been in proximity, the death roll, bad enough at 178 , wo uld h ave been worse. Alth ough a British court of inquiry "exonerated [Murdock] from all blame," some Bostonians initially harbored doubts. 8 Southworth came to the captain's defense: the Boston Evening Transcript wrote that M urdock "manifes ted the utmost coolness 29


and self-possession; and the insinuation that he was unduly excited from any cause is wholly untrue." Furthermore, Southworth asserted, while he himself had been in one of the two lifeboats, "Captain M. was in neither." 9

Sunbeam, 1870 The most compelling story and resulting painting of a fiery shipwreck has to be the 1870 burning and explosion of the barque Sunbeam. Nineteen-year-old M arshall Johnson (1850-1921), also ofBoston, sailed aboard the barque, having been hired as a

ship's "boy." Fifteen years later, his reputation as a marine artist growing, Johnson memorialized the Sunbeam in a large canvas titled "Ship Afire at Sea," depicting identifiable su rvivors amid the heat and fury of the confl agration {see image next page). The 798-ton Sunbeam was built in Chelsea, Massachusetts, in 1865, and served the South American Pacific trade of Boston merchant Augustus Hemenway (1805 1876). The ship's master, John Chadwick (1822- 1885), had sailed for Hemenway since 1854. The Sunbeam's first officer was

George Abbott (1829-1880), a Salem native and former captain of the Harriet Ewing, who had assisted in the 1867 rescue of the warship USS Sacramento's crew off M adras, India. 10 Sixteen others made up the remainder of the crew, including Johnson, son of a Boston weigher and gauger. After loading cargo at Iquequi, Peru, Sunbeam put to sea on 13 March 1870, bound for Tome, Chile. Nearly three weeks out and eighty miles off the Chilean coast, a "seething volcano" burst from Sunbeam's after hold as fumes were ignited from an "open light." Ir began with the second

Burning of the Ocean Monarch off the Great Orne, 24 August 1848 by Samuel Walters (41 x 52 inches, oil on canvas) Launched only the previous year, and considered one of the finest and largest ships ever built in the United States at the time, the Ocean Monarch was a notable addition to Enoch Trains White D iamond Line of Boston-to-Liverpool sailing packets. H er total loss aroused enormous public sympathy on both sides ofthe A tlantic. Walters created at least three paintings depicting successive stages ofthe conflagration and rescue attempts, this being the intermediate one, when only the foremast was still standing. First on the scene was the cutter yacht Queen of the Ocean, commanded by Thomas Littledale, Commodore of the Royal Mersey Yacht Club, seen to the left in the painting, having launched her boat to pick up survivors. On the right is the Liverpool-built Brazilian naval steam frigate Affonzo. H aving started in the aft cabin, the flames have now reached the bow, with a small group crowdingforwa rd ofthe foremast and out onto the headrig. The jib boom has given way, and some desperate survivors are using it as a means of escape. Women and children too terrified to make any such attempt were rescued by Frederick J erome, a British crew member of the nearby American sailing packet New World. H aving climbed aboard by means ofthe trailing gear and rigging, he succeeded in lowering them to within reach ofthe waiting rescuers. Shortly afterwards the foremast fell, and within a Jew hours the Ocean Monarch burned down to the waterline and sank. 30

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


mare's desire to give "rhe upper deck a little neater appearance ... usually a cautious mariner, by an act devoid of pruden ce, caused the picture of contentedness to suddenly change to one of dismay and dearh." 11 "Nothing could be done. Smoke all around, blinding, suffocating, and the boats could nor be reached." 12 W ith hundreds of tons of saltpeter in her hold, fire and explosions rapidly engulfed the vessel; saltpeter, or potassium nitrate, an oxidant and otherwise stable, can explode in the presence of fire. In ten minutes, the mainmast was toppling; in three minutes more, it was over the side. After explosions destroyed the forward hold, the Sunbeam, "with the last bubbling hiss," plunged bows-first into the sea. Twelve m en , including Johnson, the captain, and his fo urteen-year-old son jumped into the sea. Six others were less fort unate. The whaler Charles W Morgan, then in her third year of a whaling voyage, was also off the coast of Chile, sailing in fair weather, when her lookout sighted a huge

smoke plume. Crowding on sail, the Morgan arrived two hours later at the debris field that had been the Sunbeam, and rescued survivors. A light sea and the proximity of the Morgan at the time of her sinking were simply miraculous. The Morgan's log was succi nct: "Ship Sunbeam ... took fire at 15 minutes past 12 [meridian] and in 20 minutes nothing of the ship visible from mas t head ... rook fire from a light [candle] while drawing va rnish." 13 Two weeks later, the Chad wicks arrived in New York via steamer from Aspinwall, Panama, carrying the spar that had saved them in the open ocean. The captain soon turned landsman and became the port superintendent for the City of Boston while supervising shipbuilding projects for the Hemenways . Ir would be ano ther fifteen yea rs before the ship's boy-turned painter wo uld immortalize the Sunbeam disaster on ca nvas. By then, his reputation as an artist was well established, and in December of 1885 he started working on the first of two paintings that recalled the drama of his experience

aboard the Sunbeam. In Ship Afire at Sea (image below), Johnson illuminates himself and others by both fire and the mid-day sun. This painting was one he likely held until his death, as it was listed in his property probate in 1921. Its wherabouts after his death were unknown for decades, but the painting recently emerged at auction. Johnson made a second painting of the disaster, titled Ship Sunbeam of Boston Burning at Sea, which differs slightly. Ir is presently unaccounted for, except for a black-and-white photograph of it held by the Exeter Historical Society in New Hampshire. The second image was also reproduced in a monograph reviewing the life of Augustus Hemenway and his shipping company.14 When Captain C hadwick returned to New York after h aving been plucked from the sea by the Charles W Morgan crew, his acco unt of the loss of his ship appeared in newspapers coast to coast. A subsequent letter by Marshall Johnson, published in the 1901 Sea Breeze of the Boston Seaman's Friend Society, contributed much more

Ship Afire at Sea by Marshall Johnson (24 x 36 inches, oil on canvas)

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15

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detail of the ordeal and several more nearmiraculous ci rcum stances. W hen queried about the lette r, Johnson wro te: "the account is precisely correct acco rding to my recollection of the event." 15 It appea rs th at, despite the captain's order to close the hatches and clear away the lifeboats, fl ames burning "with volcanic uprush" prevented the crew fro m complying. Johnson added a second reason: "It was impossible; they [the boats] were filled with potatoes"- no m iracle there. 16 A studding-sa il spar fell fro m the burning rigging, and, on the captain's order, a sailor cut it free and sent it overboard. The sailor and the captain, clutching his son A lfred, foll owed the spar into the sea. Th e first m ate, already in the water, joined them-they are the four clinging to the spar in the painting. A "young sailor swam up to them, but, finding the weight of another hand too much fo r the already overloaded spar, soon fo und a resting place on another piece of w reckage." 17 In the painting's right fo reground is "part of the mizzen to pmas t," and it is Marshall Jo hnson who is upon it. 18 Before jumping overboard, the captain ordered a sailor aft, one H ans A nderson, who "crawled along the chain plates outside" and "hove the wheel to port," bringing the sh ip into the wind. Indeed, Sunbeam's sails are backed in the painting. Li cked by fl ames, the sailor "jumped ove r the taffrail. .. but instead of the sea .. .he landed in the ship's quarterboat [the captain's gig] . The intense flames had so precisely burned the fa lls and gripes which held the boat that she fell into the water on

an even keel, and drifted under the stern .. .. The boat was on fire, but not badly, and the flames we re soon extinguished." 19 In the p ainting, the qua rterboat's charred hull is clearly depicted; that it survived was another near miracle: The boat in which we we re saved was, fortunately a ceiled boat; 20 fo r the outer shell was so badly charred that when we we re taken aboa rd the Morgan I could punch my fi nger through her bilge. A mere to uch upon a piece of wreckage, or any exposure to severe weather wo uld have been perilous in the extreme.21 Johnson also described the six lost: The 2d mate went down when she sank holding to the martingale. The carpenter was overcome by gas and fell into the hold ... The steward was drowned lashed to a spar fas t to the ship and went down with her. The others [three] were d rowned who could not swim.22 The Charles W M organ took aboard twelve survivors. The ship's log describes a "sailor boy," most certai nly M arshall Johnson, who, "as he stepped into a d ry suit. . . drew from the pocket of his we t trousers a coin bearing the inscription, In God We Trusr." 23 Captain C h adwick h auled the Sun beam's spar back to Exeter, New H ampshire, where he mounted it on a flagpole at his home on Pine Street. Philips Exeter

Academy built the Exeter Inn on the site of C hadwick 's home in 1932, but the pole and the "Chadwick spar" remained until fin ally rotting away in 1979. The spar was such a piece of Exeter history that it was replaced with a repl ica by the C hadwick fa mily, the Academy, and the Exeter Historical Society in 1984. The inn's C hadwi ck Room held not only some of the sea captain's nautical memorabilia but also the second M arshall Johnson painting of the Sunbeam burnin g. The scene is minutes later th an its near twi n: the list to port is greater, the vessel has slowed, the mainmas t is beginning to topple, and fo reground objects have moved . It is likely that the canvas was executed nearly contemporaneously with the other due to their close similarity. This painting's fate after the Academy sold the inn is unclear. That it hung in the Exeter Inn, located on C hadwick 's fo rmer homestead , suggests that it was painted for him. M arshall John son, who never gave up sailing, spent his life painting the sea and ships. Ultimately, his estate was meagerexcept fo r his spectacular, fiery painting, a memorial of the event that almos t cost him his life, Ship Afire at Sea . ;t.

Afan Fraser H ouston, a graduate of Amherst Coffege and Boston University Schoof of Medicine, served in the US Navy from 1970 to 1972. He and his wife, Jourdan, have published articles in A merican A rt Review; Montana: The Magazine of Western History; Cali fo rn ia History; and other historical publications. lhis is their third article for Sea History.

NOTES 1

" Burn ing of the Packet Shi p Boston, A Scene fro m rhe Life of O sgood th e Painter," London Court Magazine, n.d ., C li p, Fran ces Sargent Locke Osgood Papers, 1838- 185 0 (Ms Am 1355), Houghton Library, H arva rd University. 2 "Loss of t he Packet Shi p Boston," New York Evening Post, 3 Ju ne 183 0, p. 2. 3 " Burn ing of th e Packet Ship Boston, A Scene fro m the Lite of O sgood the Painter," London Court M agazine, n.d ., O sgood Papers. ' John W ilmerd in g, Fitz H ugh Lane(New York: Praeger Publ ishers, 197 1), p. 18. Kn ight's 1869 lercer was to Lane's fr iend , Joseph Stevens of G loucester. s w ilmerd ing, p. 19. 6 "Loss of the A nglo Saxo n," Boston Evening Transcript, 15 May 1847, p. 2 and Benj ami n C hampn ey, Sixty Years' M emories ofArt and A rtists (Wo burn , Mass.; Wa llace and A ndrews, 1900), pp. 80-8 4. 7 Farmer's Cabinet, Amh erst, N H , 14 Se pte mber 1848, Vo l. 47, Iss ue 5, p. 2. 8 International Marine Engineering, Vol. 15, September 19 10, p. 398. 9 "Capta in M urdoch " (sic), Boston Evening Transcript, 11 September 1848, p. 2. "Loss of the Ocean Mo narch," 13 Sepe. 1848, p. 2, a nd 22 Janua ry 1849, p. 2. "George Granv ill e Pucnam, Salem Vessels and Their Voyages (Sa lem, Mass ., Essex Institu te, 1924), pp . 343-344.

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11 Evening Telegraph (Ph iladelphi a) , May 11, 1870, p. 8. "New York Herald, 11 May 1870. 13 Log 147 (1867-70), Charles W Morgan , (Sh ip: 184 1), G . W. Blunt W hi te Library, Myst ic Seaport, Cc. Geo rge Athea rn, Master. G ift of M rs. C ha rles M . Hussey, pp. 237-8 . 14 Frederick A. Eustis, A ugustus Hemenway, 1805-1876, Builder of the United States Trade with the West Coast of South America, (Sa lem: Peabody Museum, 1955). p. 64. 15 The Sea Breeze, pub li shed by th e Boston Seama n's Friend Society, Boston , Mass., O ctober, 1901 , XIV, No. I, p. 3. 16 Eustis, p. 83. 17 Sea Breeze, p. 2. 18 Eustis, p. 84. 19 Sea Breeze, p. 2. 20 "Ceiled " denotes an inner lin in g o r plankin g, in effect, a double hu ll. 21 Sea Breeze, p. 3. 22 Eustis, p. 84. 23 Sea Breeze, p. 3.

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


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HISTORIC SHIPS ON A LEE SHORE

The Resurrection ofLCT 7074, a D-Day Survivor

by Nick Hewitt

n the late 1930s, as Great Britain was being drawn into World War II, the British were investigating how to convey tanks and materiel across the seas to conduct an attack on foreign soil, and the task of designing the first tank landing craft fell to Rowland Baker, a member of the British Royal Corps of Naval Constructors. Baker came up with an austere shallow-draft tank ferry, and in 1940 construction began on the first of its rype, the LCT Mark I, at R & W Hawthorn, Leslie and Co., Ltd., on the Tyne; it was launched in November of that same year. Incorporated in its design were several novel features, including a front-loading ramp hinged just above the waterline and a double floating dock form of hull, enabling the vehicles in the hold to be concealed from view and protected from the elements by the side tanks, from which a canvas cover was suspended. Propulsion was provided by a Paxman diesel engine. A total of235 LCT (Landing Craft, Tank) Mark 3s, the most numerous British-built rype, were completed over the next few years, including sevenry-one built to slightly modified plans during the winter of 1943-44. Among these was the LCT 7074; like the others, it was built by H awthorn Leslie, but it was powered by American Sterling Admiral engines. 7074 was launched without ceremony on 4 April 1944, then completed and commissioned shortly afterwards. With a crew of rwo officers and ten ratings, the vessel transited to the River Orwell in Suffolk under the command of Sub Lt. John Baggot, RNVR (Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve), a rwenry-year-old trainee solicitor from Swindon, Wiltshire. 7074 joined the 17th LCT Flotilla at Great Yarmouth before steaming onwards to Felixstowe to prepare for the build-up to D-Day. The new purpose-built LCTs, which could carry up to eleven Sherman tanks, would make up the backbone of the invasion fleet. Manned primarily by British crews, the LCTs transported most of the tanks, heavy artillery, and armored vehicles that landed in Normandy. The 17th LCT Flotilla was part of Assault Group L2, LCT Squadron "H " of the Eastern Task Force, which supported the British landings (made up of rwo British divisions, one Canadian division, plus rwo army units and one Royal Marine Commando unit) . 7074 carried troops and a mix of ten Sherman,

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D-Day was the largest amphibious operation in history, in which more than 7, 000 ships and watercraft of all sizes, including more than 800 LCTs, landed over 160, 000 soldiers on the beaches ofN ormandy. Ofthis fleet, 7074 is the only surviving D-Day LCT (Right, top to bottom) LCT 7074; loading tanks on to the LCTs; convoy across the channel,¡ landing tanks and personnel on the beaches of Normandy, 6 June 1944.

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SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


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Wirral. The Trusr was awarded a Herirage Lorrery Fund (HLF) granr ro fund rhe vessel's resrorarion, bur, before any real work was complered, rhe Trusr wenr inro liquidarion. The ships in irs care were rransferred by default ro rhe ownership of Peel Holdings, rhe properry developer who had purchased rhe sire, afrer rhe Treasury Soliciror declined rhem on behalf of rhe narion. LCT sank ar her mooring in 2010 and rem ained rhere unril recenrly. LCTs were rhe workhorses of rhe amphibious war efforr; rheywere builr simply and quickly and nor expecred ro survive rhe war. LCT 7074 is rhe only surviving landing craft from the D-Day invasion. In January 2014, rhe Narional Museum of (above) LCT 7074 on the Liverpool waterfront, 2009. (below) LCT 7074 sank at the rhe Royal Navy (NMRN) began ro invesrigare rhe dock in 2010 and remained on the bottom until October 2014, when she was refloated feasibiliry of refloaring rhe vessel, moving her ro and transferred to the semi-submersible heavy Lift ship Condock V (bottom right). irs facility in Porrsmourh, and resroring rhe vessel ro her original srare as a rank landing crafr. A Narional H erirage Memorial Fund granr of jusr under a million pounds, awarded in May 201 4, funded rhe firsr phase of rhis projecr. LCT 7074 was refloared in Ocrober 201 4 and rransferred ro Porrsmourh by rhe semi-submersible heavy lift ship Condock Vin December. Oprions are being appraised for her long-rerm display and inrerprerarion, wirh a proposal ro open her ar Porrsmourh's D-Day museum in rime ro coincide wirh rhe museum's redesign and rhe 75 rh anniversary ofD-Day Cromwell, and Sruarr ranks ro Normandy, successfully landing in 2019 being rhe favored choice ar presenr. For rhe rime being, nine of rhe ranks on Gold Beach on D-Day. For several monrhs rhe vessel is being srored ar Porrsmourh Naval Base while plans are afrer rhe invasion, 7074 was consisrently engaged in ferrying rroops, finalized ro complere her resrorarion. 1. supplies, vehicles, and ammunirion ro porrs across the English Channel in supporr of rhe Allied Forces advancing across norrhern Nick Hewitt is the Strategic Development Executive far the National Europe, conrinuing in rhis role rhroughour rhe summer and well Museum ofthe Royal Navy. (www.nmrn. org.uk) inro rhe fall of 1944. In a region withour a base or frie ndly porr, rhe landing craft proved crirical ro rhe success of rhe invasion. Ar rhe end of rhe war, 7074 was re-named NSC L (19)-for Naval Srores Craft (Lighrer). Work was srarred ro converr her inro an emergency repai r ship for service in rhe Far Easr, bur wirh rhe end of hosriliries in rhe Pacific, rhis efforr was abandoned. Decommissioned in 1948, she was larer presented ro the Master Mariners' Club of Liverpool and adapted ro become rheir club ship. Her name was ch anged ro LandfaLL, and over the years she occupied a prominenr position on the Liverpool waterfront before being purchased by commercial inrerests and rurned into a riverfront nightclub. Towards the end of the 1990s, the vessel was acquired by the Warship Preservarion Trust and, after minor restoration work, was moored alongside the other hisroric vessels at East Float Dock, Dock Road , Birkenhead, SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

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Schooner Sherman Zwicker Making the Transition from Sail to Power on the Grand Banks

by James Wilkes

ried salted groundfish, primarily cod and haddock, was the pri ncipal seafood sold in the American market until the mid-twentieth century. The wooden schooners fishing the Grand Banks to bring us these fish have a long and celebrated history, made famous by the International Fishing Races of the 1920s and '30s, and its great rivalries between schooners like the Nova Scotian Bluenose and Gloucester's Gertrude L. 1hebaud. Outside these events, hundreds of other schooners went about their business, carrying dories and dorymen to the Grand Banks to fish with handlines and longline trawls. In the first half of the twentieth century, fishermen began installing diesel engines into existing schooners and new builds were being designed to carry auxiliary powe r from the ou tset. Gloucester's

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1926 schooner Adventure, fo r example, was equipped with a 120HP diesel, but she carried the same lofty sail plan as her sailonly predecessors. The next step in the evolution of the Grand Banks fishing schooner came with vessels like the 1942 Sherman Zwicker, built in the same shipyard as Bluenose. The Zwicker was built with a sailingship hull, but with a reduced rig. Like her sailing sisters before her, Sherman Zwicker carried dories on deck and fished according to the traditions long associated with the Grand Banks fishery. The schooner Sherman Zwicker was constructed and launched in March of 1942 at the Smith and Rhuland Shipyard in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. She was built for Zwicker and Co. for dory fishing on the Grand Banks. Ninety percent of her catch was cod and haddock, and ten percent was hake, halibut, flounder, and other bottom fish. The vessel was named for then eleven-yearold Sherman Zwicker (1930-2004), who would later become president of the company and mayor of Lunenburg. Over the years, as technology and fishing methods evolved, dory fishing became unprofitable, (above and left) The Grand Banks fishing vessel Sherman Zwicker at the Zwicker and Co. docks, Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.

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particul arly because of the introduction of facrory ships and highly efficient fi shin g trawlers on the Grand Banks. Sherman Zwicker left the fishing industry in 1968 and was sold to a private owner, who h ad her resto red and maintained her as an o perational museum ship in Maine. The Grand Ban ks Schooner Museum Trust kept the ship operational and open to the public until las t May (2014), when she was sold to a pair of brothers who brought the schooner to Manhattan and set her up as an oyster bar on deck while maintaining her as a museum below decks. Sherman Zwicker was built as a modifi ed schooner with a diesel engine as her prima ry power source. The Zwicker was rigged with shortened masts and sailed with a tri angular mainsail with neither gaff nor boo m . Like Adventure, the Zwicker has a knockabout bow (no bowsprit), designed to keep her crew off the dangerous bowsprit, appro priately called the "widowmaker." Sails were used fo r auxiliary power and to steady the vessel in rough seas, much like a modern shi p's use of stabilizers. The Zwicker can cruise at ni ne-and-a-half knots using the engine, and fi ve knots under sail power

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In summer months, the Zwicker a was Long-time fixture at the M aine M aritime Museum waterfront in Bath, Maine, until fast sp ring, when she moved permanently to N ew York City. alone with a fair breeze. H er frames and keel are white and red oak, planking is Southern pin e, and her decks and mas ts are D ouglas fir. Twelve dories were carried on deck, nested six to a side, port and starboard. Nestled in the engine space is a 1939 Fairbanks-Morse eight-cylinder diesel engine (Model 35 F l OM). The engine operates on the two-cycle principle, in which two strokes of the piston (one complete revolutio n of the crankshaft) are necessary to co mplete each cycle. A five-inch drive shaft

connects the engine with a three-blade propeller, five feet in diameter. The engine is an air start, direct reversibl e marine engine-there is no reverse gear. To go as tern under power, the crew had to shut the engine down, reverse the cams, and then restart the engine. Fairbanks-Morse model numbers are a combination of three different designations: design year, letter designation, and bore size. Design year is the yea r that the design was implemented (1932, '35, '37, etc.). Letter designations include A fo r a flapper-type blower, E, F, and Y for a crankcase air scavenging system, and D for a piston-type blower. Sherman Zwicker has an engine des igned in 1935 with a crank case air scavenging system and a 10-inch bore. The engine's cylinders use rope wicks the size of ordinary clothesline, about two inches in length and soaked in potassium nitrate (saltpeter), fo r use as glow plugs. Each cylinder's cas ing head has a threaded plug with a recess into which the wick is placed . After the wick is lighted and glowing, the plug is screwed back into the cylinder head. The engine uses approximately fifteen gallon s of diesel per hour at full capacity; the Z wicker carried 4,000 gallons of fuel when she was an active fishing vessel. A British-made Lister auxiliary diesel engine is mounted on the starboard side of the engine roo m and is used for pumping water, compressing air, and generating electricity. Th e compressed air is stored in three tanks in the engine room's port bulkhead Looking aft alo ng the p ort side, with seas pouring over the rail.

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 201 5

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and is used ro roll rhe engine's cylinders over for scarring. The Lisrer engine operared consrandy when rhe boar was ar sea. Sherman Zwicker sailed wirh a crew of rwenry-eight men, including a captain, first mate, engineer, cook, and, at times, a cabin boy. The remaining crew members were fishermen who manned the rwelve dories, rwo men per boar. For a rypical trip ro the Grand Banks, sale and bait were loaded at Lunenburg; she then sailed Down East ro Newfo undland, where the fishermen joined the crew. The men would remain with the ship until the end of the last trip of the season. Once on the banks, dories were lowered over rhe side and rowed or sailed ro rhe fishing grounds. Each dory crew sec its trawl,

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anchors, and floating kegs at each end. A rypical trawl line measured a mile-and-a-half long and was bai ted with approximately 800 hooks. Abour three or four times a day, the trawl would be hauled in by hand, hooks re-baited, and reset. Sherman Zwicker wo uld sail down the line of dories and "lighten" them when fishing was good. The dorymen wo uld row or sail back ro the Zwicker and pitchfork their catch onto rhe deck. This was rhe era before refrigeratio n, and when all boats and men were back on board at the end of the day, the men split, cleaned, and transferred the fish ro the hold where they were salted. When the fishing was good, work was often still going on until midnight. Fishing would continue without a break until the hold was full and the captain set a course for home. Sherman Zwicker's hold could carry abour 320,000 pounds of fish, all salt cured. Berween March and mid-September, three six- toeighr-week-long trips were made to the Grand Banks from Nova Scotia. The fishermen would be paid off in Lunenburg and have ro make their own way back to Newfoundland. In the off season during the fall and winrer, Sherman Zwicker made trips to the Caribbean carrying salt-cured fish and returned with a hold full of salt and rum. (tiOp ) A two-man dory crew sets out from the Zwicker loaded with gear for catching ground.fish on the fishing banks. (left) Back to the mothership with a full dory.

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After decades of ownership and preservation by the Grand Banks Schooner Museum Trust, the Zwicker was put up for sale in 2012. Last year, the Trust entered into an agreement to transfer ownership of Sherman Zwicker to the Maritime Foundation of Delaware and New York City, a new non-profit created by brothers Alex and Miles Pincus, who promise to preserve the ship's heritage by operating her as a nonprofit museum ship below decks and a forprofit seasonal oyster bar called "Grand Banks" on deck from May to October. The ship is now berthed at Pier 25 in New York City at the Hudson River Park, home to other historic ships including the 1933 lighthouse tender Lilac and the 1907 tug

Pegasus.

Sherman Zwicker was a transitional design, bridging the gap from all-sail fishing to diesel propulsion , but in time she was made obsolete by faster and more efficient fishing vessels and methods. When she retired from her fishing career, she was immediately recognized as one of the last of her kind. Her new owner, Captain George McEvoy of Boothbay Harbor, Maine, converted her into a museum ship but kept her fully operational. He created the Grand Banks Schooner Trust to own, maintain, and operate the vessel. For more than thirty years, the Zwicker docked at the Maine Maritime Museum in Bath, Maine, where docents provided tours to museum visitors. Each fall, the schooner left Bath under her own power and motored down the Kennebec River to winter over in nearby Boothbay Harbor. Under sail in the North Atlantic. SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

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You can learn more abo ut this new chapter in Sherman Zwicker's li fe by visiting the Pincus brothers' website at www.grandbanks.org. Or, next May when they reopen, visit the ship and down some oysters onboard. 1, James Wilkes was a long-time volunteer aboard Sherman Zwicker while she operated out ofthe Maine Maritime Museum in Bath, Maine, and helped train docents new to the vessel. In addition, he volunteers on Eagle Island in Casco Bay, summer home ofAdmiral Robert E. Peary. He is a retired superintendent ofschools. (right) Sherman Zwicker's new role as the Grand Banks oyster bar in New York City. Inspired by the history of the oyster barges that lined the lower Manhattan waterfront in the nineteenth-century, the Pincus brothers sought to revive the spirit ofwhat they represented with the Grand Banks oyster bar and newly formed Maritime Foundation. Both experienced sailors and entrepreneurs, the Pincuses collaborated with restaurant veterans Mark Firth and Adrian Gallo. What they came up with was a joint venture between the not-for-profit Maritime Foundation and the hospitality group Arts & Leisure. 1he Maritime Foundation seeks to preserve and interpret maritime artifacts (including maintaining, operating, and exhibiting historic vessels) and educate the public about maritime culture and marine ecology. A share of their earnings goes to support maritime conservation, education, and preservation. In 2014, Grand Banks donated over $ 60, 000 to restore healthy rivers, to develop oysters habitats in New York H arbor, and to preserve at-risk historic seagoing vessels. As part of the Grand Banks' educational mission, the Maritime Foundation presented an on board exhibition in 2014 about maritime history and curated a lecture series on topics from nautical culture to aquatic sustainability.

MAINE MARITIME MUSEUM

THE ART OF WILLIAM E. CUMMINGS A Waterman's Life Captured on Canvas Canvas Giclee Prints Limited Edition of 100

Where Maine's Sea Story Began • Visit the only surviving shipyard in the U.S. w here woode n ships were built • Get a clo se -up loo k at naval vessels under construction from the water or by trolley • See the life-size sc ulpture of Wyoming, the largest woode n vesse l ever built • Ne w Lobsterin g Exhibit: Summer 2015

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THE PARTNERS-16" HIGH X 20" WIDE ON STRETCHER $275-ROLLED $250 $15 s/h-Maryland residents add 6% sales tax

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tilghmanheritage@msn.com

www.tilghmanmuseum.org

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


MARITIME HISTORY ON THE I NTERNET

by Peter McCr acken

I've Got a Citation; How Do I Find the Article?

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few weeks ago, my art historian wife needed to use Ship lndex.org to track a British naval ship. Of course I was excited about the additional revenue, but her next question was somewhat inevitable: "D o you h ave access to Mariner's Mirror?" Finding a specific article after you've fo und the citation is a tricky thing, especially if yo u're n ot affi liated with an academic institution, but there are a few paths to take. In 2000, my brothers and I a nd a friend started a company called Serials Solutions with the goal of solving the problem described above. Each installation is custom ized fo r a specific library, but yo u can still use the resource as a pl ace to start. (D isclaimer: I left that company in 2009, and have no affi liation with it anymore.) Also, competi ng products do the same thing, and they' ll work fo r this example, too . In fact, yo u'll find that the institution yo u select ends up being more imp ortant th an the vendor creating its list. Yo u ca n start your search at hom e online but, depending on the reso urce, yo ur physical presence in a good library may be required in the end. If you have access to a nea rby library, it's wor th starting at their website. If it's an academic library, then they almost certainly have an e-jou rnal list, which you can access from off-campus in most cases. M ost- but certain ly not allacademic libraries will allow local communi ty members to use the databases to which they subscribe. I live a mile from Cornell University; I have no affili ation w ith them , bu t I can access their database online and then fo llow up in the library on campus if need be. To see their list, go to http://library.cornell.edu , then click on "E-jou rnal Titles" just under the sea rch box. M ost public libraries have a simil ar list; as k the librarian if you can't locate it on their homepage. If you don't live near a major research library, or yo u'd like comprehensive res ults, yo u might as well start at the top. Harvard 's list is at http://hu l.harvard.edu/lib/j ournals.html; the Library of Congress h as a list at http://eresou rces.loc.gov/search rS2 (they ac tually have multiple products that do this; each are linked under "O t h er E-J ou rnal Tools," and only one ac tually requires a login); Cambridge University's list is at http://bit.ly/CambEjnls. These e-journal lists, which generally include current and histo ric newspapers, magazines, freely accessible journals, so me

books, scholarly journals, and other content, will guide yo u to the databases that yo u need . It's often helpful to start sea rch ing at a few of the largest research libraries to find out which databases contain the content yo u need ; from there, yo u can determine if a library near you has any of those databases. M ost libraries will h ave a page where they list all of their databases, and that can be a helpful tool for figuring out where to go. Or, through the largest collections, yo u can usually find out which publisher (if any) offers the journal, and whether you ca n purchase an article di rectly from the publisher. Be fo rewarned: this can be an expensive route. Taylor & Francis, current pub lisher of Mariner's Mirror, sells PDF versions of their articles fo r $39 per article. The Nautical Research G ui ld, on the other hand, sells selected articles of their journal, Nautical Research journal, fo r $2.50 each at h ttp: //www. thenrg.org, and a complete run of the journal on C D for the cos t of one issue of Mariner's Mirror. There are other options, of course. You can check your local library's online catalog to see if it has the magazine in print, and, if so, which issues it owns. (Som e libraries include electronic journal holdings in the online catalog, whi le some include print journals in the e-journals list-others just h ave two different places one must look. Its on line catalog, however, will accurately show its print journal holdings .) Yo u can also check the journal title in WorldCat (h ttp: //worldcat .org) and then ty pe in your Z IP or postal code to find libra ries near yo u that own the title. Note, however, that Wo rldCat doesn't include all public library holdings and is less co mprehensive outside the US. It also won't indicate the issues or dates that a library holds, and yo u will still need to check the libra ry's local catalog to see if it has the specific issue you seek. Yo ur local public library will almost always be able to obtain articles fo r yo u th rough its interlibrary loan service; while they usually do not ch arge fo r this service, they welcome yo ur fin ancial support so they can continue doing this good wo rk. Sugges tions for other sites worth mentioning are welcome at peter@sh ipindex.org. See http: //shipind ex.org for a free compilation of over 150,000 ship names fro m indexes to dozens of books and journals. ,t

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Membership includes the quarterly Nautical Research Journal with articles by know ledgeable wrirers feacuring ship model building and research of alJ periods, merchant, naval and maritime history. Other member benefits include a Technical Assistance network, a Lending Library, an Annual Conference, Symposiums and an extensive list of Reso urces and Links.

1-585-968-8111 â&#x20AC;˘ www.theNRG.org SEA H ISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15

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THE NATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY PARTNERS WITH THE We are pleased to invite you to join us for the Washington Awards Dinner, in partnership with the Naval Historical Foundation (NHF), on Thursday, 23 April, at the renowned National Press C lub across from Pennsylvania Avenue. This is a festive gathering of the maritime community to recognize the contributions of three esteemed honorees to our maritime heritage and maritime industry. It is an auspicious year; 2015 marks the centennial of the US Naval Reserve and the office of Chief of Naval Operations, as well as the lOOth anniversary of the joining of the Revenue C utter Service and the Lifesaving Service to form the United States Coast Guard. Chairing rhe dinner will be Dr. William Dudley, a distinguished naval historian and aurhor on the boards of both NMHS and NHF, and CAPT James Noone, USNR (Ret.), managing director of Mercury Public Relations and a director of the Naval Historical Foundation. Distinguished yachtsman, author, television commentator, past president of US Sailing and president of the National Sailing Hall of Fame Gary Jobson will be master of ceremonies, and the US Coast Guard Academy Cadet Singers will be performing.

Harold F. "Gerry" Lenfest A graduate of Washington and Lee University and Columbia Law School, Mr. Lenfest served in the US Navy aboard destroyers, retiring with the rank of captain. He went on to practice law, eventually joining Triangle Publications, Inc., as associate counsel in 1965. He was placed in charge of Triangle's communications division; in 1974, Mr. Lenfest formed a new company, which purchased two of Triangle's cable companies, and grew the company to one of the nation's top cable television companies before its acquisition by Comcast in 2000. Gerry Lenfest is a dedicated philanthropist; his projects range from the Lenfest Ocean Program, funding research about ocean sustainability and fisheries, to education programs and cultural institutions. His donation of $5.8 million to the SS United States Conservancy enabled that organization to purchase the famed ocean liner, which they plan to restore and adapt to a multiuse venue and museum space celebrating its history. This past year he, along with Bob Hildreth, committed $2.8 million to restore the historic schooner Ernestina-Morrissey. This is one of America's most important ships and one the Society has been instrumental in saving, which makes us particularly honored to be able to recognize Mr. Lenfest. For his invaluable support of historical organizations, our oceans, and the vessels that carry our maritime history, we will be recognizing Mr. Lenfest with the NMHS Distinguished Service Award. Mr. Lenfest served as a reservist in the US Navy, where he learned to get along with people of widely varying backgrounds, to value integrity, and to reward good performance-sterling elements of character which help explain his personal success. The award will be presented by VADM Robin Braun, Chief of Navy Reserve and Commander, Navy Reserve.

Silent Auction We hope you will join us in celeb rating the Washington Awards Dinner by participating in this year's silent auction, which gives maritime enthusiasts a chance to own and experience unique nautical pieces, rare maritime arr, insider tours and luxurious resort getaways while supporting the Society and making it possible for us to continue our work honoring esteemed contributors to our maritime legacy. For complete information on all the offerings, including chis original of Macdonough's Victo1ry on Lake Champlain, printed in 1814 and generously donated frmm the Naval Historical Foundation collection, please see our wel::bsire at www.seahistory.org. You can even start the bidding early!

Macdonough's Victory on Lake Chanmplain 42

SSEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION TO HOST A

GALA IN OUR NATION'S CAPITAL

ADM Jonathan Greenert, USN A native of Buder, PA, Jonathan Greenen gradu ated from the United States Naval Academy in 1975, completing his studies in nuclear power for service as a submarine officer. His assignments as a submariner include USS Flying Fish, USS Tautog, Submarine NR-1, USS Michigan, and USS Honolulu. His fleet support and financial management positions include deputy chief of Naval Operations for Integration of Capabilities and Resources; deputy commander, US Pacific Fleet; chief of staff, US 7th Fleet; head, Navy Programming Branch; and director, Operations Division Navy Comptroller; and vice chief of naval operations. He is the recipient of the Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal and Legion of Merit, and the Vice Admiral Stockdale Award for inspirational leadership. Admiral Greenen became the 30th Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) on 23 September 2011. He is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and is a principal advisor to the president and the secretary of the navy on the conduct of war and activities of the Department of the Navy. The year 2015 marks the centennial of this position, created in 1915 by Congress to streamline the organization of the US Navy and create a n organizational structure more closely resembling that of the US Army. Admiral Greenen has been a strong promoter of this country's navy and its history, particularly in the commemoration of the navy's role in the War of 1812. Admiral Greenen will receive the inaugural Naval Historical Foundation Distinguished Service Award, which w ill be presented to him by Admiral Robert}. Papp Jr., USCG (Ret.), former commandant of the Coast G uard, and Admiral Bruce DeMa rs, USN (Ret.), in recognition of his service and in honor of the centennial of the office of Chief of Naval Operations.

Senator Barbara Mikulski (invited) A native of Baltimore, Barbara Mikulski earned a BA from Mount St. Agnes College and an MSW degree from the University of Maryland School of Social Work. Starting out as a social worker, she was first elected to the Baltimore City Council, where she served for five years . She then ran successfully for Congress and then the US Senate, where she has served since 1987. Senator Mikulski was the chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee from December 2012 until this past January, when she became vice-chair. Throughout her career, Sen. Mikulski has been a strong supporter of the maritime industry of the port of Baltimore, as well as an advocate for the environmental protection of the Chesapeake Bay. For these efforts, Sen. Mikulski will be recognized with the NMHS Distinguished Service Award. During the evening's reception and silent auction, guests will get a wonderful view of the White House as they mingle with other members and check out and bid on the maritime-themed items and excursions available through the auction. Tickets start at $250 and there are many sponsorship opportunities available. The evening starts at 6PM and the dress is business/cocktail. Contact us at nmhs@seahistory.org or 914-737-7878 ext. 0 for more information or to reserve your place at the event. NMHS has taken a block of rooms from 22-25 April at the Loews Madison Hotel at 11 77 15th St. NW, Washington, DC, for $289 per night, plus taxes with complimentary in-room internet access. You must reserve by Monday, 23 March. You can book a "deluxe king" or "deluxe two queens" room for one or two people at this rate. Deluxe two queen rooms are limited and cannot be guaranteed. Phone the Loews reservations office at 1 (8 55) 325-6397 and ask for the National Maritime Historical Society rate. If you choose to park yo ur car at the hotel, the current parking fee is $50 per night (this fee includes taxes and can be charged to the room) . -Burchenal Green, National Maritime H istorical Society President

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

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A Chance to Invest in Great Marine Art-A.ND Support the N ATIONAL MARITIME HISTORICAL SOCIETY and the NAVAL HISTORICAL FOUNDATION This year, six nationally renowned marine artists will exhibit their original works at the Maritime Art Gallery at the Wash ington Awards Dinner on 23 April at the National Press Club. Here's a preview-and a chance to purchase a painting ahead of the event. Best of all, 25% of the purchase price will benefit NMHS and the Naval Historical Foundation, and is a tax-deductible contribution! The Society is grateful to Charles Raskob Robinson, a fellow of the American Society of Marine Artists and its past president, for chairing the 2015 Marine Art Gallery. Additional paintings by these artists are available for purchase and can be viewed online at www.seahistory.org. For more information and to order your painting, call (800) 221-NMHS (6647) ext. 0, or email nmhs@seahistory.org.

Oars and Sails by Peter Rindlisbacher oil on canvas, 16 x 20 inches, framed, price: $3.400 Stepping Out on the Silver Heel by Charles Raskob Robinson oil on canvas, 18 x 24 inches, price: $4,500

Squally Day on the Chesapeake

by William Storck oil on panel, 8 x 1O inches, framed, price: $3,200

Washington, DC, 1905 by Patrick O'Brien oil on board, 8 x 12 inches. framed, price: $3,000

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SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 201 5


Alone in Front by Lisa Ege Ii. oil on linen, 8x16 inches, price: $1,200

Martha on the Rails by Lisa Egeli oil on linen, mounted on panel. 9 x 12 inches, price: $950

The Cisne Branco Entering Baltimore Harbor by Lisa Egeli oil on linen, 8 x 10 inches, price: $800

Sunset Race by Hiu Lai Chong oil on linen, 24 x 24 inches, price: $3,500

Morning Fog by Hiu Lai Chong oil on linen. 18 x 24 inches, price: $2,300 Purchased works will be displayed as "SOLD" at the 23 April 2015 Washington Awards Dinner and can then be picked up or delivered. (Shipping is included in the purchase price.)


SEA HISTORY for kids In October of 1707, leading a British fleet of 21 ships home from duty in the Mediterranean Sea, a high-ranking and experienced admiral-Sir Cloudesley Shovell- steered his ship directly onto the rocks off the Isles of Scilly, 28 miles west of England in the Atlantic Ocean. Following close astern, three more ships smashed up on the rocks and were wrecked before they could change course and get into deeper water. All told, nearly 2,000 men died that day, making it the worst naval disaster in British history. How could Admiral Shovell, who at that point had been in the navy for 43 years, have made such a grievous navigational error ? The captains on the surviving ships reported that the fleet had been sailing through very bad

Not being able to get a fix on the nautical chart led many a ship to its doom. weather and could not get an accurate fix , or location, on the nautical chart fo r some time. In those days, mariners determined their location at sea by keeping track of their course direction and speed, called dead reckoning, and by taking measurements of the sun, stars, moon , and planets relative to their position on earth . There was considerable guesswork involved, as navigational tools were not all that accurate. The basic tools available in that era were the magnetic compass, nautical charts, a quadrant or backstaff, and t he leadline. If any of these items lacked in accuracy, then the mariner using them could only estimate his pos ition at sea. Shovell's fleet captains testified that they had been unable Sir Cloudesley Shovel! was a serious and to determine their position on the chart for several days and that they assumed experienced navigator, but the limita- they were much fu r ther south than they really were. When the admiral had the tions of his tools kept him from being fleet turn east, thinking he was heading into the Eng lish Channel, instead they turned right into the tiny but jagged and rocky Scilly Islands. able to keep his ship offthe rocks. Let's take a look at two of the basic tools sailors used then that they still use today: the nautical chart and the lead line.

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The nautical chart is a type of map, which has unique characteristics and a detailed representation of the coastline. It includes lots of information about local tide ranges and geographical features that are critical to the navigator. Unlike regular maps that include details about the land and only blue space where there is water, the nautical chart only includes landmarks and features ashore if they might be easy to recognize from seaward, such as a tall building or tower. Most of the details ar e in the water, such as depth (or soundings), seafloor characteristics (is it muddy, sandy, rocky?), aids to navigation (buoys and lighthouses), and local information that might be relevant, such as strong currents, protected areas, anchorages, shipping lanes, etc. All those numbers in th1e water (blue and white areas) on this chart note the wateer depth in either fathoms or feet. A fathom is 6 feet and iis used to label deeper water.


A nautical chart is flat, but it represents a round surface. Cartographers, or map makers, split the earth into imaginary circles parallel to the equator, which get smaller and smaller as they get closer to the North and South Poles. The circles are called parallels or lines of latitude.

Cartographers also divide the earth into imaginary lines radiating out from the poles. These lines are called meridians or lines of longitude. Meridians and parallels intersect at specific geographic coordinates, or at a specific latitude and longitude, measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

10 fathom s

The Leadline One of the first and most valuable inventions in navigation was the leadline. Since the 5th century BCE, the leadline has been used to both measure the depth of the water and determine the characteristics of the sea floor. This tool is so simple and reliable that its design hasn't changed much in thousands of years. It consists of a lead weight attached to a rope that is marked at measured lengths. The bottom of the lead is concave , or cupped inward. Filling this space with something sticky, such as tallow (animal fat) or grease, is called "arming the lead" and is used to bring up bottom samples, such as sand, gravel, or mud, to show what was on the sea floor in that spot. The length of line that it took to reach the bottom was measured and recorded, called a sounding. To collect sounding data to make nautical charts, mariners and scientists would take hundreds of soundings with the leadline from boats and ships before the development of echosounders and other high -tech electronic instruments. The deeper the water, the bigger the lead.

This 16th century woodcut by Olaus Magnus depicts men using a leadline to sound the seafloor.

7 fath oms

5 fath oms

3 fathom s 2 fathom s

1 fathom A traditional leadline is marked at measured intervals with red or white rags or strips of leather to make it easier to read: 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 fathoms . The person taking the soundings would throw the lead and its line overboard-holding on to the end-and let the line slide through his hands until the lead weight stopped at the bottom. Then he would note which marking was closest to the surface of the water and call out, "by the mark 5" if near the white rag marking five fathoms or "by the deep 6" if in between the white and red rags at 5 and 7 fathoms. Today's prudent mariner still carries a leadline in his or her boat. It never needs batteries and never needs to be recalibrated, making it an extremely reliable tool. Did you know that most adults can approximate a fathom by measuring their outstretched arms? Your wingspan roughly equals your height, which for most adults is within a half a foot of 6 feet. The Old Norse word fathom means "outstretched arms ."

"SEA HISTORY FOR KIDS" IS SPONSORED BY THE HENRY L. & GRACE DOHERTY CHARITABLE FOUNDATION


Animals in Sea History

harmless fish or deadly sea serpent? If you go sailing in Scandinavian waters using Olaus Magnus's 1539 map titled Carta Marina, or "Map of the Sea," you might want to keep a sharp lookout for sea monsters. Really. They are right there on the chart, which was considered the most accurate map of the region when it was made. Take a look at a modern nautical chart and compare it tO maps from antiquity-one thing that stands out is the absence of fantastical sea monsters out in the open ocean (see article on pages 24-27). Were these creatures the products of the carrographer's overactive imagination? Perhaps not. Today's sailors share one talent with seafarers from long ago-their ability to tell a good story. "Never let the truth get in the way of a good srory" is the sroryteller's creed, and those who sailed off over the horizon were happy t0 entertain

Carta Marina by Olaus Magrzus, 1539

their friends and family when they came home with tales of adventure, danger, and great feats. In 1734, a missionary named Hans Egede was sailing off the coast of Greenland when he saw a "most terrible creature." He later wrote that the creature "lifted its head so high that it seemed t0 be higher than the crow's nest on the mainmast, ... [that] the monster was longer than our whole ship." Some people think Hans must have been describing the rarely seen giant squid, but it is hard to tell for certain. There's a sketch from a March 1860 Harper's Ci Weekly showing a "great sea serpent" that ~ washed up on Hungary Beach in Ber~ muda a few months before. Could it be that some of these sea creatures depicted on old maps are real? Take a look at the oarfish, or Regalecus glesne, that a snorkeler named Jasmine Santana found while she was swimming off Catalina Island in Southern California in Ocrober of2013. Rarely seen, the freakish-looking oarfish is the world's largest bony fish and is likely the animal described by sailors as a sea serpent. Not much is known about the

18-Joot oar.fish found at Catalina Island, California, in 2013

oarfish because it lives in the deeper parts of the ocean and only surfaces when it is sick or injured. The oarfish can reach more than 50 feet long and can weigh up to 400 pounds. Jasmine's oarfish was already dead when she found it. She grabbed the tail and dragged it into shallower water and enlisted the help of her friends. It took more than a dozen people to help her get it out of the water.

48

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


red dorsal fin runs the full length of its body

small mouth, no teeth

oarfish, Regalecus glesne It was only a couple of years ago that scientists discovered that the long slithery fish doesn't swim horizontally through the water like other fish . A group of marine biologists were using an ROV (remotely operated veh icle) in the G ulf of Mexico when they, by chance, cau ght a live oarfish in the camera's lens. They observed that the oarfish swims vertically in the water column by using its long red dorsal fin, which runs the full length of its body, to hold its body in position. If it needs to pick up the pace, it undulates like a snake to move more rapidly through the water. The oarfish Jasmine Santana fo und in California is less than h alf the len gth adults can reach, but it might be a bit of a stretch to think that this creature could wrap itself around a ship and eat its crew. Then again, if a lobster big enough to grip a m an in its claw is offered at dinner, make sure you invite a friend or two (or ten) to share and hope that the restaurant doesn't charge by the pound. !, Details from the Carta Marina map show two giant lobsters (one clutching a man in its claw), creatures that spout like whales, and a sea serpent wrapping itselfaround a ship.

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

Garfish illustration by Ian T Meli.

49


.

SHIP NOTES, SEAPORT & MUSEUM NEWS

The late January blizzard that pummeled New England toppled the sloop Providence, which was out of th e water at Newport Shipyard in Newport, Rhode Island. Providence was supporred by jackstands but her rig had been left standing, including her topmast and two

The release of Ron Howard's Hollywood production In the Heart of the Sea has been pushed back from March 20 15 to next December. The film is based on Nathan iel Philbrick's bestseller

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yards. Owner Thorpe Leeson reporred that the damage includes a puncture in the hull and a broken mas t and spars, not to mention a tangle of rigging that will have to be removed and reconstructed. Providence was built in 1976 to parricipate in the Bicentennial of the American Revolution celebrations. She is a replica of John Paul Jones's naval ship in which he captured sixteen prizes and inflicted damage along the coast of Nova Scotia during a six-week voyage in 1776. The 20th-century-b uilt Providence is 6 1 feet on deck and 110 feet LOA; her hull is fiberglass. Leeson bought the vessel in 20 10 from the Providence Mari time Heritage Fo undation . He plans ro repair the damage and put her up for sale once she is back in the water, by the end of this summer. The sloop Providence was made the official flagship and tall ship ambassador of Rhode Island in 1993. She has also had roles in two of the Disney "Pi rates of the Caribbean" movies. 50

of the same name and stars C hris Hemsworrh, Benjamin Walker, C illi an M urphy, and Tom Holland. The book and movie tell the story of the whaleship Essex, which was rammed and sunk by a sperm whale in the Pacific Ocean in 1820. The crew rook to the whaleboats and headed for shore, more than a thousand miles distant, and the resultant tale includes survival and tragedy, with a little cannibalism thrown in . The delay of the movie's release gives peop le more time ro read the book first, which is usually a wise choice. (www. intheheartoftheseamovie.com) An amendment to repeal key parts of the Jones Act failed to make it into the Keystone XL oil pipeline bill that the Senate passed on 29 January. As debate about the pipeline bill was making its way through committee, Senator John McCain filed the amendment seeking ro repeal the cabotage section of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, a.k.a. the Jones Act, which requires that all goods shipped between US pons be carried by American-built, -owned, -flagged, and -manned vessels. The maritime and shipbuilding comm unities came out in force against the amendment, and more than two dozen maritime-friendly legisla-

tors in the House, including Congressmen Joe Courtney (CT) and Steven Palazzo (MS), urged their Senate colleagues ro vote against the amendment, arguing th at its passage wo uld devastate the domestic shipbuilding industry. McCain stated that the Jones Act is "an antiquated law that has for roo long hindered free trade, made US industry less competitive, and raised prices for American consumers." According to Tony M unoz of Maritime Executive, "There are currently 11 7 shipyards in 26 states, which employ abo ut 110,000 workers. The total of direct and indirect shipyard jobs, however, is closer ro 402,000, and they provide about $23.9 billion in income and add $360 billion ro US GDP." Senator McCain is the new chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He has stated that he will continue the fight to repeal the cabotage section of the Jones Act. (Senato r McCain's website is www.mccain.senate.gov.) . . . Rear Adm. Samu el J. Cox, USN (Ret.), is th e new d irector of the Naval History and Heritage C ommand, as of 29 December 2014. As NHHC director and curator of

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Ready to Launch! The Maritime Museum of San Diego Gets Set to Float the San Salvador on 19 April 2015 In 1542, Spanish conquistador Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo sailed up rhe unexplored west coast of North America, seeking a northern route back to the Atlantic and , of course, treasure. 1he voyage failed in both regards and Cabrillo died before making it home. Cabri llo's journey up the California coast occured just fifty years after Columbus's historic rransAtlanric crossing and marked Spain's final push to find riches in the Americas on the scale of the Aztecs and Incas. 473 years later, a fully operational replica of Cabrillo's galleon is about to be launched in San Diego. Under construction for the last four years at Spanish Landing Park, San Salvador will be the newest vessel in the Maritime Museum of San Diego's fleer of historic and replica ships, bur it will represent the oldest. It is built on the lines of what researchers determined a galleon of that period and purpose wo uld have looked like. Although it will look like a vessel from nearly 500 years ago, it is built to 21st-century Coast Guard specifications and will be certified for conducting educational programs at sea. Our of sight will be her two 300-horsepower engines, inside and outside ballast, electronics, and other modern safety and navigational equipment. San Salvador is scheduled for launch on 19 April at 9AM at the Broadway Pier in San Diego , with public viewing from the Embarcadero. Check the museum's website for updated information as the dare gets closer. (MMSD, 1492 North Harbor Dr., San Diego, CA 9210 1; Ph . 619 234-9153; www. sdmaritime.org) PHOTOS BY JER RY SOTO, COURTESY MARITI ME MUSEUM OF SAN DI EGO

Image size, 10

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A View from the Battery, 1829 by T hos. Thomson, American (1 775-1852)

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the navy, Admiral Cox is respo nsibl e fo r archived naval reco rds, photo coll ections, art, more th an a quarter milli on US Navy artifacts, the D epartment of the Navy library, nine museums including the N ational Museum of the US Navy, and the USS Constitution repair facility. Cox graduated with honors from the US Naval Academy in 1980 and earned a master's degree from the US Army Command and General Staff College and was awardEagle Bay by Patrick O'Brien ed a US Army designation as a milirary histo rian. Cox's las t to ur in the navy was refi neries along the Wes t Coast of the US the commander of the Office of Naval In- later thi s year. The double-hul led tanker telligence, from which he retired in N o- ca n carry 800,000 barrels of oil. These vember 201 3. The lineage of N HHC can artwo rks are among the most travelled be traced back to the advent of the Navy paintings in the wo rld, since they hang in D epartment Li brary in 1800 , when Pres- th e captain's quarters of the ships themident John Adams instructed rhe first sec- selves as they trave rse the globe. The Eagle retary of the navy, Benj amin Stodden , to Bay painting is O 'Brien's eighth ship's prepare a catalog of profess ional books portrait commissioned by ExxonMobil fo r use in the secretary's office. Today, th ro ugh the Ann apolis Marine Art GalN HHC serves the navy by conducting a lery. The artist is available to create comwide range of support activities, includ- missioned paintings . (www.Patrick ing collecting command operations re- OBrienSrudio.co m; Annapolis M arine ports and cruise books, deck logs, and Arr, Gallery, www.ann apoli smarineart. select personal papers; analyzing and co m) . . . Mystic Seaport has received a publishing historic documentaries and $1 million capital gift for its new exhistudies; providing histori c co ntext to bition building. The money is a donaemerging contemporary issues; collecting ti on from the Tho mpso n Family Foundaand curating naval artifacts of historic tion, which had already provided fundin g significance; authorizing artifac t loans to fo r the new facili ty, fo r a to tal of $6.6 museums; and m anaging th e Sunken milli on. The Thompso n Fa mily FoundaM ilitary C rafr Act on behalf of the US tion honors the late Wade Thompson, N avy. (www.history.navy.mil) . . . In a who served as a trustee of the museum for January ceremony in Philadelphia, 27 yea rs. The museum held a gro undExxonMobil unveiled a new painting breaking ceremony at Mystic Seaport on by award-winning artist Patrick 8 January; the new facili ty will be named O'Brien of the American-built tanker for the Thompso n fa mily. D esigned by Eagle Bay. The Eagle Bay is the second of the Connecticut firm Centerbrook Artwo new US-flag crude oil tankers, builr chitects and Plann ers, the 14, 000-squarefo r SeaRive r Maritime, Inc., a marine af- foot Thompso n Exhibiti on Building w ill fi li ate of Exxo nMo bil Co rporation. evoke the "geo metry of the sea," drawing Sponso rs of a significant new vessel cus- design cues fro m the interior of a wooden tomarily present a gift (in this case, the ship, the undulating sea, and a spiraling painting) to the ship's officers and crew. nautilus shell. (75 G reenmanville Ave., In his remarks at the unveiling ceremony, Mys tic, CT 06355; Ph. 860 572-533 1; O 'Brien said: "My goal was to capture www.mysticseaport.org) The 102the size, the power, and the grandeur of year-old steam yacht Grace is getting a thi s huge new vessel. In my wo rk, I usu- $300,000 restoration at Moores Maally envisio n our maritime pas t; with this rine Yacht Center in Beaufort, NC. painting I am depicting our maritime fu- O wned by The Inn at Palm etto Bluff, a ture." The 820-foo t-long Eagle Bay, a M ontage R esort in Bluffton, SC, Grace is fi rst-in-class vessel co nstructed at the expected to be back in service later this Aker Philadelphia Shipyard, will carry spring. The 60-foot wooden yacht was crude oil from Alas ka's North Slope to built in 191 3 by the N ew York Yacht,

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


Launch & Engine Company of Morris Heights, NY, and is one of the few remaining examples of early gas-powered yachts built before the First World War. The vessel's original owner, Joseph B. Cousins, commissioned the yacht for his fami ly's use on Long Island Sound and the waterways aro und Manhattan. 1he vessel sank in 1hunderbolt, GA, in 194 1. She was later resurrected and relatively well maintained until the late 1970s, when the vessel was abandoned out of the water at a backwoods boatyard. In 1990, a partnership of antique yacht aficionados moved

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her to Fairhave n, MA, and began to restore her. In the fall of 2004, Palmetto Bluff acquired the vessel and took over the project. When Grace is relaunched this spring, she will be available for day cruises through the hotel and for private charters. (The Inn at Palmetto Bluff, 476 Mount Bella Rd., Bluffton, SC, 29910; Ph. 843 706-6500; www.montagehotels.com/pal mettobluff) . . . The Lake C hamplain Maritime M useum has a n ew executive director-}. M ichael "Mike" Smiles, who assum ed the position from Erick Tichonuk in J anuary. Smiles comes to LCMM from the New England Science & Sailing Foundation in Stonington, CT, where he served as vice president for three years; he is also a past director of development at Mystic Seaport. The museum's 1862 canal schooner replica, Lois McClure, recently completed her 11th educational tour under the leaders hip of cohisto rian/archaeologist founder and Arthur Cohn and received thousands of visitors at ports in New York, Vermont, and Canada. The museum's campus in Vergennes, VT, now boasts sixteen buildings for exhibitions , programs, and nautical archaeology research. In addition to the Lois McClure, LC MM operates the SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

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replica vessel Philadelphia II and numerous regional watercraft. The museum reopens for the season on 23 May. (4472 Basin Harbor Rd., Vergennes, VT 05491; 802 475-2953; www.lcmm.org) ... The Calvert Marine Museum in Solomons, Maryland, has received a grant for $6,000 from the PNC Foundation to fund opportunities for pre-school children in Southern Maryland. The "PNC Grow Up Great" initiative is designed to help prepare young children-particularly chose underserved-for success in school and life. The grant will enable the museum to bring in special guests for its monthly pre-school programs, and it will fund free outreach programs for low-income children at pre-approved sites. PNC Grow Up Great is a $350 million bilingual initiative that began in 2004 and has served more than two million children. (Calvert Marine Museum, POB 97, 14200 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, MD 20688; Ph. 41 0 326-2042; www.calverrmarinemuseum.com. Information on the PNC Fo undation and how to apply fur grants is online ar www 1. pnc.com/pncfoundation.) ... Canada's Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal has taken over the restoration of the beleaguered Nova Scotian schooner Bluenose II. After a

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Captain John W. Doswell dies 2 January 2015, at age 71. Captain John W Doswell was a key figure in New York Harbor's historic ship community, and we were honored to present him with the NMHS New York Harbor Historic Ship Steward Award of Excellence in May 2013 during our bicentenary meeting. We recognized him for his work as the executive director of the Working Harbor Committee (which sponsors the Hidden Harbor Tours, educating people about the working harbor of NY/NJ, and for which John was also a treasured and informative narrator and guide), and as a founding trustee of the historic fireboat john]. Harvey (which he helped to restore and in which he was pumping water onto Ground Zero on 9111 and again safeguarding during Hurricane Sandy). John was an experienced sailor and a US Navy veteran who served in Vietnam. Back in New York, he was the founding chair of Friends of the Hudson River Park, he served on the board of the North River Historic Ship Society and Save Our Ships New York, and he was a founding board member of the Governors Island Alliance. A pioneer in multimedia, John was a writer, designer, producer, and programmer. When NMHS looked to celebrate our 50th anniversary with a three-day ferryboat tour of the historic ships and museums in New York Harbor, it was John who dealt with the myriad of logistics and his efforts went a long way toward making it possible. John's decades of work helped preserve the waterfront of one of the greatest ports in the world and his importance in this effort was monumental. He will be greatly missed. -Burchenal Green, NMHS SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15

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Winning Title, Name-the-Painting Contest In Sea H isto ry 147 we asked our members to name this painting by marine artist Linda Norton, inspired by a visit to So uth Street Seaport in New York City. The individual who suggested the winning tide would receive a signed giclee print of the original. We selected five judges, who considered all of the entries sent to us. Ir wasn't an easy decision; more than one of the tides submitted would have been a perfect fit to the painting. The majority ruled , of course, and the winner is Richard Biller, who suggested the tide, "Waiting for the Tide." Waiting for the Tide by Linda Norton One of the judges explained her decision: "I chose 'Waiting for the Tide' because it implies intelligence, thought, and planning-knowing when the tide is and why it is important to wait for it, and passion, anticipation, yearning-the waiting to move, to act, and to be." We appreciate the generosity of Linda Norton in donating the signed print, and thanks to all of yo u who participated; we hope you had as much fun as we did.

55


responsibility for the restoration had been assigned to a government department that had little experience managing a construction project of this type. The initial estimate for the job, back in 2009, came in at approximately $ 14.5 million CAD, but total costs to finish the restoration will come it at well over $20 million. The restoration has been paid for by Canadian taxpayers to the tune of $19,572,990 so far. That does n't include the cost of installing a new steering system , estimated at another $35 0,000.

Geoff MacLellan, the minister of Transportation and Inrrastructure Renewal, recently toured the vessel at the dock in Lunenburg and pledged to complete the restoration and get the ship sailing again. The 150-foot schooner was launched in 1963 and is a replica of the 1921 Grand Banks fishing schooner Bluenose, which garnered accolades and fame for her speed and bea utiful lines. The restoration has been plagued by co ntroversy since it began in 2009, with missed deadlines, unauthorized modifications ro the plan,

disputes between the shipyard and the Province, and even a copyright suit brought on by the grandson and great granddaughter of the original Bluenose's designer, William Roue. While the Province of Nova Scotia owns the vessel, Roue's descendents claim ownership ro the original design . The province settled with the claimants in 2014, paying them $3 00,000. (Bluenose II website is www. bluenose. novascotia.ca. You can read the audiror general's report online at www. oag-ns.ca.) ,t

Full Funding for a National Grant Program in 2015 The maritime heritage community rallied last year in support of a bill that would have restored full fund ing to the National Maritime Heritage Act (1994) grant program. That funding had been diverted in 2010 by an amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act. Legislation introduced as part of the STORIS Act in 2014 by Sen. Mark Begich of Alaska contained a provision that would restore full funding to the National Maritime Heritage Act but, unfortunately, it did not become law. We are thankful, nonetheless, to Senator Begich for championing this effort. He served as a member of the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee and chaired a subcommittee. Legislative assistant Bob King, a fisheries expert and historian, worked hard to help our cause, for which we are grateful. He arranged our briefing to the Senate Oceans Caucus last summer-but this was an election year, and Sen. Begich lost a close race in Alaska in the November elections. The good news is that we have succeeded in raising a much greater awareness within Congress of this issue and we are poised to move forward in the current session. Sen. Richard Blumenthal and Rep. Joe Courtney-both from Connecticutand their staffs continue their support. Many other members of Congress and staff were contacted by the maritime heritage community to gain their support in 2014. We also were assisted by the ship recycling firm EMR. This large recycling firm wants the dollars it pays to the Maritime Administration for ships to be distributed in support of a public maritime heritage grant program, as intended by the original National Maritime Heritage Act. Beacon Consulting, as its name suggests, has been a powerful light in a sometimes-foggy world. We came out of the gates early this year. In January, I visited with seventeen staff members from various offices to brief them on our cause and to seek their support. The responses have been positive, but we know from hard experience that more will be required for us to succeed in passing an amendment to restore full funding for the grant program. You can assist in this effort. We will cal l upon the nearly 1,000 maritime heritage organizations in the United States and the many thousands of members that make up the maritime heritage community. As constituents of various American states, territories, and districts, you can reach out to your representatives urging their support. We will provide information to make this work effectively on the NMHS website at www.seahistory.org. The highly successful 1O'h Maritime Heritage Conference hosted by Nauticus in Norfolk, VA, last September served as an opportunity for organizations and individuals to caucus on legislative action. The result was an outpouring ofletters and calls to Congress. Ir made a difference, and made clear the value of a national gathering of the maritime heritage community. Remember that mi ll ions are at stake and that with Congress and the passage of legislation, it is a process, not an event. Stay the -Timothy]. Runyan course. Chairman, National Maritime Alliance Trustee, National Maritime H istorical Society (above right) L ess than a year after USCG Cutter Storis was placed on the National Register of H istoric Places (2012), she was towed to a scrapyard in Mexico. Sen. Begich called his p roposed legislation the STORIS Act (Ships To be R ecycled I n the S tates) to honor the memory ofthe Storis and to emphasize the need to keep the scrapping offederally owned ships in the US.

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SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


•Battle of Hampton Roads Weekend, 7-8 March at The Mariners' Museum and The USS Moni tor Center. (1 00 Museum D rive, Newport News, VA 23606; Ph. 757 596-2222; www. batdeofhampto nroads. •"Purging the Seas, Government Reaction to Piracy, 1600-2015," 10 March lecm re with Ki m Todt and Elizabeth Nyman at the Houston Mariti me Museum. (2204 Dorrington St., Houston, TX 77030; 7 13 666-1 910; www. houstonmar i timem use um .o rg) •"Toing and Froing for 67 Years: The Rise and Demise of the Schooner Santa Cruz," a lecture by Michael Marzolla and Bruce P. Hector, 19 March at the Santa Barbara Maritime Museum . Register by calling 805 962-8404 x 11 5 or on line at www.sbmm.org. (1 13 Harbor Way, Santa Barbara, CA 93 109) •"The River and the Rail, New Bedford's Industrial Evolution," 26 March lectu re at the New Bedford Whaling Museum . (18 Johnny Cake Hill, New Bedfo rd, MA 02740; Ph. 508 997-0046; www.whaling museum .org) •"The Last Wooden Ship: The Records & Photographs of Phippsburg's Minott Shipyard," a presentation by Nathan R. Lipfert, senior curator at the Maine Maritime Museum, on 16 April. (243 Washington Street, Bath, Maine 0453 0; Ph. 207 443- 1316; www.mainemaritime museum.org) •"What You Don't Know About the Herreshoffs-NC4, Automobiles, Motorcycles, & Much More," 16 April lecture by H alsey H erreshoff at the H erreshoff Marine Museum in Bristol, Rl. (One Burnside Ave., Bristol, Rl, 02809; Ph. 401 2535000; www. herreshoff.org) •Chicago Maritime Festival, 18 April at the Old Town School of Folk M usic, organized by Common Times, with the Chicago Maritime Museum and the C hicago Histo ry Museum. (OTSFM, 4544 N Lincoln Ave, Chicago, IL 60625; Ph. 773 728-6000; www.chicagomari timefes tival.org) •Sea Music Festival, 11- 14 June at Mystic Seaport Museum . (75 Greenmanville Ave., Mystic, CT 06355; Ph. 860 572533 1; www.mysticseaport.org)

•Fragile Ulaters, photography by Ansel Adams, Ernest H. Brooks II, and Doro thy Ke rper Monnelly, 1 March- 15 September at the Maritime Museum of San Diego. (1492 N . H arbor Dr., San Diego, CA 92 10 1; Ph. 619 234-9153 ext. 101 ; www. sdmaritime.org) •Tides of Freedom: African Presence on the Delaware River, at the Independence Seaport Museum in Philadelphia. (2 11 S. Columbus Blvd. & Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19 106; www. phillyseaport.org) •Reflections, the 201 5 American Society of Marine Artists (ASMA) South Regional Exhibition, 10 Ap ril-20 June at the Gadsden Arts Center in Q uincy, FL. (ASMA, www. am eri ca nso cie tyofm arin ea r tis ts. com; Gadsden Art Center, 13 N. Madison St., Quincy, FL 3235 1; 85 0 875-4866; www.gadsdenarts. org) •Coffee: 1he World in Your Cup , now thro ugh 7 September at 1h e Mariners' M useum. (100 Museum Drive, Newport News, VA 23606; Ph. 757 596-2222; www.marinersmuseum. org) •Exploring the Magic of Photography: Painting with Light, opens 23 May at the Penobscot Marine Museum . (5 Church St., Searsport, ME 04974; Ph. 207 548-2529; www. penobscotmarinemuseum .o rg) •Bascove I Bridges: Transporting the Metropolis, thro ugh 12 July at the Noble Mari time Collection on Staten Island. (1 000 Richmond Terrace, Building D , Staten Island, NY 10301 ; Ph. 718 4476490; www. noblemaritime.org) CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIUMS

•"Beyond Borders: The Practice of Atlantic, Transnational, and World History," graduate student conference at the University of Pittsburgh, 11- 12 April. (www. hi story. pitt. edu / co n fe rence/ beyond-borders-grad-co nference.php) •Council of American Maritime Museums Annual Meeting, 13-14 April at the Los Angeles Maritime Museum in Californ ia. (CAMM, www.councilof americanmaritimemuseums.org; LAMM; www. lamaritimemuseum.org) •New England Historical Association Spring Meeting, 18 April at Worcester State University in MA. NEHA is a regional affiliate of the American Historical

Association. (WSU, 486 Chandler Street, Worcester MA 01 602; NEHA, www.new englandhistorians.org) •North American Society for Oceanic History Annual Conference, "PacificThe Peaceful Ocean?" 13-17 May in Mo nterey, CA (www.nasoh. org; updates also on the NASOH Facebook page) •50th Anniversary Gaspee Days Maritime History Symposium, 29-30 May in Providence, Rl . (www.gaspeedev.com) •"A Sea that Links and Binds: Cooperation, Coercion and Compulsion across the Red Sea from the 18th Century to the Present," 4-5 June in Berlin, Gennany. Organized by the Zentrum Moderner O ri ent. (www.zmo. de) •Music of the Sea Symposium, 12-13 June at Mysti c Seaport. (75 Greenmanville Ave., Mystic, CT 06355; Ph. 860 572-533 1; www. mysticseaporr.org) •"Old Worlds, New Worlds? Emerging Themes in Maritime History," the 7th International Congress of Maritime History Conference, 27 June- 1 July 201 6 at Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia. Call/or Papers deadline is June 201 5. Inquiries should be emailed to ICMH 7@murdoch.edu.au; www. mu rdoch. edu.au/School-of-Managementand-Governance/Latest-news-and-events/ ICMH 7/) •16th International Conference of Historical Geographers, 5- 10 July in London at the Royal Geographical Society. (www.ichg2015.org) •"Saving the Nation; Striking the Enemy: the Royal Navy and 1940,'' Conference at the National Museum of the Royal Navy, 4-5 September in Portsmouth (UK) (www. eve n ts. hi sto ry. ac. uk/ event/ show/ 13424) •McMullen Naval History Symposium, 17-18 September in Annapolis, M D . Sessions will focus on the 1OOth anniversary of WWI . (Specific inquiries should be directed to Co mmander Chris Rentfrow at navalhistorysymposium@gmail. com or 4 10-293-6257; www. usna.edu/History/ Symposium) •2015 Historic Naval Ships Association Annual Conference, 16-1 9 September in Los Angeles, CA, hosted by USS Iowa. (Updates and a Callfor Papers announcement will be posted at www.hnsa.org)


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Reviews Give Me a Fast Ship: The Continental Navy and America's Revolution at Sea by Tim McGrath (New American LibraryPenguin Gro up, New York, 2014, 560pp, illus, index, notes, ISBN 978-0-45141-6100; $26.95 hc) Ir is fortunate that, every few years, maritime history enthusiasts are given the opportunity to feast upon a new effort to tell the story of the Continental Navy during the American Revolution. It is a subject that standard hisrories of the Revolutionary War often overlook, or mention only in passing. As is true in this book, nearly always included are the efforts ofJohnAdams and others on rhe Naval Committee of the Continental Congress to create a navy and rhe exploits of Captain (later Commodore) John Paul Jones. Bur Tim McGrath's Give Me a Fast Ship goes far beyond these staples to present an all-encompassing narrative portrait of rhe essential contributions of the Uni red Stares' first navy. The title of the book emanates from a ringing phrase penned by Jones in 1778: "I wish to have no connection with any ship that does nor sail fast, for I intend ro go in har m's way." In 1775, as rhe troubles in rhe Port of Boston worsened with rhe first battles ar Lexingron and Concord, people living along rhe New England coast with concerns about their liberty, property and livelihoods worried about rhe future actions of rhe British Crown, its army and rhe Royal Navy. If there were to be an outright rebellion, British warships were sure to interdict the American merchant trade, fisheries, and coastwise shipping. Wirhour a navy ro challenge rhe British fleer, import munitions, and harry British convoys, the colonies would be thrown back on their own reso urces. Author T im McGrath sers rhe scene by describing the rise of state navies and rhe initial acrs of rhe Naval Commirree of the Second Continental Congress, which called for arming rhe first two vessels of rhe Continental Navy and enacted legislation creating rhe Continental Marine Corps, regulations for rhe navy, and provisions for uniforms. Before the year was out, Co ngress also authorized the construction of thirteen warships, one for each of the newly united colonies. There was no governmental executive bureau or department of the navy for several years, which was one of its probSEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

!ems. Congressional committees governed, or rather, misgoverned, the Co ntinental Navy, until the establishment of the Board of Admiralty in 1779. McGrath has a talent for portraying the personalities of the infant navy's commanders. Here the author reveals the friendships, feuds, mistakes, and heroics of this feisty band of revolutionary mariners with telling insights as well as droll remarks. These include the rivalry between Captain Hector McNeil in Boston and John Manley in Hancock; James Nicholson's disgraceful loss of the frigate Virginia; the bravery of Nicholas Biddle as his frigate Randolph confronted the ship of the line Yarmouth; the sacrifice of several Continental ships (Boston, Providence, Queen ofFrance, and Ranger) as floating batteries under Abraham Whipple's command during the siege of Charleston; the ignoble performance of Dudley Saltonstall in the failure of the Penobscot expedition; the superlative actions of John Paul Jones in the sloop Providence, sloop of war Ranger, and Bonhomme Richard; and the fine seamanship of John Barry in the brig Lexington and ships Raleigh and Alliance. McGrath allows that the Continental Navy's success capturing enemy ships rivaled that of America's privateers, on a ship-for-ship basis. Although France's participation was undoubtedly a key element in rhe final American victory, rhe author pays little attention to rhe French Navy's strategic contributions. As an operational narrative of considerable length and derail, this book succeeds beyond many ofirs predecessors, bur ir falls short in its lack of clarity in explaining rhe administration of rhe Continental Navy. Ir is difficult ro trace rhe acts of rhe Naval Committee, rhe Continental Marine Committee, rhe Naval Boards, and rhe transition ro rhe Board of Admiralty in McGrath's rexr. The index's lack of consistency in use of subenrries also presents some difficulties. For example, entries under John Barry, Nicholas Biddle, G ustavus Co nyngham, and John Paul Jones have ample subenrries, whereas with other entries, such as British Admiralty, Continental Marine Committee, and Eastern Navy Board, rhe reader is given only blocks of page numbers. These quibbles aside, rhe author is to be commended for his depth of research in primary and secondary sources and his ex-

tensive use of rhe published records in rhe series Naval Documents of the American Revolution, as well as his felicitous literary style. A sixteen-page gallery of color illustrations and eight maps enhance this excellent acco unt of rhe Continental Navy, which reminds us once again of the importance of sea power in rhe struggle for national independence. WILLIAM

S. DUDLEY

Easton, Maryland

The Great Ocean: Pacific WOrlds from Captain Cook to the Gold Rush by David Igler (Oxford University Press, New York, 20 13, 272pp, ISBN 978-0-19991-495-1; $29.95 hc) For many years, historians and others have focused on th e concept of "the Arlanric World,'' and have looked ar rhe biological, economic, cultural, and historical interplay between the peoples of Africa, rhe Americas, and Europe. Comparatively little attention has been paid to similar interactions in other regions of rhe globe. Thar is, until now. In The Great Ocean: Pacific Worlds from Captain Cook to the Gold Rush, noted historian David Igler examines rhe myriad

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exchanges that marked the interactions between the peoples of Asia, Oceania, and the Americas in the creation of "the Pacific World." Igler is well-suited to lead this new investigation of the Pacific Basin. From his posi tion at the Un iversiry of Califo rnia, Irvine, he has been a leading scholar of the American West, focusing primarily on environmental issues and the transformation of California. This work carries forward those themes, and sees th e Pacific Basin not as the end of American expansion, but as a continuum : the characteristics that marked Westward expansion-environmental destruction; hostile interactions with indigenous populations; economic growth and dislocation-were replicated in the wo rld beyo nd America's shores . These themes, in fact, were not just replicated but magnified, owing to the participation of multiple European and other nation-states. Additionally, The Great Ocean looks at the role that the wo rld's largest geographic feature has played in the development of military, political, and economic histo ry. The work skillfully blends environmental, economic, maritime, and social history together in one volume, exposing readers to several areas of historical inquiry. The Great Ocean looks at how Europea ns, Pacific Islanders, and others interacted in diverse ways. Wo rlds collided when

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European and American seafarers came together with indigenous persons in the Pacific. Patterns of trade transfo rmed the region, as merchants and mariners introduced both new products and deadly diseases, and Igler skillfully uses data related to disease transmission to show the truly devastating impact that Europeans had on the region. Humans were not the only victims: a look at the Pacific whale fishery shows the impact of this activity on both economies and ecosystems. Igler also shows how, as trade fo llowed the flag, so did cultural genocide: the commodification of sex and the role of Christian miss ionaries in the region provides a fascinating case study of how different cultures mixed in the Pacific. Far from depicting the Pacific as existing in a vacuum, Igler is able to keenly tie events in this region to those that took place half a world away. The rise and fall of great powers such as Spain and the United States had a dramatic effect on the peoples of the Pacific, often with aggressive posturing, geopolitical intrigue, and frightening consequ ences. H e also delves into the social ramifications of this interaction, analyzing how Euro-American power struggles allowed local potentates to skillfully create a new role for themselves that showed a shrewd understanding of their new reality. Igler's analysis of the ways in which local co mmuniti es captured non-natives is an intriguing approach that forces us to rethink the power struggles that existed between Pacific Basin peoples and newcomers to the region. The Pacific wo rld became a huge laborato ry for those who were fascinated by the developments that were seen in the area, or who sought to catalog the fl ora and fauna rhat could be found here. In an interesting juxtaposition, Igler posits that the same Europeans who had devastated the region were, paradoxically, also at rhe forefront of preserving it. As is so often rhe case, environmentalism and economics ran counter ro one another in the creation of the Pacific World. In all, The Great Ocean raises important questions about the ways in which various gro ups have interpreted the Pacific Basin during a time of intense and often-catastrophic interactions. Ir also serves to remind us that where others have seen th e oceans as barriers to trade and cultural interac tion, these features generally-and th e Pacific in particular-are more accurately seen as fa-

cilitato rs of such exchange, connecting disparate societies and allowing for increased contact with others. Lastly, Igler adds immeasurably to the growing globalization of hisrory, utilizing a transoceani c perspecti ve to replace what had previously been interpreted as a story told in terms of the nations rate. The Great Ocean is wonderfully wellwritten and deserves a wide audience. It will no doubt garner many accolades, and it rewards a close read. In the words of the author, "The Pacific represented a vas t waterscape wh ere person al and imperial ambitions played out" and his work shows that, convincingly. David Igler is to be commended for his contributio n. TIMOTHY G. LYNCH Bronx, New York

In the Kingdom of Ice: The Grand and Terrible Polar Voyage ofthe USS Jeannette by Hampron Sides (Doubleday, New York, 2014, 454pp, illus, maps, notes, biblio, ISBN 978-0-385-53537-3; $28.95 hc) Tales of the sea, especially of polar exploration during theAge of Sail, can ass ume an aura of heroism in pursuit of intangible, often unattainable goals. When the stakes are so high and the goal, one that offers no commercial benefit, is the axis of the earth's rotation at the North Pole, a modern reader might wo nder: "Why?" There's no simple answer, but Hampron Sides's new book In the Kingdom ofIce: The

Grand and Terrible Polar Voyage of the USS Jeannette looks deeply inro the social fa bric of a bygone era, and from its many threads weaves a pattern almost as compelling roday as it was then. How could that myth of an open polar sea be so widely believed in 1879 against all common sense and the long experience of Arctic whalers? Why make the attempt, and who were the men who inspired the commissioning of the Jeannette in that fruitless, disaste r-strewn pursuit? Sides does an admirable job of answering these questions so completely that somehow it all does, in fact, make sense. In the process, he draws o ut full y the perso nalities that made the exp edition possible-newspaperman Jam es Gordon Bennett; the Jeannette's idealistic captain, George D elong, and his steadfast w ife, Emma; Danenhower, his navigaror; and Melville, his first engineer. Their humanity gives heart and soul ro this

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 20 15


story of hope and desire, shipwreck, and abandonment, of long and failed attempts at rescue from the fro zen swamps of Siberia's Lena delta. We share the excitement of the Jeannette's departure from San Francisco in rhe summer of 1878, rhe exhilaration of penetrating into hitherto unexplo red seas, and of discovering and naming n ew lands. We also experi ence dismay when rhe ship is beset in the intractable pack ice, with no open polar sea in sight, is then crushed and sinks, leaving her crew to fend for them selves a thousand miles from the m ainland with no means of communicating their fare. In the Kingdom of Ice is nor the first book derailing rhe loss of the Jeannette, bur I doubt if another has more skillfully bro ught together the essence of the m en and the tale of their struggle against the insurmountable odds into which they so confidenrly sailed. D AVID HIRZEL

Pacifica, Cali fo rnia

Shipwrecks ofthe California Coast: Wood to Iron, Sail to Steam by Michael D . White (The Histo ry Press, C harleston, SC, 201 4, l 73pp, photos, biblio, index, ISBN 978- 160949-924-2; $ 19.99pb) California is righrly fam o us for its scenic ocean beau ty and the wealth ofirs natural marine environment, bur too often its maritime cultural heritage is nor aclmowledged. In particular, Califo rnia's maritime heritage can be told through the thousands of shipwrecks that embody its long seafaring tradition . Michael White's Shipwrecks ofthe California Coast is a good place for the lay reader to start, as he presents an overview of m any of C alifornia's shipw recks, ranging from Spanish galleons to steam ships and schooners, bur someone m ore familiar with the subject may finish feeling unsatisfied and wan ting more historical context. The book's first half provides sh ort vignettes of many well-known C alifornia shipwrecks. A brief synopsis of each vessel's history is combined with derails on rh e w recking event, ofren acco mpanied by a phoro or illustration. The second half of the book is a ch ronological list of shipwrecks, fro m the Trinidad in 1540 to the Pacbaroness in 1986. This list is by no means comprehensive, but it gives rhe reader a sense of the vessel types and sinking locations up and down the coast. W hi te's book is not fo r the scholar or

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRIN G 201 5

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academic seeking in-depth coverage of Califo rnia's shipwrecks, but may appeal to someone with a new or very general interest in che subject. From an archaeologist's perspective, I wo uld be interested to know if a given shipwreck has been located and scudied to bridge the gap berween history, archaeology, and today's need fo r a better recognition of Califo rnia's maritime landscape. The author does include interesting info rmation about che individuals associated wich chese shipwrecks and presents a more personal side to the narrative, which is refreshing. In shore, che book is well wriccen, easy to fo llow, and engages che reader

to seek out more details about each shipwreck's story to become more connected to our maritime past. DEBORAH E. MAruc Scicuace, Massachusetts

Between Land and Sea: 1he Adantic Coast and the Transformation ofNew England by C hristopher L. Pasto re (H arvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 201 4, 302pp, illus, notes, index, ISBN 978-0-674-28 14 17; $35hc) N arragansett Bay has played a fo rmative role in che development of che culcural identity of chose who live within ics reach-

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ew Release Now Available No Ordinary Being: W. Starling Burgess, ln11entor, Naval Architect, Poet, Aviation Pioneer By Llewellyn Howland Ill Published by David R. God ine Publishers , in association with the New Bedford Whaling Museum and Mystic Seaport

62

es for centuries, as it represents a viral source of sustenance and cransporcatio n fo r chose who live alo ng ics sh ores. Rhode Islanders are steeped in boch a reliance on-and pride in-a place chat is reflected in Ch ris topher Pas tore's Between Land and Sea: The Atlantic Coast and the Transfo rmation of New England. Pastore's study uses boch the physical and intelleccual structuring of Narragansett Bay as a means to m ove through more than rwo hundred years of so uthern New England history (1 636 to 1849), when use practices of the es cuary and ics resources significandy reshaped che physical feacu res of the bay. While altering ics geographical landscape, chose who lived along its shores also struggled with imposing an intellectual structure on an amorphous and difficult-to-define space. As intellectual perceptions of che escuary's boundaries came into focus, the many ways the Europeans used che bay simultaneously turned the undefi ned littoral zone into a hard boundary berween land and sea. Over-hunting of beaver, che deposit of millions of units of nitrogen from lives tock waste, and ul timately industrial runoff altered the bay fro m a wide and nacurally fluctuating body of water to one much more contained. In Between Land and Sea, Pastore skillfully navigates the evolution of human interaction with N arragansett Bay, highlighting how the rol es of international debate and progress in science and technology have affected locals' undersranding and sense of their homeland and home waters. Pastore's inclusion of a wide range of primary so urces, materials not typically considered by historians, led him to make critical new interpretations about the region. For example, by studying contemporary observations and population estimates of livestock in the area, he concluded that elevated nitrogen levels during the colonial period likely ch anged the ecological dynamic of the bay's waters, contributing to algal blooms capable of suffocating and killing off both bottom feeders and fi nfish. Pas tore also places local intellectual perceptions of the region in to the larger histo rical context of the eighteenth- and early nineteenth centuries. H e suggests that the 1730s debate in the Rbiode Island senate over the qualification of quahogs as animal, vegetable, or mineral was a local manifes tation of a larger scientific m ovement co classify the SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015


natural environment. He capably tackles murky areas of Southern New England history, such as the boundary dispute between Rhode Island and Massachusens in the 17 40s, and makes clear the struggle faced by those involved in defining "N arragansett Bay." A fascinating read, Between Land and Sea is in some places more academic in tone than necessary. Pastore's eager emphasis regarding the duali ty of intellectual and physical srrucruring of the bay at times strains his usual fluid writing style. Additionally, while he offers a short discussion based on Giovanni da Verrazzano's 1524 report, a more substantial examination of use of the estuary before European contact would be welcome . Between Land and Sea offers a glimpse at man's ability and desire to exploit and change natural space. Ir offers a rich environmental history, clearly and concisely peering into Rhode Island's pas t through the lens of its most defin ing physical feature. Ir is an essential contribution to the environmental and maritime histories of Rhode Island and Southern New England. MORGAN BREENE

Kingston, Rhode Island Ann e T. Con ver se Photography

'\

~ ~--·- -·

Ice Ship: The Epic Voyages of the Polar A dventurer Fram by Charles W Johnson (University of New England Press, Lebanon, N H , 2014, 3 18pp, maps, photos, index, notes, ISB N 978-1-61168-396-7; $35hc) The story of a ship is actually three stories: its design, construction, and voyages; the record of the work she did; and the story of her owners, officers, and crew. A successful ship's biography weaves these together seamlessly, as does C harles Johnson's Ice Ship: 1he Epic Voyages of the Polar Adventurer Fram. Fram's story begins with Fridtjof Nansen's quest to reach the No rth Pole in a ship designed, not to resist the ice pack, but to embrace it and follow its drift. This threemasred schooner was no beauty-a bathtub 128 feet long, 36-foot beam- requiring a small crew. Sailing fro m Norway in June 1893 to be frozen into the pack ice, on purpose, to drift for the next three years, she established her enduring fame . Nansen left her for an overland strike at the Pole. In that task he failed, but he and his ship survived and returned home to much fanfare. Fram's second voyage was her longest-four years in the unexplored Arctic J

of

Sea, mapping more than 100,000 square miles, more than all other expeditions combined. Captain Orto Sverdrup maintained a relative contentment among his men trapped by the ice so far from home. The most "heroic" aspect of this voyage remains its enormous record of science and discovery. Fram's third and best-known voyage carried Amundsen south to the Antarctic in 1910. Nansen had lent him the ship for an expedition to the Arctic, bur Amundsen instead embarked on a race to beat Scott to the South Pole. When she retired fro m polar exploring, Fram, not suited to any other sort of wo rk, fell into disrepair. She survives today as an exhibit, beneath a Norwegian museum's roof. As Johnso n says, "ship and crew have an inseparable identi ty .... This feeling does nor come from a ship's design, or with structure and function, bur fro m this intricate, interwoven relarionship between vessel and crew, built of rime .. .imprisoned by the ice, for so long a rime, totally alone, and fa r away from anything familiar." It is a feeling well illustrated in his admirable book. D AVID HrRZEL

Pacifica, California

.\1 .\(;I.-:..:

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GALVESTON'S THE ELISSA T1 IE TML Si Ill' l!F TEXAS by Kurt D. Voss All proceeds from this pictorial history benefit the ELISSA preservation fund

Neitli, 1996, Cover ph otogr aph

'Wootf, Wind andWater A STORY OF THE OPERA HousE Cur RACE OF NANTU CKET

THE FLEET IS IN.

Photographs by Anne T. Converse Text by Carolyn M. Ford Live vicariously through the pictures and tales of classic wooden yacht owners who lovingly restore and race these gems of the sea. "An outstanding presentation deserves ongoing recommendation for both art and nautical collections. " Hardbound book; 132 pages, 85 full page color p hotographs; Price $45.00 10"x 12"

For more information contact: Anne T. Converse Phone: 508-728-6210 anne@a nnetconverse .com www.a nnetconverse.com

SEA HISTORY 150, SPRING 2015

Published by Arcad ia P ublishi ng and Ga lveston Hi storical Foundation $2 1.99. 128 pages, 200 photographs Autographed copies availab le at (409) 763 -1 877, or on line at:

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Sit in the wardroom of a mighty battleship, touch a powerful torpedo on a submarine, or walk the deck of an aircraft carrier and stand where naval aviators have flown off into history. It's all waiting for you when you visit one of ~~Qi~ the 175 ships of the Historic Naval Ships Association fleet.

Riwll•11i.

For information on all our ships and museums, see the HNSA website or visit us on Facebook. 63


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Sea History 150- Spring 2015  

10 "Rough Weather All Day" -A Firsthand Account of the Jeannette Search Expedition, 1881-1882, by David Hirzel • 16 "I Shall Bring Home Two...

Sea History 150- Spring 2015  

10 "Rough Weather All Day" -A Firsthand Account of the Jeannette Search Expedition, 1881-1882, by David Hirzel • 16 "I Shall Bring Home Two...