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ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI GREECE

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SDGEE Research Unit of Soil Dynamics and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering


contents

Contact Information

02

Introduction

03

Laboratory equipment and testing

04

Field testing equipment, seismic and geophysical surveys

08

Site characterization

12

Large scale facilities I: Euroseistest

14

Large scale facilities II: Europroteas

16

Strong ground motion and site effects

18

Liquefaction

20

Hazard assessment and analysis

22

Microzonation studies

24

Monitoring of structures and system identification

26

Seismic analysis and design of structures

28

Soil-foundation-structure interaction

30

Seismic design and performance of tunnels and underground structures

32

Innovative techniques for ground improvement

34

Early warning systems and real time damage assessment

36

Vulnerability analysis and risk assessment I: Buildings

38

Vulnerability analysis and risk assessment II: Infrastructures and utility systems

40

Seismic analysis, vulnerability assessment and strengthening of monuments

42

Computing and software

44

Projects

45

Major events

48

Academic teaching

49

People

50

Selected publications

53


INTRODUCTION - MISSION The Research Unit of Soil Dynamics and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering (SDGEE) of the Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece, has a long and worldwide-recognized expertise and know-how in many topics of earthquake engineering, soil dynamics, engineering seismology, microzonation studies, site effects, vulnerability and risk assessment of built environment, infrastructures, lifelines and cultural heritage. Since 1985 it has participated in many European research projects including EUROSEISTEST, EUROSEISMOD, EUROSEISRISK and SYNER-G as coordinator, and LESSLOSS, RISK-UE, NEMISREF, CORSEIS, 3HAZ, MERP, SERIES, SHARE, SAFELAND, PERPETUATE, NERA, REAKT, STREST and SIBYL as major partner. Its experience is equally important in other national and international research activities and engineering projects.

The Research Unit of SDGEE is operating a unique, in European and International level, large experimental facility for earthquake engineering and engineering seismology studies, namely the EUROSEISTEST (http://euroseisdb.civil.auth.gr), in the area of Thessaloniki. The Research Unit of SDGEE has a long experience in seismic design of important engineering projects, like the Metro of Thessaloniki. Equipped with excellent laboratory and in-situ measuring devices, as well as computing facilities, it is capable of performing full-spectrum studies ranging from in-situ geophysical surveys, laboratory tests and structural monitoring to seismic design, vulnerability and risk assessment of structures, infrastructures and lifelines. The Research Unit of SDGEE has established solid cooperation links with numerous research institutes all over the world and the construction sector in Greece and abroad. Among the most prestigious collaboration is with the French Commission of Atomic Energy (CEAFrance).

Research Unit of SDGEE at a glance: CONTACT INFORMATION Prof. Kyriazis Pitilakis Laboratory of Soil Mechanics, Foundations and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Department of Civil Engineering | Geotechnical Engineering Division e-mail pitilakis@civil.auth.gr address Aristotle University of Thessaloniki P.O.Box 424 GR-54124 Thessaloniki – GREECE telephone +30.2310. 995693/ 995813 fax +30.2310. 995619/ 995813 webpage sdgee.civil.auth.gr

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• Staff (2015): Permanent employees: 7 Temporary employees, researchers, PhD students and Post-doc researchers: 17 • Completed PhDs (< 2015): 26 • Publications (2000-2015): > 450 • Major Research Projects (2000-2015): >20 • Facilities: > 1500 sq. m of laboratories with equipment and testing facilities for all kind of laboratory and in-situ testing in geotechnics, soil dynamics, geophysics, site and structural monitoring. Large scale experimental facilities; EUROSEISTEST, EUROPROTEAS • Collaborations/Funding agencies: European Commission; French Commission of Atomic Energy; General Secretariat of Research & Technology, Greece (GGET); Public Power Corporation, Greece (DEI); Ministry of Public Works, Greece (YPEXODE); Prefectures, Communities, Municipalities of Greece; Ministry of Culture, Greece (YPPO); Organization of Aseismic Protection, Greece (OASP); Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources & Environment, Cyprus; Private consulting companies and contractors in Greece and abroad.

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LABORATORY EQUIPMENT AND TESTING The Research Unit of SDGEE has long and internationally recognized experience in all kind of laboratory testing under static and dynamic conditions. It is equipped with state-of-the-art laboratory apparatuses to perform both routine determination of physical, mechanical and dynamic soil properties, as well as highquality research in soils, soil mixtures with recycled material (rubbers, pumice etc) and rock. We provide the following services: • Soil classification and evaluation of physical properties • Testing of soil samples (intact and remolded) of different dimensions under various strain/stress conditions for all kind of geotechnical projects • Evaluation of dynamic soil properties (stiffness and damping) at a wide range of strains • Evaluation of liquefaction potential • Small-scale shaking table testing (new)

Cyclic triaxial ELDYN-GDS 5kN device (CU, CD, UU)

Resonant column device – Drnevich type, longitudinal and torsion oscillation

Triaxial CD tests on sand rubber mixtures

Triaxial device – SoilTest 25tons

FEM analysis verification on triaxial loading on sand rubber mixture specimen

Resonant column and torsion shear device – Hardin type Borehole: G-1

Sample:S-03

Depth(m):8.45-11.00

Borehole: G-1

Stage 1: ó´ï =50 kPa

70

Sample:S-03

Depth(m):8.45-11.00

Stage 1: ó´ ï =50 kPa

Post loading after High Amplitude Test 1

Post loading after High Amplitude Test 1

Stage 2: ó´ï =98 kPa

Stage 2: ó´ ï =98 kPa

Post loading after High Amplitude Test 2

Post loading after High Amplitude Test 2

Stage 3: ó´ï =197 kPa

Stage 3: ó´ ï =197 kPa

Post loading after High Amplitude Test 3

16

Post loading after High Amplitude Test 3

Damping Ratio: DT (%)

60

Gmax :(MPa)

50 40 30 20

12

8

4

10

Direct shear, ring shear and consolidometers

4

0 0.0001

0.001

0.01

Shear Strain: ã(%)

0.1

0 0.0001

0.001

0.01

Shear Strain: ã(%)

0.1

Determination of shear modulus (G) and damping ratio (DT) from high amplitude resonant column tests

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LABORATORY EQUIPMENT AND TESTING

ΑΝΑΔΟΧΟΣ-CONTRACTOR:

Ολοκληρωμένη Γεωτεχνική/Γεωφυσική Ερευνα στη Θέση 'Καραμαούνα' - Ταμπάκικα Χίου

ΚΟΚΚΟΜΕΤΡΙΚΗ

ΑΝ ΑΛ Υ Σ Η

-

Sample:S-03

1.00

Πανεπιστήμιο Αιγαίου-ΕΛΕ

Stage 1: 2: 3:

G R AI N S I Z E AN AL Y S I S

( E105/86-7, E105/86-9, ASTM D2487 )

(P A S SI NG) % Δ Ι ΕΡ Χ ΟΜΕ ΝΟ

Φυσ. Υγρασία

Κατάταξη

Depth

ATTERBERG Limits

Water Content

Classification

Γεώτρ. Borehole

Αρ.Δειγμ. Sample N.

WP

PI

w (%)

κατά U.S.C.S.

BH-01 BH-01 BH-01 BH-01

28Φ

11.35-11.50

NP

NP

NP

36.7

SM

29Φ

11.55-11.80

40.6

36.2

4.4

55.3

ML

30Φ

12.00-12.10

27.7

21.0

6.7

18.5

SM

24.6

ML

31Φ

(m)

3'' 2.5' 2'' 1.5'

1''

WL

12.10-12.40

ΑΜΕΡΙ.ΚΟΣΚΙΝΑ ΣΕ ΙΝΤΣΕΣ - U.S. SIEVE OPENING IN INCHES

100

Όρια ATTERBERG

3/4''

1/2'' 3/8'

NP

1/4'' #4

NP

NP

No.ΑΜΕΡ. ΚΟΣΚΙΝΑ Νο. U.S. SIEVES

#8 #10

#16

#20

#30

#40 #50 #60 #80

#100

#200

0.80

Post loading after High Amplitude Test

ΑΡΑΙΟΜΕΤΡΟ - HYDROMETER

90

30

DT(%) , * /

25 20

0.60

0.40

80

G/Gmax + ' .

CTX Strain Tests

Resonant Column Tests

G/Gmax

Σύμβολο Symbol

Βάθος

Depth(m):8.50-11.00 ó´ ï (kPa) 50 98 197

15

Vucetic & Dobry (1991), PI=15% Vucetic & Dobry (1991), PI=30% Darendeli (2001), ó´ ï =1.0 atm, PI=15% Darendeli (2001), ó´ ï =1.0 atm, PI=30% Darendeli (2001), ó´ ï =4.0 atm, PI=15%

10

Darendeli (2001), ó´ ï =4.0 atm, PI=30%

70 60

0.20

50

Damping Ratio: DT (%)

Borehole: G-1

ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΕΔΑΦΟΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗΣ, ΘΕΜΕΛΙΩΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΓΕΩΤΕΧΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΕΙΣΜΙΚΗΣ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗΣ ΑΠΘ Ερευνητική Μονάδα Εδαφοδυναμικής και Γεωτεχνικής Σεισμικής Μηχανικής ΕΡΓΟ-PROJECT:

5 CTX Strain Tests

40 30

0.00 0.0001

20

10.000

1.000

ΛΙΘΟΙ

ΧΟΝΤΡΑ - COARSE

ΧΟΝΤΡΑ - COARSE

Διάμετρος - Diameter

ΑΜΜΟΣ

ΧΑΛΙΚΙΑ - GRAVELS

ΛΙΘΟΙ

BS5930

0.01

0.1

1

0

Shear Strain: γã(%)

10 0 100.000

USCS

0.001

ΧΑΛΙΚΙΑ - GRAVELS ΧΟΝΔΡA-COARSE

- SAND

ΜΕΣΗ - MEDIUM

ΧΟΝΔΡΗ-COARSE

ΛΕΠΤA - FINE

ΧΟΝΔΡΗ-COARSE

ΛΕΠΤA - FINE

0.100 (mm)

ΛΕΠΤΗ - FINE

ΑΜΜΟΣ

- SAND

ΜΕΣΗ - MEDIUM

0.010

ΙΛΥΣ -

ΛΕΠΤΟΚΟΚΚΑ SILT

ΙΛΥΣ ΛΕΠΤΗ - FINE

ΧΟΝΔΡΗ-COARSE

SILT

ΜΕΣΗ - MEDIUM

0.001 - FINES

ΛΕΠΤΗ - FINE

ΑΡΓΙΛΟΣ

The Research Unit of SDGEE has recently installed and operates a small (max 100kg) shaking table (ANCO R-201) for earthquake engineering, vibration, system dynamics, control systems, and data acquisition and processing studies and demonstrations:

ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΟ ΕΔΑΦΟΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗΣ, ΘΕΜΕΛΙΩΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΓΕΩΤΕΧΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΕΙΣΜΙΚΗΣ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΗΣ ΑΠΘ Ερευνητική Μονάδα Eδαφοδυναμικής και Γεωτεχνικής Σεισμικής Μηχανικής ΔΟΚΙΜΗ ΜΟΝΟΔΙΑΣΤΑΤΗΣ ΣΤΕΡΕΟΠΟΙΗΣΗΣ - UNIAXIAL CONSOLIDATION TEST (ΥΠΕΧΩΔΕ Ε105/86-13 , ASTM D2435-80)

• • • •

ΕΡΓΟ - PROJECT : Ολοκληρωμένη Γεωτεχνική/Γεωφυσική Ερευνα στη Θέση 'Καραμαούνα' - Ταμπάκικα Χίου γ ο (kN/m3)= 17.31 e o = 1.31 Ho (mm)= 24.95 Γεώτρηση - Borehole : BH-01 Δείγμα - Sample : 8 Βάθος - Depth (m) : 4.10-4.40 D (mm)= 62.75 γdo (kN/m3)= 11.69 Sro (%)= 99 Κατάταξη - USCS Classification : SM W o (%)= 48.03 Δείκτες Συμπιεστότητας :

Compressibility Indexes : Cc= 0.314 Cg= 0.019 Cr= 0.044 Ενεργός Τάση Προφ όρτισης : Effective Preconsol. Pressure:

p'c= 53 kPa

OCR= 1.47 Overconsolidated Soil

σ' 1 (kPa) 12.5 25 50 100 200 400 800 400 200 100

S0% 1.50 5.37 6.86 8.70

S=ΔΗ/Η0 (%) S50% 3.24 5.72 7.48 9.76

S100% 4.98 6.06 8.10 10.81 13.96 17.82 22.14 22.32 22.10 21.84

t 50% (sec)

e=e 100%

Es (kPa)

8 19 27 63

1.194 1.169 1.122 1.060 0.987 0.898 0.798 0.794 0.799 0.805

340 1190 1473 2334

Cv K (cm 2/sec) (cm /sec) 1.45E-02 9.64E-03 3.99E-03

Effect of shear strain on shear modulus and damping ratio from resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests

ΑΡΓΙΛΟΣ

1.22E-06 6.54E-07 1.71E-07

4533 -710017 70084 38984

1.5g acceleration with 80kg payload Peak displacement of +/- 12 cm Peak velocity of 50 cm/s Frequency range of operation 0 to greater than 20 Hz

1.40 Cc Cg

1.30

Cr eo

Δείκτης κενών - Void ratio e

1.20

Pc - Horizontal Line

Representative results of classification, consolidation and shear strength tests

Pc - Tangent Line

1.10

Bisector Line Pc - Point

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

10

100

1,000

10,000

Ενεργός ορθή τάση στερεοποίησης - Effective normal consolidation stress σ'1 (kPa)

Selected projects:

NEMISREF • REAKT • SERIES • EUROSEISTEST • EUROSEISMOD • X-SOILS • CORSEIS • LESSLOSS • RISKU-E • SRM-LIFE • Consulting projects

Selected publications:

• Anastasiadis A, Senetakis K, Pitilakis K, 2012. Small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of sand/rubber and gravel/rubber

mixtures, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 30(2): 363-382. • Senetakis K, Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis K, 2012. The small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of quartz and volcanic sands, Geotechnical Testing Journal, 35(6), doi:10.1520/GTJ20120073.

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FIELD MONITORING AND SURVEYS The Research Unit of SDGEE has a long experience in field testing and is fully equipped to perform high quality seismic, geotechnical and geophysical surveys and tests, such as: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Refraction, Reflection Spectral analysis of surface Waves (SASW) Surface Wave Inversion (SWI) Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Cross-hole (CH) measurements Down-hole (DH) measurements Array Microtremor measurements (Spatial Autocorellation Coefficient -SPAC, linear and arbitrary configurations) Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio-HVSR Classical Spectral Ratio-SSR Generalized Inversion method-GIS Strong ground motion monitoring Structure health monitoring and system identification

Equipment for field surveys:  Surface surveys (Refraction, reflection, SASW, MASW, microtremor measurements, site response estimates, structural monitoring of critical buildings, bridges, monuments, etc.)

 Strong ground motion monitoring (Recording of seismic activity, earthquake early warning, etc.)

Digital 3-axis portable accelerometer CMG-5TCDE (Guralp)

Digital 3-axis portable accelerometer CMG-5TD (Guralp)

Digital 3-axis portable accelerometer CMG-5T (Guralp)

3-axis ETNA & K2 accelerometers with 24-bit digitizer (Kinemetrics)

Surface 3-axis accelerometer EpiSensor FBA ES-T (Kinemetrics)

Digital 3-axis borehole accelerometer CMG-5TB (Guralp)

High-quality 3 or 6 channel digitizer DM24 with 24-bit resolution (Guralp)

Borehole 3-axis accelerometer HypoSensor FBA ES-DH (Kinemetrics)

18-channel Central Recording System Mt. Whitney (Kinemetrics)

Field surveys/examples:

Elevation (m)

geo pho nes

Time (sec)

 Refraction survey

Source (explosions)

Broad-band velocimeter CMG-40T (Guralp)

24-bit AD seismic recorder DAS-130 (Reftek)

24-channel seismograph StrataView with 24-bit AD recorder (Geometrics)

Horizontal and vertical geophones of 4.5, 14, 50Hz natural frequencies (Mark Products)

Distance (m)

P-wave arrivals

Survey deployement

 Borehole surveys (Down-hole and Cross-hole)

Dromochromic diagrams and 2D soil stratigraphy

 2D & 3D geological-geophysical models. The case of EUROSEISTEST Profitis

Stivos

N

Stivos Profitis

Wall-lock borehole triaxial geophones of 10Hz natural frequency (Geostuff)

8

Wall-lock borehole hammer with oil pump (Bison)

2D cross-section along Profitis-Stivos

Euroseistest

3D soil model of EUROSEISTEST

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FIELD MONITORING AND SURVEYS  Microtremor measurements

 Site response surveys (HVSR, SSR, GIS) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

Promygdonian system

160m

225m 260m 287m

GPS 370m

sensor

Phase velocity dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves

1

1

10

SSR on earthquake/NS & EW components 10

Bedrock

408m

Survey deployment (circular array)

10

Frequency (Hz)

Amplification

recorder

HVSR ambient noise /NS component

Vs (m/sec)

Amplification

Mygdonian system

0m 35m

S-wave velocity profile with comparison to stratigraphy of the site

 Down-hole and Cross-hole surveys

Resonant frequency (Hz)

1

0.1

1

Frequency (Hz)

Survey deployement

0.30 - 0.39 Hz 0.40 - 0.50 Hz

S-part / EW component Coda part / EW component S-part / NS component Coda part / NS component

0.51 - 0.59 Hz 0.60 - 0.75 Hz 0.76 - 0.90 Hz 0.91 - 1.20 Hz 1.21 - 1.75 Hz > 1.75 Hz

10

Spatial variation of the resonant frequency in Euroseistest

 Site response surveys (HVSR, SSR, GIS) Profitis

Stivos

P-w s

Survey deployment

ave

Source (hammer)

Recordings and dromochromic diagram of P- and S-waves, and Vp and Vs velocities Vs velocity (km/sec) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

1.0

0.02

0.9

0.04

0.8

0.06

0.7

0.08

Depth (km)

Phase velocity (km/sec)

 Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves

0.6 0.5 0.4

0.16

0.2

Survey deployment

10

0.12 0.14

0.3

10-1

0.10

Period (sec)

100

Phase velocity dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves

0.18

S-wave velocity profile

Selected projects:

EUROSEISTEST • EUROSEISMOD • EUROSEISRISK • MERP • SRM-DGC • XSOILS

Selected publications:

• Raptakis D, Chávez-García FJ, Makra K, Pitilakis K, 2000. Site effects at Euroseistest Part I. Determination of the valley structure and confrontation of observations with 1D analysis, Soil Dyn. & Earthq. Eng., 19:1-22. • Manakou M, Raptakis D, Chavez-Garcia FJ, Apostolidis P, Pitilakis K, 2010. 3D soil structure of the Mygdonian basin for site response analysis. Soil Dyn. & Earthq. Eng., 30: 1198-1211.

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SITE CHARACTERIZATION Seismic design of structures is based on accurate soil and site characterization. The Research Unit of SDGEE has a long experience in site characterization, including: • Geotechnical and geophysical surveys and geotechnical mapping of urban areas at different scales • Site-specific ground response and site-amplification studies including liquefaction assessment. 1D, 2D, 3D, linear, equivalent linear and non-linear analyses • Proposal of improved soil amplification factors for the soil classes of Eurocode 8 • Proposal of a more detailed and elaborate soil classification system (new CS) and corresponding elastic response spectra for Eurocode 8 (EC8)

Type 1 elastic acceleration response spectra for the new soil classification system by Pitilakis et al. (2013)

Geotechnical mapping of Thessaloniki. Spatial distribution and iso-depths of the three main soil formations: (a) archaelogical and man-made debris, (b) hard clay, (c) seismic bedrock (SRMLIFE)

Soil categorization of Thessaloniki according to Eurocode 8 (left) and the new soil classification system by Pitilakis et al. (2013) (right)

Proposal of improved soil amplification factors for Eurocode 8 (Pitilakis et al. 2012)

Type 2 (Ms≤5.5)

Type 1 (Ms>5.5)

Proposed

EC8

Proposed

EC8

B

1.40

1.35

1.30

1.20

C

2.10

1.50

1.70

1.15

D

1.80*

1.80

1.35*

1.35

E

1.60*

1.60

1.40*

1.40

Soil Class

Type 1 period-dependent soil amplification factors: improved factors for the soil classes of Eurocode 8 (left) and proposed factors for the soil classes of the new soil classification system by Pitilakis et al. (2013)

Selected projects: SHARE • NERA

Selected publications:

• Pitilakis K, Riga E, Anastasiadis A, 2013. New code site classification, amplification factors and normalized response spectra based on a worldwide ground-motion database. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 11(4):925-966 • Pitilakis K, Riga E, Anastasiadis A, 2012. Design spectra and amplification factors for Eurocode 8. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 10(5):1377-1400

*site-specific ground response analysis required

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LARGE SCALE FACILITIES I: EUROSEISTEST EUROSEISTEST is a multidisciplinary European experimental site for integrated studies in Earthquake Engineering, Engineering Seismology, Seismology and Soil Dynamics. It is the longest running valley-instrumentation project worldwide (for 20 years), and is located in Mygdonia valley (epicenter area of the 1978, M6.4 earthquake), about 30km to the NE of the city of Thessaloniki, in northern Greece. EUROSEISTEST comprises a permanent accelerometric network of 21 high-resolution, three-component accelerographs, fourteen of which are installed at the ground surface or within small structures and the remaining six in boreholes, at various depths down to the bedrock.

EUROSEISTEST is an excellent site for testing and validating numerical and analytical methodologies. The facility has already generated more than 200 scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals. Its facilities and unique database of accelerometric records (http://euroseisdb.civil.auth.gr) are widely used in seismic risk mitigation. An instrumented site to perform multidisciplinary studies in soil dynamics, earthquake engineering, seismology, engineering seismology and geophysics

Facilities for studying soil-foundationstructure interaction and wave propagation

EUROSEISTEST provides Unique data base of high quality seismic records from surface and downhole stations with well known soil properties

Map view of the EUROSEISTEST area. Triangles: locations of the permanent strong-motion stations; triangles with black core: locations of the downhole arrays; dotted line: boundaries of the Mygdonia graben. To the right, current deployment of the permanent accelerometric stations. Borehole stations are also presented (underneath TST and PRO stations) in an exaggerated vertical scale.

S

N

STC PRO

GRΑ

GRB

TST

-197m

Basic input for research towards seismic risk assessment and mitigation

EUROSEISTEST web portal: http://euroseisdb.civil.auth.gr

Selected projects:

STE

EUROSEISTEST • EUROSEIS-RISK • EUROSEIS-MOD

Selected publications:

FRM

-40m -136m

14

A valley with perfectly known stratigraphy and soil conditions for studying ground motion and site effects

Time histories of the May 13 1995 earthquake (Ms 6.6, R 130km) recorded in N-S direction stations of the EUROSEISTEST network.

• Pitilakis K, Roumelioti Z, Raptakis D, Manakou M, Liakakis K, Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis D, 2013, The EUROSEISTEST strong ground motion database and web portal, Seism. Res. Lett. 84(5): 796-804. • Manakou M, Raptakis D, Chávez-García F, Apostolidis P, Pitilakis K, 2010, 3D soil structure of the Mygdonian basin for site response analysis, Soil Dyn. and Earthq. Eng. 30(11): 1198-1211.

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LARGE SCALE FACILITIES II: EUROPROTEAS A large-scale prototype soil-foundation-structure system has been built in Euroseistest, named “EuroProteas”, a symbolic name from the derivatives “Euro” and “Proteas” – for the first of its kind large-scale model structure in Europe. EuroProteas is dedicated to studying soil - foundation - structure interaction (SFSI) and wave propagation in the soil and the structure. EuroProteas is ideal for experimental SFSI investigation due to its unique configuration: • Excellent knowledge of the physical, mechanical and dynamic properties of the soil • Stiff structural system founded on soft soil to promote SFSI • Steel moment frame for flexibility and ease of construction • Reconfigurable bracing system for stiffness and damping modification • Two distinct reinforced concrete roof slabs for structural mass modification, as well as for shaker and wire rope mounting • Resonant frequency varying between 2.9Hz and 11.8Hz, depending on configuration • Three-dimensional instrumentation with more than 80 instruments (accelerometers, seismometers, MEM sensors), on the structure and in the soil, covering a volume of 21x21x12m • Two boreholes (30m and 12m), in the center of the foundation and 0.5m from the foundation, for placement of recording instruments and geophysical testing • Appropriate size for small-scale models in shaking tables and centrifuge apparatuses • Reconfigurable for forced-vibration, free-vibration and ambient noise measurements EuroProteas during forced-vibration experiments

3D finite element modeling of EuroProteas in Opensees

Numerical simulation of recorded acceleration in the soil ANCO eccentric mass vibrator MK-500U (provided by EPPOITSAK) and GURALP CMG-5 accelerometers

30m borehole at the center of the foundation slab with a downhole recorder

Selected projects: SERIES • NERA

Selected publications:

• Pitilakis K, Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis D, Rovithis E, 2013. Full-scale testing of a model structure in Euroseistest to study soil-foundationstructure interaction. Proc. 4th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. Kos, Greece • Pitilakis D, Lamprou D, Manakou M, Rovithis E, 2014. System identification of soil-foundation structure systems by means of ambient noise records: the case of EuroProteas model structure in Euroseistest, Proc. 2ECEES, Istanbul, Turkey

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STRONG GROUND MOTION AND SITE EFFECTS

The Research Unit of SDGEE is a world leader in experimental and numerical studies of strong ground motion and site effects. Among its diversified activities, it operates since 1995, with the collaboration of several European institutes and ITSAK, a unique experimental site (EUROSEISTEST) dedicated to the in-depth study of site-effects and strong ground motion. In particular, we perform: • 1D empirical site response characterization (HVSR, SSR, GIS methods) • 1D, 2D and 3D numerical modeling of site response • 2D/1D aggravation factor x

H i

Vs, soil=250, 400m/s

Vs Elastic bedrock

w=5000m, a1=a2=20o, Vs=250m/s

2 1.8 max AGF

1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8

h=60m h=120m h=250m h=500m

0.6 0.4 0.1

0

0.2

x/W

0.3

0.4

0.5

h=120m, a1=a2=45o, Vs=250m/s

2 1.8 max AGF

1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8

w=2500m w=5000m w=10000m

0.6 0.4 0

0.1

0.2

x/W

0.3

0.4

0.5

Parametric analyses of site response of 2D trapezoidal homogeneous sedimentary basins with finite-difference code (2DFDDVS): Maximum 2D/1D aggravation factor AGF (2D /1D acceleration response spectra ratio) along the surface of the basin.

Dominant frequency map (in Hz) of the Euroseistest basin. Seismic section computed at the surface of the 2D cross-section Profitis-Stivos for vertical incidence of SH-waves. Traces have been low-pass filtered with a 3.5 Hz frequency cutoff. Anelastic attenuation was included in the computations. 2D/1D aggravation factor is shown along the same cross-section.

18

Dominant frequency map (in Hz) of the Euroseistest basin. Seismic section computed at the surface of the 2D cross-section Profitis-Stivos for vertical incidence of SH-waves. Traces have been low-pass filtered with a 3.5 Hz frequency cutoff. Anelastic attenuation was included in the computations. 2D/1D aggravation factor is shown along the same cross-section.

Topographic Aggravation Factor as a function of the normalized distance and period from the crest of step-like slopes for relatively stiff (top) and stiff (bottom) soil formations.

Selected projects:

EUROSEISRISK SERIES • NERA • EUROSEISTEST • EUROSEISMOD • CASHIMA • SHARE • NERA

Selected Selected publications: publications:

•• Pitilakis Chávez-García FJ, Raptakis D, Makra K, Pitilakis K, 2000. Site effects Results from 2D numerical modeling and K, Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis D, Rovithis E, 2013. Full-scale testingatofEuroseistest—II. a model structure in Euroseistest to study soil-foundationcomparison with observations. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 19: 23–39. structure interaction. Proc. 4th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake •Engineering. Pitilakis K, Riga Anastasiadis A, Makra K, 2015. New elastic spectra, site amplification factors and aggravation factors for complex Kos,E, Greece subsurface the improvement EC8,System Invitedidentification Lecture, 6th International Conference onsystems Earthquake Geotechnical En• Pitilakis D,geometry Lamprou towards D, Manakou M, Rovithis E, of 2014. of soil-foundation structure by means of ambient gineering (6ICEGE) Christchurch, New Zealand, 1-4 November. noise records: the case of EuroProteas model structure in Euroseistest, Proc. 2ECEES, Istanbul, Turkey

19


40

40

The Research Unit of SDGEE provides the whole spectrum of studies and expertise related to liquefaction risk assessment:

20

20

• • • • • •

Deviatoric Stress (kPa)

Deviatoric Stress (kPa)

LIQUEFACTION

0

-20

0

-20

-40 -4

Axial Strain (%)

0

-40

4

0

Pore Water Pressure (kPa)

-8

In-situ testing and surveys Laboratory testing (cyclic triaxial tests) Numerical analysis under total and effective stresses Evaluation of the liquefaction susceptibility Liquefaction risk assessment including evaluation of permanent displacements and lateral spreading Recommendation and design of mitigation measures

1

20 40 Effective Confining Stress (kPa)

60

80

CTX Stress Controlled Results AXIOS SAND Dr=55%

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

20

40

60

80 100 Time (s)

120

140

160

180

0

20

40

60

80 100 Time (s)

120

140

160

180

0

20

40

60

80 100 Time (s)

120

140

160

180

Axial Strain (%)

2 0 -2 -4 -6

Rubber Determination of liquefaction characteristics of liquefiable soils or soil mixtures with recycled rubber materials: Axios River sand with 20% granulated recycled rubber. Results of stress controlled cyclic triaxial tests.

Deviatoric Stress (kPa)

-8

40 20 0 -20 -40

Example of liquefaction risk assessment applying different methodologies using in-situ testing parameters (SPT, Vs), numerical modeling (1D analysis) and relevant code prescriptions (NCEER98). Determination of factor of safety against liquefaction potential (right) with depth at a specific site for earthquake scenario of 500 years return period.

Selected projects:

EUROSEISTEST SERIES • NERA • EUROSEISMOD • STREST • SYNER-G • RISK-UE • LESSLOSS • Microzonation studies: Thessaloniki, Larissa, Volos, Lemesos • Consulting projects

Selected publications: •Selected Pitilakis K,publications: Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis D, Rovithis E, 2013. Full-scale testing of a model structure in Euroseistest to study soil-foundationThessaloniki M6.4, 1978 earthquake: Sand boil of 50cm in depth and 1.5m in diameter at Scholari (left); Liquefaction susceptibility map (middle); Computed vertical displacements (in cm) due to liquefaction for a scenario of an earthquake with 500 years return period (right).

20

• Papathanassiou structure interaction. G, Pavlides Proc. 4thS, ECCOMAS ChristarasThematic B, PitilakisConference K. 2005. Liquefaction on Computational case histories Methods andinempirical Structural relations Dynamics of earthquake and Earthquake magEngineering. nitude versusKos, distance Greece from the broader Aegean region. Journal of Geodynamics, 40, 2-3: 257–278 • Pitilakis Anastasiadis D, Lamprou A, Raptakis D, Manakou D, Pitilakis M, K, Rovithis 2001. Thessaloniki’s E, 2014. System detailed identification microzoning: of soil-foundation Subsurfacestructure as basissystems of site response by means analysis, of ambient PAnoise records: GEOPH, 158, 11the case of EuroProteas model structure in Euroseistest, Proc. 2ECEES, Istanbul, Turkey

21


HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS

Seismicity of Thessaloniki region (M ≥ 4.0)

Hazard curve for Thessaloniki (SHARE)

Realistic seismic hazard assessment is a fundamental prerequisite for to effectively mitigating mitigate risk from earthquakes. The Research Unit of SDGEE has a multi-year experience in both probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard assessment, methodologies and has been a key partner in most pertinent European projects, including the most recent SHARE (http://www.share-eu.org) project that produced the new seismic hazard map of Europe. Our specialization covers the fields of: • • • • •

Historical (<1911) Instrumented (>1911) 20 Jun 1978, M6.4

Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment Site response analyses (1D, 2D, 3D, linear, non-linear, equivalent-linear) Development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations Studying the Variability of Strong Ground Motion (Single Station Sigma)

Our tools include a variety of broadly adopted codes, e.g. EERA, DEEPSOIL, Cyclic1D, Strata, ABAQUS, FLAC, OpenSees, 2DFD_DVS for site response analyses and EQRM, CRISIS2007, OPENQUAKE, EQRISK, FRISK, SMSIM, FINSIM, EXSIM, COMPSYN for seismic hazard computations.

Computation of Uniform Hazard Spectrum for mean return period of 475 years at rock, soil conditions type C according to EC8 and improved EC8 (Pitilakis et al. 2012, SHARE), and C1 according to the new soil Classification Scheme (Pitilakis et al. 2013, SHARE).

Computed PGA on ground surface with EC8 S factors

Shake maps of PGA on rock in Thessaloniki greater area for different seismic events (left: M= 6.5, R=15km East, right: M=5.5, R=24km North of city center) based on ‘‘shakefields’ method (SYNER-G project): i) generation of seismic events through a Monte Carlo simulation, ii) median ground motion field is attenuated across the spatial grid using a GMPE, iii) spatial correlation model is applied to account for the ground motion uncertainty.

Selected projects: Selected projects:

SHARE • STREST • SYNER-G SERIES • NERA

Selected publications: Selected • Pitilakis K,publications: Franchin P, Khazai B, Wenzel H (eds), 2014, SYNER-G: Systemic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of complex ur-

Computed PGA on ground surface applying the improved S factors for EC8 (Pitilakis et al.,2012)

22

Computed PGA on ground surface applying the new soil Classification Scheme and the associated S factors (Pitilakis et al. 2013)

•ban, Pitilakis Anastasiadis Pitilakis D, facilities. Rovithis E, 2013. Full-scale testing of a model structureGeological in Euroseistest to study soil-foundationutility,K,lifeline systemsA,and critical Methodology and Applications. Geotechnical, and Earthquake Engineering, structure interaction. Proc. 4th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake 31, ISBN 978-94-017-8834-2, Springer Netherlands. Engineering. Kos,E,Greece • Pitilakis K, Riga Anastasiadis A, 2015, New design spectra in Eurocode 8 and preliminary application to the seismic risk of Thessa•loniki, Pitilakis D, Lamprou D,A,Manakou M, Rovithis E, 2014.on System identification of soil-foundation structure by means of ambient Greece, In: Ansal Sakr M (eds), Perspectives Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Series: systems Geotechnical, Geological and noise records: the case of37, EuroProteas model structure in Euroseistest, Proc. 2ECEES, Istanbul, Turkey Earthquake Engineering, Springer Netherlands.

23


MICROZONATION STUDIES Microzonation is a detailed and multidisciplinary study that aims at dividing the area of study into zones with respect to geological, geotechnical, geophysical and geometrical characteristics, and to provide reliable maps of seismic ground shaking parameters considering local site effects, as well as induced hazards like liquefaction and landslides. A detailed microzonation study provides the basis for an advanced seismic risk assessment of urban areas, and for earthquake design of new engineering projects. The Research Unit of SDGEE is recognized as a world expert on conducting detailed microzonation and site-effect studies. In particular, we provide the following services: PGA (g)

0.15 0.2

0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

PGV (m/s)

0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65

5

10

15

20

PGD (cm)

25

30

35

40

45

50

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Thessaloniki (Greece): Spatial distribution of ground shaking parameters (PGA, PGV) and settlements due to liquefaction (PGD) for a seismic scenario with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years Normalized Mean Response Spectra Acceleration (ξ = 5%) Calculated AVERAGE ± 1STDEV - South Part of Duzce

3,5

AVERAGE

3,0

AVER+STDEV AVER-STDEV

2,5

Turkish Seismic Code (Z3)

Sa / PHGA

EC8 C - Type 1 (CEN 2004)

2,0

• Geological and geophysical investigations and surveys • Geotechnical investigations (in-situ and laboratory testing, dynamic soil properties and strength characteristics, soil classification, geophysical and seismic surveys) • Study of site-effects and strong ground motion using state-of-the-art methods and numerical tools (1D linear and nonlinear, 2D linear, equivalent-linear and non-linear, and 3D linear software) • Experimental and numerical study of complex site-effects, including basin and topographic effects • Seismic hazard analyses (probabilistic, deterministic) • Microzonation mapping of ground motion characteristics: Detailed maps with maximum acceleration, velocity and displacements, both transient and permanent (PHGA, PGVA, PHGV and PGD); Acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra (PHSA, PHSV, SD); Transient soil shear strains and seismic stresses at different depths; Amplification coefficients; Predominant period of the soil deposits • Studies and thematic maps of liquefaction, subsidence, land sliding zones and the associated permanent ground displacements • Seismic Code-oriented site-effects studies 2-W

1,5

3-W

1,0

1-W 1-W

4-W

W

0,5

R*

3-W

1-C

3-C 2-C

C

0,0 0,0

1,0

T (sec) 2,0

3,0

1-C

2-E

4,0

E 4-E 3-E

Düzce (Turkey): Seismic zonation (left). Calculated normalized response spectra acceleration for the two zones of the city in comparison with the Turkish Seismic Code and EC8 (right)

?

?

1-E

2-E

KAL ?

4-E

Thessaloniki (Greece): Seismic zonation of the central part of the city

Lemesos (Cyprus): Seismic zonation of the central part of the city

Selected projects:

Microzonation studies of: Thessaloniki, Grevena, Kozani, Larisa, Volos (Greece) • Lemesos, Paphos (Cyprus) • Duzce (Turkey) • SHARE • SRM-LIFE

Selected publications: Grevena (NW Greece): Seismic zonation of the city into five regions of “uniform” seismic response

24

• Pitilakis K, Anastasiadis A, Kakderi K, Manakou M, Manou D, Alexoudi M, Fotopoulou S, Argyroudis S, Senetakis K, 2011. Development of comprehensive earthquake loss scenarios for a Greek and a Turkish city: seismic hazard, geotechnical and lifeline aspects. Earthquakes and Structures, 2(3) • Anastasiadis A, Raptakis D, Pitilakis K, 2001. Thessaloniki’s detailed microzoning: Subsurface as basis of site response analysis, PAGEOPH, 158, 11

25


MONITORING OF STRUCTURES AND SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION Rapid development of data acquisition and processing capabilities has given rise to major advances in the experimental operational studies, particularly in the field of structural health monitoring. Monitoring of civil engineering structures becomes increasingly popular, as it offers the opportunity to better understand the dynamic behavior of structures under seismic loading, to measure structural response, as well as to detect damages and monitor their evolution. Therefore, it is a significant tool for seismic protection and risk mitigation ensuring integrity and improving resilience, performance and reliability of structures. The Research Unit of SDGEE specializes in monitoring of ordinary structures and infrastructures (e.g. hospitals, bridges and industrial facilities) as well as cultural heritage assets. In particular, our expertise covers the following: • Development of temporary and permanent monitoring networks • Identification of structural dynamic properties (frequencies, mode shapes, damping ratios) • Finite element model updating procedures to yield more reliable numerical models with respect to the real condition of structures • Vulnerability and risk analysis using field monitoring data • Structural health monitoring and evaluation of strengthening interventions • Real-time monitoring of critical structures and infrastructures

Real-time monitoring of a hospital building in Thessaloniki. Temporary array: 39 triaxial Mark products short-period seismometers coupled to Earthdata recorders EDL and 7 triaxial broadband Guralp seismometers coupled to Reftek recorders. Permanent array: 13 triaxial accelerometric sensors SOSEWIN (in cooperation with the Helmholtz-Centre Potsdam- German Research Centre for Geosciences laboratory).

Amplification

MIN-1 10

10

1

1

0.1

on soil / site-1 0.1

Singular values for the selection of modes based on the Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) method for the hospital building

Amplification

f1=1.65Hz, f2=1.90Hz, f3=2.29Hz, f4=3.58Hz, f5=5.18Hz

1

Frequency (Hz)

0.1

1st floor 0.1

10

10

10

1

1

1

Frequency (Hz)

10

Average HVSR ratios at Suleiman mosque, Medieval city of Rhodes recorded on the ground soil and on first floor of the minaret.

on soil / site-2

0.1 Selected projects:

1 NERA • SIBYL • REAKT 0.1 • PEPRETUATE Frequency (Hz)

Selected publications:

Mode shapes of the hospital buildings based on noise measurements

26

0.1 10

2nd floor 0.1

1

Frequency (Hz)

10

• Bindi D, Petrovic B, Karapetrou S, Manakou M, Boxberger T, Raptakis D, Pitilakis K and Parolai S (2014) Seismic response of an 8-story RC-building from ambient vibration analysis. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering doi: 10.1007/s10518-014-9713-y. • Karatzetzou A., Negulescu C, Manakou M, François B, Seyedi D, Pitilakis D, Pitilakis K (2015) Ambient vibration measurements on monuments in the Medieval City of Rhodes, Greece, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13:331-345, doi: 10.1007/s10518-014-9649-2.

27


SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STRUCTURES The Research Unit of SDGEE has a long experience in analysis and design of structures in highly seismic regions, accounting for realistic soil conditions. Using advanced numerical tools, we perform state-of-the-art earthquake assessment of existing buildings, bridges, monuments and infrastructures, as well as state-ofpractice design of new structures. • • • • • •

3D finite element model of Arsenal De Milly in Rhodes, Greece

Analysis of new and existing structures Performance-based design of structures and infrastructures 2D-3D soil-foundation-structure interaction and topography effects Seismic assessment and retrofitting of structures Seismic assessment and mitigation design of monumental buildings Earthquake resistant design of foundations

3D finite element model of the Neoclassical School in Rhodes, Greece

b 3D finite element model of AHEPA hospital building in Thessaloniki, Greece

Typical floor plan and sections along the longitudinal (Section A-A’) and transverse (B-B’) directions of the hospital building Numerical simulation of an 8-storey building with 3-storey basement founded on piles in Thessaloniki, Greece– Contour of the horizontal displacement of the soil-structure system

Selected projects:

SERIES • NEMISREF • Consulting projects in Greece

Selected publications: Seismic analysis and design of residential building accounting for topographic and soil-structure interaction effects

28

3D finite element model of De Bosset historical bridge in Cephalonia, Greece

• Karatzetzou A, Pitilakis D, Kržan M, Bosiljkov V (2015). Soil–foundation–structure interaction and vulnerability assessment of the Neoclassical School in Rhodes, Greece. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13(1): 411-428. • Karapetrou S, Fotopoulou S, Pitilakis K (2015). Seismic vulnerability assessment of high-rise non-ductile RC buildings considering soilstructure interaction effects. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 73: 42-57.

29


SOIL-FOUNDATION-STRUCTURE INTERACTION The response of structures when subjected to dynamic loading is affecting the underlying soil response and vice-versa. The, so-called, dynamic soil-foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) could be beneficial or detrimental for the structures. The Research Unit of SDGEE has long experience in modeling complex soilfoundation-structure interaction problems. Our expertise focuses on:

3D finite element modeling of EuroProteas soil-foundationstructure system in ABAQUS, and 3D finite element modeling of EuroProteas structure in SAP2000

Effects of tunneling on surface structures accounting for soil-tunnel-structure interaction

• Experimental and theoretical soil-foundation-structure interaction investigation, using the full-scale facility of EuroProteas in EuroSeistest • 3D numerical modeling of coupled soil-foundation-structure systems • Numerical modeling of surface and deep foundation systems • Analysis and design of bridge foundations and piers • Linear, equivalent-linear and non-linear numerical modeling of SFSI • Vulnerability of structures considering SFSI effects • Soil-tunnel-structure interaction modeling • Structure-soil-structure interaction modeling • Performance-based design of soil-foundation-structure systems • Analysis and mitigation of monumental soil-foundation systems • Dynamic foundation impedance functions

Soil-pile-basement interaction in buildings

Soil-foundation-structure interaction and topographic effects

Selected projects:

SERIES • NERA • PERPETUATE • NEMISREF • INDES-MUSA

Selected publications: Investigation of “city effects” – Contour of the horizontal acceleration around the structures

30

Analytical and numerical simulation of soil-caisson-pierdeck interaction of a typical bridge

• Pitilakis D, Clouteau D, 2010. Equivalent linear substructure approximation of soil-foundation-structure interaction: model presentation and validation. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 8(2): 257-282 • Rovithis E, Pitilakis K, Mylonakis G, 2009. Seismic analysis of coupled soil-pile-structure systems leading to the definition of a pseudonatural SSI frequency. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(6): 1005-1015

31


SEISMIC DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF TUNNELS AND UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES Although recent earthquake events (e.g. Kobe 1995, Duzce 1999, Chi-Chi 1999, Wenchuan 2008) have demonstrated that underground structures and tunnels may undergo extensive deformations or even collapse, their seismic response has not been adequately explored compared to aboveground structures, due to lack of well-documented experimental data and field evidence. In this regard, design specifications in modern seismic codes are based primarily on simplified methods, the implementation of which may lead to substantially different seismic design for underground structures. Along these lines, the Research Unit of SDGEE expertise regarding tunnels and underground structures covers the following areas:

3D numerical analysis of a tunnel crossing a fault and an adjacent station. Settlements 3D contour.

• • • • • •

Investigation of the seismic behaviour of circular tunnels and box-type structures Experimental and numerical modelling of the seismic behaviour of embedded structures Seismic design of pipelines (gas, water, waste water), tunnels and metro stations Vulnerability assessment of tunnels and underground structures Evaluation of seismic design methods Site and structure specific studies for pipelines, metro lines and underground structures

g Design of immersed tunnels

Numerical model – plastic strains

Numerical predictions vs. Experimental data (bending moments)

Above structure - ground and tunnel dynamic interactions

Seismic analysis and design of metro stations

Collapse of a flexible tunnel-model under seismic shaking during a centrifuge test at the centrifuge facility of the University of Cambridge, UK (Tsinidis et al. 2014)

Selected projects:

RRTT • SERIES • Consulting: Thessaloniki METRO, Thermaiki ODOS

Selected publications: Numerical analysis of circular tunnels in dynamic centrifuge tests: Contour diagrams of soil shear stress and deformed tunnel shapes

32

• Pitilakis K, Tsinidis G (2014) Performance and seismic design of underground structures. In: Maugeri M and Soccodato C (eds) Earthquake geotechnical engineering design. Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, 28: 279–340, Springer. • Tsinidis G, Pitilakis K, Madabhushi SPG, Heron C (2014) Dynamic response of flexible square tunnels: Centrifuge testing and validation of existing design methodologies. Geotechnique, DOI: 10.1680/geot./SIP 15-P-004.

33


INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR GROUND IMPROVEMENT Rubber or/and pumice and soil mixtures can be used as foundation soil or backfill material to improve the structure’s behavior under static and dynamic or earthquake loading conditions. The use of recycled car tires aims towards “green and smart infrastructures”

Ground improvement methods to ensure structure’s safety under static conditions, and to mitigate seismic risk of structures and infrastructures, became during the last years a challenging research topic with substantial economic interest in global scale. Soil mixtures (essentially sand and gravels) with lightweight geomaterials (such as volcanic pumice or other industrial materials, as recycled car tires after special processing) are commercially available in the form of grains in a variety of sizes, and present an attractive solution to improve structural safety and to reduce the seismic risk. At the same time, such mixtures offer an interesting solution to the eco-friendly use of recycled materials. Our research activities focus on: • Laboratory testing of the mechanic and dynamic properties of soil mixtures with volcanic coarse materials and granulated rubber derived from recycled used tires • Investigation of factors influencing the dynamic properties of the mixtures (i.e. percentage of rubber, size of the granules, ratio of the mean diameter between the soil and the synthetic material) • Proposal of analytical expressions for the dynamic properties of lightweight mixture materials and of the best practices for specific applications in a wide range of cyclic strains and compositions • Numerical analysis of the seismic response of different structures (i.e. buildings, tanks, bridge piers and abutments) and geo-structures (i.e. retaining walls and embankments) using the rubber/pumice soil mixtures as foundation or backfill material, in order to evaluate the improved earthquake behavior and the most influencing parameters 1

25

0,9 0,8

20

0,7

G/Go

0,6 0,5 0,4

Foundation improvement with soil-rubber mixture layer

sand

15

sand (80%) - rubber (20%)

D/Do

soil-rubber mixture layer

sand (40%) - rubber (60%)

10

0,3 0,2

5

0,1 0 0,0001

0,001

0,01

0,1

γ [%]

1

0

G/G0 - γ- D/D0 curves for sand and sand-rubber mixtures proposed by SDGEE after resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests

Selected projects:

NEMISREF • Consulting projects

Selected publications: Using lightweight backfill material in the seismic response of a quay wall results in a considerable reduction of peak ground acceleration on the quay wall

34

• Kirtas E, Rovithis E, Pitilakis K, 2009. Subsoil interventions effect on structural seismic response. Part I: Validation of numerical simulations, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 13(2):155-169 • Senetakis K, Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis K., 2011. Dynamic properties of dry sand/rubber (RSM) and gravel/rubber (GRM) mixtures in a wide range of shearing strain amplitude”. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 33(1): 38-53

35


EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AND REAL TIME DAMAGE ASSESSMENT During the past few years, in the framework of a pilot project the Research Unit of SDGEE has installed and operates in real-time a strong motion network of more than 30 instruments in and around Thessaloniki, aiming at contributing to the cutting-edge research effort of seismic risk mitigation in real and near-real time at European level. This network is the backbone of the under-development Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system in Thessaloniki, the first of such systems to be deployed in Greece. EEW system is combined with results from the dense instrumentation of selected buildings, concerning the building-specific behaviour and vulnerability assessment during earthquakes as well as its alteration with time (time-dependent vulnerability). The objective is to develop a rigorous end-user oriented methodology with appropriate instrumentation setup to provide in real, or almost real, time (e.g. in a few seconds from the generation of the earthquake event and before the seismic waves reach the structure) accurate prediction of the expected seismic damages. The structures that are envisaged for potential installation of the network are public buildings, critical facilities, schools, hospitals, transportation infrastructures (roads, railways, harbour and airport facilities), utility systems (gas, water, waste water networks) and industrial facilities.

Instrumented sites and buildings in Thessaloniki, Greece, with different types of sensors

Playback of rapid risk assessment for one hospital building. Input data correspond to the recorded waveforms of the 1978, M6.5 earthquake of Thessaloniki, Greece

Selected projects: REAKT • SIBYL

Selected publications: Snapshot from PRESTo software (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem, http://www.prestoews.org; e.g., Satriano et al. 2010; Zollo et al. 2010). Playback application for the October 10, 2013, M4.2 earthquake, which was felt in Thessaloniki. A warning was available 9 seconds before the arrival of the strongest seismic waves at the port of Thessaloniki

36

• Bindi D, Petrovic B, Karapetrou S, Manakou M, Boxberger T, Raptakis D, Pitilakis K and Parolai S, 2014. Seismic response of an 8-story RC-building from ambient vibration analysis. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering • Roumelioti Z, Sokos E, Manakou M, Paraskevopoulos P, Liakakis K, Raptakis D, Pitilakis K, 2014. Toward real-time earthquake damage assessment in Thessaloniki: implementation of earthquake early warning, 2nd European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Istanbul, August 25-29

37


VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT I: BUILDINGS

Probability of damage

Earthquakes, tsunami and landslides represent a major threat to urban environment in many regions around the world, due to both direct physical damages and socio-economic losses and impacts. Hence, vulnerability of buildings is of high importance for the risk assessment of critical facilities (e.g. hospitals, transportation terminals etc) as well as urban systems and populations. The Research Unit of SDGEE has long experience in vulnerability and risk analysis of structures in complex urban systems, including:

High rise / low code MRF - t= 50 years

1,0

IO

0,8

CP

0,6

• • • •

0,4 0,2 0,0

IO: immediate occupancy CP: collapse prevention

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0 PGA (g)

Fixed base, rock curves Fixed rock Time-dependent fragility for abase, high rise, low code RC building when considering fixed base and SSI structural configurations SSI linear, coupled SSI under linear, coupled linear and nonlinear soil behaviour (Pitilakis et al 2014). SSI nonlinear, coupled

Development of fragility curves for different hazards (earthquakes, landslides, liquefaction, tsunami) Consideration of aging effects (e.g., corrosion) and soil-structure interaction Real-time vulnerability assessment Vulnerability and risk assessment based on detailed hazard analyses, considering site effects and induced phenomena at local (i.e. building, infrastructure), city or regional scale • Damage and loss assessment (physical, casualties, economic), GIS mapping with damage distribution

SSI nonlinear, coupled

Low rise / low code MRF buildings

Probability of damage

1,0

Vulnerability of buildings in Thessaloniki for specific seismic scenario with mean return period of 500 years. Damaged buildings (left). Displaced people considering building damages, water and electric power supply (right) (SYNER-G project).

0,8 0,6 0,4

minor damage moderate extensive complete

0,2 0,0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Inundation depth (m)

Fragility curves for RC buildings exposed to forces due to tsunami (Fi: debris impact, Fd: hydrodynamic, Fs: impulsive; FEMA P646)

Vulnerability of buildings in Thessaloniki for the Uniform Hazard Spectrum of SHARE project for a mean return period of 475 years in terms of percentage of damaged floor area per damage state.

0.9

Probability of damage

1

0.8

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.5 0.4

0.2

0.3

0 80

0.2 60

Time (years)

40

4 20

2 0

0

PGD (m)

0.1 0

Time-dependent fragility surfaces for RC buildings due to seismically triggered landslide displacements (Fotopoulou and Pitilakis 2013).

38

Selected projects:

STREST • SIBYL • SYNER-G • SHARE • NERA • SAFELAND • REAKT • LESSLOSS • SRM-DGC • MERP • SRM-LIFE • RISK-UE

Selected publications:

• Pitilakis K, Karapetrou S, Fotopoulou S, 2014, Consideration of aging and SSI effects on seismic vulnerability assessment of RC buildings. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 12(4):1755-1776. • Fotopoulou S, Pitilakis K, 2013, Fragility curves for reinforced concrete buildings to seismically triggered slow-moving slides. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 48:143–161.

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VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT II: INFRASTRUCTURES AND UTILITY SYSTEMS Modern societies and economies become more complex and sophisticated and, at the same time, more vulnerable to multiple hazards. Taking into consideration the rapid climate change, anthropogenic activities, growing urbanization, uncontrolled land-use and increased vulnerability of population and infrastructure, as well as interactions between different components of the urban system, the total risk is even higher. Therefore, the need to estimate the associated vulnerability and risk is of high importance towards the increase of society resilience and robustness to natural hazards. The Research Unit of SDGEE has a long experience in vulnerability and risk assessment projects as coordinator (SYNER-G) or major partner. Our expertise focuses on:

Numerical modeling and development of fragility curves for shallow tunnels in alluvial deposits according to EC8 ground types (Argyroudis and Pitilakis 2012) Gravity quaywalls minor damage

0,8

H<=10m, Vs=250 m/s H<=10m, Vs=500 m/s H>10m, Vs=250 m/s

moderate

H>10m, Vs=500 m/s

0,6

H<=10m, Vs=250 m/s

0,4

H<=10m, Vs=500 m/s

extensive

Interaction with EPN

H>10m, Vs=500 m/s

0,2 0,0

0.1

H>10m, Vs=250 m/s

PGA (g) 0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

No interaction with EPN

H<=10m, Vs=250 m/s

0.01

H>10m, Vs=250 m/s

Mean Annual Frequenc y of exceedance ( )

Probability of damage

1,0

• Classification and inventorying of all elements at risk (buildings, lifelines, utility systems, transportation networks and infrastructures) • Development of fragility curves for different hazards (earthquakes, landslides, liquefaction, tsunami) • Vulnerability and risk assessment based on detailed hazard analyses, considering site effects and induced phenomena at infrastructure, city or regional scale • Systemic and network analysis considering interaction between elements and systems • Assessment of expected damages and losses, GIS mapping with damage distribution • Socioeconomic losses. Damage restoration priorities and mitigation measures

1,2

Numerical modeling and development of fragility curves for waterfront structures of different geometry and soil conditions

0.001

0.0001

0.00001 0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

Water Connectivity Loss )% (WCL

Systemic analysis of water supply system (WSS) in Thessaloniki considering interactions with electric power network (EPN). Correlation of damaged pipes and broken electric power transmission stations to network connectivity (left). Effect of interaction with electric power network to the mean annual loss of water supply connectivity (right) (SYNER-G project) Numerical modeling and development of fragility curves for cantilever retaining walls of different geometry and ground types (EC8) Vulnerability and risk assessment of electric power facilities in Thessaloniki (SYNER-G project)

Selected projects:

STREST • SYNER-G • SAFELAND • REAKT • LESSLOSS • SRM-DGC • MERP • SRM-LIFE • RISK-UE

Port of Thessaloniki: Components’ functionality for specific seismic scenario with mean return period of 500 years (SYNER-G project).

40

Selected publications:

• Pitilakis K, Crowley E, Kaynia A (eds), 2014, SYNER-G: Typology definition and fragility functions for physical elements at seismic risk. Series: Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, 27, ISBN 978-94-007-7871-9, Springer Netherlands. • Argyroudis S, Selva J, Gehl P, Pitilakis K, 2015, Systemic seismic risk assessment of road networks considering interactions with the built environment. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, doi: 10.1111/mice.12136

41


SEISMIC ANALYSIS, VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND STRENGTHENING OF MONUMENTS Preventive actions must be adopted in order to perpetuate life of monuments and historical aggregates in seismic areas, in due time. One of the main specificities regarding the protection of cultural heritage assets is to consider both safety and conservation that guarantees their capacity of lasting over time against decay, natural hazards and extreme events, without losing their authenticity and usability. The Research Unit of SDGEE provides advanced assessment of cultural heritage assets including: • • • • • • Investigation of the seismic behaviour of ancient multi-drum column at Lindos, Rhodes

Seismic hazard analysis and estimation of design strong motions Soil-foundation-structure interaction analysis Ambient noise measur e ments and strong ground motion instrumentation Structural health monitoring and pathology assessment Dynamic analysis and design of strengthening interventions Vulnerability assessment and risk analysis

Investigation of the seismic behaviour of ancient multi-drum columns and portals

Medieval City of Rhodes, Greece: Numerical modeling of Suleiman Mosque (a) a single cantilever column and (b) modeling of the whole structure. Sensors configuration is also shown Medieval city of Rhodes, Greece: Location of studied single monuments (as-built information, creation of a database with all available information, modal analyses, static and dynamic nonlinear and elastic analyses, rehabilitation decisions), building aggregates (Kisthiniou and Street of the Knights), in-situ microtremor measurements (SPAC and HVSR measurements), and locations of works for fortresses’ restoration.

Selected projects:

PERPETUATE • Consulting: KB Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities

Selected publications:

Medieval City of Rhodes, Greece: Numerical modeling of Arsenal De Milly

42

• Karatzetzou A, Pitilakis D, Kržan M, Bosiljkov V, 2015, Soil–foundation–structure interaction and vulnerability assessment of the Neoclassical School in Rhodes, Greece. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13:411-428. • Pitilakis D, Karatzetzou A, 2015, Dynamic stiffness of monumental flexible masonry foundations. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 13:67-82.

43


COMPUTING AND SOFTWARE

PROJECTS Title

• FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ABAQUS OPENSEES ANSYS PLAXIS (2D, 3D) SAP2000 SEISMOSTRUCT TREMURI • FINITE DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS FLAC2D FLAC3D 2DFD_DVS • 1D WAVE PROPAGATION SHAKE CYBERQUAKE EERA STRATA CYCLIC 1D DEEPSOIL

• STRONG MOTION DATA PROCESS SAC SEISMOSIGNAL

Role

Harmonized approach to stress tests for critical infrastructures against natural hazards www.strest-eu.org

European Commission, ENV.2013.6.4-4-603389

P

Seismic monitoring and vulnerability framework for civil protection

European Commission, ECHO.SUB.2014.695550

P

RARESYNERGASIA

Development of earthquake rapid response system for metropolitan motorways

General Secretariat for Research and Technology, 20122015

P

THALIS

Contemporary evaluation methodology of seismic vulnerability and upgrade of port facilities

Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs, 20122015

P

Systemic seismic vulnerability and risk analysis for buildings, lifeline networks and infrastructures safety gain www.syner-g.eu

European Commission, ENV.2009.1-244061

C

Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change and risk management strategies www.safeland-fp7.eu

European Commission, ENV.2008.1-226479

P

Seismic hazard harmonization in Europe www.share-eu.org

European Commission, ENV.2008.1.3.1.1-226967

P

Seismic engineering research infrastructures for European synergies www.series.upatras.gr

European Commission, INFRA.2008.1.1.2- 227887

P

Performance-based approach to earthquake protection of cultural heritage in European and Mediterranean countries www.perpetuate.eu

European Commission, ENV.2009.3.2.1.1-244229

P

• SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS CRISIS2007 EQRM EQRISK OPENQUAKE • TECHNICAL COMPUTING MATLAB MATHCAD • GIS & CAD ArcGIS AutoCAD

44

Funding

Network of European research infrastructures European Commission, INfor earthquake risk assessment and mitigaFRA.2010.1.1.27- 262330 tion www.nera-eu.org

P

Strategies and tools for real time earthquake risk reduction www.reaktproject.eu

European Commission, ENV.2011.1.3.1-1- 282862

P

CASHIMA

Synthesis of EUROSEISTEST and theoretical modeling

CEA/CADARACHENo4000311888 & No 4000422704

P

E2VP CASHIMA

Detailed geological and geotechnical description of the EUROSEISTEST experimental facility and preparation of earthquake data and recordings from the permanent strong motion array for the validation of numerical models and codes for site effect and engineering seismology studies

CEA/CADARACHE-No 4000535543

P

45


PROJECTS Title

Funding

Role

Seismic hazard assessment, site effects and soil structure interaction studies in an instrumented basin euroseisdb.civil.auth.gr

European Commission, EVG1CT-2001-00040

EUROSEIS-MOD Development and experimental validation of advanced modeling techniques in eng. seismology and earthquake engineering euroseisdb.civil.auth.gr

European Commission, ENV4CT96-0255 (DG12-DTEE)

C

Volvi-Thessaloniki: A European test-site for engineering, seismology, earthquake engineering and seismology euroseisdb.civil.auth.gr

European Commission, ENV4960255

C

An advanced approach to earthquake risk scenarios with applications to different European towns

European Commission, EVK4CT-2000-00014

P

Risk mitigation for earthquake and landslide www.lessloss.org

European Commission, SUSTDEV.2002.3.IV.2.a-GOCECT-2003-505448

P

New methods for mitigation of seismic risk of existing foundations

European Commission, G1RDCT-2002-00702

P

Cooperation agreement in the field of seismology in Greece

Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) RCS Nanterre No440 546 018, 2003

P

European Commission, SUSTDEV.2002.3.IV.2.a-4043

P

3HAZ-CORINTH

Earthquakes, tsunamis and landslides in the Corinth Rift, Greece. A multidisciplinary approach for measuring, modeling and predicting their triggering modes and their effects

Title

Role

Structural assessment monitoring and control European Commission, G1RTwww.samco.org CT-2001-05040

P

ISMOD

Towards an integrated strong motion modeling: Comparison of source path and site effects on the example of EUROSEISTEST data

European Union, Copernicus , 1997-2000

P

MERP

Marmara Earthquake Rehabilitation Project

Turkish GovernmentEuropean Commission, PIU-ID-MERP-2002-2004

P

X-SOILS

Foundation design in seismically “problematic” soils under strong ground shaking

General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Greece_DP23

P

Dynamic soil testing of geophysical survey for the seismic design of Thessaloniki Metro Infrastructure

Bouygues T.P, 1999

C

Microzoning study of Thessaloniki

General Secretary of Central Macedonia, Greece, 20002004

C

Microzoning study of Volos urban area – N. Ionia

Prefecture of Magnesia, Greece, 1995-2002

C

Microzoning study of Kozani urban area

Municipality of Kozani, Greece, 1997-2003

C

Microzoning study of Lemesos urban area

Ministry of Agriculture and Environment, Cyprus. Department of Geological Prospecting, Cyprus, 1998-2001

C

Microzoning study of Larisa urban area

Municipality of Larisa, Greece, 1998

C

Analytical and experimental study of the effect Earthquake Planning and Proof local soil conditions for the evaluation an tection Organization (OASP), review of the EAK design forces Greece, 2000-2005

C

Stability study for the Lindos Acropolis

Ministry of Culture, Greece, 1999

C

Retrofitting studies in the Rhodes Medieval City Fortress and monuments

Ministry of Culture, Greece, 1999-2005

C

Microzonation study of Paphos

Republic of Cyprus, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Geological Survey Department, 2002-2008

C

C

SDGEE

SDGEE

SDGEE

SDGEE

SDGEE

SDGEE

CORSEIS

An integrated study of seismic hazard assess- European Commission, EVG1ment in the area of Aegion Gulf of Corinth, CT-1999-00002 Greece

P

SDGEE

SRM-LIFE

Development of a global methodology for the vulnerability assessment and risk management of lifelines, infrastructures and critical facilities. Application to the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki

General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Greece_DP19

C

SDGEE

Development and proposition for implementation of an efficient methodology and appropriate local instruments for the management, prevention and reduction of seismic risk in Duzce-Turkey, Grevena-Greece and CataniaItaly

European Commission, Ministry of Economy and Finance, INTERREG III B Archimed

P

46

Funding

SDGEE

SDGEE

C: Coordinator, P: Partner

47


SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

ACADEMIC TEACHING Graduate Studies Program “Seismic Design of Structures”

16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering Thessaloniki, 18-22 June 2018 Chairman: Prof. K. Pitilakis

• ASTE01 - Soil Dynamics and Engineering Seismology • ASTE05 - Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering: Seismic Design of Foundations, Retaining Walls, Underground and Earth Structures. Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction.

4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering Thessaloniki, 26-28 June 2007 Chairman: Prof. K. Pitilakis

Undergraduate Studies Program • TG0600 - Laboratory and In-Situ Tests in Geomechanics (*) • TG1100 - Foundations, Retaining Structures and Geotechnical Works (*) • TG1300 - Soil Improvement and Strengthening of Foundations (*) • TG2500 – Introduction in Soil Dynamics and Engineering Seismology • TG2600 - Environmental Geotechnical Engineering (*)

Workshop: SYNER-G FP7 project Thessaloniki, 1 March 2013

• TG3100 - Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering I: Seismic Ground Response, Design Ground Motions and Liquefaction Risk Assessment • TG2800 - Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering II: Seismic Design of Foundations and Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction (*) Courses given jointly with other members of the academic staff in the Laboratory of Soil Mechanics, Foundations and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Workshop: LESS-LOSS FP6 project Thessaloniki, 20 April 2007

Workshop: SRM-LIFE project Thessaloniki, 29 May 2008

Workshops: Microzonation Study of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, 14 April 2003 & 4 June 2004

48

49


research group Research staff

research group permanent staff Kyriazis Pitilakis

Dimitrios Raptakis

Dr Civil Engineer Professor, Director of the Research Unit Geotechnical earthquake engineering; Engineering seismology; Numerical and stochastic methods; Soil dynamics; Microzoning studies; Protection of monuments and historical structures against natural hazards; Soil-foundation -structure interaction; Seismic design of technical projects Tel +30 2310995693 | Fax +30 2310995619 kpitilak@civil.auth.gr | users.auth.gr/kpitilak

Anastasios Anastasiadis Dr Civil Engineer Assistant Professor

Laboratory and in-Situ Testing; Soil and site characterization in geotechnical and earthquake engineering; Site effects and microzoning studies; Soil dynamics; Soil mechanics; Seismic performance and design of geotechnical structures and infrastructures Tel +30 2310995806 | anas@civil.auth.gr mendeley.com/profiles/anastasios-anastasiadis

Maria Manakou

Dr Geologist Laboratory & Teaching Staff Application of geophysical methods for soil and site characterization (CH, DH, microtremors, SWI, SASW, refraction); Experimental studies of site effects; Microzonation studies

Tel +30 2310995810 manakou@civil.auth.gr

Dr Seismologist Laboratory & Teaching Staff Kinematic modeling of earthquake sources; Simulation of strong ground motion; Near-fault effects on strong ground motion; Variability of strong ground motion due to source and site effects; Moment tensor determination; Study of non-linear site response; Seismicity studies; Real-time seismological applications Tel +30 2310995810 zroum@auth.gr | users.auth.gr/zroum

50

Tel +30 2310995808 raptakis@civil.auth.gr

Dimitris Pitilakis

Anna Karatzetzou

Dr Civil Engineer, Researcher

Dr Civil Engineer, Researcher

Seismic analysis and design of underground structures â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tunnels; Physical and numerical studies of SSI systems; Finite element modeling; Sesmic behavior of structures

Numerical studies of soil-structure interaction; Earthquake engineering; Seismic response of structures

Tel +30 2310994209 akaratze@civil.auth.gr

Sotiria Karapetrou

Achileas G. Pistolas

Civil Engineer, MSc Researcher, PhD Candidate

Dr Civil Engineer Laboratory & Teaching Staff

Civil Engineer, MSc Researcher, PhD Candidate

Time-dependent vulnerability assessement of RC buildings; Soil-foundationstructure-interaction; Aging effects; Vulnerability assessment based on field measurements; System identification

Lifeline earthquake engineering; Vulnerability assessment of infrastructures; Risk analysis; Numerical modeling of geostructures; Earthquake risk scenarios; GIS applications

Secretariat Administrative and financial management of projects

Soil and site classification; Soil amplification factors; Design response spectra; 2D numerical analyses of valleys; Aggravation factors; Applications for seismic code provisions

Tel +30 2310995842 eviriga@civil.auth.gr

Tel +30 2310994208 gtsinidi@civil.auth.gr

Sotiris Argyroudis

Anastasia Argyroudi

Civil Engineer, MSc Researcher, PhD Candidate

Grigoris Tsinidis

Dr Civil Engineer Assistant Professor Geotechnical earthquake engineering; Soil-foundation-structure interaction; Performance based design; Structural dynamics; Numerical analysis; Foundation design and analysis; Seismic behavior and rehabilitation of historical buildings and monuments; Soil dynamics; Soil mechanics Tel +30 2310994357 dpitilak@civil.auth.gr | users.auth.gr/dpitilak

Evi Riga

Dr Civil Engineer Researcher Vulnerability assessment of buildings and infrastructures due to seismically induced landslides; Finite Element/ Difference modeling; Time-dependent seismic vulnerability assessment; Lifeline earthquake engineering; GIS applications Tel +30 2310994208 sfotopou@civil.auth.gr

Tel +30 2310994341 sarg@civil.auth.gr | linkedin.com/in/sargyroudis

Zafeiria Roumelioti

Stavroula Fotopoulou

Dr Physicist Associate Professor Engineering seismology; Seismic ground motion; Site effects; Geophysical methods for soil and site characterization; Microzonation studies

Tel +30 2310994208 gkarapet@civil.auth.gr

Experimental soil dynamics; Mechanics and dynamics of granular soil/ volcanic geo-materials/granulated tire rubber mixtures

Tel +30 2310995648 gpistola@civil.auth.gr

Aggelos Tsinaris

Stella Karafagka

Experimental soil dynamics; Laboratory

Vulnerability assessment of buildings and infrastructures due to natural hazards; Numerical analyses; Seismic behavior and rehabilitation of monuments

Civil Engineer, MSc Researcher, PhD Candidate

Civil Engineer, MSc Researcher, PhD Candidate

investigation of the mechanical and dynamical properties of typical granural/ volcanic coarse materials with granulated rubber derived from recycled used tires; Seismic analysis and design of retaining structures - walls Tel +30 2310995813 | Fax +30 2310995842 anastarg@civil.auth.gr

Tel +30 2310995648, +30 2310994347 tsinaris@civil.auth.gr

Tel +30 2310994209 stellak@civil.auth.gr

51


RESEARCH GROUP EXTERNAL COLLABORATORS Konstantia Makra

Manolis Rovithis

Dr Civil Engineer Researcher, EPPO/ITSAK

Dr Civil Engineer Head of Soil Dynamic Division, EPPO/ITSAK Soil dynamics; Strong motion site characterization and soil categorization; Empirical and theoretical studies on strong ground motion; Site effects; Microzonation studies; Soil structure interaction; Seismic behavior and design of geotechnical structures; Numerical and analytical methodsand analytical methods makra@itsak.gr

Soil dynamics; Aseismic design of foundations and structures; Soil-structure interaction with emphasis to pile foundations; Numerical and analytical studies of soil seismic response; Numerical simulation of physical SSI experiments; Subsoil interventions; Rehabilitation of historical monuments and structures

More than 450 scientific publications since 1990 in: • scientific journals • peer-reviewed conference proceedings • special issues • books • book chapters

rovithis@itsak.gr

Kalliopi Kakderi

Dr Civil Engineer Technical Service, Hospital “G. Papanikolaou” Lifeline earthquake engineering; Numerical modeling of utility and transportation infrastructures; Interconnectiveness between lifelines; Vulnerability; Liquefaction phenomena; GIS applications

Jacopo Selva

Dr Physicist Researcher, INGV Italy Uncertainty treatment in hazard and risk assessments; Multi-hazard and multi-risk; Bayesian Volcanic, Tsunami and Seismic hazard; Bayesian inferece on fragility analyses; Statistical analysis of earthquakes and eruption spatiotemporal distribution; Serviceability of systems; Precursory patterns of volcanic eruptions jacopo.selva@ingv.it | jacoposelva.altervista.org

kkakderi@gmail.com

Manolis Kirtas

Dr Civil Engineer Assistant Professor, T.E.I of Serres Structural seismic behavior and dynamic soil-foundation-structure interaction; Dynamic behavior of soil deposits under seismic loading; Contemporary methods of seismic design of structures; Structural analysis using the finite element method; Inelastic analysis of structures

kirtas@teiser.gr | kirtas-eng.weebly.com

Kostas Senetakis

Dr Civil Engineer Lecturer, University of New South Wales, Australia Experimental micromechanics of soils; Compression behavior of gap-graded and clayey soils; Transitional behavior in soils and particle breakage; Mechanics and dynamics of granular soil/ volcanic geo-materials/granulated tire rubber mixtures; Reinforced soils; Structures seismic response; Liquefaction of soils k.senetakis@unsw.edu.au | senetakis.weebly.com

Olga-Joan Ktenidou

Chiara Smerzini

Engineering seismology; Seismic and noise record processing; Downhole arrays; Local (topographic & basin edge) site effects; 2D site response simulations; High-frequency attenuation effects (kappa); Ground motion uncertainty (sigma) and variability

3D numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation in complex earth media; Spectral Element Method (SEM); High Performance Computing; Variability of earthquake-induced ground shaking due to source and site effects; Seismic hazard analysis; Seismic response of underground structures; Strong ground motion selection and scaling

Dr Civil Engineer Researcher, GFZ Potsdam, Germany

olga.ktenidou@gmail.com

52

PUBLICATIONS

Dr Environmental Engineer Researcher, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

chiara.smerzini@gmail.com

53


PUBLICATIONS SELECTED PUBLICATIONS (2000-2015) International Journals Argyroudis S., Kaynia A.M. (2015). Analytical seismic fragility functions for highway and railway embankments and cuts. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, doi: 10.1002/eqe.2563. Argyroudis S., Selva J., Gehl P., Pitilakis K. (2015). Systemic seismic risk assessment of road networks considering interactions with the built environment. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering doi: 10.1111/mice.12136. Cattari S., Lagomarsino S., Karatzetzou A., Pitilakis D. (2015). Vulnerability assessment of Hassan Bey’s Mansion in Rhodes. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 13(1): 347-368. Cauzzi C., Gasparini P., Sousa Oliveira C., Amaral Ferreira M., Iervolino I., Colombelli S., Emolo A., Picozzi M., Zollo A., Erdik M., Şafak E., Zülfikar C., Pitilakis K., Karapetrou S., Vogfjord K., Jonsdottir K., Bindi D., Lai C., Zuccolo E., Sokos E., Clinton J., Behr Y., Wiemer S., Zschau J. and the WP7 working group (2015). Towards Real-time Risk Reduction for Strategic Facilities through Earthquake Early Warning: summary of the REAKT experience. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (submitted). Chávez-García F.J., Raptakis D. (2015). Local Amplification and Subsoil Structure at a Difficult Site: Understanding Site Effects from Different Measurements. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (submitted). Douglas J., Seyedi D., Ulrich T., Modaressi H., Foerster E., Pitilakis K., Pitilakis D., Karatzetzou A., Gazetas G., Garini E. and Loli M. (2015). Evaluation of seismic hazard for the assessment of historical elements at risk: description of input and selection of intensity measures. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 13(1): 49-65. Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K. (2015). Predictive relationships for seismically induced slope displacements using numerical analysis results. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, doi: 10.1007/s10518-015-9768-4. Hemeda S., Pitilakis K., Bandis S. (2015). Geotechnical, geophysical investigation and seismic response analysis of the underground tombs in Mustafa Kamil Necropolis, Alexandria, Egypt. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 15 (1): 191-207. Karapetrou S., Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K. (2015). Seismic vulnerability assessment of high-rise non-ductile RC buildings considering soil-structure interaction effects. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 73: 42-57. Karapetrou S., Manakou M., Bindi D., Petrovic B., Pitilakis K. (2015). “Time-building specific” seismic vulnerability assessment of a high rise RC building using field monitoring data. Engineering Structures (submitted). Karatzetzou A., Negulescu C., Manakou M., François B., Seyedi D., Pitilakis D., Pitilakis K. (2015). Ambient vibration measurements on monuments in the Medieval City of Rhodes, Greece. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 13(1): 331-345.

54

Karatzetzou A., Pitilakis D., Kržan M., Bosiljkov V. (2015). Soil–foundation–structure interaction and vulnerability assessment of the Neoclassical School in Rhodes, Greece. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 13(1): 411-428. Ktenidou O.-J. , Roumelioti Z., Abrahamson N., Cotton F., Pitilakis K., Hollender F. (2015). Site effects and ground motion variability: traditional spectral ratios vs. GMPE residuals. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (submitted). Maufroy E., Chaljub E., Hollender F., Kristek J., Moczo P., Klin P., Priolo E., Iwaki A., Iwata T., Etienne V., De Martin F., Theodoulidis N., Manakou M., Guyonnet-Benaize C., Pitilakis K., Bard P.-Y. (2015). Earthquake ground motion in the Mygdonian basin, Greece: the E2VP verification and validation of 3D numerical simulation up to 4 Hz. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, doi: 10.1785/0120140228. Pitilakis D., Karatzetzou A. (2015). Dynamic stiffness of monumental flexible masonry foundations. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 13(1): 67-82. Raptakis D., Makra K. (2015). Multiple estimates of soil structure at a vertical strong motion array: Understanding uncertainties from different shear wave velocity profiles. Engineering Geology 192: 1-18. Tsinidis G., Pitilakis K., Madabhushi G., Heron C. (2015). Dynamic response of flexible square tunnels: Centrifuge testing and validation of existing design methodologies. Geotechnique 65(5): 401-417. Senetakis K., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis K. (2015). A comparison of material damping measurements in resonant column using the steady-state and free-vibration decay methods, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 74: 10–13. Bindi D., Petrovic B., Karapetrou S., Manakou M., Boxberger T., Raptakis D., Pitilakis K., Parolai S. (2014). Seismic response of a 8-story RC-building from ambient vibration analysis. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, doi: 10.1007/s10518-014-9713-y. Chávez-García F.J., Manakou M., Raptakis D. (2014). Subsoil structure and site effects: A comparison between results from SPAC and HVSR in sites of complex geology. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 57: 133–142. Corominas J., Van Westen C., Frattini P., Cascini L., Malet J.-P., Fotopoulou S., Catani F., Van Den Eeckhaut M., Mavrouli O., Agliardi F., Pitilakis K., Winter M. G., Pastor M., Ferlisi S., Tofani V., Hervás J., Smith J. T. (2014). Recommendations for the quantitative assessment of landslide risk. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 73(2):209-263. Eidsvig U., McLean A., Vangelsten B.V., Kalsnes B., Ciurean L., Argyroudis S., Winter M., Mavrouli O.C., Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K., Bails A. , Malet J.P., Kaiser G. (2014). Assessment of socio-economic vulnerability to landslides using an indicator-based approach. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 73(2): 307-324.

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PUBLICATIONS

Manos G. C. , Pitilakis K.D., Sextos A.G., Kourtides V., Soulis V. , Thauampteh J. (2014). Field experiments for monitoring the dynamic soil-structure-foundation response of a bridge-pier model structure at a Test Site. Journal of Structural Engineering 141, SPECIAL ISSUE: Field Testing of Bridges and Buildings, D4014012. Mavrouli O., Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K., Zuccaro G., Corominas J., Santo A., Cacace F., De Gregorio D., Di Crescenzo G., Foerster E., Thomas U. (2014). Vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings exposed to landslides. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 73(2): 265-289. Pitilakis K., Karapetrou S., Fotopoulou S. (2014). Consideration of aging and SSI effects on seismic vulnerability assessment of RC buildings. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 12(4): 1755-1776. Pitilakis K., Tsinidis G., Leanza A., Maugeri M. (2014). Seismic behaviour of circular tunnels accounting for above ground structures interaction effects. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 67: 1-15. Tsinidis G., Pitilakis K., Trikalioti A.D. (2014). Numerical simulation of round robin numerical test on tunnels using a simplified kinematic hardening model. Acta Geotechnica 9(4): 641-659. Winter M.G., Smith J.T., Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K., Mavrouli O-C., Corominas J., Agryroudis S. (2014). An expert judgment approach to determining the physical vulnerability of roads to debris flow. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 73(2): 291-305. Argyroudis S., Kaynia A.M., Pitilakis K. (2013). Development of fragility functions for geotechnical constructions: Application to cantilever retaining walls. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 50: 106–116. Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K. (2013). Vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete buildings subjected to seismically triggered slow-moving earth slides. Landslides 10(5): 563-582. Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K. (2013). Fragility curves for reinforced concrete buildings to seismically triggered slow-moving slides. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 48: 143–161. Pitilakis D., Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi A., Clouteau, D (2013). Equivalent-Linear Dynamic Impedance Functions of Surface Foundations. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 139(7): 1130–1139. Pitilakis K., Riga E., Anastasiadis A. (2013) New code site classification, amplification factors and normalized response spectra based on a worldwide ground-motion database, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 11(4): 925-966. Pitilakis K., Roumelioti Z., Raptakis D., Manakou M., Liakakis K., Anastasiadis A. and Pitilakis D. (2013). The EUROSEISTEST strong ground motion database and web portal. Seismological Research Letters 84(5): 796–804. Raptakis D. (2013). Pre-loading effect on site response: Site amplification and soil properties mismatch. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 53: 1–10.

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Rovithis E., Mylonakis G., Pitilakis K. (2013). Dynamic stiffness and kinematic response of single piles in inhomogeneous soil. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 11(6): 1949–1972. Selva J., Argyroudis S., Pitilakis K. (2013). Impact on loss/risk assessments of inter-model variability in vulnerability analysis. Natural Hazards 67(2): 723-746. Senetakis K., Anastasiadis A. and Pitilakis K. (2013). Normalized shear modulus reduction and damping ratio curves of quartz sand and rhyolitic crushed rock. Soils and Foundations 53(6): 879-893. Senetakis K., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis K., Coop M. (2013). The dynamics of a pumice granular soil in dry state under isotropic resonant column testing. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 45: 70-79. Anastasiadis A., Senetakis K. and Pitilakis K. (2012). Small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of sand/ rubber and gravel/rubber mixtures. Journal of Geological and Geotechnical Engineering 30(2): 363-382. Anastasiadis A., Senetakis K., Pitilakis K., Gargala C., Karakasi I. (2012). Dynamic behavior of sand/rubber mixtures, Part I: Effect of rubber content and duration of confinement on small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio. Journal of ASTM International 9(2), Paper ID JAI103680, doi: 10.1520/STP154020120011. Argyroudis S., Pitilakis K. (2012). Seismic fragility curves of shallow tunnels in alluvial deposits. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 35: 1–12. Pitilakis K., Riga E., Anastasiadis A. (2012). Design spectra and amplification factors for Eurocode 8. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 10(5): 1377-1400. Raptakis D. (2012). Pre-loading effect on dynamic soil properties: Seismic methods and their efficiency in geotechnical aspects. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 34(1): 69-77. Senetakis K., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis K. (2012). The small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of quartz and volcanic sands. ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal 35(6), doi: 10.1520/GTJ20120073 Senetakis K., Anastasiadis A. and Pitilakis K. (2012). Dynamic properties of dry sand/rubber (RSM) and gravel/rubber (GRM) mixtures in a wide range of shearing strain amplitudes. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 33: 38-53. Senetakis K., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis K., Souli A. (2012). Dynamic behavior of sand/rubber mixtures, Part II: Effect of rubber content on G/Go-γ-DT curves and volumetric threshold strain. Journal of ASTM International 9(2), Paper ID JAI103711, doi: 10.1520/JAI103711. Ktenidou O.-J., Chávez-García F.J., Pitilakis K. (2011). Variance reduction and signal-to-noise ratio: Reducing uncertainty in spectral ratios. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 101(2): 619-634. Pitilakis K., Anastasiadis A., Kakderi K., Manakou M., Manou D., Alexoudi M., Fotopoulou S., Argyroudis S., Senetakis K. (2011). Development of comprehensive earthquake loss scenarios for a Greek and a Turkish city: seismic hazard, geotechnical and lifeline aspects. Earthquakes and Structures 2(3): 207-232.

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PUBLICATIONS

Rovithis E., Pitilakis K., Mylonakis G. (2011). A note on a pseudo-natural SSI frequency of coupled soil-pilestructure systems. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 31(7): 873-878. Hemeda S, Pitilakis K. (2010). Serapeum temple and the ancient annex daughter library in Alexandria, Egypt: Geotechnical–geophysical investigations and stability analysis under static and seismic conditions. Engineering Geology 113(1–4): 33-43.

Chávez-García F.J., Luzón F., Raptakis D., Fernández J. (2007). Shear-wave velocity structure around Teide volcano: Results using microtremors with the SPAC method and implications for interpretation of geodetic results. Pure and Applied Geophysics 164(4): 697-720. Pitilakis K., Alexoudi M., Argyroudis S., Monge O., Martin C. (2006). Earthquake risk assessment of lifelines, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 4(4): 365-390.

Lagomarsino S., Modaressi H., Pitilakis K., Bosiljkov V., Calderini Ch., D’ Ayala D., Benouar D., Cattari S. (2010). PERPETUATE project: the Proposal of a Performance-based Approach to Earthquake Protection of Cultural Heritage. Advanced Materials Research 133-134: 1119-1124.

Apostolidis P., Raptakis D., Pandi K., Manakou M., Pitilakis K. (2005). Definition of subsoil structure and preliminary ground response in Aigion city (Greece) using microtremor and earthquakes. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26(10): 922 – 940.

Manakou M., Raptakis D., Apostolidis P., Chávez-García F. J., Pitilakis K. (2010). 3D soil structure of the Mygdonian basin for site response analysis. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 30: 1198-1211.

Comodromos, E., Pitilakis, K. (2005). Response evaluation of horizontally loaded fixed-head pile groups using 3-D nonlinear analysis. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical methods in Geomechanics 29(6): 597-625.

Pitilakis D., Clouteau D. (2010). Equivalent linear substructure approximation of soil–foundation–structure interaction: model presentation and validation. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 8(2): 257–282. Pitilakis D., Makris N. (2010). A study on the effects of the foundation compliance on the response of yielding structures using dimensional analysis. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 8(6): 1497–1514. Raptakis D., Makra K. (2010). Shear wave velocity structure in western Thessaloniki (Greece) using mainly alternative SPAC method. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 30(4): 202–214 Kallioglou P., Tika Th., Koninis G., Papadopoulos St., Pitilakis K. (2009). Shear modulus and damping ratio of organic soils. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 27(2). 217-235. Kirtas E., Rovithis E., Pitilakis K. (2009). Subsoil interventions effect on structural seismic response. Part I: Validation of numerical simulations. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 13(2): 155-169. Kirtas E., Pitilakis K. (2009). Subsoil interventions effect on structural seismic response. Part II: Parametric investigation. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 13(3): 328-344. Rovithis E., Kirtas E., Pitilakis K. (2009). Experimental P-y loops for estimating seismic soil-pile interaction. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 7(3): 719-736. Rovithis E., Pitilakis K., Mylonakis G. (2009). Seismic analysis of coupled soil-pile-structure systems leading to the definition of a pseudo-natural SSI frequency. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 29: 1005-1015. Kallioglou P., Tika Th., Pitilakis K. (2008). Shear modulus and damping ratio of cohesive soils. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 12(6): 879-913. Pitilakis D., Dietz M., Muir Wood D., Clouteau D., & Modaressi-Farahmand-Razavi A. (2008). Numerical simulation of dynamic soil–structure interaction in shaking table testing. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 28(6): 453–467.

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Papathanassiou G., Pavlides S., Christaras B., Pitilakis K. (2005). Liquefaction case histories and empirical relations of earthquake magnitude versus distance from the broader Aegean region. Journal of Geodynamics 40(2-3): 257–278. Raptakis D., Manakou M., Chavez-Garcia F., Makra K., Pitilakis K. (2005). 3D configuration of Mygdonian basin and preliminary estimate of its site response. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 25: 871-887. Semblat J.F., Kham M., Parara E., Bard P.Y., Pitilakis K., Makra K., Raptakis D. (2005) Seismic wave amplification: Basin geometry vs soil layering. Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 25(7-10): 529538. Apostolidis P., Raptakis D., Roumelioti Z., Pitilakis K. (2004). Determination of S-Wave velocity structure using microtremors and SPAC method applied in Thessaloniki (Greece). Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 24(1): 49-67. Raptakis D., Makra K., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis K. (2004). Complex site effects in Thessaloniki (Greece) – I: Soil structure and confrontation of observations with 1D analysis. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 2(3): 271-290. Raptakis D., Makra K., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis K. (2004). Complex site effects in Thessaloniki (Greece) – II: 2D SH modeling and engineering insights. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 2(3): 301-327. Pitilakis K., Makropoulos K., Bernard P., Lemeille Fr., Lyon-Caen H., Berge-Thierry C., Tika Th., Manakou M., Diagourtas D., Raptakis D., Kallioglou P., Makra K., Pitilakis D., Bonilla F. (2004). The Corinth Gulf Soft Soil Array (CORSSA) to study site effects. Comptes Rendus Geosciences, 336(4-5): 353-365. Sextos A., Kappos A., Pitilakis K. (2003). Inelastic dynamic analysis of RC bridges accounting for spatial variability of ground motion, site effects and soil-structure interaction phenomena – Part 2: Parametric analysis. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 32(4): 629-652.

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PUBLICATIONS

Sextos A., Pitilakis K., Kappos A. (2003). Inelastic dynamic analysis of RC bridges accounting for spatial variability of ground motion, site effects and soil-structure interaction phenomena – Part 1: Methodology and Analytical tools. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 32(4): 607-627. Anastasiadis A., Raptakis D., Pitilakis K. (2001). Thessaloniki’s detailed microzoning: Subsurface as basis of site response analysis. Pure and Applied Geophysics 158(12): 2597-2633. Makra K., Raptakis D., Chavez-Garcia F., Pitilakis K. (2001). Site effects and design provisions: The case of Euroseistest. Pure and Applied Geophysics 158(12) 2349-2367. Raptakis D., Chavez-Garcia F., Makra K., Pitilakis K. (2000). Site effects at EURO-SEISTEST – I: 2D determination of the valley structure and confrontation of the observations with 1D analysis. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 19(1): 1-22. Chavez-Garcia F., Raptakis D., Makra K., Pitilakis K. (2000). Site effects at EURO-SEISTEST – II: Results from 2D numerical modeling and comparison with observations. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19(1): 23-39.

Books Pitilakis K., Crowley H., Kaynia, A. (eds.) (2014). SYNER-G: Typology Definition and Fragility Functions for Physical Elements at Seismic Risk, Buildings, Lifelines, Transportation Networks and Critical Facilities, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 27, ISBN: 978-94-007-7871-9, Springer Netherlands. Pitilakis K., Franchin P., Khazai B., Wenzel H. (eds.) (2014). SYNER-G: Systemic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of complex urban, utility, lifeline systems and critical facilities. Methodology and applications, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 31, ISBN 978-94-017-8834-2, Springer Netherlands. Pitilakis K. (2010). Geotechnical earthquake engineering. ISBN 978-960-456-226-8, Ziti (in Greek). Pitilakis K. (ed.) (2007). Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering: 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering - Invited Lectures, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Springer Netherlands.

Chapters Cattari S., Karatzetzou A., Degli Abbati S., Pitilakis D., Negulescu C., Gkoktsi K. (2015). Seismic performance based assessment of the Arsenal de Milly of the medieval city of Rhodes. Seismic Assessment, In: Psycharis I., Pantazopoulou V., Papadrakakis M. (eds.), Seismic Assessment, Behavior and Retrofit of Heritage Buildings and Monuments, Series: Computational Methods in Applied Sciences, Vol. 37, pp. 365-392, Springer International Publishing. Pitilakis K. (2015). Earthquake risk assessment: Certitudes, fallacies, uncertainties and the quest for soundness. In: Ansal A. (ed), Perspectives on European Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Springer International Publishing (in press). Pitilakis K., Argyroudis S. (2015) Earthquake risk mitigation of lifelines and critical facilities. In: Beer M., Kougioumtzoglou I., Patelli E., Au I. S.-K. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5_395-1 Pitilakis K., Riga E., Anastasiadis A. (2015). New design spectra in Eurocode 8 and preliminary application to the seismic risk of Thessaloniki, Greece, In: Ansal A., Sakr M. (eds.), Perspectives on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 37, pp. 45-91, Springer International Publishing. Tsinidis G., Rovithis E., Pitilakis K., Chazelas J.-L. (2015). Dynamic response of shallow rectangular tunnels in sand by centrifuge testing. In: Taucer F., Apostolska R. (eds.) Experimental Research in Earthquake Engineering, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 35, pp. 493-507, Springer International Publishing. Pitilakis K., Argyroudis S. (2014) Seismic vulnerability assessment: lifelines. In: Beer M., Kougioumtzoglou I., Patelli E., Au I. S-K., (eds) Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5_255-1 Anastasiadis A., Riga, E. (2014). Site classification and spectral amplification for seismic code provisions, In: Maugeri M, Soccodato C. (eds.), Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering Design, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 28, pp 23-72, Springer International Publishing. Argyroudis S., Selva J., Kakderi K., Pitilakis K. (2014) Application to the city of Thessaloniki. In: Pitilakis K., Franchin P., Khazai B., Wenzel H. (eds.) SYNER-G: Systemic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of complex urban, utility, lifeline systems and critical facilities. Methodology and applications. Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 31, pp. 199-240, Springer Netherlands. Argyroudis S., Kaynia A.M. (2014) Fragility functions of highway and railway infrastructure In: Pitilakis K., Crowley H., Kaynia A.M. (eds.), SYNER-G: Typology definition and fragility functions for physical elements at seismic risk. Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 27, pp. 299-326, Springer Netherlands.

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PUBLICATIONS

Kakderi K., Argyroudis S. (2014) Fragility functions of water and waste-water systems. In: Pitilakis K, Crowley H, Kaynia AM (eds.), SYNER-G: Typology definition and fragility functions for physical elements at seismic risk, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 27, pp. 221-258, Springer Netherlands.

Pitilakis K., Raptakis D., Makra K., Manakou M., Chavez-Garcia F.J. (2011). Euroseistest 3D Array for the Study of Complex Site Effects. In: Akkar A., Gülkan P., van Eck T. (eds.) Earthquake Data in Engineering Seismology, Series: Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, pp. 145-166, Springer Netherlands.

Kakderi K., Selva J., Pitilakis K. (2014) Application in the harbor of Thessaloniki. In: Pitilakis K., Franchin P., Khazai B., Wenzel H. (eds.), SYNER-G: Systemic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of complex urban, utility, lifeline systems and critical facilities. Methodology and applications. Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 31, pp. 347-368, Springer Netherlands.

Pitilakis K., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis D., Trevlopoulos K. and Senetakis K., (2010). Elastic demand spectra. In: Fardis M. N. (ed.), Advances in performance-based earthquake engineering, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 13, pp. 89-99, Springer Netherlands.

Kakderi K., Pitilakis K. (2014) Fragility functions of harbor elements. In: Pitilakis K, Crowley H, Kaynia AM (eds.), SYNER-G: Typology definition and fragility functions for physical elements at seismic risk, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 27, pp. 327-356, Springer Netherlands.

volcano: Results using microtremors with the SPAC method and implications for interpretation of geodetic results. In: Wolf D., Fernández J, (eds.), Deformation and Gravity Change: Indicators of Isostasy, Tectonics, Volcanism, and Climate Change, Pageoph Topical Volumes, Birkhäuser Basel.

Tsinidis G., Heron C., Pitilakis K., Madabhushi G. (2014). Centrifuge modelling of the dynamic behavior of square tunnels in sand. In: Taucer F., Apostolska R. (eds.) Experimental Research in Earthquake Engineering, Series: Geotechnical, Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 35, pp. 509-523, Springer International Publishing.

Elgamal A., Pitilakis K., Raptakis D., Garnier J., Madabhushi SP, Pinto A., Steidl J., Stewart H., Stokoe K., Taucer F., Tokimatsu K. and Wallace J. (2007). A review of large-scale testing facilities in geotechnical earthquake engineering. In: Pitilakis K. (ed.), Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering: 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering - Invited Lectures, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 6, pp: 93-129, Springer Netherlands.

Pitilakis K., Argyroudis S. (2014). Systemic seismic vulnerability and risk analysis of urban systems, lifelines and infrastructures. In: Klinkel S., Butenweg C., Lin G., Holtschoppen B. (eds.), Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities, Proceedings of the International Conference on Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities (SeDIFConference), Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. Pitilakis K., Tsinidis G. (2014). Performance and seismic design of underground structures. In: Maugeri M, Soccodato C. (eds.), Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering Design, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 28, pp. 279 - 340, Springer International Publishing. Pitilakis K., Tsinidis G., Chalatis A. (2014). Shallow immersed rectangular tunnel in soft soils. ISO/WD 12930 Seismic design examples based on ISO 23469 - JISC-Japanese Industrial Standards Committee. Tsinidis G., Heron C., Pitilakis K., Madabhushi S.P.G (2014). Physical modeling for the evaluation of the seismic behavior of square tunnels. In: Ilki A., Fardis M.N. (eds.), Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Structures, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng. Vol. 26, pp. 389 - 406, Springer International Publishing. Argyroudis S., Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K. (2013). Semi-empirical assessment of road vulnerability to seismically induced slides. In: Margottini C., Canuti P., Sassa K. (eds.), Landslide Science and Practice, Vol. 5: Complex Environment, pp. 321-326, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Fotopoulou S., Anastasiadis A., Pitilakis K. (2013) Building vulnerability to the 2008 Ilia- Achaia earthquake induced slides. In: Margottini C., Canuti P., Sassa K. (eds.), Landslide Science and Practice, Vol. 5: Complex Environment, pp. 219-226, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Pitilakis K., Terzi V. (2012). Experimental and theoretical SFSI studies in a model structure in Euroseistest. In: Sakr M.A., Ansal A. (eds.), Special Topics in Advances in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 16, pp. 175-215, Springer Netherlands.

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Chávez-García F.J., Luzón F., Raptakis D., Fernández J. (2007). Shear-wave velocity structure around Teide

Paolucci R., Pitilakis K. (2007). Seismic risk assessment of underground structures under transient ground deformations. , In: Pitilakis K. (ed.), Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering: 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering - Invited Lectures, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 6, pp. 433-459, Springer Netherlands. Liolios A., Iosifidou C., Tsotsos S., Pitilakis K. and Yeroyanni M. (2006). A numerical approach to the unilateral contact dynamic problem of soil-pile interaction. In: Rackwitz F. (ed.), Entwicklungen in der Bodenmechanik, Bodendynamik und Geotechnik, pp: 153-159, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Pitilakis K., Alexoudi M., Argyroudis S., Anastasiadis A. (2006). Seismic risk scenarios for an efficient risk management: The case of Thessaloniki (Greece). In: Wasti T., Ozcebe G. (eds.), Advances in Earthquake Engineering for Urban Risk Reduction, NATO Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 66, pp. 229-244, Springer Netherlands. Pitilakis K., Alexoudi M., Argyroudis S., Monge O. and Martin C. (2006). Vulnerability and risk assessment of lifelines. In: Oliveira C., Roca A., Goula X. (eds.), Assessing and Managing Earthquake Risk: Geo-scientific and Engineering Knowledge for Earthquake Risk Mitigation: developments, tools, techniques, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., pp. 185-211, Springer Netherlands. Pitilakis K. (2004). Site Effects. In: Ansal A. (ed.), Recent advances in earthquake geotechnical engineering and microzonation, Series: Geotech., Geol., & Earthq. Eng., Vol. 1, pp. 139-197, Springer Netherlands.

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Thessaloniki, Greece 2015

Soil Dynamics and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering  

This is the brochure of SDGEE lab of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

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