Page 46

24

Trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour among students in Germany who received ongoing personal and social skills training in elementary school 1.5

Internalzing behaviour

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

IntervenƟon in elementary school Control

1

0.5

9/10 (grade 4)

Baseline 6/7 (grade 1)

9/10 (grade 4)

8/9 (grade 3)

7/8 (grade 2)

6/7 (grade 1)

Baseline 6/7 (grade 1)

Approximate age

8/9 (grade 3)

0

0

7/8 (grade 2)

Externalizing behaviour

1.4

6/7 (grade 1)

FIG. 20.

Approximate age

Source: Maruska and others, “Influencing antecedents of adolescent risk-taking behaviour in elementary school” (2011).

Probability of drug abuse/dependence ƵŶƟůĂŐĞϮϭ

FIG. 21.

Probability of subsequent development of a drug-related disorder depending on participation in a classroom behaviour management programme in first grade 0.8

0.8

0.7

Males

0.7 0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0

Females

0 1

2

3

4

1

Teacher raƟngs of aggression in grade 1

2

3

4

5

6

Teacher raƟngs of aggression in grade 1

IntervenƟon in elementary school

Control

Source: Kellam and others, “Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program” (2008).

use.124,125,126 Most programmes include interactive exercises to improve several personal or social skills, such as self-awareness, creative thinking, relationship skills, problem solving, decision-making and coping with stress and emotions. Specifically with regard to substances, awareness of social influences on drug use is enhanced through critical thinking exercises. Creative thinking is used to identify functional alternatives to drug use and communication 124 F. Faggiano and others, “School-based prevention for illicit drugs use: a systematic review”, Preventive Medicine, vol. 46, No. 5 (2008), pp. 385-396. 125 Amy J. Porath-Waller, Erin Basley and Douglas J. Beirnes, “A metaanalytic review of school-based prevention for cannabis use”, Health Education and Behavior, vol. 37, No. 5 (2010), pp. 709-723. 126 Foxcroft and Tsertsvadze, “Universal School-Based Prevention Programs for Alcohol Misuse in Young People” (see footnote 122).

skills are built so as to increase assertiveness in resisting offers of drugs. Drug information focuses on short-term negative consequences and on normative education (that is, addressing the often exaggerated perception that adolescents have with regard to prevalence of drug use among their peers). Analysis combining the results of studies (meta-analysis calculations) on the effects of school-based illicit drug use prevention programmes estimated 28 per cent less cannabis use as a result of prevention programmes.127 Greater effects were obtained when programmes targeted adolescents aged 14 or older, included elements from various prevention models incorporating social learning, information and value-clarification, used 127 Porath-Waller, Basley and Beirnes, “A meta-analytic review of school-based prevention for cannabis use” (see footnote 125).

World Drug Report 2015  

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Bones Private Collection

World Drug Report 2015  

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Bones Private Collection

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