Page 1


IN ORDER TO THINK BEFORE READING - ‘’We have to distinguish the foreseeable, the likely, the uncertain, taking account that the unexpected often happens’’ Edgar MORIN - ‘’Being conscious that tomorrow will exist and that I can have an influence on it, is the human being’s feature’’ Albert JACQUARD - ‘’ That’s a sad thing, thinking that nature speaks and man kind just does not listen’’ Victor HUGO - ‘’A new way of thinking is necessary if man kind wants to survive’’ Albert EINSTEIN - ‘’ Go and take your lessons in and from Nature’’ Leonardo da VINCI - ‘’ Act right now, emergency has come’’ Hubert REEVES - ‘’ There are two kinds of individuals in life : those who look at the world and wonder why; those who imagine the world as it should be and tell to themselves why not ?’’ George Bernard SHAW - ‘’ Time of finishing world is starting.’’ Paul VALERIE TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION I - EDUCATION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1.1) History 1.2) Education to Sustainable Development versus education to environment 1.3) Why teaching Education to Sustainable Development at school ? 1.4) Aim and targets of Education to Sustainable Development 1.5) Knowledge, expertise and fair behaviour for an Education to Sustainable Development 1.6) Pedagogies and approaches on Education to Sustainable Development 1.7) Subjects II - STAKES OF TRAINING TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2.1) Cultural stake : promoting diversity and taking on changes 2.2) Professional stake : developing new skills 2.3) Pedagogical stake : from training to acting skills 2.4) The actors’ training III - PARTNERS - ACTORS OF EDUCATION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IV - PARTNERSHIP V - TOOLS AND PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORTS VI - HUMAN RESOURCES 6.1) Resources and institutional expertise VII - STAKE OF POST-TRAINING : CREATING A TRANSNATIONAL COMMUNITY OF PROFESSIONALS 7.1) National and educative outline on training to sustainable development


INTRODUCTION Educational to sustainable development is an education pointing out high standard values. The different steps of educative training that we organize must tend to state that « Earth is a common good », so we have got to take care of it, and that all the human beings are bound up with the other, this earth, and all that is living inside. This education should lead to autonomy allowing each of us to think, decide and act by oneself. It must lead to responsibility, putting to acting, it must make all the citizens bearers of democratic values, always mobilized for their implementation. Education towards sustainable development is a school of respect. This educations concerns all human beings, whatever their age, their original country, their function in society .might be It is formal, non formal, informal. It does not tend to producing elites, on no account it should create exclusion but it does enrich with diversity. It helps us to understand that any individual can influence his/her environment. It aims to the free adoption of a good deal of daily behaviours, necessary for eradicating poverty and save guarding the restoration or improvement of the quality of our environment. Education to Sustainable Development leads to a resolutely constructive frame of mind. It tends to eliminate fatalist reflex, it stands versus the « I can’t », on mobilising thinking and rapidly reaches the gesture : it favours awareness that each of us is capable of acting. It gives value and conveys the concrete success got on the field; it favours the expression of those who act whatever the territorial size, the action reaching, and intervention level, could be. This kind of education is directed towards action: it takes individuals and groups getting implicated in social and political life of their territory and their planet. Education to Sustainable Development is a participation school. It does not act to the benefit of one new ideology. Moreover, it questions the meaning of the world development that carries in itself the seed of not-sustainability, when it is reduced to its economical dimension. Education to Sustainable Development is a school generating critical mind. It drags one social philosophy affecting all the human beings. It gazes on the links and those who daily bound the person to all the elements of his/her life place and too those make it nearer in a common territory. It takes account of those links uniting people set elsewhere on the planet, and the new born of tomorrow. Education to sustainable development is a school of solidarity through space and time. It goals to improving our faculty of attention. As the matter is important, the reason of the educative action on environment still needs being asked too, and finally the one about the way and form will have to be considered too. Such a method is a major aspect of Education to Sustainable Development. Thus, the ground practice for a direct confrontation with reality, the group work meant to create more solidarity, creativity to initiate new tracks of ‘’living together’’ interdisciplinary for a global approach, the debate approach for preparing actors of a living and real democracy, all those, are absolute and unforgettable must. Expected role of the project Opportuness Any training targets the development of new competences for people. Actually it appears normal to ask oneself about the competences that we wish to develop through a training process, for the beneficiaries (teachers, trainers and any citizen). The proposed approach for this sort of work consists on a close link between « why » and « how » the aimed competences and the main steps to succeed doing the whole thing, avoiding to fall down neither in an exhaustive inventory, nor in fanatical actism. The objectives 2 objectives will be guiding those works : - Identifying the key competences on the concern of sustainable development, - Proposing varied pedagogical approaches meant to building a training referential for the countries (France, Romania, Estonia and Belgium), The expected results :

An operational referential covering up the 3 fields of sustainable development (social field, economical field and ecological field) situating them in a dynamic approach of pedagogical principles, which we will be able to rely on, in order to facilitate the targeted trainings.

EDUCATION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1.1 History E.S.D. has often been improperly defined, and recently mixed up with other modern concerns. but actually, it’s education about environment which constitutes its historical base. From the seventies, international authorities have regularly been pushing schools to get involved and contribute to taking up the great environment stakes. The start of environment education was made with the Conference of Carson city, Nevada; 1970. There, environment education was defined as an introduction process of new values and conceptual clarification meant to arouse skills and indispensable attitudes for a comprehension of relations supposed to exist between human beings and their environment. At length, the objective of this education has been to lead to ‘’practicing and decision taking, and a spontaneous formulation of ethics, when examining questions asking about the quality of environment Under the aegis of the UNESCO, a meeting of experts in Belgrade in 1975 started to precise the goals of environment education. For these experts, the finality of environment education is ‘’to shape at the global scale, a population conscious and eager at dealing with environment and its connected problems, and who, from their acquaintance and competence, their frame of mind and commitment sense, is in position to contribute collectively and individually to the solving of problems and avoid to create some new, in the future’’. Belgrade chart has given off 6 objectives for doing that : * AWARENESS Leading the individuals and constituted groups to take conscience of global environment and its related problems and show their sensitiveness about them. * KNOWLEDGE Leading the individuals and constituted groups to acquire some major understanding of global environment and its connected problems, and a better knowledge as well of the place and role of critical responsibility that the man kind is called to hold in there. * BEHAVIOUR Leading the individuals and constituted groups to obtain the sense of social values, setting a deep feeling of interest to environment, and a clear true commitment through their acts protecting and improving it. * COMPETENCE Bringing the individuals and constituted groups to gain indispensable expertise for finding solutions to environment concerns. * THE EVALUATION CAPACITY Inducing the individuals and constituted groups proceeding to an assessment of measures and training programmes about environment, regarding factors of ecological, political, economical, social, esthetic and educative order. * PARTICIPATION Leading the individuals and constituted groups to realize their responsibilities and the emergency to interfere on the environment plan, if the required layouts have to be taken to solve the facing problems. Those objectives take us back to a notion of environment quite close to the notion of ‘’problem’’. As a matter of fact, Environment Education becomes one environment protection tool. These problems in front of which a child is set, must help him to understand his role. These 6 latter objectives (on environment education) make the pillar of sustainable development education. Tbilisi Conference in 1977 lead on a text that repeats and precise most of Belgrade treaty. Nevertheless, a new interest for environment appears out of its problematic aspect. ‘’The fundamental objectives of education regarding environment, is to induce individuals and collectivities to understand complexity of environment, to acquire some knowledge, values , behaviours and practical skills, as well so that they will participate on an efficient and responsible way, to prevention and solution of environment problems and to the management of the environment quality.’’ UNESCO 1977 Environment becomes richer and more complex. Behaviours can’t anymore considered as an element among other, but tends to become to be reached for Education to Sustainable

Development. Thus, Education to Sustainable Development also turns becoming more critic towards society. Another fundamental objective of education related to environment is bringing out the economical, political and ecological policies of the modern world into which the behaviours of a few countries can have consequences of international reach. In this perspective, education related to environment t should contribute to the birth of a responsibility and solidarity spirit between regions and countries… Along the 80ies, a widening of the field of education to sustainable development appeared. The notion of nature broadened up to the environment one, integrating some problematic as pollutions resources city-life… The various conceptions referring to what environment and education actually are, naturally entail the existence as many conception of the relation between environment and education. Then, 3 tendencies are being drawn: education for environment, education by environment, education to environment or connected to environment. The differences go farther off a mere change of word. Education for environment works for responsibilizing the individuals on their environment making the notion of eco-citizen emerge. We do hope to teach the future generation to protect environment. Gestion and preservation are objectives to be reached. Education for environment observes that environment is very rich topic. It permit’s the learners to be motivated, and offers the possibility to work on a wide range of concepts, subjects, behaviours. Inhere, objectives are addressed to the person. So environment is considered as en educative means. Education by environment igets nearer to education in the ‘’broad sense’’, while education for environment is willing to change society thoroughly. Those 2 notions and their complementarity gradually become is in insufficient for describing the diversity of of objectives and practises. However complementary between these 2 conceptions is obvious. It’s this very complementarity on which education to environment banks that is less dogmatic in its approach. It has got 2 finalities : Firstly a new consciousness of complexity , fragility and sharpness of the relations between man and his environment allowing individuals can access to the indispensable bases to play their role on more responsible way. After that the full education of the person can find a performing tool into education by environment. The emergence of the concept of sustainable development in 1987, and its officialization at Rio in 1992 (Agenda 21) give the start of Education to Sustainable Development. Article 36 of Agenda 21 is destinated to teachers and trainers. Once again the matter mainly consists on education for environment. The new thing with regard to the previous texts is founded on the new concept of sustainable development, getting in dissociable from the environment one. Education linked to environment will have to be integrated to Education to Sustainable Development. Thus, education related makes a solid bare to Education to Sustainable Development. Finally, the world summit on sustainable development (Johannesburg 2002) that contributed to deepen the engagement in its favour proclaimed the decade for Education to Sustainable Development (from 2005 to 2014) inviting all the signing countries to ‘’enter’’ in sustainable development (Belgium is one of them) through education in order to build up one more viable future. 1.2 Education to Sustainable Development VERSUS Education related to Environment As we have just seen, the introduction to Education to Sustainable Development is not done on an entirely empty ground. New subjects linked to Sustainable Development have been thought for a few years. Consequently, Sustainable Development Education has got « to parch on those new approaches territory. It’s really a tough task : when Education related to Environment became Education to Sustainable Development (SDE) de Haan (2002) noted down : on the conceptual plan, we quit Education related to Environment to indulge to Educating to Sustainable Development. The change does not limit itself to add economical and social dimensions : the aim consists in integrating all the subjects connected to with durability (sustainability) to be found through ‘’total education’’ or in educating to mobility, health, consumption ». Therefore, Education to Sustainable Development (SDE) is getting mixed especially with Education related to Environment. As an example, the French Government speaks by now, of ‘’Education to Environment towards Sustainable Development. On the ground and into the minds, those 2 terms are generally associated and also used by the other and vice-versa. We

can say without being misled, that Education related to Environment targets convergent goals with those of Sustainable Development. In some others’ opinion, it’s important to remain careful for these 2 terms cover up different realities. For Lucie Sauvé (2004) the widening of the field from Education related to Environment to Education to Sustainable Development is not done through improvement but on the contrary. The use of the term Environment’’ in Education to Sustainable Development would restricts the latter to its only aspect of ‘’resources’’. It would be used, then, to economical purpose, making place for merchandising of those resources. For Sauvé, Sustainable Development would be exclusively a rational use of natural resources designed to future generations. Some texts of UNESCO come and confirm these critics as soon as they state that Sustainable Development ‘’must promote the use of creative and effective human potential and of the whole forms of capital to secure a rapid and fairer economic growth while reducing the incidences on Environment’’. In this way, the critic of Sustainable Development is harsh : ‘’Then, Environment only reduces itself to a mere constraint to Development, and doesn’t have its own value either. Human Sustainable Development is a functional frame, Human being is reduced to his ‘’Homo economicus’’ function in service to economy. Fairness and competitiveness are on the same plan and protection of Environment turn to be the guarantee of durable consumption. Education related to Environment would combine the concern to revise the economical choices. Education related to Environment can’t hold on ‘’the unsustainable durability’’. An integration of economical aspects would thus weaken the position of Environment. Though it’s close to Education related to Environment, Education to Sustainable Development is more exacting, hardly finds its place inside a partitioned school institution. Education related to Development from its own history has been confronted to similar difficulties. It has been introducing itself in the field of sciences (so to call natural) to the detriment of interdisciplinary. Its easier introduction is bound to the fact that Education notions by environment are parts of curriculum. However when the matter enlarges till making us consider our actions on this circle, the notional level gets different. This is this type of Environment Education which interest Sustainable Development. This widening of Education related to Environment concept has carried on, and got enriched in the same time, as the very notion of environment all along these last 30 years. The appearance of the concept of Sustainable Development hasn’t disrupted practise but above all the finality. The goal doesn’t only consist ‘’in protecting nature’’ but also taking account of the social and economical aspects playing an important role in our environment. It’s the non taking account of those aspects which formerly withdrew legitimacy to the ecologist speech. It’s true that we could still search for some more elements making a big difference between Education to Sustainable Development and Education to related Development, these notions are grounds for debate because they are remaining blurred. As far as we are concerned, instead of opposing the 2 concepts, we find more useful to look for their complementarity. The pedagogical expertise developed in the frame of Education to related Development should be helpful to us elaborating a training programme to Sustainable Development Education. The roots of Education to Sustainable Development are located in Education to related Development. A huge majority of documents about Sustainable Development are Educated related to Environment ones. Most actors involved sound to agree. Consequently, ‘’Education to related Development is written in a view of sustainable development. Along the last decade, Education to related Development has become a pillar for the implementation of sustainable development, discussing the present questions of our societies, on the environmental and social plan, and the economical one as well. Moreover, in reality, we observe that Education towards a sustainable development is also tied and/or mixed with Education to Citizenship, Environment, Health Education in a global prospect… and so on… A good deal of educations refer to a similar approach but say that they have a specificity. It’s often difficult to perceive the limits of these specificities, they all proclaim coming from a systemic approach of ‘’the problems’’, are founded on the same values, use the same concepts , work on the principles of ‘’Interdisciplinarity’’ and tend to work by net. Education to Sustainable Development is not the sum of all those. There is a global education including all the fields of the former. All together these different educations must go on with one same goal, the Education to Sustainable Development.

As we have seen, different movements have made Sustainable Development Education richer and still do. Sustainable Development is one concept broad enough to receive all the other subjects having their heart set on the future of humanity. Time is no more to local quarrels but to harmonisation of efforts (…) ‘’The common aim consists in a viable future adverting, and must constitute the integrating element around which these different approaches converge.’’ Education to Sustainable Development doesn’t concern environment only and natural resources gestion, but also the aspects of participation, equity, social justice, etc… Those are major prospects to prepare students to commit themselves in Sustainable Development. 1.3 Why teaching Education to Sustainable Development at school ? Can or shoulde this education be considered on the same way as other fields of education? Has it a right of freedom at school? In fact why making such an education enter in the framework of formal education meanwhile extensions got recently multiplied without any proper adaptation of the hour schedule, the programmes and above all the means. The introduction ofr Sustainable Development Education in the school field arouses, more, questions connected with the function of teachers and school. Two authors, Lucie SAUVE and Philippe MEIRIEU, got interested among other, to this epistemological development in the outline of formal education. For Sauvé, the introduction of Education related to Environment at school answers to 3 inter-linked problematic. The first is the one of our present environmental situation. The exhaustion and deterioration of ressources put our quality of life in danger and threaten the survival of our species too. This becomes a central concern of our society, so it’s normal that school does deal with it; the latter is one of the sound boxes of our society. The second argument justifying the introduction of Education to Sustainable Development at school has something to do with the conditions of teaching and training. To Sauvé’s opinion, those conditions (quite traditional) are characterized, among others, by the interdisciplinary partitioning and isolation of school with regard to realities. Those factors wouldn’t be favourable to a kind of education aiming the development or persons capable to take up the challenges of the present world marked by fastness and the width of changes, diversity and the multidimensional feature of environment problems. Sustainable Development Education is seen as tool of school changing, a way to transform the ways of learning and teaching. Thirdly it answers to a pedagogical problematic. The lack of education of persons and societies with regard to their environment is noticeable. To Sauvé’s point of view, human being has become as stranger to nature, and he is dominated by a technological universe which he understands and uses badly. School’s role is socialising, learning to live in one society and in one environment. Scientific literacy tries to answer. In the framework of scientific and technical literacy someone is considered as ‘’scientifically and technically literated when his learnings provide him some autonomy, some skill to communicate and some master ship and responsibilization facing concrete situations. We consider that scientific and technological literacy is a school of citizenship, a rampart, especially against technocracy. Jenkins rightly points out that original scientific knowledge is unusable in a context of STL, for it is standardized and validated by scientists for other scientists what is not the decision of action taking. There is here a real problem of didactic transposition Roth and Désautels abound in the same direction: if it’s true that science is the necessary ingredient to the development of an informed and committed citizenship, we have to note that into most documents, science and technology are presented as not raising problems got out of their historical, sociological, economical and political context. Science seems derived from sort of ‘’Immaculate Conception’’, even when it is the fact of living creatures negotiating between each other the status of their discoveries. Worse, there are questions about which science doesn’t have univocal answer. Finally, we have to take in account the fact that the citizens’ representations are slightly different from the experts casting doubt on their opinion on grounds that science was once mistaken before that. For Carlsen Education related to Environment offers also some indirect profit, avoiding to fall down as far as sciences are concerned into what he calls ‘’a naïve inductivism’’. This inductivism makes the bet that observing the facts we will induct an hypothese to be tested. Numerous authors notice that observation is loaded of theory in

advance - it does determine what should be observed of the object - and so, that any observation supposed a project. In the same sort of idea, Carlsen (2001) that in the experiments presented as scientific to students, the teacher has known the result in advance and has an explanation making the experimentation useless. From this author’s view, Education related to Environment permits to get round the problem. When we apply a protocol, the advantage is that the result is not known by students neither teachers. The matter is not rediscovering an already set knowledge but releasing persuasive arguments on the sense they think they will give to results. On the whole, those arguments must be a rational submitted to peers between classes for example. Such a methodology is far more closed to the searchers’ work than inductivisim. There is emergency to recontextualize science, and in this respect Education to related Environment and Education to Sustainable Development could reveal themselves very helpful. This matter of sense of training is particularly since pertinent regarding some disaffection with science. Sustainable Development Education provides the context of the real world from which concepts and competences can be learnt. Sustainable Development Education recognizes the importance of looking at the environment through the context of human influence incorporating economical factors, cultural and political as well as social equity besides some ‘’natural process and systems’’. In other words, Sustainable Development Education permits to science a restitution of its human dimension. It’s also a matter of citizenship citizens having to be capable to make sense with what is happening around them. If, till now, we had a trends to consider that technical and scientific literacy had been the indispensable bare of any educative steps related to Environment, we do thing with Coppola, in return that scientific and technological curriculum should be made green so that we could reach an environmental literacy. We draw 3 advantages of such a strategy : Making sense to the science lesson, showing its importance on everyday life, Proposing to students a really constructivist research contextualized around a present problematic, the environment one, Giving back room to ethic inside sciences, offering a humanist vision of them. Philippe Meirieu, French specialist of Pedagogy, and the Headmaster of Lyon Educating University, for his part justifies the introductions of Sustainable Development Education according four paradigms. Those paradigms should be applied to all school subjects. For each of them, there would be ‘’what we have to know’’, ‘’what we have to do’’, ‘’how we have to think’’, ‘’what we have to resist to » ». However as we will see, each of these paradigms can bring some drifts. The first justificative paradigm is the encyclopaedist paradigm. Meirieu notices like Sauvé that a wider and wider consensus is being set to that this concept could be a part of ‘’the luggage of honest man of century 21st’’. That is a contemporary concern, and it is in that fact, its first justification as much as computing… cross-culture education…etc A paradigm is an entirely of principles that structure more of less consciously the way to get acquainted with reality to be studied, and consequently the acting way to use on it. School knowledge is not fixes and the subjects we see at school are amended with time. On the other hand, ‘’Encyclopaedism’’ can turn to a declarative transmission. The second register of justification : behaviour. Education in general implies a change of behaviours. In this prospect we have to encourage children ‘’to acquire reflex and behaviour having become indispensable for the very survival of our planet’’. Nevertheless tris pedagogy quickly may turn to ‘’dressing’’ and doesn’t always permit to take account of the situation in its whole. On another level, instead of a simple inculcating, real and value increasing situations, as much at school as at home, become ‘’normal’’ and enter the fields of customs. Therefore, as in any kind of thing, it’s necessary to take care of the implementation of decisions taken collectively and ‘’incite’’ children to adjust to them. The systemic paradigm justifies the introduction of Sustainable Development Education inside school because it introduces a new way ‘’to think the world as a mixed system made of a multitude of interactive elements’’. This joins the preoccupations of the philosopher Edgar Morin supporting one complex and global teaching. Children could find their place inside this system and feel like bringing their own contribution. ‘’Each of us must perceive him or herself as a solidary element into a vast system in which everything acts and affects the whole and where none is condemned to inability or passiveness. The system approach would permit to understand how the world works unlike encyclopaedic and comportementalist approaches.

Nevertheless the interest in the system, risks to make us lose right of the object because being obsessed by the method. Finally the last paradigm send back to its function of social critic. Lucie Sauvé has been working a lot about that hoping the emergence of ‘’Resistant Citizens’’ to make politics prevail on economy. ‘’Education has got to learn how to be critical and develop the competence of reacting against situations felt as unjust and untenable’’. It is justified to Sustainable Development Education inside schools for (and if!) we target the emergence of a capacity of reflexive resistance. This last paradigm, the critical paradigm, bears in its bosom a very important risk of indoctrination. Moreover this introduction of this thematic can be considered as a blow to neutrality of school because Education to Sustainable Development transmits values that are shared by everyone, yet. We observe with these two authors as with other, the opening allowing this thematic in terms of knowledge, skills of the subjects and their transversal significance. Education to Sustainable Development is rich and would improve the presence practise thanks to its complexity and contextualization. Moreover it sounds that this thematic could be a positive crossroad for training bound to our modern society. LAST Education to Sustainable Development would contribute to a change of attitude of attitude and behaviour actually setting the person in the heart of learnings and into a space of freedom and negotiation. Epistemology plays a key-role in Scientific and Technical Literacy (STL) for in addition to basic scientific knowledge, we also have to consider the contextual origin and ethic load of the scientific contents. This very author thinks as we that if STL does not basically raise questions about the place of sciences nd technologies in society, the movement Science Technology and Society (STS) does it , at least implicitly through those pedagogical speeches, an important part of humanism transcends all the approaches. We try to save democratically the planet.









Everyone is a potential, if not effective, actor of a sustainable development dynamic. So, in primary and secondary schools, the education objective must be to prepare citizens able to understand the challenge of future and to act consequently. For higher education, the view is different: the aim is to train “professionals”, researchers or people technically invested in the elaboration of sustainable development projects. Those professionals are involved in projects as specialists and not only as citizens. They have to bring, or know how to summon up the necessary competences but also to know how to influence the processes in order to act in real sustainable developments as specified above. We discussed about the possibility to define the « sustainable development jobs ». The usual concept of job appeared too reducing for us. The idea of job is often associated to “knowing how to do”. We can certainly ensure a specific knowledge. But we are generally no longer oriented to train people able to define how to do and to mobilize themselves for a precise project. A more important thing is that those people must be able to:


Act for more efficient debates, Show that technical solutions can be found when necessary, Have convergences apparent, Have people share a vision of future.

One word for designing these professional actors for sustainable development: « Facilitator ». So, our objective is finally to have people able, beyond knowledge and how to do, what we propose to call “how to act”. Imagining trainings adapted to such an objective is not easy in the classical context of universities. Little by little, the sustainable development professional staff that we train should make a sufficiently big community for contributing to new relations between society and training centers in order to promote permanent creation of training. Four main challenges have to be addressed. We are explaining and illustrating them below.




Cultural challenge: promote diversity and assume change.

Acting for sustainable development is to be concerned with others, nearby or far away, in space as in time. So, we think that our training sessions have to help people to acquire the clear conviction that sustainable development as a man’s undertaking, is necessarily based on a vision of human kind which assumes its past, proposes a future and so situates itself in relation with the ecological system of our planet. Such a vision must evidently take root in values. Consequently, training actors for sustainable development imposes to bring them a real culture in the ethic field. According to the UNESCO spirit, it seems essential for us to give a central role to solidarity as an important moral worth, all the more the scientific information underlines the spatiotemporal interdependence of societies and their environments. Considering diversity as a fundamental value is as important: accepting that the other person is different, understanding his identity are basic moral values. Some scientific ideas agree with that underlining that diversity is the first condition for adaptability. Concurrently, it is important to make people aware of the evolution of our scientific comprehension of the world: change is an intrinsic characteristic of reality and it is clearly claimed by nowadays sciences. We are giving up the illusion of a world being “a harmonious balance between men and nature” to discover that transformation and evolution are rules. Thinking in that way is not obvious: our systems of traditional values can be turned upside down. Professional acting for sustainable development projects must have integrated this major paradigmatic change in their individual culture. At last, it is necessary to train people to have an « integrative » comprehension of sustainable development problematic. This is only possible, if we put together in a same approach the social, environmental and economic aspects. So, an interdisciplinary approach is a necessity as the construction of a cultural context allowing students to understand the interactions between these three dimensions of sustainable development. Actually, without this comprehension, it is not possible to acquire an efficient « how to act » at a local level. But, efficiency cannot be limited to « act locally ». The sustainable development does not only take into account the social, environmental and economic integration at a local level: it supposes the meeting of local projects in a planetary responsible project. All this is possible in a context of awareness and valorization of local diversity. Training sustainable development actors cannot be limited in acquiring an interdisciplinary culture: it is also necessary to learn how to work in an intercultural way.



2.2 Professional challenge: development of new competences In the field of sustainable development, NGOs more and more show the necessity of professionalization. In the same way, with the evolution of territorial jobs and the implementation of decentralized cooperation and co-development politics, local authorities are asking for more professional (initial and in service) training. Same needs are appearing in enterprises. More than jobs in the traditional meaning, we are talking about emergent professions which are essentially defined by the ability to act in multi actors and very often complex situations. All this supposes in addition to possible specific scientific and technical competences, other competences for diagnosis, elaboration of projects, leading of process and eventual conflict management. The professionals controlling how to act are the new actors for sustainable development and must in addition show their abilities to adapt themselves to the various situations they will be confronted to. They must also possess necessary knowledge concerning professional deontology. The conception of networks in order to train these professional “facilitators”, in initial as well as in service training, is clearly a challenge in high education. But the challenges are more important. Actually, it is more and more evident that initial training for engineers, whatever their specialization is, must include an opening to sustainable development issues. The challenge is not only to make them aware but also to make them acquire facility abilities and, above all, abilities for working with professional « facilitators » whose role and legitimacy have to be recognized. Any sustainable development approach is the elaboration and implementation of a particular project managed by precise actors. Researches can be necessary at any step. They often call for approaches different from the classical academic research because they have to be thought for and in the action that is to say in interaction with numerous actors engaged in a development process. Consequently, the training of « involved researchers » is an important challenge for universities, particularly because new ways of evaluation for research and researchers have to be used.




Pedagogical challenge: from knowledge to know-how to act

People who want to be trained for sustainable projects possess very various origins, knowledge and how to do. Making them acquire or develop necessary competences to become real professionals lead to numerous problems, as for defining the training contents as for the choice of pedagogical methods. Basically, we have to: 

Ensure a good balance between knowledge, know how to do and know how to act;

Make people acquire a concrete experience about the diversity of problems ;

Approaches, conceptions concerning sustainable development according to cultures and socio-economical and ecologic situations;

Develop both autonomy, personal involvement and ability to work in a multidisciplinary and multicultural team;

Make them acquire individual and collective auto evaluation skills for the results of team work ;

Make them acquire abilities to implement transversal and multidisciplinary approaches ;

Make them acquire abilities to structure participative approaches involving the different actors and to find solutions for managing conflicts ;

Make them acquire principles of a strong professional deontology.

SDE cannot be efficiently implemented without a training effort of teachers and managers as well as any staff when a sustainable development program has been decided. 2.3.1

Teachers’ training

It must be realized in link with the other sustainable development actors which will enrich the training contents and actions. SDE including multidisciplinary activities must be included very early in the teachers’ training as well at the beginning of university studies as when they prepare their teaching exams. However, training future teachers is not enough; the main thing is to lead the teachers to integrate SDE in their teaching. 2.3.2

Managers’ training

Managers in the educative system at national, academic and school levels have to be sensitized, even trained in order to support SDE approaches and promote E3D or Agenda 21 actions, but also for helping them to be able to implement themselves sustainable development strategies according to their functions.




Training of staff

In the framework for E3D or agenda 21 approaches, health and social staff, school life staff as well as administrative, management, maintenance, kitchen staff and teachers must participate to mixed training sessions. So, the approach has to be effectively encouraged at the highest level. Central administrations, general inspections are concerned; the approach must go throughout academic and regional levels: educational rectors and general secretaries, regional directions for agriculture and forests, regional directions for youth and sports, education pedagogical inspectors, region managers; involve institutions: principals of schools, university directors, training institutes managers and also responsible people in local authorities.

2.4 Training actors The educational sphere must not only gain a sustainable development culture for itself in order to assume its mission in the best way but must also be able to contribute to the actors’ sensitization and training. Many among them do not possess a training dispositive and a lot of them will look for support and necessary resources for their training inside the educational sphere and in other SDE structures. Professional organizations are appreciable actors for sustainable development education throughout educational and training activities they are in charge of; in this effort for education and training for sustainable development consular chambers can also be involved throughout their teaching, apprenticeship and training services. 2.4.1

Initial training

SDE must in direct relation with enterprises and collectivities take into account the apprenticeship of every professional sector. For that, the members of consultative professional commissions must be sensitized to sustainable development and invited to revise their training references. Some sectors have priority because of their contribution to the stakes. It is actually the case of agriculture and rural jobs as well as building and priority activity sectors. This integration can avoid interest for these jobs and cause a better social recognition. In France, we can say that the consultative professional commission for animated jobs and sports has already been sensitized for taking into account competences linked to sustainable development. The revision of diplomas and training references for this professional path will give SDE a concrete orientation. 2.4.2

In service training

The in service professional training plays a very important role for developing « sustainable development competences » in society and consequently in efficiency of sustainable development



politics. Some jobs have key positions, for example possessions administrators who can and must promote buildings quality. We must introduce sustainable development problematic in the actors’ in service training in order to sensitize decision makers including elected people and to train staff. Our work group strongly recommends that all the works concerning in service training which are being revised take from now into account sustainable development. 2.4.3

Sustainable development and development of competences

We are conscious that sustainable development education answers the development need of society. It passes by : 

The individual level: adults must be taught as well as young people.

the collective level : all organizations must have a sustainable development approach and learn how to implement it ;

« society » level: the organizations must act altogether in order to create cooperation and partnership because, it is well known that real answers will only be found if the stakes are collective and shared.


References for necessary “competences for sustainable development” on individual, collective and society levels.


There are a lot of definitions. Each actor possesses his own interpretation of one or several definitions. However, we can see two approaches which express two extreme positions: the approach of weak sustainability in which economy is the center of preoccupations and the approach of strong sustainability in which the maintenance of natural resources is a priority.


Almost all the texts about sustainable development have been written in English. Translations came late enough and were often imperfect and fluctuating. As an example the English phrase « sustainable development » has been translated into French by « développement soutenable », « développement viable » and most of the time by « développement durable ».


Complex situations can be distinguished by the coexistence of very different logics. For E.MORIN « the dialogical principle means that one or two different logics are linked as a unity in a complex way, that is to say complementary, competitive and antagonist.” So, economic, ecologic and social logics that the sustainable development tries to put together can be characterized as heterogeneous and dialogical. To that, we can add the fact that sustainable development can be described on three plans with:  

A natural dimension : to act in a short term, A spatial dimension : to articulate global and local,



A systemic dimension: to act in a simple and operational framework.

These three dimensions demand multi criteria approaches and consequently multi indicators and multi- cultural.


The classic science is always looking for a global explicative model for facts or studied events. This model let little space for other models or visions. The complexity of stakes for sustainable development does not nowadays give a chance to science to capture all the aspects of reality, particularly between which can be predicted and which is certain. So a global explicative model is not defined which gives place for future uncertainties.


Without detailing different points of view which can exist, sustainable development is sometimes considered as a juxtaposition of contradictory phrases. The word development can be synonym of « growth », « evolution », « progression »…and the word sustainable can be synonym of « stability », « persistence », « which is slowly achieved », « which last in time »… These things allow us to tell that the sustainable development concept is moving, interdisciplinary and complex. It includes much more than the transmission of an idea and even new ideas. The proposed referent book of competences must be seen as a tool offering a reference framework. With this referent competences book used for training, we want to incite the trainees to:    

think of the present society, reflect on values, analyse actions, participate to people’s behavior change.

We also have to convey some open mind spirit or develop it. 2.4.5

Reference book for sustainable development competences

The sustainable development stakes for professional training are complex. Sustainable development cannot only be considered as a new knowledge to acquire. It is rather awareness and a change of paradigm or a referent model. Consequently, the reference book must be a common base for all training institutions which aim to social and professional insertion. So we must avoid eventual divisions between training aiming social insertion and professional insertion for qualification or not. It is built from the individual « trainee » and proposes competences according to the three sustainable development dimensions applied to adults training , that is to say social, economic and ecological dimensions. The trainee is then considered as an actor who maintains social, economic and ecological relations.



So, the referential is based on three statements: -

The trainee is a citizen The trainee is an economic agent The trainee is an eco-citizen consumer

Beyond these three dimensions and statements, the competence referential is specified by the possibility of apprehending the sustainable development concept according to three approaches: - One-dimensional approach - Two-dimensional approach - Three-dimensional approach One-dimensional approach

This approach presents for each dimension (social, economic and ecologic) three key competences and propositions for operational declining. The social dimension is centered on Man and all the aspects of life in society. Three competences are proposed and valorized in the referential: -

How to communicate How to find our own place How to be committed

As an example the competence « how to communicate » can be defined by the following synonyms: how to announce, inform, transmit, exchange… The referential added value is to go beyond the competence identification and definition “how to communicate” by proposing for it three operational declinations:




Apply communication rules when exchanging with one or several speakers, Argue and formalize ideas with the help of tools in order to present them to one or several speakers, Debate.

The economic dimension is centered on two main aspects: -


All activities that a man can have in a human collectivity concerning goods and wealth production. The way of reducing expenses in goods and income management.

Three competences are proposed: -

How to be inserted How to work How to find its place

As an example too, the « how to work » competence can be defined by the following synonyms: executing, working, making, producing… The referential added value is to go farther by proposing here two operational declinations for the “how to work” competence: -

Adopt a responsible attitude linked to the job requirements in our professional practice


Implement “how to do” competences.

The ecologic dimension is centered on the Man’s actions and their consequences on his environment. Three competences are proposed and valorized in the referential -

How to save How to protect How to rationalize

An example again, the competence “how to protect” can be defined by the following synonyms: defense, preservation, safeguarding, conservation, looking after… The added value of the referential is to propose two operational declinations for the « how to protect » competence Using biodegradable and no pollutant products, Using a heating system adapted to the house and limiting pollutions and greenhouse gas effect.



If this approach can allow the teaching of sustainable development in three dimensions, it is still restrictive because each dimension is presented independently from the other ones. Two-dimensional approach



This approach presents competences situated in an intermediate position. They are the result of interactions between:   

The social and the economic dimensions, The social and the ecological dimensions, The ecological and the economic dimensions.

Three new dimensions are identified and proposed compared to these interactions:  A socio-economic dimension, which aims at expanding economic effectiveness with the respect of individuals. It is the fair dimension of sustainable development. 

A socio-ecological dimension which aims at limiting the bad consequences of people’s actions on environment. It is the livable dimension of sustainable development.

An ecological and economic dimension which aims at managing rationally natural resources. It is the viable dimension of sustainable development.

Each of these three dimensions can be considered as partial since it is situated on only two sustainable development pillars. In each of them, every time one of the three pillars is missing. The interconnection allows us to reach competences linked to sustainable development. 1.

Analysis of the consequences of our acts as consumers,


Awareness of sustainable development stakes,


Evolution of comportments,


Be a sustainable development relay actor.

citizens, economical agents and

It is represented at the intersection of three sustainable development pillars taking into account these three pillars on an equal way. In the opposite of the deduction which could be done, this representation is not the addition of the three dimensions but a new synthesis. In order to develop and reach competences which are in the heart of the referential, a complex work is to be done with the trainees on a long time. The long training dispositions are without any doubt those which present the best conditions for developing the sustainable development competences.

The three-dimensional approach



We recommend this approach for our training referential for sustainable development. It takes into account in an equal way the three dimensions, that is to say ecologic, economic and social. For all that, the three-dimensional approach can be progressively introduced, on condition to be shared by the different actors in a training organization.

As a conclusion, each training organization can draw in an operational way the competences as a whole according to the training objectives which have to be reached and the welcomed audience.

In order to spread these competences in the best way, it is useful to precise some principles, methods and a trainer’s professional attitude. All these aspects are a basis for elaborating training adapted to sustainable development. However, face to the big number of possible approaches, it is difficult to decide which is the best for training to sustainable development and its competences. Principles Some general “theoretic” rules can help for introducing the sustainable concept and its competences. Actually, face to sustainable development particularities it seems important to base training on the following principles.

Awareness of the evolutionary dimension of the concept

In the opposite of knowledge presented as references the sustainable development must be presented as a relative notion which can be understood in different ways according to the concerned persons and which can be explained differently according to circumstances.

Taking into account the uncertainty notion

This concept shows the necessity to take into account the uncertainty notion, the risks evaluation and precaution principle. Face to scientific and technic uncertainties linked to our partial view of reality, the training must help beneficiaries to understand uncertainties but anyway take decisions. Taking into account the differences of accepting Face to the sustainable development actors’ different points of view, the training for this theme must allow the beneficiaries to understand those diverse points of view, to have their own idea face to



these approaches but also be able to understand the ideas which are different from theirs. According to Morin, “teaching must also allow the pupils to admit that cultural diversity is inherent to human beings.” In order to be able to come to these aspects, the learners must learn how to dialogue, exchange and debate.

Acquire a systemic way of thinking

The specialization in separate subjects and domains leads to a compartmentalization and division of knowledge. However, face the growing complexity of our societies, there is an evolution in training in order to allow the trainees to develop a systemic way of thinking consisting in the analysis of complete phenomena, studying interrelations rather than individual elements and observing change processes. La spécialisation en disciplines et domaines d'études distincts conduit à un cloisonnement et à un morcellement du savoir.

Introducing an ethics and spiritual reflection

This concept supposes for the beneficiaries a reflection on the present society and its evolution. Ethics has to be approached in order to give the beneficiaries the possibility to find their own position face to sustainable development and its competences.

Introduction of the responsibility notion

Questioning on values in the philosophical and socio-cultural sense also leads to a reflection on collective and individual responsibility.

Consideration of changing paradigm or reference model

This concept is presented as a change of paradigm which means for the beneficiaries to change their knowledge and their reference framework. Yet, changing people’s conception is not an easy process. If the information we are given shake too much the beneficiaries world perception, they could be led to give up. They can also memorize the information and never use it. So, training must help trainees to change their reference framework without leading them to give up. 2.4.6

Referential for professional activities.

Trainers and sustainable development participate to the realization of the missions of institutions and to the services they work in based on their expertise in daily domains: budget, consummation (energy, water…), environment, energies. They have to ensure different functions: • • •

Expertise and technologic counseling, Technic organization of daily life in a service or an institution, Animation, training, teaching and professional communication.

They put their scientific, technic, methodological competences for the service of different publics, consumers and professionals. So, they participate to impulse change in people’s acting (individually as collectively) in a sustainable development context. During their missions they



contribute in information for access to public rights… They can work in relation with other experts: social workers, lawyers, health professionals, technic services in local authorities and social dwelling organizations…This action of a professional takes place in the respect of users’ rights and professional ethics. 2.4.7 Roles of the referential – activities ROLES



Compilation and selection of financial F1 : information in order to draw up a balance EXPERTISE AND Budget management for an sheet TECHNOLOGICAL action or a project Elaboration of budgets and implementation of ADVICE the proposition Research of financial solutions (helps, subventions…) Contribution to the realization and following of Advice for the budgetary the budget for action, to a project financing management of an entity Budget balance and debt control Following of contracts (insurance, maintenance, subscriptions…) Advice and promotion for flux management : energies, Collecting and actualization of information Analysis of need and demand water, waste … Realization of technical studies Advising for sustainable Participation to the drafting of specifications purchase and use of Propositions of solutions, implementation, products, materials and following, evaluation equipment. Help for negotiation in an advice activity Realization of technic studies Negotiation with professionals and advices. Juridical supervising Instruction and carrying up of Control of rights access documents for improvement Constitution of documents for asking help or rehabilitation of dwelling. Follow up of important files

Following of cultural heritage

Technical or juridical information concerning the entity Realization of inventories. Transmission of information to appropriate services Participation to a quality and environmental approach.



Collect and actualization of information Analysis of need and demand Promotion of health with Realization of technic studies actions concerning food, and Participation to actions for public health daily life ecology Propositions of solutions, implementation and evaluation

Management of distribution of meals

Management maintenance


Participation to the choice of menus Participation to the way of distribution Participation to the drafting of specifications the Participation to the negotiation for subcontracting tasks Elaboration and control of the proceedings for meals distribution and waste elimination Elaboration, implementation and control of proceedings and protocols Management of products, materials and equipment Waste management and Participation to the drafting of specifications Following and evaluation of subcontracting tasks



Participation to the conception of welcome, relaxing, meals, technic… places Following and evaluation

Elaboration of proceedings and documents concerning environment quality consistent with the usual standards Participation to the quality Implementation of quality procedures and environment approach Control of efficient results and impact Identification and study of unusual situations and things which do not work Propositions de solutions d’amélioration


Welcoming of different publics Constitution of a professional documentation Conception, organization and Identification and taking into account of needs implementation of individual and obligations and collective actions aiming Definition of objectives to education Realization of actions and pedagogical sessions Evaluation



Elaboration of methods and tools and technic Production of professional documents and technic documents Elaboration of supports for written, oral and visual communication Organization, coordination of the teamwork Following of the team activities Animation and following of Participation to the evaluation of the team the teamwork members Census of the training needs and proposition of a training plan





To analyse the consequences of his actions as economic citizen and consumer (eco gestures, stakes and impact) Ensure a technic, scientific and juridical watchfulness To realize a technic study in the following fields : consummation, budget, dwelling, environment, energy, public health and food F1 : EXPERTISE AND To implement strategies TECHNOLOGICAL ADVICES To participate in the decision process To propose alternative solutions for changing (how to consume better and waste less…) Elaborate a budget ; prepare and organize a financial demand Manage the budget for an individual or collective action To plan and/or coordinate activities in a service or an institution F2 : TECHNIC To promote the citizen participation and engagement ORGANIZATION OF DAILY To be an active actor in his job LIFE IN A SERVICE OR AN To manage products, materials and equipment To ensure watchfulness of the life spaces state INSTITUTION To integrate in the specifications for ecologic criteria To acquire a systemic thinking To encourage collective intelligence To introduce reflections about ethics, diversity, biodiversity, solidarity, spirituality, intercultural and inter generations To coordinate a team with a spirit of participative dynamic F3 : ANIMATION, TRAINING, To be clear with his own participation PROFESSIONAL To elaborate a communication towards different publics COMMUNICATION To develop actions in partnerships, networks and participate to the institutional dynamic To introduce the awareness of the sustainable development concept and the necessity of acting To educate to solidarity and sharing To be congruent To analyse the public needs To get informed in a critic way To create new egalitarian shares (free; exchanges) To have a consumption oriented for needs and not for desires To impulse and/or conceive and/or lead advising actions F4 : TRANSVERSAL To conceive and implement projects for local management of FUNCTIONS environment with the beneficiaries and the institutions To ensure the quality of given service To evaluate the actions implemented To participate to elaborate contractual documents with partners




Families have to be involved in SDE appropriation. They will be much more associated to E3D or school agenda 21 approaches as « participants» in the school projects if they are present at the board of managers. Among families there certainly will be resources for the school, some parents having some experience of sustainable development approaches or can be involved in their professional activity. Health actors must join the traditional SDE actors, starting with nurses and school doctors. We must also take into account the specific needs of the health sector in order to better integrate sustainable development in its own training initiatives. Nurse schools which are included in the hospital centers context have here immediate application fields for their sustainable development approach. So we have to invite big health institutions to join the process. 

Organizations which had an historic role in sustainable development end environment education have developed some pedagogical « how to do » that must be valorized and used; their role is important in partnerships and is renewed throughout the different new dimensions of the today’s approach: conception of tools, participation to teachers’ training, help for implementing E3D, participation to SDE programs in collectivities, contribution to elaborate shared SDE strategies…

 Organizations are not only partners for schools; they can propose to young people out of school and to adults, during leisure time spaces and propitious moments for sensitization and education to sustainable development. They can offer a frame often directly linked to natural environment which can also join assistance and international solidarity preoccupations. We can give examples of sportive clubs particularly in the field of nature activities: nautical (sailing, canoe…) land (climbing, skiing…) etc A lot of holidays and leisure centers develop real pedagogical projects about sustainable development. We can also encourage youth initiatives on sustainable development actions. All these activities participate or can participate to sustainable education and be in coherence with local authorities SDE plans. 

Collectivities already have direct DSE actors throughout institutions which receive money from them and, more and more, in their territorial often voluntary politic of sustainable development, some even include some initiatives of sustainable development education and we have to encourage them.

 As proximity actors they can give application subjects, help and propose pedagogical



actions or also associate schools to their own sustainable development politics in order to put the approaches in coherence. So, local authorities are really concerned by E3D approach and this at any level, from the town to the region passing through all other territories. We must say that regions, throughout regional professional plans have a very important impulsion role. Through the important role of enterprises concerning training, we must pay attention that SD objectives are present in their actions. The contribution of enterprises is desirable and necessary; it can be made by local enterprises which are observation and experiment fields, by some big firms which can offer pedagogical supports, by professional and consular organizations or by channels for technological education. Enterprises need and ask for young people trained to sustainable development or more precisely young people coming from training leading to sustainable development jobs. 

The state services and public institutions can participate by furnishing a contribution to problematic expertise, by proposing to pedagogical responsible persons some case studies and practical works supports but also, and some public institutions do that for a long time, by proposing pedagogical activities on the field or by furnishing pedagogical supports.

 In addition, more technical resources can be put at disposition for answering teaching as in service training. Their experts and specialists can also participate to the teachers and trainers’ training during dedicated sessions.



4. PARTNERSHIP Concerning partnership, it is necessary to adapt collaboration clauses, as the scale change implicated by generalization obliges to create processes adapted to the persons now concerned. 

In order to guarantee pedagogical quality of actions, lecturers and person, proceedings for agreement and certification could be implemented and be accompanied of recognition signs answering a referential set up in a concerted way. This identification of pedagogical quality will be required for any lecturer.

Experience and collaboration exchanges on a same territory must be encouraged. Existing academic pilot committees or their equivalent must be opened to actors and sustainable development partners, valorize potential synergies and so, participate to elaborate shared strategies as well as to evaluation.

Collaboration clauses between academies and their main partners such as local authorities, enterprises, professional organizations, public institutions and associations have to be defined. Between offer calls and subventions the points of view are diverse according to what the contracting authorities do with public markets rules applied to the education field.

In order to assure some continuity in sustainable development education between schools and other education and training fields, original approaches can be created such as new ways for cooperation between schools, universities, high schools, training institutes with the other actors. We can think for example to training sessions for teachers in enterprises or in collectivities, to training sessions for associative and institutional partners…SDE is a privileged field for pedagogical innovation.







SDE must be based on possibilities offered by new technologies for information and communication applied to education (TICE). A lot of quality pedagogical resources already exist on traditional or electronic supports. They have to be known, diffused to concerned actors and their access facilitated through internet which would bring a quality guarantee to teachers. In order to make the management of this dispositive dynamic, actually for updating resources and their « instructions for use », we can recommend its distribution between public and private actors who possess necessary competences and who are engaged by a quality chart. It should be integrated in this educative dimension in order not to isolate SDE in a site only consulted by teachers. Computer science allows the access to a portal with multiple entries; it should be easy to include them in websites of the actors with a SDE reference. SDE must be included in all the fields of activity; we must give the largest possible visibility to it. In spite of existing resources it will be necessary to develop creation and diffusion of multimedia pedagogical supports which will be adapted for the different publics. Excellent conception and realization centers belonging to national education can during a time use a part of their means to elaborate tools answering to the educative sphere own needs. Other abilities also exist in the private sector and can be requested.



6. HUMAN RESOURCES The sustainable development education will not be able to progress without affecting competent human resources, without important time credits and without budgets. In order to train all these staffs and implement all these trainings we need resources persons that is to say experts in one hand and generalists on the other hand. 

For the first ones, some are present in universities and we must mobilize them. However, some subjects such as those concerning ecology have an important deficit even nearly to disappear; we must reevaluate the future society needs and try to make universities to take them into account and consequently can train necessary experts and specialists.

For the second ones, training of trainers must allow to answer the programmed rarefaction of experts and other « knowers » or « communicators » who have till now been mobilized and who will not be available because of a growing demand.


Resource and institutions expertises

Numerous resources already exist in the most concerned ministries, in their decentralized services and their institutions. A lot of services, agencies and public institutions possess competences, tools, how to do that we must find and put into networks.

Public resources can be completed by SDE partners’ from organizations, collectivities and economic world. Organizations with health, youth and sports agreement can offer original approaches and could fully join SDE networks.

Altogether, they represent a tremendous potential which must be mobilized for SDE and the progression of which has to be coordinated.


7. CHALLENGE OF POST–TRAINING: CREATION OF A TRANSNATIONAL COMMUNITY OF PROFESSIONALS We contribute to train a professional community sharing a sustainable development vision, know how to act, a deontology… Beyond this, we must create transnational networks of actors for development who are able to structure exchanges in order to group together professional experiences and so to develop a self in service training. The objective is to develop for a real sustainable development what some people called a « transnational citizenship », bearing UNESCO values.

7.1 National plan for education and training to sustainable development In the frame of the « national plan for education, training and information about sustainable development », a national schema for education and training for sustainable development appears as a necessity to coordinate the display of training efforts which have to be done in society at any level. NB

The national plan could then include another schema which would concern SDE aspects, that is to say sensitization, information, communication and consummation.

If the government departments naturally ensure the management of actions corresponding to their competence, the transversal and multi actors meaning of SDE leads to propose a sustainable development delegation in the departments in order to animate the national schema. This administrative entity would be directly linked with national education, the other concerned government departments and the general commissionership for sustainable development. The implementation of the national Schema must be based on existing structures in the educative sphere and in other actors’; it must illustrate the efficiency of public-private partnership. In other respects, if all the activities fields are concerned by the national schema, we can consider that the educative sphere represents a particular application field even in a priority way as it must first reach the necessary level to answer its own needs before being able to assume its « resource » role for other activity fields. Finally, we must remember that in some jobs, professions, work sectors which have already been identified as a priority will have to be attentively followed.


Support disposition

Particular dispositions have to be implemented in order to increase the existing action capacities on: 

creation of university chairs linked to regional problematic ;

sensitization and training of private and public managers;


experts’ training on sustainable development, environment and health fields;

trainers’ training linked with education science research applied to SDE;

creation of networks including all pedagogical resources centers;


spread of evaluation; encouraging jobs dealing with environment and sustainable development and training for key professions.


Creation of chairs in universities

Some university chairs about sustainable development thematic have been created with enterprises support in the last years. A chair consists in giving resources and competences to a precise subject in order to deepen its comprehension with research and to valorize the knowledge by applications, new teachings and trainings. There is a need of chairs about regional problematic in order to help territory actors to conceive and implement adapted sustainable development politics. Local authorities, regions in particular, are invited to express their demands and to make proposition calls oriented towards higher education institutions and research organizations implanted on their territory. Decentralized services and public state institutions, especially those included in the « sustainable development » competence pole in the offices of departmental administration, possess an expertise concerning local problematic and can be mobilized for the proposition calls.



Institute for sustainable development high studies (IHEDD)

For sensitizing and training managers and people with high responsibilities in the country to sustainable development we have to build a national network, the institute for sustainable development high studies. This disposition will cover all the sustainable development problematic and managers from all the activities sectors will be concerned. Based on a central entity, it would include regional entities with an important approach in the territory and linked with university chairs as well as a resources center adapted to the managers’ needs.



8. EVALUATION As any activity field, as any public politic, SDE must have indicators permitting the appreciation of pertinence, quality and efficiency of realized actions. Till now, the realized actions have essentially been based on inventories and necessary quantitative followings; they have to be continued on a qualitative plan. In education more than anywhere else, the quality of the approach is the most interesting but the most difficult dimension to implement. Several groups of indicators are proposed but, from the operators’ point of view, no one seems completely satisfactory. So, we propose to undertake research works in order to define not only pertinent indicators, but indicators easy understandable by operators and action program managers.





Success of sustainable development education is the key for an efficient sustainable development governmental politic because it is its compulsory part « competences » and « human resources ». We have to pass quickly from experimental period to a generalization throughout integration and partnership with pertinent actors. The scale change is really important. Sustainable development education is not a subject. All institutions will have to undertake a sustainable development approach. The school is the privileged place for sustainable development education and becomes the first place for its application. 9.1.1

SDE Thematic

Sustainable development first supposes the comprehension of stakes and then proposes a new way of thinking and act. It is not a field; it is a philosophy and a method for action. 9.1.2

Training of the educative staff

SDE cannot be efficiently implemented without an effort for teachers and principals’ training as well as for all staff when sustainable development approaches have been decided. So, the approach must be actively sustained at the highest level. 9.1.3

Actors’ training

The educative sphere must not only acquire a sustainable development culture for itself in order to assume its teaching mission in the best way but it must also be able to contribute to the actors’ sensitization and training. The work group strongly recommends that all the revision programs for in service training take sustainable development into account. Organizations which played a historic role in environment and sustainable development education have developed some pedagogical how to do which must be valorized and used; their role is important in partnerships and is now renewed throughout the diverse dimensions of today’s approach. Collectivities are already SDE direct actors throughout the institutions they financially help and, more and more throughout their territorial sustainable development politics which often show a strong will, some even including a « sustainable development education » part which must be encouraged.



Through the important role of enterprises concerning training, it is necessary to control that SD objectives are really present in the undertaken actions. The enterprises contribution is desirable and necessary. A national chart with precise codes about partnership modalities is wished by all the actors. In order to guarantee the pedagogical quality of actions, intervening persons and people for agreement and certification procedures with a recognition sign could be designed. 9.1.4 Resources for SDE The identification of resources and valorization of good practices must be realized at each territorial stage. For training all those staff and organize training sessions, we need resources persons that is to say experts on one hand and generalists on the other hand. 9.1.5 National education and training schema for sustainable development In the frame of « national education, training and information for sustainable development », a national education and training for sustainable development schema looks necessary in order to coordinate the implementation of training efforts that must be produced at any society level. 9.1.6 Support dispositions Particular dispositions have to be implemented for increasing existing capacities for actions on: 

Creation of university chairs linked with regional problematic;

Sensitization and training of public and private managers;

Experts’ training about fields linked to sustainable development, environment and health ;

Promotion of jobs in relation with environment and sustainable development as well as key jobs.

CONCLUSION This referential is the product of a reflection undertaken by a representative group of professionals of education and initial and in service training from different countries (France, Estonia, Romania and Belgium). Today, the referential is a reference frame and not a normative one aiming a certification.

Actually, in order to validate the pertinence and feasibility of the competence development in a school or a training organization, an experimental period is useful and necessary.



Previous reflection in teams for the referential appropriation Our training organizations have to lead a previous reflection among their teams (management, pedagogy, administration) in order to consider the possible declensions of sustainable development competences. Then, the engineering work of training and pedagogy must help for implementing the concerned training sessions. That implies time and financial means given to pedagogical teams in order to realize that work.

Criteria and indicators for evaluating sustainable development

competences will have to be decided according to the training objectives.

Difficulty for evaluating sustainable development competences Evaluation criteria and indicators for sustainable development competences will have to be decided according to the training and pedagogical objectives linked to the theme. The concept particularities throughout its complexity and evolutionary dimension do not make easy this identification of criteria and indicators as well as the choice of associated means.


experimental phase would permit to start a reflection on this point of evaluation of sustainable development competences.

Respect of individual positions Introducing apprenticeship about sustainable development in existing training sessions leads to a first question: the professionals’ legitimacy. Are they competent and volunteer concerning this sustainable development problematic? And that poses a second question: the beneficiaries’ approval of the concept. Are they ready? Are not they going to assimilate this approach to militancy or politics? Are not they expecting other priorities from a training organization?

BIBLIOGRAPHIE Articles, livres et dossiers pédagogiques Actes du Forum, 1998. La consommation responsable pour contribuer au développement durable. CRIOC, 189 pages Alexandre, R. et al, 2001. Ras la poubelle. Vidéo. Mallette pédagogique « Le minimum déchets, on y arrivera ! », IBGE Anonyme, 2004. Développement économique. Article publié sur le site GEO-Global Asbl Tournesol, 2001. Cahier expériences et ressources (déchets). Dossier pédagogique, Mallette pédagogique « Le minimum déchets, on y arrivera ! », IBGE, 30 pages Asbl Tournesol, 2001. Cahier gestion des déchets. Dossier pédagogique, Mallette pédagogique « Le minimum déchets, on y arrivera ! », IBGE, 56 pages Asbl Tournesol, 2001. Cahier prévention des déchets. Dossier pédagogique, Mallette pédagogique « Le minimum déchets, on y arrivera ! », IBGE, 39 pages Asbl Tournesol, 2001. Recette pour un projet de collations collectives à l’école. Dossier pédagogique, 21 pages Association des professeurs de biologie a.s.b.l., 2001. Probio revue, numéro 4, volume 24. Edition A.Bouillon, Louvain-la-Neuve Belgique, 93 pages Aznar G., 2004. Debout les terriens, protégeons la planète. Albin Michel Jeunesse – Paris, 190 pages Böge S., 1995. The well-travelled yogurt pot : lessons for new freight transport policies and regional production. World Transport Policy & Practice, Vol. 1 N°1, 1995, pp 7-11. Bonhoure G. et Faucqueur C., 2004 Colloque international sur l’éducation à l’environnement pour un développement durable, Paris, 2004 Bonhoure G. et M. Hagnerelle, 2003. « Éducation relative à l'E.D.D. : état des lieux, perspectives et propositions pour un plan d'action » Rapport de l’inspection générale, avril 2003. Dossier disponible en format pdf, 101 Ko, 30 pages à l’adresse suivante : Bouverat M., 2002. Pourquoi éduquer vers un développement durable ? Dossier Symbioses n°55, 2002. Breiting S. et al., 2005. Quality Criteria for ESD-Schools. Guideliness to enhance the quality of Education for Sustainable Development. Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Austria, 48 pages Document collectif, 2002. Planète vivante – l’empreinte écologique. Document du WWF – Edition Jonathan Loh, Suisse, 43 pages Document collectif, 2003. « Les outils et démarches en vue de la réalisation d’agendas 21 locaux ». Dossier documentaire du Ministère de l’Écologie et du développement durable, France, 89 pages Document collectif, 2004. Plan fédéral de développement durable 2004-2008 – Avant-projet, 123 pages École et nature, 2005. Guide pratique pour montrer





l’environnement :


El Boudamoussi, 2004. Éducation relative à l’Environnement et au Développement Durable. Une étude comparative internationale et multiculturelle. Rapport de recherche Post-doctorale. ULB, Service des Sciences de l’Éducation et Institut de Gestion de l’Environnement et de l’Aménagement du Territoire. 142 pages + annexes Eric Luyckx, 2004. L’énergie expliquée aux enfants. Ministère de la Région wallonne-DGTRE, 100 pages. Fondation éducation au développement, 2001. Vers le développement durable. 20 activités et projets d’établissement de Suisse, LEP éditions, Dossier pédagogique, 89 pages, Suisse Fortin-Debart C. et A.-M. Sacquet, 2005. Un projet pédagogique pour le développement durable : l’agenda 21 d’établissement scolaire. Comité 21, France Foster S., 2003. Éducation au développement durable. Rapport de l’Institut de Recherche et de Documentation Pédagogique, Neuchâtel, Suisse FostPlus, 2004. Une nouvelle vie pour les emballages. Dossier pédagogique- Secondaire, 47 pages. Sur Internet, site de FostPlus : FostPlus, 2005. Une nouvelle vie pour les emballages. Dossier pédagogique- Primaire 123, 70 pages. Sur Internet, site de FostPlus : FostPlus, 2005. Une nouvelle vie pour les emballages. Dossier pédagogique- Primaire 456, 70 pages. Sur Internet, site de FostPlus : Fourez G., 1994. Alphabétisation scientifique et technique. Pédagogies en développement –Nouvelles pratiques de l’information, De Boeck Université, Bruxelles, 218 pages Godard O., 2000. Réflexions sur le principe de précaution. Courrier du Cethes-FUNDP, décembre 2000, Numéro 46 Goffin Louis et al., 1998-1999. Éducation relative à l’environnement. Regards – Recherches – Réflexions. Bilans, enjeux et perspectives de la recherche en éducation relative à l’environnement. Université du Québec à Montréal – Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise, Volume 1, 272 pages. Goffin Louis et al., 2000 . Éducation relative à l’environnement. Regards – Recherches – Réflexions. L’évaluation en éducation relative à l’environnement. Université du Québec à Montréal – Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise, Volume 2, 231 pages Goffin Louis et al., 2001-2002. Éducation relative à l’environnement. Regards – Recherches – Réflexions. Le partenariat en éducation relative à l’environnement. Institut de formation et de recherche en éducation à l’environnement - Université du Québec à Montréal – Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise, Volume 3, 284 pages. Helbling R., 2001. L’école fait-elle du développement durable ?. Fondation éducation et développement. IBGE, 2001. Moi je suis en classe verte toute l’année. Dossier pédagogique, 32 pages. IBGE-Nature et Loisirs, 2001. Jeu des 9 familles. Jeu pédagogique. Mallette pédagogique « Le minimum déchets, on y arrivera ! », IBGE ITECO, 2004. Jeux et exercices pédagogiques. Antipodes 7, Dossier pédagogique, 56 pages. Jacquard A., 1995. J’accuse l’économie triomphante. Éditions Calmann-Lévy, France, 167 pages. Jenkins E.X., 2003. Environmental education and the public understanding of science. Font. Ecol. Environ. 1(8): 437-443 Joule R.-V. et Beauvois J.-L., 2002. Petit traité de manipulation à l’usage des honnêtes gens. Presse Universitaires de Grenoble.

Joule R.-V. et Beauvois J.-L., 2003. La psychologie de l’engagement. Pour la Science, n°317, mars 2003, pages 52-55 Joule R.-V., 2004. Éducation à l’énergie et psychologie de l’engagement : Comment promouvoir de nouveaux comportements ?. Communication présentée lors du Colloque « L’éducation à l’énergie : rôle, acteurs et outils. Expériences européennes. », IBGE et Bruxelles-Capitale le 12 mars 2004 Latouche S., 2002. Le développement n’est pas le remède à la mondialisation, c’est le problème ! Le Monde diplomatique, février 2003 Leleux C., 2000. Éducation à la citoyenneté. Outils pour enseigner. Éditions De Boeck, 207 pages Lepoivre P., 2004. Science, décisions et démocratie : l’imbroglio des organismes génétiquement modifiés. Article publié sur le site de la Faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de Gembloux. Leyens J.-P. et Yzerbyt, V., 1997. Psychologie sociale, Liège, Mardaga. Meirieu Ph., 2001. Eduquer à l’environnement : pourquoi ? Comment ?. Forum francophone Planet’ERE 2, UNESCO, Paris, 2001.

Éducation - Sites pour les jeunes et les enseignants Un monde qui bouge - Site belge d’éducation au développement durable : : site d’information consacré au développement durable. Il s’adresse surtout aux jeunes, avec des informations pour les écoles primaires et secondaires. : le parc virtuel explorado permet de découvrir de façon amusante et didactique différents aspects de l’environnement, en se promenant dans le parc. On y trouve des explications, des conseils, … : le site du Centre d’information sur l’eau contient un espace didactique consacré aux jeunes. : L’association GREEN Belgium s’adresse en particulier aux jeunes, enseignants et éducateurs qui souhaitent améliorer leurs connaissances sur les thèmes de l’eau et de l’environnement, encourager des attitudes ou valeurs respectueuses de l’environnement et entreprendre des actions concrètes pour préserver les ressources. : Jeunes et Nature est une A.S.B.L. qui a pour but de promouvoir une meilleure connaissance de la nature, au niveau de la population en général et des jeunes en particulier par le biais de l'éducation aux sciences de la nature et de l'écologie. Éducation au Développement durable : site français sur comment éduquer au développement durable :

Centres de documentation Le centre de documentation et le service d'infos du Réseau Idée : spécialisé dans les approches pédagogiques de l'environnement, le centre de documentation du Réseau IDée (Information et Diffusion en éducation à l'environnement) vous offre la possibilité de consulter des répertoires d'adresses utiles, de découvrir des outils pédagogiques, des magazines ressources, des vidéo, etc. : site Centre






wallonne :








Tél. vert :



La Médiathèque : vous trouverez à la Médiathèque de nombreux cd-rom et documentaires pédagogiques, illustrant un ou plusieurs aspects du développement durable, ou des problèmes auxquels il tente de répondre. Collections thématiques « Éducation à l'environnement » et « Intermondes ». : pour en avoir le relevé, surfez sur, rubrique « collections thématiques ». La bibliographie de l'ULB sur le développement durable et les thèmes qui s'y rapportent : Gateway : Site d’information donnant accès à de nombreux documents sur les différents thèmes du DD ainsi que des liens pour la poursuite du travail d’exploration sur Internet. Bibliothèque du site Agora 21 : Références bibliographiques sur le DD (rapports, études, articles, thèses, fiches pédagogiques, maisons d'éditions, banque de site web, dictionnaires, ...).

Organisations Internationales UNESCO : avec la présentation de la décennie de l’éducation au développement durable. UNICEF : OIT Organisation internationale du travail : : site du Programme des Nations-Unies pour l’environnement (PNUE). : site de l’OCDE, Organisation de Coopération et de Développement économiques. Le site contient une section consacrée à l’environnement et une autre au développement durable. : Conventions du Conseil de l’Europe sur l’environnement.

Associations Site GreenPeace Belgique : quelques thèmes du développement durable y sont abordés : Site belge de Greenpeace un groupe de pression international qui œuvre pour la protection de l'écosystème Terre. Site du WWF Belgique : Site belge du WWF association qui a pour mission de conserver la nature et les processus écologiques. : les moyens d'action des AMIS DE LA TERRE sont nombreux et diversifiés : conférences, stages-nature pour jeunes et enfants, excursions, publications de dossiers et d'une revue bimestrielle, animations scolaires, diffusion de matériel éducatif, formations, ... (Site international (français) : : Inter-environnement Bruxelles est la fédération des comités d’habitants. Présentation des différents comités de quartiers et des activités d’inter-environnement. : Inter-environnement Wallonie est la fédération des associations d’environnement actives en Wallonie. Présentation des activités de l’association. Centre







Tournesol :

Education and Training for Sustainable Development  

Education and Training for Sustainable Development