Quarterly magazine of the Society of Dyers and Colourists
Social responsibility Governance of the SDC Energy efficient lighting
Issue 2 / 2010
The world’s leading peer-reviewed journal dealing with the application of colour, and the only journal that covers all aspects of coloration technology (including; chemistry, physics, technology, engineering and management).
Call for Papers Special Issue: Quality of Light Sources Guest Editor: Professor Ronnier Luo (University of Leeds, UK)
The ﬁrst ever special issue of Coloration Technology is now being planned which will review the quality of light sources. Authors are invited to submit research papers which, if deemed suitable by the guest editor, may be scheduled for inclusion in the special issue. Looking at a range of illumination technologies, this issue of the journal will review methods for quantifying the quality of light sources, assessment of industrial colour control and visual performance, and the importance of lighting in retail spaces and the built environment.
Call for Papers!
Topics of interest include:
· Standard illuminants · Colour matching · Colour transforms · Computer simulation of illuminant changes · Importance of lighting in retail spaces The special issue is scheduled for publication in early 2011 and manuscripts may be submitted for consideration from July 2010 until October 2010. For more details, email: firstname.lastname@example.org Published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the SDC; www.sdc.org.uk
Online Submission To submit your article please visit Coloration Technology
For a FREE online sample copy and subscription details visit: www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/colorationtechnology
What is social responsibility? For me, it is about respect for mankind and the natural world. Fine words but what does this mean for the coloration industry and the supply chain? A living wage is a must. Working in a safe environment, minimising the risks and hazards of both the equipment and the materials we use. Working to methods that minimise the effect of the industry both on those living close and collectively for the planet – producing articles that minimise the risks and hazard to the public. ‘Engineering the Future’, a recent report by an alliance of UK engineering bodies, highlighted the amount of water embedded into many items produced for western markets and details that this must be reduced so people can have access to potable water an issue firmly in the minds of the World Health Organisation. This issue of water usage sits firmly at the centre leading to excessive energy usage and excessive effluent discharge. Efficiency in the use of water – both as liquid and steam – can be controlled in a number of ways and some of these can be fairly easily achieved by process optimisation but also by use of efficient boilers, lagging of pipes, ensuring steam traps work efficiently. Key to making changes is the use of data but this data must be collated accurately if actions are to be taken that effect the impact the dyeing and finishing supply chain has on the environment and the people it impacts on. The coloration industry is a long production chain – dye and pigment manufacturers, designers, production units and consumers all have a part to play. How can we the SDC be part of this? Education and knowledge are essential to be able to provide the answers as to how an industry can act socially responsible and since its inception the SDC has held these as important parts of our message. The Society – by providing a solid broad based education and then the opportunities for our members to exchange ideas and to learn from each other – builds the knowledge in the industry and, as a result, the industry with the Society becomes the focus for all aspects of wet processing. SDC members are recognised worldwide as experts in the field and, as such, the Society can offer advice and guidance to retailers/brands, dyeing and finishing companies, NGOs and governments, etc. on available best practice for the industry. Andrew Filarowski SDC technical director
Theme: Social Responsibility 5–11
Theme: Water Focus
Theme: Training & Best Practice
Theme: Manufacturers & Design 9–11
Front cover image: design by Akihiko Izukura (see p.11) Image credit: 2010 IANT, Tokyo Motojima © Society of Dyers and Colourists 2010 PO Box 244 / Perkin House / 82 Grattan Road Bradford / BD1 2JB / UK Tel: +44 (0)1274 725138 Fax: + 44 (0)1274 392888 www.sdc.org.uk / www.colour-experience.org www.colour-journal.org / www.colourclick.org To contact the editor, Carmel McNamara, email: email@example.com
Full staff contact details are available at: www.sdc.org.uk/pdf/staff-contacts.pdf Design & print: The Ark Design & Print Ltd T: 0113 256 8712 www.thearkdesign.co.uk To discuss advertising opportunities within The Colourist please call Mick Tonks on +44(0)113 256 8712 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Printed on: 9Lives 80 which contains 80% recycled fibres Contributions: Content from this issue is also published on ColourClick; where there is a full length article available, the web address is indicated
3 Issue 2 | 2010
Governance of the SDC Update from Adrian Abel, chair of the SDC Board Behind many charitable organisations is a strong and committed Board of trustees and the SDC is no different. The nine trustees on the SDC Board have been busy working away, in conjunction with the secretariat and staff, since they convened last September. So what have the trustees been up to in the last six months? We hope this update will enlighten you.
Trustee commitment Responsibilities have not been taken lightly and training has been an initial priority for all Board members. Each of the individual trustees has a particular area of expertise – mine being that of the governance, legal and charity aspects. Indeed all Board members must have an understanding of their roles as trustees of the SDC. Therefore, training is so important. The Charity Commission diligently applies the ‘public benefit’ test to all charities and the SDC is wholly committed to providing public benefits. Effective management systems in charity governance are identified by six hallmarks: ■ Clear purpose ■ Strong Board ■ Fit for purpose ■ Learning/improving ■ Financially sound/prudent ■ Accountable/transparent. ‘Clear purpose’ is often the most difficult to demonstrate in membership-based charities. The SDC has concentrated its work on sharing knowledge within the
The theme of this is issue is social responsibility. The main focus is given to such a vital resource in the textile industry, water, and we also have input from manufacturers and designers given their perspectives on this topic. The next issue (theme: textile machinery) will report from ITMA Asia where Andrew Filarowski will be attending. To arrange a meeting at the event, email: email@example.com (see also p.14).
Issue 2 | 2010
colour industry, with technical meetings, education, expert committees and publications all playing a role. The SDC business plan, which was formulated last year, ensures there is now a clear purpose for the Society and this is now being progressed as part of the trustees’ strategy. A ‘strong Board’ needs to be small enough to make decisions and follow them through, something that the SDC’s previous governing body, Council (with over 50 members), often failed to achieve. The new team of trustees is more focused and committed as a group. After four Board meetings, there has been an attendance rate of almost 90%, which helps to ensure our decisions are consistent.
Sustainable future This last year has seen the SDC positioning itself for the future, with a new vision and a new business plan in place. As part of this planning process, a Board decision was taken to rebrand. It was felt that a strong, consistent identity which reflects our new vision was fundamental to the delivery of our business plan. Thus, a new logo with clear brand guidelines was an early decision, reflecting a new beginning. Working to a sustainable future for the Society is a core focus of the business plan, and the Board has been presented with departmental strategies outlining our plans to achieve this. One of the overriding objectives of the Society is to promote good ethical and environmental working processes and best practice in the industry, so to lead by example another priority task was to formulate our own ‘Social Responsibility Statement’ (see page 7).
Market leaders The funds received from SDC Enterprises Ltd (SDCE), the wholly-owned SDC subsidiary, enables the Society to function, but SDCE exists in a highly competitive market, demanding prudence in revealing plans for the future. The smaller SDC Board has allowed SDCE to be more open about
its marketing plans. Areas have been selected where the Society can supplement the SDCE management team’s ability to identify and exploit new opportunities. The Society has also helped to increase the SDCE working capital, allowing it to expand and meet new opportunities. A major project that is currently going on behind the scenes is to ensure that the SDC has IT facilities that will enable us to move forward with all the technological developments in electronic communications that the 21st century brings. The previous Board had approved the purchase of a new integrated system, but the scale of the investment (over £100K) demanded that the new Board ensure the options being chosen were right for the Society and provided it with sufficient protection. The new system will be available later this year and will provide us with the tools needed to serve all members, by communicating more effectively. For the moment though, communication remains a challenge. We do have a Board trustee representing the membership (Peter Diggle). However, because the Board does not have specific representatives from the SDC regions (as Council previously did), we need to ensure methods are in place for conveying Board decisions and strategy to the membership. We would welcome advice on how this can be achieved. You can send in your ideas on this, or any other aspect of SDC governance, to: firstname.lastname@example.org. We introduced you to the new Board members in a recent issue of The Colourist (issue 4, 2009, page 9). A profile of the trustees is available, please visit: www.colourclick. org/131620.aspx
Water – our responsibility An essential resource for textile dyeing and finishing and, in turn, a resource that it is absolutely essential we respect – Arthur Welham outlines a few home truths about water
The path to responsible use of the world’s resources is not easy to follow. However, the SDC is committed to educating the world’s dyeing industry to best practice methods in every aspect of textile wet processing to minimise both its use of global resources of water and energy and its impact on the environment. Worldwide demand for water is increasing with economic growth, but supply is not increasing. In the European Union, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is designed to drive sustainable water management for years to come, and will have a significant effect upon industry. The WFD requires that all inland waters within defined river basin districts must reach at least ‘good status’ by 2015, and defines how to achieve this through
establishing environmental objectives and ecological targets.
Dyeing of textiles Let’s consider the impact of textile dyeing. As developing nations become more sophisticated market economies, there will be an increased demand for higher quality garments with a rapid response to fashion demand for colour. The location of the dyeing industry should be determined by availability of good quality water and water treatment facilities but sadly this does not happen. The inevitability of water crises in the world will bring into sharper focus the need to minimise water usage in the textile process. We could, and probably will have to, recycle water for
reuse in all dyehouses but this will not remove the problems entirely. There is a significant cost for recycling which must be controlled by optimising the water consumption and, anyway, there is as yet no technology that recycles with 100% efficiency. If we take as an example the dyeing of cotton (see Box 1), it is interesting to look at just what we can do with available technology to improve things. The water we need for textile processing is very high quality and is at least as clean as drinking water. Therefore, we compete for our water demand with the millions who are dying (without an ‘e’) in the drier parts of our world. This we can do something about, quite dramatically in fact. Issue 2 | 2010
social responsibility 6
Box 1: Cotton case study
Much of what I have to say applies either directly or indirectly to all textile dyeing – in some respects, to all industrial processes.
The world consumes annually 122.3 million bales of cotton (40.9% of this is consumed in China) or 26.9 million tonnes (2006/7) . Much of this is dyed and all of it is wet processed. If we add regenerated cellulose with almost identical processing requirements, there is 29.6 million tonnes processed every year. Cotton for underwear, casual shirts and much of ladies outerwear is dyed in jet dyeing machines. Typically, in the developing economies of Asia, we consume around 175 litres of water to dye and finish 1 kg of knitted cotton.
Steps for change We could change processing routes completely but this may change the essential quality of the product. Arguments against dramatic changes to processing routes usually centre around the demand by the large markets of the USA and Europe for certain characteristics or quality in the garments they buy. However, we can use almost identical processing to produce identical textile products with as little as 40 litres per kg on average in a knit fabric dyehouse with a typical product mix between white and light, medium and dark shades. In my travels, I know of one large Chinese dyehouse producing 150 tonnes of dyed cotton per day where exactly this reduction in water consumption equated to a saving in drinking water of over 20 million litres per day. Taking this further, if we assume that overall the water consumption from processing all the cotton in the world is rather better, due to some continuous dyeing and other wet processing routes, and we use 100 litres per kg but could use 25 litres per kg, this equates to a possible saving of 75 litres for every kilogramme of cotton or over 2 trillion litres per year. The average domestic water consumption in the UK is about 145 litres per head per day . This means that by trivial changes to industrial practice in the dyeing of cotton, we could realistically save enough water to live at developed world standards for 41.95 million people, or double the population of Australia. Issue 2 | 2010
respect of the high cost of ultra filtration or and reverse osmosis membranes.
No quick fix There are many environmental issues to be addressed by all textile dyehouses, in particular (for the purposes of this article) water consumption and discharge effluent . It seems certain that dyehouses will be compelled in the near future to recycle at least a proportion of their effluent for reuse in the dyehouse. This is already happening (due to state legislation) in South India. Generally, these systems use separated streams of discharge to help reduce the cost of treatment and then use filtration, flocculation, possibly chemical or biological oxidation and finally ultra filtration or reverse osmosis to produce water which is probably cleaner than when it entered the factory. There is some water loss and, as well as capital and running costs, we create a new problem of what to do with the collected sludge. Also, due to the high energy requirement to pump water through reverse osmosis systems, we make a negative contribution to ‘carbon footprint’. Despite the problems this technology will be adopted everywhere. However, this does not make things easier for the dyer – now there will be a more direct pressure to reduce water consumption because high volumes will dramatically increase costs especially in
W When the well is dry, we know the worth of waterr Benjamin Franklin
Sadly, I cannot tell you that it is easy to fix the impact that textile wet processing has on our environment. However, common sense approaches to the realities of the situation can slow down, and even reverse, this poor record of our industry. As an aside, I am pretty certain that similar common sense approaches can dramatically affect the demand for water from the biggest user on the planet – agriculture – and here the savings really could save the world. What we really need to do is inform political leaders and legislators of the need for action and the realistic possibilities of enforcing improvements. In a capitalist economy, it is inconceivable that any enterprise could unilaterally take actions which are designed to improve the environmental impact, unless those actions brought other advantages of lower costs or higher revenue. Legislation is needed now and it must be subject to international agreement from everyone, including the USA, India and China. Agreement between the minnows only makes we who are among the minnows feel righteous. It does not save the world for our children.
References 1. World Cotton Consumption (North Carolina: US Cotton Market, 2006). 2. UK National Statistics (Newport: Office for National Statistics, 2009) 3. Water Recycling in Textile Wet Processing, Ed. J K Skelly (Bradford: SDC, 2003). Arthur Welham is the SDC Board representative for global development.
Water, the new gold 18–19 June, Hangzhou, China Every day, we need water for drinking, cooking and cleaning, sanitation and fire protection, and for agriculture and manufacturing. Relatively abundant supplies in the UK can lead us to forget that water is a resource, and one that is scarce in many parts of the world. Even in a region where water seems freely available, it is not free: the cost and return on investment for collection, treatment, testing, distribution and pollution control facilities make water a valuable commodity. Worldwide demand for water is increasing with economic growth, but supply is not increasing. Truly, water is indeed the new gold. Andrew Filarowski will address the importance of water, including best practices to reduce water use and pollution, at a joint SDC / Adsale / CTES event in China in June. For further details, see p.14.
Delivered in India by the SDC, Colour Connections and Defra As outlined in the last issue of The Colourist (issue 1, 2010, p11), a number of industry-informed events were planned for this year under the auspices of the UK government Defra’s Sustainable Clothing Roadmap initiative. One such project, led by Phil Patterson (Colour Connections), was initiated when Defra-funded audits of three Indian dyehouses were carried out with a view to assessing the eco-efficiency of current practices. Three retailers (Marks and Spencer, Tesco and Next) helped in identifying their suppliers for these audits. As part of the project, there was then a requirement to disseminate the information that had been gathered. It was decided that this would be carried out within India in the form of seminars. Having representation on the Defra ‘Clothing Action Plan Steering Group’, the SDC was then a perfect partner to get involved with this project and readily took up this challenge for a number of reasons: due to the importance of India as a manufacturing hub; the SDC membership base in India; and the high recognition of the SDC brand within the country as a provider of quality seminars and conferences. The aim of these seminars was not only to disseminate the findings from the audits but also to
inform the industry of practical steps that could be taken to improve their dyehouses and those of their suppliers. Three seminars were organised, in Tiripur, Mumbai and Jodhpur, each following the same format. The brief from the SDC and Colour Connections was that each seminar should provide details of the differing aspects of production that can have an impact on the environment. The panel of speakers delivered exactly this by approaching the brief from different perspectives: ■ Implementation of quality management systems (Phil Patterson, Colour Connections) ■ Right-first-time processing (Sai Ganesh, DyStar) ■ Optimising processes using green chemistry (Vasudev Potti, Huntsman) ■ Implementation of modern colour management systems (Andrew Filarowski, SDC) ■ Jet dyeing technology and innovation (Richard Tindall, Thies) ■ Cold pad–batch dyeing (Klaus Bergmann, Erbatech) ■ Use of advanced control systems (Mathias Wulbeck, Mahlo). Each speaker took the opportunity to provide a broad overview of how current technology can provide an opportunity
to improve the efficiency of a dyehouse and how current practices affect both the environmental and financial impact of the dyehouse negatively. Each speaker gave a clear overview of the technology available from their organisations to provide these solutions. The seminars were well attended by 340 people and represented both the dyeing and finishing community in these areas and also the retailers and brands. It provided an opportunity for both to learn more and to network in relaxed environment. Feedback received to date has been very positive both from the opportunities it provided for the speakers and from the clear message given to the participants who appreciated the opportunity and the time and effort put into organising such and event. The number of people who attended all three seminars exceeded the initial expectations and shows that there is a need for practical intervention in these regions and probably India as a whole. If you have a question about ‘dyehouse eco-efficiency’, would like the SDC to arrange best practice seminars for your company, or are seeking independent advice on this topic, please contact the SDC (email: email@example.com).
What is Social Responsibility?
the Society in this regard is given in the following statement.
■ Reducing the impact of production on the environment, ■ Reducing the use and disposal of water, ■ Reducing energy consumption ■ Use of industry best available technologies wherever practicable. Whilst working to these principles, it is recognised that the product must continue to meet consumer needs. The SDC will support events addressing environmental issues in the coloration industry and seek to facilitate the sharing of best practice by whatever means possible. From 2012, the SDC will require demonstration of commitment through third party audits or equivalent when applying for (and to maintain) company and college membership.
Social responsibility concerns the responsibility of an organisation to society, environment and sustainable development. The key issues of social responsibility as defined in the future international standard, ISO/DIS 26000 – Guidance on social responsibility, are: ■ Organisational governance ■ Human rights ■ Labour practices ■ The environment ■ Fair operating practices ■ Consumer issues ■ Community involvement and development. A statement outlining the position of
SDC Social Responsibility Statement The SDC aims to maintain, improve and develop its social responsibility policy, and implement for all its offices and all SDC activities held everywhere. The Society supports industry and its members’ efforts to develop their own social responsibility policies through: ■ Use of safe working conditions ■ Good employment policies and reasonable employment relations e.g. no child labour, no slave or bonded labour, living wage, no forced labour. And, for example, by:
Issue 2 | 2010
Dyehouse best practice seminars
Planet Textiles Andrew Filarowski reports on the success of the inaugural eco-conference in Hong Kong at which our planet was very much the focus, with a call for an urgent need for change and new working practices in the textile industry. Planet Textiles took place in March running alongside Interstoff Asia Essential. With 140 people in attendance to discover practical ways of improving the environmental and social impact of the global textile supply chain, the event was supported by leading industry organisations and international clothing retailers. Jointly organised by the publisher of Ecotextile News, Messe Frankfurt and the SDC, it attracted leading brands and retailers such as Nike, Sears and Triumph, as well as giant textile mills such as Pacific Textiles, Hong Kong Non-Woven Industrial Co. and Fountain Set amongst many others. The event, with lead sponsor Huntsman, provided an opportunity to learn from best practice and pick up practical advice, focus on positive developments and have the unique opportunity for the exchange of ideas. Other sponsors included Clariant, DyStar and Lenzing.
Sutainable future The keynote address was delivered by Cara Chacon, director of corporate social responsibility (CSR) at Patagonia (USA), who discussed methods to manage sustainable change in a major retail organisation and across the supply chain, together with some of the pitfalls that Patagonia has previously encountered. She highlighted the company’s online portal – ‘The Footprint Chronicles’ – which allows customers to track certain products through the supply chain and to calculate their environmental impact from design through to delivery. An overview of China’s first CSR management system and code of conduct for industry was given by Liang Xiaohui, from the Office for Social Responsibility at the China National Textile and Apparel
G Good for the people, good for net the planet Geoff Collins, Lenzing Issue 2 | 2010
Council (CNTAC). He informed delegates that over 200 Chinese textile and apparel companies have implemented the CNTAC CSC9000T scheme providing guidelines for textile companies to report L-R (front): Petra Katzenberger, Simon Weston, their CSR practices. Phil Patterson, Tone Tobiasson, Lode Vermeersch; Lyn Ip (Adidas Group, (back) Bernd Mueller, Queeny Tai, Geoff Collins, John Social and Environmental Mowbray, Andrew Filarowski, Pat Nie Woo, Cara Affairs Department, Hong Chacon, Liang Xiaohui, Lyn Ip Kong) spoke of integrating assist and motivate the fashion industry sustainability through the supply chain. to develop sustainable models. She highlighted the issues that have to be looked at for a business to consider Open communication itself sustainable and outlined initiatives Phil Patterson (RITE Group, UK) outlined that Adidas has engaged in to raise how the big brands in Europe and the environmental awareness and promote USA can engage more effectively with best practice. textile manufacturers in Asia. He reported Case studies the need for a more open approach to A major focus of the conference was the business and of greater communication practical case studies outlined by Pat between brands and the supply chain. Nie Woo (Sustainable Fashion Business Indeed, the need for open communication Consortium, Hong Kong), Geoff Collins was very much the overriding message (Lenzing, Austria), Petra Katzenberger that came out of the conference. Sharing (KiK, Germany) and Lode Vermeersch best practices in order to focus on the (Huntsman, Switzerland). Key areas positive developments is crucial for identified included the need for a a textile industry with a sustainable clearer focus on core competencies and future. During the event itself, there partnerships, working together for the were numerous opportunities for greater good. Life cycle analysis was open communication, with delegates also outlined as a key method to reduce interacting with the speakers and other emissions and energy consumption. experts in both the question and answer sessions and the dyeing and finishing Reuse and reduce clinic hosted by Huntsman. Simon Weston (Fountain Set, Hong Changing the culture of the industry in Kong) provided the audience with order to place sustainability at the heart his own experience of sustainability of all organisations throughout the textile and the practical issues and problems supply chain is no small task, but Planet encountered. He also brought in the Textiles certainly provided a unique and concept of reuse or regeneration as a cost a truly vital platform in Asia for sowing effective way of reducing the amount the initial seeds of change. ‘The concept of waste produced, which in turn will of holding a major event on sustainable reduce cost to dispose of such waster textiles in Asia is the right way forward,’ and reduces the overall cost of the raw said Hans Buehr, the head buyer in Asia materials. for Triumph International, ‘It seems like Another sustainable model was the launch of Planet Textiles has been put forward by Tone Tobiasson (Nordic a great success and we look forward to Initiative Clean and Ethical, Norway). seeing it again in future.’ The background of this initiative for To read the full report and view Nordic wool was outlined, with the all the presentations, please visit: main objective being to encourage www.planet-textiles.com. To be kept involvement of brands/retailers and informed of future Planet Textiles producers. A ten-year plan for the fashion events, please sign up for e-alerts by and apparel industry will inform, inspire, emailing: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Textile processing and responsible care The clothing and textiles sector is a significant part of the world’s economy. As environmental awareness grows, green issues and sustainability are increasingly becoming part of our everyday thinking. The textile and fashion industry is under scrutiny by informed consumers about the efforts towards manufacturers making sustainable fibres, use of clean dyeing processes, and brands embracing green design. The major environmental issues associated with the sector are: energy use in laundry; production of primary materials for man-made fibres and in yarn manufacturing; use of toxic chemicals and their release in waste water in wet pre-treatment, dyeing, finishing and laundry; solid waste arising from yarn manufacturing; and finally, disposal of products at the end of their life. The concerns are focused on minimisation of pollution, optimisation of resources, ensuring the health and safety of workers in the industry and consumer safety and satisfaction.
energy, much more is used during the consumer phase of garment’s lifetime. Both the energy and water consumption are huge for frequently laundered items such as T-shirts and underwear.
Best available technology
lifetime and occasionally ironed. The cotton is harvested, ginned and spun into yarn in the USA, shipped to Asia where it is knitted or spun, dyed, cut and sewn and then sent as a T-shirt to anywhere in the world. This T-shirt is worn, laundered and eventually discarded. While textile manufacture consumes large quantities of water and Ecological balance, a cotton T-shirt Primary energy profile MJ per article
A year in the life To look at a garment’s life story, let’s use the humble T-shirt as an example: our T-shirt is made of 100% cotton, knitted, dyed with reactive dyes, washed at 60 ºC and tumble dried about 25 times in its
Source; well dressed? University of Cambridge 2006
What does social responsibility mean to you? “Social responsibility is one of the three tenets under which Hunstman operates. We are an integral part of society and our company’s behaviour must reflect our respect for it by finding the right balance between the ecology, the economy and society in general. To achieve this we make conscious decisions throughout the entire processing chain, weigh hazards and benefits, consider hidden costs of cheap production, all this towards reducing risks to people and our environment. Finally, social responsibility means being open and honest about our products and processes and communicating our good neighbourly behaviour to society.” Peter Johnson, Huntsman Textile Effects
Compared to traditional approaches, using best available technology (BAT) can significantly help save resources. Lower temperatures, less water consumption, more efficient dyeing and washing-off, and effects that provide freshness, easy care and lasting colours are the way forward. The issue of sustainability is here to stay; the time is right for every link in the textile chain to take responsibility, specify and monitor BAT and adequately and clearly communicate this message to consumers. This article was researched and compiled by Huntsman Textile Effects. The T-shirt story has proved to be an effective means of communicating the resource saving advantages to all partners in the textile chain. Huntsman also subscribes to the European chemical industry’s ‘Responsible Care’ initiative which supports and encourages the development of BAT and the communication thereof to all stakeholders. Details can be found in the Huntsman ‘Take Care’ brochure; to order, email: email@example.com.
Huntsman: the T-shirt story
ETAD Huntsman is both a member of the SDC and ETAD – an organisation that coordinates the efforts of its members to minimise any possible adverse impact of organic colorants on health and environment. All ETAD members must follow a code of ethics, with ‘principles of responsible care’ being at the top of the list (www.etad.com). Walther Hofherr explains more about ETAD’s approach to social responsibility at: www.colourclick.org/136799.aspx
Issue 2 | 2010
Vivimed: unique formulations Hair dyes and responsibility to the consumer As the manufacturer of the Jarocol range of hair dyes, Vivimed Labs Europe Ltd (previously known as James Robinson Ltd) recognises consumers increasingly want innovative products. For the hair dye industry this means new colour palettes, hair colorants that are targeted to specific hair types and unique formulations to satisfy different needs. Most cosmetics products are estimated to have a lifespan of less than five years so many manufacturers reformulate up to 25% of their products every year. Coupled with innovation, other drivers such as safety, quality and environmental issues mean that the legislation regulating the manufacture and use of hair dyes is becoming more restrictive. Further pressure comes from consumers demanding the products they buy should be manufactured in a socially responsible manner and we at Vivimed are rising to this set of new challenges.
Since they are cosmetic products, hair dyes are highly regulated and the safety requirements for chemicals going into a hair dye formulation can be as stringent as those for a pharmaceutical. In Europe, the main legislation is the EU Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC) and while it is mandatory to comply with this and other relevant laws, Vivimed Labs Europe Ltd believes it has a social responsibility to go beyond that. This is done in ways that might not be evident to the consumer but which nevertheless reflect the demands of our business customers and the needs of other concerned stakeholders. While international corporations purchase Jarocol products in multi-tonne amounts, small companies buy in kilogram quantities and so we can offer each a different service. For smaller companies, Vivimed offers practical advice and guidance on the best methods to use Jarocol dyes to achieve a desired effect on hair. While this service helps build customer relationships and Issue 2 | 2010
has a sound commercial root, it also enables us to be sure that the people using our products are receiving proper advice on the safety and environmental implications of handling these materials. Vivimed is a long-standing associate member of CTPA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association), a body of UK cosmetics manufacturers whose focus is on scientific and regulatory issues. CTPA works closely with the European Cosmetic Association, Colipa, which represents the interests of over 2000 companies. By keeping abreast of developments in this way, Vivimed can advise customers who do not have the resource to do so for themselves of any changes to the EU Cosmetics Directive or its annexes that will have an impact on our products and their usage.
Safety focus Vivimed actively cooperates with its large company customers in other ways, particularly to improve the safety of hair products for the consumer. Over the last decade the requirements for many hair colorants have become far more exacting as the cosmetics industry drives to raise protection levels. For example, product specifications have been tightened so the maximum content of specific impurities within some products has considerably decreased; some oxidation base colorants have certain components limited to single-figure ppm (parts per million) levels. To guarantee compliance, Vivimed works closely with its customers to adapt
manufacturing processes and testing protocols to ensure its products conform to these stricter measures. For new product introductions, Vivimed has even provided pre-manufacturing samples of colorant to enable dossiers to be created on aspects of product safety. Vivimed also collaborates with multinational companies for REACH and acts as the lead registrant for several important hair dye substances.
Global standards Jarocol products are now manufactured in India having been transferred from Europe to a new purpose-built plant. Not only have manufacturing processes been adopted that had formerly been operated in Germany and the UK but Vivimed has also invested in additional new equipment to handle waste streams appropriately. The plant at Bonthapally is ISO14001 registered and has been audited by global customers to ensure environmental compliance with international standards. So as not to overlook even a small contribution to greening the environment, overseas visitors to the site are regularly invited to plant a tree to mark their visit. While working to satisfy its multinational customers, Vivimed is conscious of its responsibility to the local community and is a founder and promoter of TANMAI, a socio-cultural foundation active in supporting local education, healthcare and child labour laws. www.vivimedlabs.com
What does social responsibility mean to you? “On the BBC radio programme, Today, I recently heard a contributor describe corporate social responsibility as ‘…the things companies do when they are not being watched…’ For me, this neatly sums up what can otherwise be a difficult concept to define as it recognises that companies have a responsibility to act ethically and that goes beyond simply following the letter of the law.” Hugh Williamson, Vivmed Labs Europe Ltd
A Japanese textile artist who holds social responsibility as the core focus of his work is Akihiko Izukura – his philosophies and working practices are outlined here Akihiko Izukura, a natural textile artist, was born into a long family history over many generations of Obi weavers. The practice of this renowned Japanese textile artist, which is always based on ‘compassion for life’, involves minimal waste during production, along with ‘sun and water circulation’, using the natural power of the sun and water to save energy during design.
Zero waste concept Based on a zero waste concept, Akihiko’s work is based on the idea of ‘appreciation for the life given to us from nature’. Some might consider this approach to his designs encompasses social responsibility at its core, ensuring that sustainable methods are pursued in all aspects of design. His approach to fabric production includes organising the wisdoms of spinning, dyeing and weaving into eight specific methods:
Three yarn methods ■ Reeling ■ Spinning ■ Dyeing
One colour method ■ Natural dyeing
SDC competition – UK final
Mr Izukura’s designs have recently been on show to the public for the first time in the UK in an exhibition at Nottingham Trent University. His techniques are also incorporated into the ‘Senshoku-do’ dyeing and weaving ceremony, which follows an ancient process which is more than 2000 years old. In conjunction with the exhibition, Mr Izukura and his team have run a series of natural textile workshops for students to demonstrate first hand his design practices and these ancient processes. They also had the chance to reel silk yarn from cocoons to make three dimensional shapes, as well as dyeing silk garments (see image). Julie Pinches, head of fashion and knitwear in Nottingham Trent University’s School of Art and Design, commented, ‘When I first saw Izukura’s work in Japan I knew the impact it would have on a UK audience and was really keen to be able to show it here at the University. The intensity of colour and fusion of craft techniques and processes will amaze the viewer, but what really strikes is the message that contemporary fashion and textile design can be fully sustainable and an inspiration to the next generation of designers.’
The global heats in the SDC International Design Competition 2010 – which is all about colour with a theme of social responsibility – are well underway. Competition heats have been held across the length and breadth of Britain over the past few months. The five regional winners then went on to the UK final in Nottingham in May where they had chance to meet the judges and talk about the inspiration for their designs. Attending the final also meant the students got to take part in a unique dyeing workshop with Mr Izukura – certainly a highlight for many – as well as exhibiting their work at a reception where the UK winner was announced as Kelly Taylor, a final year textile student from De Montfort University. The judges deemed her entry to be the most innovative and creative, outlining a clear understanding of social responsibility and the issues which surround the fashion and textiles industry today. Commented Kelly, ‘In my designs, I was influenced by the pattern, texture and colour of worn ancient oriental armour and combined a variety of fabric weights, textures and techniques to create the collection.’ Thanks to all the judges that were involved in the final, and the heats thus far, to all the SDC regional committees for organising the heats, judging and the regional prizes, and to NCS for sponsoring the UK final. Kelly will now join the other country finalists from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Pakistan, Singapore and South Africa at the grand final, sponsored by Clariant, in London on 5 Oct 2010. More details on all the UK finalists at: www.colourclick.org/136803.aspx. Competition updates at: www.sdc-colourblog.blogspot.com
Four textile methods ■ Weaving ■ Netting ■ Braiding ■ Entwining His materials are typically silk cocoons which can produce a fine silk thread or a coarse raw silk, which can then be dyed with colour taken from nature, such as insects and plants. Textiles are then braided, knitted or woven on looms, and other materials such as ceramic glazes are made from ashes produced by burning the extraction residue or plants and herbs after dyeing. He also uses liquid residue and chipped extraction residue to form a Japanese paper.
IANT organisation: Akihiko Izukura established the International Association of Natural Textiles (IANT) in 1997, which was authorised as a non-profit organisation in 2002. The aim of IANT is to introduce the culture of natural dyeing and weaving with the zero waste concept to the world at large. The final goal is to contribute to promote the benefit of the society as a whole through the establishment of the lifestyle with symbiosis of humanity and nature, the realisation of a re-cycle based society and the preservation of the global environment. www.iant-jp.com
Issue 2 | 2010
Life in Colours
Clean by Design The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) has launched ‘Clean by Design’ to curb pollution from the fashion industry. This links in with the NRDC Responsible Sourcing Initiative (The Colourist, issue 4, 2009, p.5), into which the SDC has had input. NRDC, and its partners in Clean by Design, aims to ‘green’ the global textile supply chain, and has published ten practical, easy-to-implement best practices for textile mills that significantly reduce water, energy or chemical use and improve manufacturing efficiency. All the recommended best practices for responsible sourcing pay themselves back in less than a year and NRDC urge multinational apparel retailers and brands to reduce the footprint of their global supply chain by encouraging mills to adopt these best practices and rewarding those that do so with more business. www.nrdc.org/cleanbydesign
A new online Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) database has been launched in a bid to make the process of setting up a complete organic supply chain as transparent as possible. GOTS certification ensures that consumers are purchasing certified organic products; the comprehensive list allows companies to develop organic fibre - supply chains from field to final product - with ease. The public database contains almost 400 dyeing facilities, more than 200 spinning, knitting, and weaving units, and approximately 140 printing and manufacturing facilities. According to the GOTS International Working Group made up of the Organic Trade Association (US), Japan Organic Cotton Association, International Association Natural Textile Industry (Germany), and the Soil Association (UK), the database will enable companies developing an organic fiber supply chain easy access to the most up-to-date information. www.global-standards.org Issue 2 | 2010
ISO standard for leather
Azo compounds have very vivid colours, especially reds, oranges and yellows, and are widely used as dyes in the leather industry. It has been recognised that certain azo colorants may undergo reductive cleavage of the azo group(s) to form aromatic amines having carcinogenic properties. Therefore the European Union (EU) has restricted the use of 22 of these azo dyes. An important new ISO standard has now been published that provides a method for analysing leather samples that may contain any of the banned aromatic amines listed in Appendix 8 of EU regulation 1907/2006. If the test is carried out on coloured leather and any of the amines (listed in Table 1 of Appendix 8) are detected exceeding a specific quantity, it is taken as proof that banned colorants have been used in the manufacture of the coloured leather. Read more at: www.colourclick.org/136664.aspx
The senior management team for the DyStar Group has now been announced. Manish Kiri himself has taken on the position of Chairman. Steve Barron, until now Vice President responsible for Strategic Marketing at DyStar, is CEO of the DyStar Group. Bart VanKuijk, previously Sales Area Manager for South Asia, has been appointed Chief Marketing Officer. Viktor Leendertz will continue his responsibilities as Chief Financial Officer in the new DyStar Group, while Harry Dobrowolski is taking on the newly-formed position of Chief Operations Officer. Read in full at: www.colourclick.org/136800.aspx
What does social responsibility mean to you? “I think there may be a problem in the interpretation of ‘social responsibility’, i.e. is it the same as sustainability? I would argue no, it is more people-oriented rather than product or process-oriented. For example, factories producing dyed fabrics use a wide range of chemicals, some of which have the potential to harm workers and cause irreversible damage if allowed to enter the environment untreated. Small quantities (residues) of some harmful chemicals on clothing can also pose a risk to consumers with consequential reputational damage for the retailer or brand. However, it is workers in the dyeing factories, rather than Western consumers, who are most at risk. It should be just as important to reduce the exposure of dyehouse workers in China, India and other low-cost manufacturing locations to carcinogenic dyes and chemicals as it is to reduce the exposure of cotton farmers in Africa to dangerous pesticides. Most responsible dye manufacturers renounced the manufacture of carcinogenic benzidine dyes many years ago in the light of evidence of increased levels of bladder cancer amongst their own workforces. However many of these dyes are still available today in some of the major textile manufacturing countries. In situations where there is little or no regard for health and safety in the workplace, this can have tragic consequences for those involved in handling these chemicals. A good quality ‘safety data sheet’ provided by responsible manufacturers, containing as much information as possible on the hazards of the dyes or chemicals supplied, is an essential risk-management tool for a well managed dyehouse operation.” John Easton, DyStar
The iconic, compact incandescent light bulb is dead: meet the next generation replacement of fluorescent light bulbs that are brighter, more efficient, longer-lasting, and mercury-free, as described recently by Tim Dawson
“Today fluorescent tubes are widely used for some domestic and much commercial and retail store lighting because of their durability and greatly improved efficiency compared with incandescent bulbs. Their energy-saving potential has now led to the widespread promotion of the use of domestic compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). A considerable amount of electrical energy in standard incandescent light bulbs produces infrared radiation and heat, rather than visible light, and it was therefore desirable to find a more efficient and durable alternative. The present moves to replace this type of domestic lighting have been proposed against the background of ever-increasing energy costs and for the potential environmental benefits. Fluorescent lights are considerably more economical to run, but less aesthetically pleasing compared with the familiar tungsten light bulb. CFLs are self-contained for, unlike fluorescent tube lights, their start-up circuitry is built into the lamp base. Compared with incandescent lights, CFLs offer appreciable energy savings
as well as lasting considerably longer before failure. For example, it is usually suggested that a 12-watt CFL should replace a typical domestic 60-watt tungsten bulb, which it will far outlast. CFLs are also available as direct replacements for most other types of incandescent bulb, even for candle bulbs, with the exception of miniature and the more elaborately shaped ones. Most people are aware of general descriptions of fluorescent tube lights as ‘daylight’, ‘warm white’ or ‘cool white’, but these categories can be more precisely defined by the correlated colour temperature (CCT). The CCT is defined as calculated temperature of a black body radiator whose perceived colour most closely resembles that of the source being assessed, measured in degrees Kelvin (ºK). One disadvantage of CFLs lies in the fact that, although they switch on instantaneously, full brightness is not attained immediately, the full warm-up time (3–5 min) of these lights depending greatly on the ambient temperature. Unless more expensive special types are selected, their light output cannot be controlled using standard dimmer controls. In addition, there is a perceived potential environmental problem with their disposal as they still contain small amounts of mercury. There are also some reports that visually impaired people find that the light from CFLs gives less contrast to their field of view than tungsten lighting, leading to problems in reading small script. Improvements in tungsten filament bulbs have been achieved, in particular with the development of quartz tungsten halogen lamps in which the filament can be run at a higher temperature than
is practical for conventional bulbs… Despite the improved efficiency of halogen bulbs compared with normal tungsten bulbs, the EU intend that they too shall be phased out for domestic lighting by 2016. CFL lights may be the best option for domestic lighting at the moment, but it seems probable that solid-state devices will start to replace them in the next 10 years, in view of the rapid progress that is being made in their development and the greater efficiency and durability they could afford.” This is an extract of a review article, first published in issue 1, 2010 of Coloration Technology. To read the full article for free, visit: www.interscience.wiley.com/ journals/colorationtechnology. To subscribe to the journal, email: firstname.lastname@example.org. A special issue on lighting is planned for 2011 (see p.2).
Energy efficient lighting
FACTS: ■ American Thomas Edison and Englishman Joseph Wilson Swan both obtained patents for the incandescent lamp between 1878 and 1879; while Swan successfully sued Edison over the invention, he later sold the rights to his patent to Edison ■ The traditional incandescent light bulb loses over 90 per cent of its energy in heat ■ If every incandescent light bulb in the world were replaced by a compact fluorescent lamp, we could reduce our annual energy consumption by 728 terawatt-hours and cut lighting’s energy footprint by 27% ■ Sept 2009 saw the multi-year EU phase-out of energy-inefficient light bulbs; they will be gone from the shelves altogether by 2012 Source: Greenbag.com (Sept, 2009)
Issue 2 | 2010
SDC events in focus around the globe India The 7th nds Colour Trends conference from SDC India EC e will, for the first time, be taking place in two locations on 4–6 June 2010, first in Mumbai and then moving on to Coimbatore. The speakers will largely be the same, with the keynote and chief guest in Mumbai being Mr Manish Kiri (chairman of DyStar and Kiri Dyes) and Mr Rahul Mehta (president of CMAI) and in Coimbatore, Mr K Vinayakam (director of Chennai Silks) and Mr A Sakthivel, respectively. Aimed at chief executives, directors and senior managers, the SDC international conference is entitled the ‘Evolving Maze of Coloration’ and will address the key issues facing the coloration industry today. The event includes technical sessions on the developments and the future of coloration (Prof. Bob Christie, HeriotWatt University) and pigment printing (Mr Stefan Schlosser, Clariant), followed by three expert panel discussions on the topics: sustainability and ecology; coloration of polyester and cellulosics; and retail fashion and design. These sessions will include representation from the SDC, DyStar, Oeko-Tex, IKEA, Arvind Mills, Colourtex, Osian and Columbia Sportswear, as well as fashion designer Priyadarshini Rao (full speaker list to be confirmed). The lead sponsor of the conference is DyStar India, a provider of products for the textile industry has an unparalleled
global presence with sales, technical service, laboratories, distribution centres and production facilities. Thanks to its high quality and innovative solutions, DyStar helps its customers to reduce the cost, reliably meet quality and environmental sstandards (see p.12). Other major ssupporters of the conference include tthe gold sponsors Clariant and CHT G Group. For further details, contact: ad email@example.com.
China Ch Hangzhou: Taking place 18–19 June 2010 is the ‘International Textile Conference on New Technology of Dyeing and Finishing’, which the SDC is co-organising alongside Adsale Publishing and the China Textile Engineering Society (CTES). This is the third in a series of annual conferences, the first of which took place in China in 2007 (organised by Adsale and CTES), with participation from over 400 dyeing and finishing specialists. The upcoming two-day event will cover new technology, equipment and dyeing auxiliaries for textile dyeing and finishing. Highlights include: advanced dyeing; one-time-success dyeing; energy-saving and emission-reduction; new dyeing processes; and equipment and ecological dyeing aids. The SDC technical director, Andrew Filaroswki, will speak at the SDC EVENT REPORTS Bangladesh: In April, the SDC organised a one-day conference at which Parvez Kotadia (SDC country manager India), amongst others, spoke of best practice in the coloration industry. The event was well attended by industry and academia, along with Susie Hargreaves and SDC trustee Arthur Welham. Read more at: www.colourclick.org/136802.aspx
event. For further details, contact: firstname.lastname@example.org Shanghai: SDC Enterprises (SDCE) is to exhibit at ‘ITMA Asia + CITME’, the showcase of cutting-edge solutions for textile makers taking place on 22–26 June 2010 at the Shanghai Expo Centre, stand A09 (located in hall E3).
UK Textiles-UK: Save the date in your diaries: 5 Oct 2010! This one-day conference takes place in the City of London at the magnificent location of the Clothworkers’ Hall and will focus on good practice in wool dyeing, design and manufacture. The culmination of this day will see the grand final of the SDC international design competition, with the global winner and recipient of the SDC Colour Design Award 2010 being presented at the awards dinner. Harold Tillman, chairman of the British Fashion Council, will present the awards. The event website (www.textiles-uk.org.uk) will open in June, where details will be published as they become available, or you can email: email@example.com STOP PRESS: The SDC Day of Celebration, held in Nottingham at the start of May, was a great success. With members attending from all regions around the globe, the day included the AGM, awards ceremony and colour conference, with the new president John Morris presiding over the evening reception, dinner and céilidh. The event also coincided with the UK final of the SDC design competition (see p.11). Read more about the day at: www.colourclick.org/136801.aspx
SDC in the media
Following on from the SDC’s appearance on the BBC’s One Show earlier this year, we are also pleased to announce that media coverage has been stepped up in recent months, across the globe. Interviews with the Issue 2 | 2010
SDC chief executive, Susie Hargreaves, have appeared in UK local and national publications, as well as radio, plus SDC press coverage in India, Hong Kong and China. The SDC technical expertise has also been called
upon once again, with Richard Ashworth (SDC Colour Experience manager) inputting into a BBC television series entitled ‘The Story of Science’ which aired in May 2010.
Diary of SDC events and training courses 4 June 2010 Mumbai, India
30 Jun 2010 Tiverton, Ireland
8–9 Sep 2010 Faisalabad, Pakistan
SDC India EC International Conference. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Quiz night. SDC W England/S Wales Region event. Contact: email@example.com
SDC Competence Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
3–4 Aug 2010 Karachi, Pakistan
15 Sep 2010 Taipei, Taiwan
SDC Competence Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: email@example.com
SDC Appreciation Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
6–7 Aug 2010 Lahore, Pakistan
5 October 2010 London, UK
SDC Competence Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: email@example.com
Textiles-UK. Conference & SDC Awards Dinner Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
19 Aug 2010 Bangkok, Thailand
26 Oct 2010 Dhaka, Bangladesh
5–6 June 2010 Coimbatore, India SDC India EC International Conference. Contact: email@example.com
10 June 2010 London, UK SDC T-shirt competition at the Education Day of Graduate Fashion Week 2010. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
18 Jun 2010 Dublin, Ireland Country heat of the SDC International Design Competition 2010. Contact: email@example.com
18–20 Jun 2010 Hangzhou, China International Textile Conference on New Technology of Dyeing and Finishing. Joint Adsale Publishing, China Textile Engineering Society (CTES) and SDC event. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
SDC Appreciation Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: email@example.com
SDC Appreciation Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
10–11 Nov 2010 Lahore, Pakistan 25–27 Aug 2009 Hong Kong SDC Colour Management of Textiles Diploma, Modules 1, 2 and 3. Contact: email@example.com
What does social responsibility mean to you? “Social responsibility encompasses a wide range of issues for designers. As a designer, you hold the power in your hands to change attitudes and make developments throughout the design process — choosing sustainable materials, using environmentally friendly processes, ethical approaches to labour use and reducing your waste, energy usage and overall environmental impact. It is encouraging to see that the students these days are aware of these issues. However, without greater knowledge of the alternatives, we will all struggle to make a difference — it will take time, effort and more research to accomplish this change.” Laura McCafferty, designer and textile artist
SDC Competence Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
12 Nov 2010 London, UK How Did I Get Here? Lectures by experts in retail. SDC London Region event. Contact: email@example.com
25 Nov 2010 Hong Kong/Macau SDC Appreciation Course – Colour Fastness. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Details of colour or textile-related events to be sent to: email@example.com. Full event listings at: www.colourclick.org/ events.aspx Issue 2 | 2010
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