Fig 1. Queen’s Bridge wallpaper (Wallpaperscraft, 2016)
Queen’s Bridge (C) Jun Wen Chan 795600 Individual Project
Table Of Content
*All Figures are of Author’s and his group members’ work unless otherwise stated.
1. Site Introduction 2. Site’ Context 3. Systems Observed 4. Viewpoints 5. Site Intervention 6. Precedents 7. Agendas/Research 8. Research/Inspirations 9. Proposed Design 10. List of References 11. List of Figures
“Keep all special thoughts and memories for lifetimes to come. Share these keepsakes with others to inspire hope and build from the past, which can bridge to the future. ” -Mattie Stepanek
Introduction of site At our site observations, there is an immediate imbalance of systems, namely with the construct system overpowering the others due to Crown Melbourne and high human traffic and cyclists in the network system. Synthetic lawns attempt to provide a more natural system in the site with the Yarra River being separated from the site through construct system. The social system lacked drastically without high people interactions nor cultural interaction. The less obvious were people passed through the site without showing any signs of wanting to slow down or spend time at looking or give attention to the cafes and restaurants, nor appreciate the interesting impromptu display of flames by the flames pillars on the promenade, shows that the site was not an ideal place to occupy either for rest or recreation. As a group, we intended to balance the systems of the site by utilizing the observations above and research on the site. We came to a draft proposal before the second site visit of Founding, that tried to encompass the problems we first see during landing.
Fig. 1a: Aerial View of Crown Casino (Kiwicollection, n.d.)
Fig 1c: Synthetic lawn
Fig 1b: Cyclists traffic volume
Site’s context Assigned to Queen’s Bridge southwest quadrant at Melbourne Southbank district, a cultural hub and home to a few like the Melbourne Arts Centre, National Gallery of Victoria, Malthouse Theatre and Victorian College of the Arts, the assigned site was actually quite far off from the cultural avenue. The assigned site actually circles Crown Casino and its promenade restaurants, with site boundaries from Queens Bridge Street and Queens Bridge. Continuing to the west of the Bridge is Yarra Promenade, which runs underneath Kings Way and the King Street Bridge to Clarendon Street and the Spencer Street Bridge, including the Crown Entertainment Complex and promenade restaurants. The area was a series of low-lying swamps occupied by the native tribes of Kulin. Melbourne was then colonized by John Batman that brought the lands through a treaty with the Wurundjeri elders. With the onset of European immigrants into the area, the local tribes decline in population was then influenced by the racism of aboriginality, diseases introduced by immigrants and even frontier conflicts. (Ellender, Christiansen, & Faithfull, 2001). The rocks that separated fresh water from salt water were removed in 1879 to “prevent a repetition of the disastrous floods of 1863 and 1878” (The Argus, 1883). During the industrial revolution, it consisted of factories, warehouses, and wharves, mostly built when the area was part of Docklands. Queensbridge was named after Queen Victoria was then built in 1889 by contractor David Munro, to replace the timber footbridge built in 1860. Crown's casino opened in 1997 and served as one of the central features in the Southbank area.
Fig 2b: 1945.Melbourne (Jeffrey, 2016)
Fig 2a: Cultural points in Southbank (modified by author, from Google, 2016)
Systems Observed Constructed Systems
Southbank – Queens Bridge to Kings Bridge
1. 2. 3. 4.
Crown Casino Melbourne Prima Tower Queens Bridge Kings Bridge
2 Fig 3c: ‘Tower of Light’ (Eyre, 2015)
N Fig 3a. Constructed systems on site (modified by author’s group, from Google, 2016)
Natural Systems Southbank – Queens Bridge to Kings Bridge
1. Piazza Greenery 2. Prima Tower Living Wall 3. Crown Entrance
Fig 3b: Natural systems on site (modified by author’s group, from Google, 2016)
From top, Fig 3d,3e &3f: Vegetation on site
Systems Observed (cont’d) Social Systems Southbank – Queens Bridge to Kings Bridge
1. Crown Casino Melbourne 2. Promenade 3. F1 Exhibition
N Fig 4a: Social/Places systems on site (modified by author’s group, from Google, 2016)
Fig 4c,4d,4e &4f: Observed social/place systems on site
Southbank – Queens Bridge to Kings Bridge
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Queens Bridge Kings Bridge Spencer Street Bridge Whiteman Street Promenade
N Fig 4b: Network systems on site (modified by author’s group, from Google, 2016)
Fig 4g: Transport network around site (City of Melbourne, n.d.)
Viewpoints As an urban planner, one need to work in an open, rounded systematic manner to deal with complex situations to see and understand that all systems of the site are interrelated and influence each other after some time. A change to one system will bring about a change to others, often in unexpected ways. From a property disciplineâ€™s perspective, well balancing of the four systems would ensure stability in the land value of the area. This would aid in drawing in investors to invest in the properties in the area and thus gain economic income for the city.
Fig 5c: Melbourne Skyline (Sourceable.net, 2014)
Fig 5a: Key Changing Melbourne Diagram (Lee, 2016)
Fig 5b: Monopoly Man (Monopoly Man, 2016)
Site, Intervened As a group, we finally decided on to intervened in a localized area of our site since we found the systems of the area does not provide enough balance. High traffic network and a lack of socially inclusive activities were observed. The proposed design will focus on the first half of the Yarra Promenade, in between Spencer Street Bridge and Kings bridge.
Fig 6a: Presence of systems in zone.
Fig 6b: Aerial photograph (ModiďŹ ed by authorâ€™s group, from Nearmap, 2016)
Fig 7a: Focused View (Google, 2016)
Fig 7b: Focused View (Google, 2016)
Fig 7c: 3D View (Google, 2016)
Preceding Designs (Author’s)
Fig 8a. Crown Promenade Proposal (Modified by Author, from Google, 2016)
Individual preceding proposal for intervened site: A separation of the walkway for an increase in pedestrian’s and cyclists’ safety. Culture sculptures will be placed on the lawns to create cultural atmospheres and generate interest on the historical value of the site.
Fig 8d. Crown Promenade Proposal (Modified by Author, from Google, National Museum of Australia, 2016, Morgan, 2011)
Fig 8b. Crown Promenade Proposal (Modified by Author, from Google, 2016)
Fig 8c. Crown Promenade Proposal (Modified by Author, from Google, 2016)
Preceding Design Research (Group) A research on bottleneck pathway suggests that the author’s initial proposal to divide pathway might not be feasible in certain areas on the site, especially on the narrower sections of the pathway. The group proposed the complete separation of slow pedestrian traffic from the higher speed cyclists to resolve the problem.
Fig 9a. Group research ‘Grounding’ (Modified by Author’s group, from Nearmap, 2016)
Fig 9b. Crown Boardwalk Proposal (Modified by Author’s group, from Folk Architects, 2016, Melbourne Short Stay Apartments, 2016, Uranga Boardwalk Gallery, n.d.)
In our first design proposal as a group, the proposal will retain Crown’s impressive Eastern façade and also of its flaming pillars since it still remains as a form of attraction for tourists and first-time visitors to the area. It includes mediating structures with lower, more organic structures that are able to deploy and pack easily to enhance street culture and allows for cultural events as we draw inspiration from the F1 exhibition during the first site visit. As a solution to the high traffic sharing the promenade’s walkway, a ‘floating’ timber footpath on the Yarra River allows separated walking and cycling networks. It also provides enjoyment and appreciation of the Yarra through slow walks as one is within the Natural system. The group agreed on the unattractiveness of the synthetic lawn as being unauthentic and unnatural, we plan to introduce natural species to replace the fake lawns to give a sense of realness and increase the natural system of the site. As a second part of the course, the group undertook a second site visit to better understand the site and to better the preceding design.
Fig 10c. Traffic at Queensbridge during evening.
Fig 10a. Predicted population (City of Melbourne, 2015)
Fig 10b. Predicted age group(City of Melbourne, 2015)
By 2026, the siteâ€™s population estimated by the City of Melbourne would be about 38,700. The number of vehicular traffic towards the site will also increase in amount as people still depends on cars for traveling. But for those that could not afford to or finds driving unsuitable, alternative mode shift like public transport, bikes and walking would be their choice of travel. With this information and inference, one can expect to have a higher traffic flow throughout the site and the district itself during the peak hours. The importance of safety on the site is more prominent than ever in our design for the future.
Agendas/Research According to City of Melbourne’s Urban Forest Visual Platanus Plane Trees – existing, have the life expectancy of fewer than 10 years. “Trees that are declining have reached a point where treatments may prolong life but will not restore the health of the trees, and dying trees require removal front the landscape.” The map does not show the trees along the Crown Promenade however, the same species of trees being used in a very similar way on the other side of Queensbridge can be used as an indicator of tree health. The main use of plane trees is seen as ornamental, especially in urban areas and by roadsides.
Fig 11a. Health of trees in Southbank (City of Melbourne, 2015)
Synthetic lawns pose some health issues: made of recycled crumb rubber from car tires, harbouring more bacteria as compared to natural lawn, and creating a ‘false’ environment for child development (Jackson, 2008). Due to the high influx of seagulls in the area, high maintenance of the lawns through disinfection and sanitation to remove the droppings would be required. Today generation of children is becoming more displaced from earth’s environments through technologies, “growing up in synthetic, indoor environments”. Hence, the re-introduction of natural grass would solve, at least in part, the problem. The benefits of natural lawns are not limited to creating the earth’s original atmosphere. Commonly known benefits include, but not limited to, absorption of carbon dioxide, cooling effect and water filtration and thereby creating a healthy environment through natural means (Jackson, 2008).
Fig 11b. Heat of synthetic lawn (Jackson, 2008)
Research/Inspirations In an article written in The Age, it described the city as a victim of its own trap: the city absorbed too much heat and caused Melbourne to be the first in heat-related deaths (Dowling, 2014) (Preiss & Gordon, 2016). Since then the council has been developing strategies to counter the Urban heat island effect through urban foresting and greening the city. Another study by the University City District of Philadelphia investigated the many uses and benefits of parklets on the campus. Though the minor loss of parking space occurred, the benefits outweighed the loss. Parklets acted as a medium for place-making, and data from the study shows people also used the area for solitary activities even though it is mainly for large social gatherings. The shops of the parklets benefited from the increased in patronage and sales due to people attracted by spill-over effects (University City District, 2013).
Fig 12a. Thermal Image (Dowling, 2014)
Fig 12c. The Case for Parklets (University City District, 2013)
Fig 12b. Urban Forest Thermal (City Of Melbourne, n.d.)
Research/Inspirations ‘WASSERPLATZ’ IN LUNEBURG, GERMANY ‘Lawn landscapes and trees invite lingering and offer multiple uses, accompanied by cafés and restaurants.’ (q:arc Architekturl Design, n.d.)
Fig 13a. ‘Wasserplatz’ plan. (q:arc Architekturl Design, n.d.)
Fig 13b. ‘Wasserplatz’ plan. (q:arc Architekturl Design, n.d.)
Fig 13d. Welcome to Jack’s Magazine(Jack’s Magazine, 2015) Fig 13c. Theaster Gates (Pooley, 2014).
Fig 13e. 3D Floor art (Decor Puzzle, 2015)
Sharon Sutton, Susan Kemp in their chapter on Place: A site of Individual and Collective Transformation discuss how culture can be effectively used as an asset and assist in place-making (Sutton & Kemp, 2011). Landry in Rediscovering Urban Creativity also described how culture can a resource in some cities, and “the recognition of a culturally informed perspective was crucial to making urban planning work” (Landry, 2008). A case study on Jack’s magazine is an example of how historical culture of the place became a resource for generating economic benefits (Jack’s Magazine, 2015). Theaster Gates in his TED talk too shared on how he managed to turn his neighbourhood around using art culture, through renovating old abandoned buildings into places where people could actually want to be around (Younge, 2014) (TED, 2015).
Proposed Design Fig 14a. Proposed Design on site (modified by author, from Google, 2016)
Fig 14b: Artistâ€™s impression of the site (Olsen, 2016)
Fig 14c: Virtual model of the site, not to scale.
Proposed Design The group suggests the use of Smooth-barked Apple Myrtle (Angophora costata). The first concern is of aesthetic: this species of tree is used in other areas of the city, particularly in areas close to the river. so they would not be out of place. Next, they have a good useful life expectancy of more than 20 years and would also increase the quantity of urban forest as is not one of the major species used. It also has good canopy cover to reduce urban heat island, while it could grow to a large size, its growth can be controlled ("Angophora costata", 2016). For the lawn, buffalo grass won the majority vote due to its high endurance to wear and tear, easy to grow and maintain. Buffalo grass has always historically been considered a shade grass due to high shade tolerance. Fast recovery after ending of drought or water restrictions would come in useful when the site experience heat during the summer season, while it provides good winter colour during the season (Australia, 2016) (User, 2016). The inclusion of selective flora to increase the diversity and attractiveness of the site was also decided as a group in line with the City Council ideals (Nicholson, 2014).
Fig 15c. Buffalo Grass. (Seedland, 2013)
Fig 15a: Smooth-barked Apple Myrtle (Pedersen, 2016)
Fig 15b: Canopy cover of Smooth-barked Apple Myrtle (Pedersen, 2016)
From Leftmost: Fig 15d-15h. Potential wildflowers for use on site. (Fagg, n.d.; Planfiinder, 2016; Slichter, 2012; Diversity Native Seeds, 2016 & McGlashan, 2009)
Proposed Design The removal of the second boardwalk was decided, for the fact that its another construct invasive on the Yarra River, and also there will not be any other permanent structures to be built on the site. The ground would be decorated with indigenous art depicting the history of the site and its cultural value. People would be able to learn and be aware of where and what they are actually passing through by. The opening of the physical frames at restaurants would reduce the â€˜exclusiveâ€™ atmosphere of the area. The study on parklets provided the inspiration to implement the idea of portable outdoor seating for the restaurants; especially when traffic is at its peak whilst patrons levels are low, the seats could be shifted to provide more space for smoother traffic flow.
Fig 16a. Restaurant Barriers
Fig 16d. Fig 16b: Outdoor seating (Outdoor Bar Furniture. 2016)
From left: Fig 16c-16d : Cultural artwork on the floor as decoration (modified by Author, from Google, 2016, Barak, ca.1880-ca.1890).
With this design proposal, it will help to right the uneven balance of systems of the site, bring back the cultural importance, opens up businesses to be more inclusive and welcoming, increase the safety of pedestrians and cyclists, and overall contributes to reducing the urban heat island of the site.
List of References Spreading Gratitude Rocks. (2016). Spreading Gratitude Rocks. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.spreadinggratituderocks.com/#!mattie-stepanek-quotes/c1zdx Ellender, I., Christiansen, P., & Faithfull, T. (2001). People of the Merri Merri. East Brunswick, Vic.: Merri Creek Management Committee The Argus. (1883). Removal Of The Yarra Falls. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/8522995 Jackson, J. (2008). Synthetic Turf Health Debate Takes Root. Focus, Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(3). Dowling, J. (2014). Thermal Image at corner of Russell and Bourke streets. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/melbourne-city-centre-adeath-trap-as-heatisland-effect-takes-its-toll-20140116-30xt8.html Preiss, B. & Gordon, J. (2016). City to swelter under climate change predictions. The Age. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/city-to-swelterunder-climate-change-predictions-20160122-gmc1js.html University City District. (2013). The Case for Parklets: Measuring the Impact on Sidewalk Vitality and Neighbourhood Businesses. Philadelphia: University City District. Sutton, S. & Kemp, S. (2011). Place: A site of individual and collective transformation. In S. Sutton & S. Kemp, The Paradox of Urban Space (1st ed., pp. 113-134). United States: Palgrave Macmillan. Landry, C. (2008). Rediscovering Urban Creativity. In C. Landry, The Creative City (1st ed., pp. 3-19). United Kingdom: Earthscan. Welcome To Jack's Magazine. (2016). Jack's Magazine. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.jacksmagazine.org.au/ Younge, G. (2014). Theaster Gates, the artist whose latest project is regenerating Chicago. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/oct/06/theaster-gates-artist-latest-project-is-regenerating-chicago-artes-mundi
TED. (2015). How to revive a neighbourhood: with imagination, beauty and art. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.ted.com/talks/theaster_gates_how_to_revive_a_neighborhood_with_imagination_beauty_and_art?language=en Angophora costata. (2016). Wikipedia. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angophora_costata Australia, L. (2016). Lawn Types in Australia - The Lawn Guide. Thelawnguide.com.au. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://thelawnguide.com.au/lawn-varieties/35-lawnvarieties/350-lawn-types-in-australia.html User, S. (2016). Ultimate Buffalo Grass Review - The Buffalo Lawn Care Site - Palmetto | Sapphire | Sir Walter | Matilda | Buffalo Lawn Reviews. Buffalolawncare.com.au. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://buffalolawncare.com.au/buffalo-grass-lawn-reviews/162-ultimate-buffalo-grass-review.html Nicholson, L. (2014). Melbourne City Council to replace Melbourne's trees with exotic species. The Age. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/melbourne-city-council-to-replace-melbournes-trees-with-exotic-species-20140530-399sw.html
List of Figures Fig 1. Wallpaperscraft. (2016). Queen's Bridge Wallpaper. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://wallpaperscraft.com/download/melbourne_australia_night_bridge_reflection_river_58944/1600x1200 Fig 1a. Kiwicollection,. (n.d.). Aerial View of Crown Casino. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.kiwicollection.com/hotel-detail/crown-towers Fig 2a. Google. (2016). Google map of Southbank – (Modified by Author). Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://email@example.com,144.9654552,17.16z Fig 2b. Jeffrey, N. (2016). Melbourne, 1945. 1945.melbourne. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://1945.melbourne/ Fig 3a. Google map of Crown Promenade. Retrieved from 5 June 2016 from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8226815,144.9590874,17.5z Fig 3b. Google map of Crown Promenade. Retrieved from 5 June 2016 from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8226815,144.9590874,17.5z Fig 3c. Eyre, W. (2015). Tower of Light. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/wilkinson-eyre-designs-super-tall-tower-of-light-t Fig 4a. Google map of Crown Promenade. Retrieved from 5 June 2016, from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8226815,144.9590874,17.5z Fig 4b. Google map of Crown Promenade. Retrieved from 5 June 2016, from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8226815,144.9590874,17.5z Fig 4g. City of Melbourne. (n.d.) Melbourne city map. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.thatsmelbourne.com.au/Documents/Maps/Melbourne_city_map.pdf Fig 5a. Lee, G. (2016). Changing Melbourne Introduction. Presentation, The University of Melbourne. Fig 5b. Monopoly Man. (2016). Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.styleforum.net/t/81404/the-monopoly-guy-costume Fig 5c. Sourceable.net,. (2014). Melbourne Skyline. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://sourceable.net/skyscraper-surge-continues-mega-tower-proposed-for-melbourne/ Fig 6b. Nearmap. (2016). Aerial photograph. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://maps.au.nearmap.com Fig 7a. Google map. Focused View. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8232167,144.9570474,19.74z Fig 7b. Focused View. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8232167,144.9570474,132m/data=!3m1!1e3 Fig 7c. 3D view of Crown Promenade. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8232167,144.9541546,279a,20y,90h,41.69t/data=!3m1!1e3 Fig 8a. Crown Promenade Proposal. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8232167,144.9570471,132m/data=!3m1!1e3 Fig 8b. Crown Promenade Proposal. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://firstname.lastname@example.org,144.9568123,3a,75y,57.03h,74.71t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sati0lhqHtoVxYlKqxMTWpA!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 Fig 8c. Crown Promenade Proposal. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://email@example.com,144.9571978,3a,75y,239.48h,84.26t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1spYP4wXf7kx8gMRIt4BjnlQ!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 Fig 8d. Crown Promenade Proposal. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://firstname.lastname@example.org,144.9569668,3a,75y,302.79h,76.72t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1s2EhV6BoVcyFFEqcXrwSlsg!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 Fig 8d. National Museum of Australia. (2016). Menagerie. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/menagerie/home Fig 8d. Morgan, D. (2011). A sculpture by an artist depicting aboriginal art. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://au2011studyabroad.wordpress.com/broken-hill/july-24/ Fig 9a. Nearmap. (2016). Group research ‘Grounding’. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://maps.au.nearmap.com Fig 9b. Melbourne Short Stay Apartments. (2016). Melbourne short stay. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.shortstay.com.au/2009/s_southbank_one_apartments.php Fig 9b. Folk Architects. (2016). Harbour esplanade temporary activation project. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.folkarchitects.com/project/hortus/ Fig 9b. Urunga Boardwalk Gallery. (n.d.). Urunga boardwalk finished. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://wychitellaholdings.com.au/urungagallery.html
List of Figures (cont’d) Fig 10a. City of Melbourne. (2015). Predicted population. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://melbournepopulation.geografia.com.au/areas/CLSA03 Fig 10b. City of Melbourne. (2015). Predicted age group. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://melbournepopulation.geografia.com.au/areas/CLSA03 Fig 11a. City of Melbourne. (2015). Health of trees in Southbank. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://melbourneurbanforestvisual.com.au/#mapexplore Fig 11b. Jackson, J. (2008). Synthetic Turf Health Debate Takes Root. Focus, Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(3). Fig 12a. Dowling, J. (2014). Thermal Image at corner of Russell and Bourke streets. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/melbourne-city-centrea-death-trap-as-heatisland-effect-takes-its-toll-20140116-30xt8.html Fig 12b. City Of Melbourne. Urban Forest Thermal. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://melbourneurbanforestvisual.com.au/contentimages/UF_HD_thermal.jpg Fig 12c. University City District. (2013). The Case for Parklets: Measuring the Impact on Sidewalk Vitality and Neighbourhood Businesses. Philadelphia: University City District. Fig 13a. q:arc Architekturl Design. (n.d.). ‘Wasserplatz’ plan. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.qarc.de/en/wasserplatz-luneburg Fig 13b. q:arc Architekturl Design. (n.d.). ‘Wasserplatz’ plan. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.qarc.de/en/wasserplatz-luneburg Fig 13c. Pooley, S. (2014). Theaster Gates. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/oct/06/theaster-gates-artist-latest-project-isregenerating-chicago-artes-mundi Fig 13d. Jack's Magazine. (2016). Welcome to Jack's Magazine. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.jacksmagazine.org.au/ Fig 13e. Fig 34. Decor Puzzle. (2015). 3D floor art. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.decorpuzzle.com/2015/01/3d-floor-art-and-self-leveling-floor.html Fig 14a. Proposed Design on site. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.google.com.au/maps/@-37.8232167,144.9570471,132m/data=!3m1!1e3 Fig 14b. Olsen, A. (2016). Artist’s impression of the site. Fig 15a. Pedersen, T. (2016). Smooth-barked Apple Myrtle. Fig 15b. Pedersen, T. (2016). Canopy cover of Smooth-barked Apple Myrtle Fig 15c. Seedland. (2013). Bowie Buffalo Grass Seed - 5 lbs.- Native Grass For Lawns. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.seedland.com/mm5/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Store_Code=Seedland&Product_Code=BUF-BOWIE-05&Category_Code=BUFFALO2 Fig 15d. Fagg, M. (n.d.). Wahlenbergia communis. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://www.anbg.gov.au/photo/apii/id/a/21148 Fig 15e. Diversity Native Seeds. (2016). Bulbine bulbosa. native leek, golden lily. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://diversitynativeseeds.com.au/species-list-byimage/bulbine-bulbosa-native-leek-bulbine-lily-golden-lily-native-onion/ Fig 15f. Slichter. (2012). Cutleaf daisy as seen on sandy soils along US Highway. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://science.halleyhos4ng.com/nature/basin/sun/daisy/erigeron/compositus/compositus.htm Fig 15g. Plantfinder. (2016). CHRYSOCEPHALUM APICULATUM SYN. HELICHRYSUM APICULATUM. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.gardensonline.com.au/GardenShed/PlantFinder/Show_2767.aspx Fig 15h. McGlashan, L. (2009). Arthropodium strictum s.l. Chocolate Lily. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://natureshare.org.au/collec4ons/flora_of_panyyabyr_southern_grampians?page=3 Fig 16b. Outdoor Bar Furniture. (2016). Outdoor Seating. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://outdoorbarfurnitures.net/outdoor-seating-nyc/ Fig 16c. Google. (2016). Cultural artwork on floor. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from https://email@example.com,144.9568123,3a,75y,57.03h,74.71t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1sati0lhqHtoVxYlKqxMTWpA!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 Fig 16d. Barak, W. (ca.1880 - ca.1890) Ceremony, with wallaby and emu. Retrieved 5 June 2016, from http://www.cv.vic.gov.au/stories/aboriginal-culture/koorie-art-andartefacts/ceremony-with-wallaby-and-emu/
Changing Melbourne Yarra River