CHAPTER I Gender, drug use and health consequences
Women who inject drugs are often more vulnerable to HIV than their male counterparts The available data on gender disaggregated HIV prevalence among PWID point to the existence of gender disparities that are quite large in some countries (see figure 13). Data reported to UNAIDS66 show that FWID experience a higher prevalence of HIV in many countries with large populations of PWID (over 120,000), including India, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Additionally, in some other countries with a high prevalence of HIV among PWID, such as Indonesia, Kenya, Mauritius and Thailand, the prevalence of HIV is also higher among FWID. Females constitute sizeable minorities of the PWID populations in many countries, where, for example, 33 per cent of PWID in Canada are female, while this figure is 30 per cent in the Russian Federation, 26 per cent in Ukraine, 20 per cent in China and FIG. 13.
Ratio of annual and past-month prevalence to lifetime prevalence of drug use among women in Western and Central Europe, 2013 (or latest year available)
be regular cannabis users. Considering the high prevalence of the misuse of tranquillizers among women, this remains a significant problem.
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 LifeĆ&#x;me
Amphetamine Cocaine Cannabis-type "Ecstasy"-type substances SedaĆ&#x;ves and tranquillizers Source: UNODC, responses to annual report questionnaire. Note: Unweighted average of lifetime, past-year and past-month prevalence in adult females (aged 15-64), based on 28 countries in Western and Central Europe.
Prevalence of HIV among females who inject drugs compared with prevalence of HIV among males who inject drugs (latest year available) 70.0
Prevalence higher among females who inject drugs
Prevalence of HIV among females who inject drugs (percentage)
60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0
Prevalence higher among males who inject drugs
10.0 0.0 0.0
Prevalence of HIV among males who inject drugs (percentage) Source: UNAIDS, progress reports on the global AIDS response. Note: Each circle represents a country. The solid circles are those countries with large numbers (over 120,000) of people who inject drugs. Data were available for 61 countries across all global regions.
UNAIDS, AIDSinfo database.
WORLD DRUG REPORT
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Bones Private Collection