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The Coaching Workforce User Guide How to carry out an audit and create a development plan for your coaching workforce


© The National Coaching Foundation, 2010 This document is copyright under the Berne Convention. All rights are reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to Coachwise Business Solutions. sports coach UK is the brand name of The National Coaching Foundation and has been such since April 2001. Authors: Lucy Winder and Rosie Townend Contributing authors: John Lyle, Julian North Reviewers: Anne Green, Matt Fisher, Sue Jolly Coachwise editor: Joanne Chapman Coachwise designer: Matthew Dodd Cover Photo © Northern Exposure Photographic Services All other photographs © Alan Edwards

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CONTENTS

1 Coaching Workforce Auditing and Planning

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5 Methods of Research

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1.1 Introduction

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1.2 The UK Coaching Framework 1.3 Why should you undertake workforce auditing and planning?

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5.1 Options for data collection – the fieldwork stage 5.2 Population and samples 5.3 Maximising response rates

27 30 31

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1.4 What the User Guide is and how to use it

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6 Data Storage

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2 The Key Principles of Workforce Auditing and Planning

6.1 What are you storing? 6.2 Data Management Systems

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7 Analysis and Interpretation

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7.1 Data analysis packages 7.2 Preparing your data 7.3 Identifying the key messages 7.4 Modelling and projections 7.5 Workforce Development Plan 7.6 Building up the picture 7.7 Future research work 7.8 Reflecting on the audit

37 37 38 38 39 43 43 43

8 Frequently Asked Questions

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9 Further Advice and Guidance

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10 Glossary of Terms

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Appendix 1: Model Questionnaires with Guidance

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Appendix 2: Template Project Brief

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Appendix 3: Assessment Criteria

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2.1 Introduction 2.2 Definition of coaching 2.3 Using your Participant and Coach Development Models to identify demand and supply

6 6 8

2.4 The coaching hour

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3 Carrying Out the Audit

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3.1 Who will undertake your audit? 3.2 Do you need help to conduct your audit?

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3.3 Who to audit

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4 Measures – Choosing What Data to Collect

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4.1 What sort of data should you collect? 4.2 Which method should you use? 4.3 Identifying your aim and objectives 4.4 Identifying your measures 4.5 How to write research questions 4.6 What are your questions? 4.7 Piloting your questionnaire

19 20 20 21 22 22 24

4.8 The final touches

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1 COACHING WORKFORCE AUDITING AND PLANNING 1.1 Introduction

Research Team at sports coach UK: research@sportscoachuk.org

This user guide aims to provide you – governing bodies of sport – with the knowledge, tools and confidence to undertake workforce auditing and planning. •

We would also be interested in hearing from you if you have any examples of good practice that would help other governing bodies of sport to conduct their audits and complete the planning process.

Workforce auditing is the collection of information on the quantities and qualities (characteristics) of your coaching workforce. For example, how many coaches do you have? What type of coaching do they do? Are they qualified? Are they volunteers or paid?

Throughout this User Guide there are frequent references to the sports coach UK website. Please bear in mind that to access the website you need to have registered, which you can do for free at www.sportscoachuk.org

Workforce planning involves using this information to strategically and operationally plan future developments and delivery of coaching. For example, where are the gaps in coaching provision that need to be urgently addressed? What qualifications and continuous professional development opportunities should you be providing, and in which areas?

1.2 The UK Coaching Framework The UK Coaching Framework sets out a reference point for the development of a world-leading coaching system underpinned by an appropriate evidence base. Specific Action 5: Front-line Delivery, and Specific Action 12: Research and Development, suggest that stakeholders should put in place systems to understand, plan and manage their coaches and coaching-support workforce.

The Coaching Workforce User Guide follows on from the methodologies suggested within The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document1 and illustrates how you can apply them to your sport. It is written in such a way that whatever stage you are at in the auditing and planning process, you can turn to the most appropriate section and pick up the advice and guidance required. Don’t worry if you have no previous knowledge or experience of workforce auditing, this document will guide you through the complete process.

The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document addresses both of these requirements by suggesting a methodology to measure the supply of coaching and project the demand for coaching in the future. Important methodological details from The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document will be outlined in forthcoming sections. However, it is important to note that this User Guide is principally concerned with the Stakeholder Planned Approach2, as it provides a framework and assistance on how governing bodies of sport and, potentially, Coaching System Support Network partners in England, can begin to identify

We hope this will become a working document and we encourage you to add your own notes and comments. If, during the course of your audit or planning, you have any feedback or comments we could use to improve future editions of this document, please contact the

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www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php?PageID=5&sc=23&uid=367

See page 4, Figure 1.2 of The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document

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workforce supply and demand in their own sports and localities. For more information on The UK Coaching Framework and The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document see www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php? PageID=5&sc=23&uid=

1.3 Why should you undertake workforce auditing and planning? Workforce auditing and planning allows you to understand your sport by answering key questions, such as: •

how many of your participants are receiving coaching

how many coaches are actively operating within your sport

how many of these coaches are qualified to coach?

Conducting a workforce audit can, therefore, offer you and your organisation a number of benefits at both local and national level, including: •

information for strategic and operational planning, enabling you to improve participant experiences, coaching provision, and coaches’ knowledge and skills

information on current staffing resources, which, in turn, will allow you to project the supply of staff that will be available in the future by taking into account factors such as recruitment, training, retirement, turnover etc

a greater understanding of your sport as a whole in terms of capacity, resources, skills available, skills shortages and skills gaps, training needs and qualification levels

an opportunity to consult in a meaningful way with staff and other key individuals and users, creating a culture of good management and public service

an opportunity to fill the knowledge gap; in many cases there is a lack of information about an organisation’s workforce, especially if many coaches work on a voluntary basis

an ability to help you respond to change in an effective way, allowing long- and short-term targets to be met.

2

Overall, the information enables you to make more effective decisions and to improve the performance of your organisation and the individuals who work within it, primarily through addressing the benefits identified. In addition to the positive impact that the audit will have on you and your sport, workforce auditing and planning is central to developing a world-leading inclusive coaching system. The list below illustrates how workforce audit data can contribute to a number of different strategies: •

recruitment strategies

retention policies

coach tracking

coach databases

coach-education

continuous professional development

registration and licensing

regulations on deployment.

If you find yourself in a position where you need to convince others within your organisation that conducting a coaching workforce audit is a useful and beneficial process, the information identified within Section 1.3 should help you explain the benefits, and gain buy-in from colleagues. While we are aware that many governing bodies of sport do not directly deploy or employ coaches, we believe there are significant benefits from a more managed approach to your coaching workforce. The key message is that by simply asking the right research questions to the right people (your clubs and coaches) at the right time, an audit will allow you to gather detailed information, enabling you to make accurate and appropriate changes to your sport in the future. Furthermore, such information will also make it more likely that you will recruit, deploy and retain your coaching workforce in an appropriate manner, as well as effectively plan the provision of future coach-development opportunities.

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Now it’s your turn Initial questions As a starting point, it is important to be aware of what knowledge your organisation currently has about its workforce. Use the following questions to identify how much you and your organisation know about your coaches. Don’t worry if you don’t have all the information at this stage; we will show you how to collect this information as we progress through the User Guide. •

Does anyone in your organisation collect information about the coaches in your sport? For example, membership team, regional staff, research team.

Do you/your organisation know how many coaches you have?

What level of qualification do they have?

Where are they coaching?

Who are they coaching?

Does your organisation hold this information in a database, and is this information updated on a regular basis?

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

No

This exercise may have raised questions in your mind about exactly what information is gathered by you and your colleagues, or how it is recorded. If you are not sure, or you recognise that there are gaps in your knowledge, you have simply reinforced the need to proceed with the audit.

carrying out workforce audits

designing questionnaires

disseminating questionnaires

collecting data

data entry and coding completed questionnaires

1.4 What the User Guide is and how to use it

storing data

analysing data

This User Guide provides step-by-step advice for collecting workforce data and undertaking workforce planning with governing bodies of sport.

reporting data.

The sections include: •

understanding the key principles of workforce auditing and planning

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Additionally, you will find useful information at the end of the User Guide, including frequently asked questions, a glossary of terms, model questionnaires, a template project brief, guidance on selecting consultants and contact details for further advice and guidance.

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To make the process as simple as possible, Sections 3–8 each start with a brown box that illustrates what you have done in previous sections and what you will be doing in the current section. Use this information to check you are happy with the progress of your audit. If in doubt, return to the previous section and check you have completed all the tasks. Remember, collecting workforce data is not a one-off task. You need to collect data over an extended period of time to increase depth and accuracy, and allow you to identify and understand changes in your workforce. The format of this User Guide will allow you to approach the process as a continuous cycle, taking on board any lessons from previous audits and developing the process to improve data output. By working through the diagram on the following page, you will be able to establish where you should begin within the User Guide. The diagram takes into consideration prior knowledge and skills, and directs you to the relevant sections. If you are restricted by time, it is not necessary to read the whole document; however, we do recommend you read as much as possible to refresh your memory on all elements of the auditing process.

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Do you understand the principles of workforce auditing and planning?

Go to Section 2

NO

Go to Section 2

YES

NO

Do you have a Participant/Coach Development Model developed, or are working towards one?

Go to Section 7.8

Internal Do you know who you want to audit?

External

NO

YES Do you know who will conduct your audit (refer to Section 3.1 to help you make your decision)?

Go to Section 3.1

Begin next audit YES

Go to Section 3.3

NO

Go to Section 4.3

NO

Go to Section 4.5

YES

NO

Have you reviewed this year’s auditing process?

Have you developed aims and objectives for your project?

Audit complete

YES Have you identified a way of collecting your data?

Go to Section 4.7 Go to Section 7.4

NO

YES

NO

NO

Go to Section 5

YES YES Go to Section 5.3

NO

Is your data ready to be analysed? NO

Have you started to collect data, but need to increase response rates?

Go to Section 6

Have you developed your long-term data projections?

Have you written a report on the findings of the data?

YES

Have you piloted your research questions?

NO

YES

Do you know how to analyse your data? NO

YES

Go to Section 7.5

YES

YES Have you designed your research questions?

Go to Section 7

Figure 1: Identifying your start point

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2 THE KEY PRINCIPLES OF WORKFORCE AUDITING AND PLANNING 2.1 Introduction Below are the two key principles of workforce auditing. For further information about these principles, please refer to The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document.

scrutiny, not all of these individuals are coaching; rather, they are leading or guiding activities. One approach to defining who is or isn’t a coach, is to think about sports as being self-directed, guided and coached.

Principle 1: It is important to know the amount and type of coaching you need to meet your participation and performance objectives. In other words, what is the demand (ie the need) for coaching in terms of quantity and qualities, not only in your current circumstances but also in the medium and long term, based on participants’ needs and your operational commitments? Principle 2: It is important to know the amount and type of coaching provision you currently have. In other words, what is the supply of coaching (ie what you currently have) in terms of quantity and qualities? You will also want to evaluate your capacity for increasing that supply. By using a coaching workforce audit to identify your supply of coaches and the demand for coaching from your participants, you can identify a gap between the two, which will then allow you to start shaping your workforce to meet the needs of your participants. Analysis and Interpretation (Section 7) provides you with the key issues for developing your workforce.

2.2 Definition of coaching You need to be clear about how you and your organisation define coaching if you are going to measure the demand for, and supply of, coaching. Previous attempts to measure coaching have identified a whole range of individuals who report that they provide coaching3. However, on further detailed

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www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php?PageID=5&sc=23&uid= (Sports Coaching in the UK I and II)

Figure 2: Sports participation, guided sport and coached sport The diagram above is created from the participation data derived from the Sports Coaching in the UK surveys. The outer circle of the diagram represents children and adults who participate in sport at least once per week, who we think of as regular participants. The middle circle represents children and adults who participate in sport at least once per week and receive guided sport. Guided sport is defined as a sporting session that is organised, led, and/or safeguarded, by The Coaching Workforce User Guide


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an individual(s), irrespective of their suitability or qualification.

3

Finally, the inner circle represents children and adults who participate in sport at least once per week and receive coaching. Coached sport is defined as any sporting session set up for the guided improvement of participants and is organised, coached and safeguarded by an individual who is recognised among the participants of the session as being a coach (ie head coach, coach or assistant coach).

Deciding which definition of a coach you want to use in your audit is completely up to you and your sport. In some cases it will largely be determined by the type of individuals who make up your workforce; for example, if there is a low expectation of certification in your sport and the proportion of unqualified and Level 1 coaches is high, it would not be appropriate to use option three. You need to consider how many of the active deliverers you wish to capture, and the scope of your intended planning. Whatever you decide, it is important you are aware of all the categories of coach. One approach would be for you to capture a wide range of deliverers but report them in different categories.

Within the inner circle there are a whole range of roles, including pre-coaching helpers, leaders, assistant coaches, coaches and head coaches. Some of these coaches will be qualified while others may be unqualified or working towards their first qualification. Others may have a qualification that they obtained many years ago. There is a range of options you may want to consider when deciding which of these coaches will shape your definition of coaching. The list below identifies three different definitions of a coach, ranging from the very broad to the very narrow, each of which would be suitable to use: 1

All individuals in coaching roles, including pre-coaching helpers, assistant coaches, coaches and head coaches.

2

Individuals who are categorised by participants and are verified as coaches and head coaches.

Individuals who are verified as a coach or head coach and hold a governing body of sport/UK Coaching Certificate (UKCC) qualification/certification. (You may also consider placing further criteria to this definition to identify the coaches who are qualified at Level 2 or above.)

Involving colleagues at this stage can be extremely beneficial; you may even be surprised at the range of views and opinions about defining coaches/coaching. If you are still not 100% sure which definition to use, make sure you opt for a broad definition at the data-collection stage. This will allow you to gather data on a high proportion of coaches, which you can always filter down at a later stage if you decide to narrow your definition.

Now it’s your turn Think about the range of coaches in your sport: •

What makes them a coach in your view?

What are their characteristics?

What definition of ‘coach’ would be most appropriate for you to use?

Does this include people who are teachers, youth leaders, peer coaches, self-coached athletes, instructors etc? Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

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2.3 Using your Participant and Coach Development Models to identify demand and supply One approach to identify the demand for and supply of coaching is to use your sport’s Participant Development Model as a framework to quantify demand, and your Coach Development Model to quantify supply. The diagram below is the generic Participant Development Model and is likely to be the starting point for your sport-specific model. By using your Participant Development Model, it is possible to map your participants’ needs (ie the demand for coaching) according to what they want out of sport in a broad sense (eg to play recreationally, to compete, or to win at the highest level). You should also take into account their age or stage of development.

There is no right or wrong way to approach this, it is simply a case of making the model fit your sport. You will be able to understand your participants in greater detail once your sport has created a sport-specific Participant Development Model. You will be aware of the different types of participants that exist, and the levels that they play or participate at. In some cases, this will reflect your current participants; in other cases it will be an aspirational vision for your sport. Although you may not be able to see the links to workforce auditing at this stage, it will become extremely beneficial when designing your audit questionnaires, as you will already have thought about who your participant and coaching populations are. Remember, your Participant Development Model is not static and it is likely that findings from your workforce audit will be used to inform future developments of your model.

Figure 3: Participant Development Model

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The diagram below shows the generic Coach Development Model. This can be used as a starting point to develop a Coach Development Model for coaches within your sport. The Coach Development Model can be used to map the supply side of coaching. In other words, once you have an awareness of who your participants are, you need to be able to match the demand with a supply of coaches. Example: How many children’s coaches do we have at the master level? How many do we need to meet participants’ requirements? Don’t worry about answering these types of questions at this stage, they are just issues for consideration and will be addressed in more detail later on in the User Guide.

2.4 The coaching hour Historically, coaching workforce management has used a headcount approach. Governing bodies of sport, local authorities and clubs would ask themselves: how many coaches have we got? How many do we want?

While this can provide an insight into your coaching workforce, it can be quite limiting; for example, some coaches will only deliver one hour of coaching per week; others coach up to 30 or 40 hours per week. If, as a coach employer/deployer you need to put on six hours of coaching per week to meet local demand, would you mobilise six coaches to coach one hour per week, or one coach to coach six hours per week? Also, some sessions will have more than one coach present, (ie a head coach and an assistant coach). To help you calculate demand for coaching within your sport, The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document proposed the coaching hour as a more appropriate measure for thinking about and organising the coaching workforce. It allows you to plan coaching against participant needs, reflects the different contributions coaches make each week to coaching and captures, more effectively, what is going on in coaching sessions. Our research tentatively suggests that the average coaching session has a group size of 10 participants, with an average of three guiders or coaches, which is a ratio of 3.33 participants to one guider/coach.

How many Children’s Coaches do we have?

Figure 4: Coach Development Model

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The diagram on the right illustrates this, but it is important to note that this is based on data for all sports collectively. There will naturally be sports that are more likely to work on a 1:1 ratio (eg golf), while others (eg rugby union) will work on a larger ratio of 10:1, where there will be 20 participants and two coaches per session. You might not currently know the ratio of coaches to participants in your sport, but as you learn more about who your coaches are coaching, this will become clear. Remember to think about your chosen definition of a coach at this stage – a typical session in your sport may involve a coach/head coach, an assistant coach and a parent/helper. Depending on your definition, this may have an impact on your final ratio.

Figure 5: Coaching session group size

Now it’s your turn Think about your sport. What is your coaching strategy? What would you like to achieve? Who can you involve from inside or outside your sport to develop and deliver your vision? Here are some questions for consideration: •

How many participants is it realistic for you to have playing or performing within your sport?

What level would you like them to perform at (eg recreational, county, high performance)?

How do you intend to use coaching to support your participation objectives?

How many additional coaching hours would you need to meet these objectives?

What proportion of coaches would you expect to see at each qualification level (ie Level 1, Level 2, Level 3 or Level 4)?

Again, don’t worry if you can’t answer all of these questions right now, some of these will be easier to answer once you have conducted your audit. You may already be doing this exercise as part of your Participant Development Model work, and you can use this information to help you.

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

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No

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3 CARRYING OUT THE AUDIT By this stage you will have developed an understanding of the key principles on which the coaching workforce methodology is based.

time to its design, management and reporting. This is not always possible because of a lack of in-house expertise or capacity.

The next stage is to gain a practical understanding of workforce auditing.

Before you start any work on your project it is important to establish who is going to conduct the audit. Is it going to be conducted internally or are you going to appoint an external agency or individual to do it for you?

3.1 Who will undertake your audit? To carry out an effective audit of your workforce, you need to be able to dedicate and commit resources and

There are pros and cons to both situations and you need to consider both options fully before making your final decision.

Table 1: Pros and cons of conducting your audit internally or externally Internal Pros

Cons

You have full control over how the research is conducted, You need to be able to commit plenty of time and including what goes out to whom and when. resources to the project if you want it to be a success. You can use the experience to develop capacity and skills You need specific skills (see the list overleaf for more in-house to do future auditing and research work. detail) and, preferably, experience to be able to carry out a large percentage of the work. External Expertise in the field of research and sport.

Paying consultants can be costly, daily rates start in the region of ÂŁ300.

Ability to handle large amounts of data and then translate You will know more about your sport than the consultant. it into something meaningful and useable.

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Now it’s your turn Table 2 (below) provides a list of skills that you will need to have (or an ability to learn about) in order to undertake a successful audit internally. Work your way through the list and make an honest decision about whether you or someone within your organisation possesses these skills. Each of the skills is discussed in detail within the User Guide, so if you would like more information about what they are before making a decision, have a look in the relevant section. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on this activity? Yes

No

Table 2: Evaluating the skill sets within your organisation Skill

Can I find this skill within my organisation?

Ability to design a research project Questionnaire design

Knowledge of data-collection techniques

Data inputting (the time to do it as well as the ability to do it)

Ability to use data-analysis software

Data-analysis interpretation to develop recommendations or actions Report writing using research findings as a starting point

Time to fully commit to the project (see Figure 6 on page 16 for more information of project timings).

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If you discover that you don’t have the right skills internally, and you don’t have the time to develop the right skills, you might be best going down the route of appointing a consultant. The following sections provide you with information on appointing external consultants.

3.2 Do you need help to conduct your audit? Should you find yourself without the necessary research skills within your sport (identified in Table 2), you may decide to employ an agency or consultant to carry out the work on your behalf and under your direction and supervision. Alternatively, you may have the expertise in-house, but find yourself without the available time to conduct the audit, and therefore decide to outsource all or part of the work. The following advice aims to make the process of engaging with an external agency or consultant as painless as possible.

Where to find a consultant It is advisable to use a consultant or agency that has been involved in similar work before. You may also be able to get recommendations from colleagues in other sports who have previously conducted workforce audits. However, Internet research will help you establish the types of work that agencies/consultants are experienced in, and the size of projects they work on. For information/contact details of agencies and consultants, please consult the Market Research Society website (www.mrs.org.uk). It is good practice to approach three to five consultants to provide you with methodologies and quotes to suit your requirements. You could find that if you have received the funding for this project from an external agency, it may have rules in relation to commissioning. This is worth checking before appointing a consultant.

How to write a project brief Making the effort to write a good project brief will save you time and resources in the long run. You will find an example of a model brief, which you can use as a starting point, in Appendix 2 of this document. Make sure you update it with any formalities that your organisation needs to adhere to (eg contractual policies, payment criteria).

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The project brief is what the consultants will use to develop their response or proposal. If the aims and objectives of your research are clear, you will receive more appropriate responses from your invited consultants. Don’t worry if you are uncertain about the scope of what you want done or how to go about it. Should you be unclear about your end product or how to achieve your desired outcomes, make this known and the consultants can respond accordingly and make appropriate suggestions. If you are impressed by a consultant but not necessarily the suggestions made, you can always work with them to revise the original tender so both parties are happy. If you want to write your own project brief, here is a list of elements you should try to include: •

background to the project – why are you doing this work/what work have you undertaken in the past that will impact on this project

aims and objectives of the project

main research areas, topics or questions (if you have developed them)

timeline – key milestones, targets and any significant deadlines impacting on your project

who will manage the project from your organisation and who the consultants can contact with questions

what you would like the consultant to cover in their proposal (eg key experience, policies, CVs of individuals who will undertake the work, two or more references for similar project work)

indicative budget

information about responding to the brief (ie deadline for submitting a proposal, method for submitting [paper, electronic] and your contact details).

Assessing the quality of the submitted proposals Once you’ve received your completed proposals, you will need to develop a framework for assessing the bids in a fair and transparent way. To assist you with this, a template selection criteria table is included in Appendix 3. You may find it helpful to ask other people from your organisation to express their opinions on the quality of the proposals. They are likely to offer a more

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independent view if they are not directly connected to the project. When assessing the bids you receive, you might want to consider the following aspects: •

Have they addressed the issues you asked them to consider?

Do they possess a relevant track record and experience in the project area?

Do they have the time and resources to deliver what you want?

Do they offer you value for money?

If you have any doubts, check their references so you are confident they have a good track record and are capable of undertaking the work you require. You could also ask your consultants to present their project brief to you or attend an interview with the project team.

Top tips for managing your consultants 1

2

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If you don’t understand why they are doing something, don’t be afraid to ask. It could be that the consultants have misunderstood your requirements. Request regular updates to ensure any problems or issues can be tackled early on. It will also help you to build a relationship with the consultant(s). Don’t pay the consultant(s) all in one go. Retain a proportion of the fee and only pay this on completion of a final product that you are happy with.

3.3 Who to audit We have already noted a number of options of deciding which coaches to include in your audit. You will need to weigh up the scale of the audit (how many coaches you can reach) with the cost and time involved. The time and cost factors will probably be the most important. Depending on the size and scale of your organisation, it may not be possible to audit everyone you want to. However, even if you have sufficient funding available, if this is the first time you have conducted a workforce audit you may find it beneficial to start on a small scale. Remember, you can always build up to a larger-scale approach in years to come, when you will have more experience of the processes and methods involved.

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Here are some suggestions of the coaches you may want to target: •

A geographical sample of clubs and/or coaches (eg coaches in the South-West)

Clubs and/or coaches who work with a specific sample of participants (eg children’s coaches are a UK Coaching Framework priority)

Clubs and coaches who exist on your database

Coaches at a specific level (eg Level 3)

Coaches from a specific demographic group (eg women).

Although we deal with this in greater detail later on, it is worth noting that contacting the coaches is a key challenge within the process, so take this into account in your first attempts. In practice, it is easier to control and plan for the coaching workforce you know about rather than the coaches who are operating outside of this arena. With this in mind, we suggest you start your audit with the coaches and clubs who are registered on your databases, or who are affiliated to your governing body of sport. In the longer-term, sports coach UK hopes to be able to develop a much more comprehensive picture of the coaching landscape by involving the coaches we don’t know about (ie coaches who are typically operating outside governing body of sport networks). As our work progresses, we will keep you informed about how you can involve this wider group of coaches and, in turn, develop your own audit projects to include more of your coaches.

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Now it’s your turn Issues for consideration •

Do you have any deadlines for your audit? Remember, the more time you have, the more clubs/coaches you can reach and the more in-depth your audit will be. Take into account the amount of time it takes to administer and set up a project (consult Figure 6, the project plan calendar, for further guidance) and don’t underestimate how long it takes to gather data.

Are you attempting to address any particular question(s) within a report, strategy or plan? What specific information do you need to inform these reports (eg is there a specific group of coaches you need to approach in order to gather this data)?

How much do you already know about your coaches? This will be a guide to how much additional information you need. Remember to start with the basics: it is more important to get these right than to gather more complex data. Think about the rationale behind your project: what do you really want to find out?

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

No

How long does it take to audit your workforce? Conducting a workforce audit is not a quick process. It can take many months to design questionnaires and collect data, especially when you are new to the process. Figure 6 (project plan calendar) illustrates a typical timeline for a coaching workforce audit. Please keep in mind this is just an example. If your audit takes more or less time, this is not an issue. Some sports may spend longer on the project development stage, so need to allocate more preliminary planning time. Others may not have a database of contact details, therefore will need a longer fieldwork period. Each project is different and if you are completely new to workforce auditing, it may take you a little longer than when you conduct your second or third audit. If you are appointing a consultant, they will advise you on timings. If you are not happy with what they suggest, discuss your concerns and try to reach a compromise.

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Final report including recommended actions (Workforce Development Plan)

Distribute draft report for feedback from selected colleagues

Draft report on findings of analysis

Reporting

Main data analysis – create tables

Data cleaning (pre-analysis) – check for abnormalities

Data inputting

Data analysis

Reminder

Fieldwork period (online and postal)

Questionnaire distribution (eg postal, email)

Promote survey (eg links on the website, send letter to potential respondents)

Prepare online survey

Fieldwork

Feed-in results of pilot

Piloting of research tools and methodology

Research tools

Research questions

Develop aims and objectives

Project development

Attend meeting with the consultant to plan the audit

Identify chosen consultant

Receive submitted proposals

Distribute brief to potential consultants

Write project brief

Appointing a consultant

July

Aug Sept

Figure 6: Example project plan calendar

June

Nov Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

The tasks in the black box will only be undertaken if you are using a consultant to help you.

Oct

Apr

May

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Now it’s your turn Figure 7 (on page 18) provides you with a blank version of the project plan calendar. Try and plot your own timings to reflect the needs of your sport. We have provided the headings of the generic actions, but there are also a few blank spaces for you to add your own ideas. Don’t forget to include any sport-specific deadlines that may impact on your work; for example: •

do you need to include findings from the workforce audit in any funding bids

what is the deadline for finalising such bids

is your sport seasonally based – what point of the year would be a good time to make contact with your clubs/coaches?

Don’t worry if you can’t fill out the whole calendar at this stage, we will return to it on a number of occasions during the course of the User Guide to check how things are developing.

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

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Other

Other

Other

Other

Final report including recommended actions (Workforce Development Plan)

Distribute draft report for feedback from selected colleagues

Draft report on findings of analysis

Reporting

Main data analysis – create tables

Data cleaning (pre-analysis) – check for abnormalities

Data inputting

Data analysis

Reminder

Fieldwork period (online and postal)

Questionnaire distribution (eg postal, email)

Promote survey (eg links on the website, send letter to potential respondents)

Prepare online survey

Fieldwork

Feed-in results of pilot

Piloting of research tools and methodology

Research tools

Research questions

Develop aims and objectives

Project development

Attend meeting with the consultant to plan the audit

Identify chosen consultant

Receive submitted proposals

Distribute brief to potential consultants

Write project brief

Appointing a consultant

Figure 7: Blank project plan calendar

Start date

End date

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4 MEASURES – CHOOSING WHAT DATA TO COLLECT 4.1 What sort of data should you collect?

By this stage you will have: •

developed an understanding of the key principles on which the coaching workforce methodology is based

The first practical step in undertaking workforce auditing is to think about what you need to know.

gained an insight into carrying out your workforce audit.

The next stage is to think about what you need to know to design your questionnaire.

Now it’s your turn Identify colleagues from within your organisation who can help you identify the types of data to collect (eg coach-education advisors, coach-development advisors, equity lead, members of your UK Coaching Framework source group). Ask colleagues to discuss the following issues: •

What would we like to know about our clubs/coaches?

What do you need to know about our clubs/coaches?

Identify whether any coach-related information is already being collected within the organisation. Are there any gaps that the audit could fill? Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

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It is necessary to collect data that you can categorise quickly and simply in order to gain a detailed understanding of your workforce. Research allows you to do this by offering you a step-by-step process for collecting and examining information. In research, there are two distinct types of data or evidence that you can collect – qualitative and quantitative. The table below highlights some of the key differences between the two, as well as offering examples of both types. For a definition of qualitative and quantitative data, please see the Glossary of Terms (Section 10). Table 3: Difference between qualitative and quantitative research techniques Qualitative data •

Questions tend to be more topic based and ask for interpretation

Each question tends to have a specific focus

Allows the respondent to offer lots of information, and the interviewer to explore the whys and hows.

Requires the respondent to offer a specific answer, typically using a tick-box approach

Simple data from a large number of respondents

For example:

For example:

How many full-time coaches work in your club?

Which of the following continuous professional development opportunities have you undertaken this year? (Tick all that apply)

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What has been the effect of having too few coaches in your club?

Both types of data collection have their merits. The decision about which to use in your project will simply come down to how suitable either method is to your work. When collecting data on your workforce, it is more appropriate to use a quantitative approach, as this will allow you to collect a large amount of data relatively quickly. It will also allow you to make comparisons between different categories of coaches; for example: •

coaches working in the North-East compared to those in the North-West

coaches working full-time compared to those working part-time

coaches with a qualification compared to those without a qualification.

Quantitative data

Complex data from a small number of respondents

Tell me about the continuous professional development you have undertaken this year and why?

4.2 Which method should you use?

Although qualitative data would allow you to gain a detailed insight into the attitudes and behaviours of a specific group of coaches, we would not recommend it for large-scale data collection in the case of a workforce audit. However, you may wish to follow up some aspects of the audit at a later stage by using small-scale qualitative studies to gain a better understanding of some of your findings. If you would like to explore the possibilities of using qualitative research methods, take a look at the Association for Qualitative Research website: www.aqr.org.uk

4.3 Identifying your aim and objectives Collecting workforce data is not a one-off task. You need to collect data over an extended period of time to increase accuracy. Conducting successive workforce audits will help you identify and understand any changes that are taking place within your sport, illustrating changes to the profile of your workforce. You should identify clear aims and objectives for your project. By doing so, you will be confident that your questions will remain focused and will gather relevant and useable information. You will also minimise the risk of collecting irrelevant information, as your questions will focus purely on workforce data collection.

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What are aims and objectives?

What is a measure?

Your aim summarises what you want to achieve by conducting the project. Your objectives identify specific requirements that will meet your overriding aim. There is no limit to how many objectives you have in your project.

A characteristic of coaches or coaching that you can identify and assess. As a starting point, look at the following list of measures:

For example:

Personal details (age, gender, disability, ethnicity)

Sport and discipline coached

Active status of coaching (activity during the last 12 months)

Qualifications (specific details, levels)

Coaching frequency (almost every working day, once a week, once a month)

Aim: To better understand the club coaching workforce in tennis in order to improve policy making relating to deployment and coach-education. Objectives: •

To identify how many tennis coaches there are

To examine what qualifications the coaches have

Number of participants coached per session

To determine how many additional coaches will be required to meet aspirational targets by 2016.

Coach:participant ratio

Working status (full-time, part-time, volunteer, paid – for both coaching and non-coaching employment)

Participant profile (levels/stages, ages, environment)

Continuous professional development profile

Number of coaching gaps or vacancies.

4.4 Identifying your measures Having identified your aims and objectives, the next step is to identify a set of measures you will use when collecting your data.

Now it’s your turn Think about your audit. What are your aims and objectives?

Your aims: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... Your objectives:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................................... .................................................................................... .................................................................................... ....................................................................................

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Now it’s your turn Which of the measures on the previous page would enable you to learn more about your coaches? Can you think of any additional measures that are applicable to you and your sport? Have you considered how you will use the data once it is collected? This may impact on which questions need to be asked; for example: •

will the data impact on the employment/deployment of coaches

will it inform/impact on strategic and operational policy decisions?

Are there any specific sub-groups of coaches (eg female coaches, Level 3 coaches, disabled coaches) you want to know about? Make sure your questions allow you to identify who these coaches are. Do you have specific ways of grouping coaches or participants together? Make sure your questions reflect this; for example, can you distinguish between coaches who work with adult recreationalists and adult competitors? (Refer back to your Participant and Coach Development Models for more information.)

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

4.5 How to write research questions It is vital that your questions are well designed if you want to ensure your data is being collected effectively and efficiently. Before you start writing your questions, there are a few issues you may want to think about.

Top tips for designing effective questionnaires Think about the people who will complete your questionnaire: •

Don’t presume they know what you know

Use language/terminology the coaches/clubs will be familiar with

Help the coaches/clubs by presenting the questionnaire clearly: use question numbers and section headings

Provide a helpline in case your respondents get stuck and need to ask someone for advice.

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No

❐ It is important to be aware of the different styles of research in order to design an effective questionnaire. Earlier in this section we discussed the differences between qualitative and quantitative research and explained why workforce audits typically use quantitative research methods. For this reason, the following section presumes you will be taking a quantitative approach to your audit, so will only inform you about quantitative research techniques.

4.6 What are your questions? We have included two template questionnaires in Appendix 1 to help you get started. The first is aimed at gathering data on clubs, while the other is for gathering data on individual coaches. Each questionnaire has been piloted and used by sports coach UK together with governing bodies of sport, and will collect most of your basic workforce data. Have a look at the questionnaires and then think about the following questions in the ‘Now it’s your turn’ box on page 23.

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Now it’s your turn How can the template questionnaires be useful for you and your sport? Things to think about: • • • • •

Do the questions reflect the information you want to collect (ie your aims and objectives)? Are the questions worded in a way that your coaches/clubs will understand? Is the terminology/language correct? Are the pre-coded responses/drop-down menus suitable for your sport? (We envisage that some will need to be adapted to reflect your sport in terms of the language used to describe participants and coaches.) Are there any other relevant questions for your sport? Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

No

Having made the relevant changes, you should, by this stage, be feeling confident that you have a questionnaire that will gather useful data about your

❐ workforce. As a final check, read through your questionnaire(s) and ask yourself the following questions from the ‘Now it’s your turn’ box below.

Now it’s your turn Use the following to filter out questions you do not need or that may require altering: • • • • •

Will this question offer useful information? (What will the data offer you? Does it repeat previous questions? Don’t ask questions for questions’ sake.) Does the question reflect your aims and objectives? (Don’t get distracted and start asking unrelated questions, it will only confuse your respondent.) Is this question appropriate for use in a questionnaire? (Remember, asking in-depth questions in questionnaires is not the best way of asking them.) Is the questionnaire user-friendly? (For example, is it straightforward to complete, do the questions flow from one to another?) Will you need to offer the questionnaire in alternative formats? (For example, large print, audio – for advice on accessible formats see the Royal National Institute of Blind People [RNIB] and The Royal National Institute for Deaf People [RNID] websites. You will find the contact details in Further Advice and Guidance [Section 9].) Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

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4.7 Piloting your questionnaire Before launching your audit, we recommend testing your questionnaire(s) with a small sample of coaches and clubs that represent your target audience; in some cases, you may have more than one audience you need to speak to. This process is typically known as a pilot. Carrying out a pilot study is a good investment of time, and will hopefully highlight any unforeseen issues that would otherwise arise at the data-collection stage. You do not need to speak to hundreds of people to get an insight into how your questionnaire is working. In most cases, speaking to 10–12 respondents will be enough. Pilot studies are there to check that there are no obvious errors and respondents understand the questions and what is being asked of them. There are typically two ways to approach the pilot: •

Face-to-face pilot: Identify 10–12 respondents and arrange a meeting for them to attend. Observe the respondents completing the questionnaire, and then have a group discussion to highlight any issues and identify possible solutions. Remote pilot: Identify 10–12 respondents and ask each of them to complete the questionnaire. On completion, ask each of them to contact you (by email or telephone) with any feedback (including ‘it was fine’).

Either approach will improve the data you eventually collect, so identify the one that is most suited to your situation. For example, what level of resources do you have to invest in a pilot? Which clubs/coaches will you speak to? Where are these clubs/coaches located? Can you travel to your clubs/coaches? Is it suitable to bring a group of club and coach representatives together, or would the pilot be better if it was carried out on a one-to-one basis? Although you may be confident that your questionnaire is perfect, there are many benefits from taking a step back and reflecting on the project at this stage. It can become an expensive error if you finish with poor-quality data.

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Typical issues that pilots will identify: Clarity of questions: Do respondents understand what is asked? Do they understand the terminology? Inclusion: Can all respondents give a full answer? Do the pre-coded answers cover all options? If not, make sure you provide the respondents with the option to select ‘other’ and ask them to provide details. Questionnaire design: Is the questionnaire user friendly? Do all ‘go to…’ links work? Are the topics/sections clearly defined? Are the question numbers correct? Remember to update them if you remove/add any questions. Respondent fatigue: How long does it take to complete the survey? Are the questions repetitive? Distribution preferences: How would your respondents like to receive the questionnaires (eg by post, email, online, telephone, face-to-face)? Impact of incentives: Would your respondents be more likely to complete the questionnaire if there was an incentive on offer? What would they like the incentive to be? Should all respondents get something small, or should there be a prize draw for one or two large gifts?

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Case Study Example: Archery Workforce Audit, 2008 In 2008, archery undertook a workforce audit with the assistance of a research consultancy. As part of the exercise, they conducted a pilot survey to test their questionnaires among key respondents. The pilot exercise was conducted one evening at a local sports club in Leicestershire and was attended by 15 people. Archery had four questionnaires to test, each having a distinct target audience: •

coaches

clubs

regional officers

county officers.

The questionnaires were distributed to the relevant groups who were asked to complete them as if they were for real. The respondents then provided feedback on their questionnaires. By doing so, the participants identified a number of key issues with the questionnaires, which were used to make improvements. The key messages from the exercise were as follows: •

Club questionnaire: needed more physical space to add in comments.

Coach questionnaire: needed ‘international’ to be added as a category in the participant-level question.

Regional questionnaire and county officers’ questionnaire: indicated some of the continuous professional development options were not available through the county structure.

There was also a difference in how people would like to receive the questionnaires; coaches and clubs wanted it paper based and regional and county officers wanted it via email. Following your pilot, you need to address any issues or comments that were raised by your respondents. Make any relevant changes that will improve your questionnaire and, if required, re-pilot the updated questionnaire.

4.8 The final touches If you want people to take the audit seriously, it is important that you offer respondents a questionnaire that looks professional and trustworthy. A key element of this is confidentiality. Make sure every respondent understands what you will use the data for and who will have access to it.

Top tips for making your questionnaire look professional Covering letter: Provide additional information about your survey so your respondents can see that spending time completing the form is essential. You can do this through a covering letter or on the first page of your questionnaire. Key elements for your covering letter are: •

the benefits of taking part (who will benefit and why?)

the details of how to complete the document/return it to the researcher

a deadline for completing the questionnaire

a thank you in advance for taking part and details of any incentives

contact details for your sport or research consultant in case respondents have any queries.

Branding: By branding your questionnaire, you will gain further trust from your respondent that the document is official. Use your logo and logos of any other organisations that might be part of the audit. Confidentiality: Make sure the respondent understands who will get to see the data. If you intend to share the data with other organisations, make sure you gain permission from the respondent, typically done through a third party ‘opt-in’ question at the end, where you will ask the respondent if they are happy for you to pass the information on to selected third parties. For more information regarding the Data Protection Act, visit: www.ico.gov.uk

Don’t be afraid to make changes to your questionnaire: this is your last chance to get it right.

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Deadline: Make sure a deadline is clearly printed on the questionnaire. Do not underestimate how long it can take for people to complete questionnaires. A three-week fieldwork period should be an absolute minimum and, in our experience, a longer period would be beneficial. We would recommend a fieldwork period of between 6–10 weeks. Future contact: If you intend to use the respondents’ contact details for future audits/surveys/mailings, then you must seek permission first (see Confidentiality on previous page). Pre-paid envelopes: It is good practice to include a pre-paid envelope if you are asking people to return a questionnaire in the post. Asking a respondent to pay the postage will not encourage a response rate.

Reflection Point •

Are you clear about what information you want from the research?

Have you prepared your draft questionnaires (club/coach)?

Have you thought about piloting your questionnaires and made any necessary changes?

Have you considered issues such as covering letters, confidentiality etc?

Are you clear about who will conduct your data collection/analysis – have you got skilled staff internally or will you require help from an external consultant/agency? For more information on useful contact details, please refer to Further Advice and Guidance (Section 9).

Stop: Return to your project plan calendar and update with any key deadlines and dates based on the decisions you have made within this section.

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5 METHODS OF RESEARCH

By this stage you will have: •

developed an understanding of the key principles on which the coaching workforce methodology is based

gained an insight into carrying out your workforce audit

designed your questionnaire(s).

The next stage is to send your questionnaire(s) to your sample of coaches/clubs.

5.1 Options for data collection – the fieldwork stage Now you have developed and piloted the questionnaire(s), it is time to choose the best method for collecting the data. As you will see from Table 4 (overleaf), different methods suit different people and organisations and, in some cases, a combination of methods may be appropriate. Think carefully about the method you choose, as this will affect the response rate you achieve. Main areas of consideration include: •

the budget you have available for the project

the time frame for data collection

the number of people to be surveyed

your usual means of communication

the type of contact details you have for your coaches/clubs (ie postal address, email address, telephone number etc)

personal expertise/experiences.

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Table 4 (overleaf) outlines the main methods for distributing your survey. Weigh up the pros and cons of each and think about which would suit you and your sport. Remember, if this is the first time you have carried out a survey, try one method this time and if you are not happy with the response you receive, you can try something different next time. Eventually, you will identify the method (or combination of methods) that you are happy with. You may have used the pilot stage as a way of identifying how people would like to receive the questionnaires. In which case, you will already have an idea as to the methods to use.

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Table 4: Pros and cons of distribution methods Method Paper/postal

Pros

Cons

Many people favour completing surveys by hand and posting them back. sports coach UK’s Coach Tracking Study indicates that 75% of coaches prefer to respond to questionnaires by post.

Paper surveys can become expensive because of the cost of printing/posting a large number of questionnaires. It is also good practice to provide each respondent with a stampedaddressed envelope, increasing your costs further. If your response rate is low, you may need to send out reminders (including questionnaires and envelopes) to get the response you want, at an additional cost.

It gives respondents space to insert It can be difficult to include additional additional comments on the questionnaire. comments when inputting into standardised data-entry templates. Provides respondents with an opportunity to complete the survey in their own time, with the added bonus of being able to stop/return to the questionnaire whenever it suits them.

It can take time to get responses back.

In the case of club audits, the respondents If you are surveying a large number of people may be required to ask colleagues for you will need to employ data inputters. additional information in order to answer the questions accurately. In these cases, the paper-based questionnaire may be beneficial. Email

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Quick and easy to administer as a large number of emails can be sent out at the same time.

Not everyone has access to an email address or computer. Email addresses can be changed easily and you may find that you don’t have up-to-date contact details.

A system can be set up to automatically extract the data from completed questionnaires into an Excel spreadsheet.

To set up such a system takes specialist skills and time.

Very easy to send out reminders to people who have not responded to the questionnaire: it is simply a repeat email.

If you are unable to set up a system to read in the data from the completed questionnaires, you will need to employ data inputters.

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Table 4: Pros and cons of distribution methods (continued) Method Online

Pros

Cons

Accessible to a large number of respondents.

Not everyone will have access to a computer at work/home.

Relatively cheap if your own website has the capacity to host a questionnaire.

Can be expensive if you need an external agency to develop it for you.

All the data collected will be automatically converted into a format for analysis, so there is no need for data inputters.

Does not cater well for additional comments and non-typical responses.

Respondents need to be made aware of the audit. Marketing is important or no one will find the questionnaire/complete it.

Face-to-face

Telephone interviews

Perhaps the most robust method for data collection as the interviewer can ensure the respondent fully understands the questions and prompts where necessary.

Very time consuming and the most costly. On average an interviewer can only conduct 6–8 interviews per day if they last between 30 and 60 minutes.

Conducting interviews face-to-face means that a wide cross-section of the community can be included through the use of interpreters, support workers, sign-language interpreters and peers.

Data inputters will probably be required. If you employ an agency to do this for you, they will probably use a computer-aided package to conduct the interviews.

Another good method for collecting robust A small number of people will not have access to information as the interviewer is available a telephone. It could be difficult to interview for the respondent to ask questions. coaches and officers who spend a lot of time travelling. Telephone interviewers can work at different times of the day, which will ensure a good cross-section of people interviewed. It is also more cost-effective than conducting interviews face-to-face.

A mechanism is required for completing the questionnaire, either by the researcher writing down responses as the respondent talks, or inputting directly into a database.

Although a telephone interviewer could conduct more interviews a day than someone doing them face-to-face, it would still be limited to about 10 a day to prevent interviewer fatigue.

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Now it’s your turn The types of contact details you hold about your coaches will definitely have an impact on the methodology you are able to select. Table 5 (below) helps you to make an informed decision on methodologies based on the contact details that are available to you. Use the grid to identify which pieces of information you hold for your clubs and which methods are suitable for you.

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on this activity? Yes

No

Table 5: Identifying appropriate distribution methods Methods available Email

Online

Face-to-face

Telephone

Postal

Names of coaches Yes/No

Postal address

Yes/No

Email address

Yes/No

Which of the following details do you hold about your coaches:

✓ ✓

Telephone number Yes/No Communication methods: Do your coaches use the Internet?

Yes/No

5.2 Population and samples When carrying out research, it is quite common for individuals to want to know how many people they need to speak to. Unfortunately, there is no simple answer, and it is likely to depend on the size of your population (ie the group of people you are targeting, which in this case is clubs or coaches).

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✓ In general, it is accepted that the more clubs/coaches you manage to speak to, the more confident you can be that the results are an accurate reflection of the population as a whole. Researchers always try to work towards a sample size that will allow them to have confidence in their results. If possible, they work towards what is known as a 95% confidence interval (ie you are 95% confident that your The Coaching Workforce User Guide


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answers are accurate) with a 5% margin of error (give or take 5%). For example, if 68% of coaches said they worked as a volunteer, we could be 95% sure that the true answer (ie if every single coach had completed a questionnaire) would be somewhere between 63% (ie -5%) and 73% (ie +5%). There are a number of online calculators that can help you identify your ideal sample size, all you need to know is approximately how many clubs and coaches you have. Then it is just a case of selecting a 95% confidence level, 5% confidence interval, and inserting your population figures for a) coaches and b) clubs. It will then give you an idea of the sample size you should be aiming for. Visit the following website as a starting point: www.surveysystem.com/sscalc In practice, of course, knowing how many respondents you would like may not actually help you to increase your rate of returns. Judging the appropriateness of your returns can also be calculated on comparisons to other surveys of this type, the typicality of your returns (have the bigger clubs, or those with large number of coaches responded), an awareness of the number of ‘nil responses’, and the number of returns from a particular sector.

Table 6 (below) provides you with some example response rates from the 2008/2009 club audits. As you can see, the response rates range from 10% (gymnastics) to 19% (archery), suggesting that as few as one in every five respondents will complete and return your questionnaire. Naturally, the relationship you have with your clubs/coaches, as well as the extent to which you raise awareness of your audit, will have an impact on the response rate, and there will be cases where a much higher rate is achieved.

5.3 Maximising response rates Once you are aware of the sample size you want to achieve, you will be keen to maximise your response rates. Do not expect everyone to complete the questionnaire; this is very unlikely to happen.

Table 6: Club survey response rates (2008/2009 sport audits)

Sport

Estimated total number of clubs

Number of returned questionnaires (clubs)

Approximate response rate

Archery

1200

228

19%

Gymnastics

1200

135

10%

Rugby league

400

72

18%

Squash

1000

116

12%

Triathlon

400

65

16%

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There are lots of different approaches you can try to maximise the response you get to your questionnaires. The best way is to have clarity of purpose that all of the clubs/coaches can buy into. Secondly, you can develop the best possible questions, wordings and presentation, but given that you have already done this, here are some other suggestions.

money – you may even be able to get items from sponsors free of charge.

Incentive ideas: •

Tickets to competitions/finals

Sporting equipment

Incentives

Vouchers

Incentives, prizes or gifts help to encourage your potential respondents to return questionnaires as quickly as possible. The table below outlines the main pros and cons of incentivising your surveys.

Continuous professional development points

Subsidised memberships.

Table 7: Pros and cons of using incentives Pros

Cons

Respondents are more likely to take part if they feel they are getting something in return.

The potential cost implications – buying the incentives and distributing them.

Attaching a date to receiving an incentive will encourage respondents to get the questionnaire back quickly.

Incentives need to be appropriate for the respondents. You will need to do some research to find this out and this can take time to source.

Incentives can help maintain a level of interest year-on-year, which is particularly important if you intend to conduct your audit on a regular basis.

You don’t want to create a culture whereby individuals and groups only respond to a request for information if they receive an incentive.

The box opposite provides you with some ideas for incentives. If you are not sure which would work well with your respondents, you could use the pilot phase as an opportunity to ask a typical group of respondents what they would like to receive. Some examples (eg tickets for competitions) may not be a real cost to the sport, but will still be an attractive prize to the respondents. You may also want to consider whether you offer all respondents a small incentive, or whether each returned questionnaire transforms into a ticket for a prize draw for one or two much higher-valued gifts. Remember, incentives do not need to cost lots of

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Case Study Example: sports coach UK Coach Tracking Study For the past three years, sports coach UK has run a national Coach Tracking Study. We surveyed and tracked approximately 1200 coaches in year one, 900 in year two and 600 in year three. As an incentive to encourage the coaches to remain involved in the project for the lifetime of the study, each coach receives coaching edge magazine on a quarterly basis. All those who have remained engaged in the study in the last two survey periods have been entered into a prize draw to win tickets to the prestigious UK Coaching Awards ceremony held in London.

Raising awareness of the survey If nobody knows about your survey they cannot be expected to complete it. Think about the following: •

What publications are your respondents likely to read? Write an article about the research and make sure it gets into the most appropriate resource (eg newsletter, company magazine).

Have you put a message about the survey on your website with all the relevant information about how to fill it in?

Do you have development officers or equivalent who can spread the word?

Could you have a poster or display at competitions to publicise the survey? You could also have copies of the questionnaire available for coaches/club representatives to take away with them.

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Reminders

Setting and sticking to deadlines

The majority of responses will arrive in the first 2–3 weeks of your fieldwork period. However, sending out reminders will bring in further responses and provide you with an opportunity to prompt individuals about the survey. If you provide a telephone or email contact, respondents can get in touch if they are having difficulties completing the form or they have lost their paper copies or link to the online survey.

If your respondents have a firm deadline to work to (and perhaps an incentive attached to this date) and an understanding that replying after this date would mean their views are not taken into consideration, they may be more likely to return the survey. Also, having deadlines makes it easier for you to plan and manage your project. If you are employing data inputters, knowing exactly when your survey ends ensures you have the right people employed at the right time.

Using pre-paid envelopes If you chose to administer the audit through a paper-based questionnaire, the use of pre-paid envelopes can help encourage respondents to complete and post it back to you. Although this will have an impact on your budget, it is worth it if you get more data in return. Pre-paid envelopes also have the added bonus of having the correct address printed on the front, ensuring your questionnaires get returned to the correct location.

Reflection point What you think is the best option for distributing your questionnaires or method for data collection is not necessarily the best one for the population or sample you are targeting. There is a lot to consider and lots of factors outside your control that influence the methods you use. Remember, choose the option best suited to your sport, coaches, clubs and respondents.

Questionnaire helpline You might consider having a dedicated telephone helpline to take calls related to questionnaire issues. If respondents feel they have support filling out the questionnaire, they are more likely to complete it. This support will also alert you to any issues that might have occurred, such as a lack of stamped-addressed envelope or covering letter. The sooner you know about any problems the sooner you can solve them. Accessibility Remember, even though you will have committed to a preferred method of response, there will be some people who find it difficult to respond in this way. For example, there will be people with literacy and numeracy problems who find it difficult to fill in a questionnaire by hand. In situations like this, you need to find an alternative way of allowing respondents to take part. It is good practice to ensure your sample is representative of the communities your governing body of sport serves, so try and help people by offering an alternative way to complete your questionnaire. For more information, please see Further Advice and Guidance (Section 9) for contact details of relevant organisations.

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Planning is key! •

Ensure you are aware of all your milestones and what you need to have undertaken and achieved to reach them.

Do you have the right people employed at the right times?

Have you allocated a sufficient budget to carry out the project with the methods you have chosen?

You also need to be realistic! The examples should have alerted you to the fact that response rates are rarely as high as you would like. A solution may be to extend the fieldwork period to gather in more responses, but be aware that you need to move on to the data-entry stage while your data is still fresh. Remember, you can always add in the views of any stragglers at a later point.

Stop: Return to your project plan calendar and update with any key deadlines and dates based on the decisions you have made within this section.

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6 DATA STORAGE

6.1 What are you storing?

By this stage you will have: •

developed an understanding of the key principles on which the coaching workforce methodology is based

gained an insight into carrying out your workforce audit

designed your questionnaire(s)

sent your questionnaire(s) to your sample of coaches/clubs.

You will need to prepare for the return of the completed questionnaires, once the fieldwork period begins. If you are using a research consultant to conduct the work, it is likely they will organise the data entry stage for you, but here is a brief overview if you are collecting the data yourself. If your questionnaires are being returned in paper format, you will need to manually type the responses into a spreadsheet/database so the analysis can take place. Excel is a useful and readily available piece of software for this task. To do this, you will need to set up a pre-defined spreadsheet/database with a question number in each column. As you start to receive completed questionnaires, you will type the answers into the spreadsheet/database allocating a row to each individual respondent.

The next stage is to: •

receive completed questionnaires

enter your data into a spreadsheet/database

store your questionnaires somewhere safe.

Table 8: Example spreadsheet/database Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4a

Q4b

Q4c

Q5

Respondent 1

Yes

Yes

1978

5

5

5

Part-time

Respondent 2

Yes

No

1991

2

3

3

Volunteer

Respondent 3

No

Yes

1969

7

10

9

Part-time

Respondent 4

Yes

Yes

1983

1

1

1

Part-time

Respondent 5

No

Yes

1971

6

7

5

Volunteer

Respondent 6 .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

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To make it easier to create and interpret your data tables in the analysis stage, it is recommended you avoid typing words into a cell, and instead use a pre-defined numeric code, for example yes=1 and no=2. There is no set rule concerning the numbers you use, just remember to keep a note of your codes so you can accurately interpret your data at a later stage. You may also construct a separate column for each alternative response, but be aware that this will increase the size and workability of your spreadsheet.

Top tip It is useful to provide each returned questionnaire with a unique id (ie 1, 2, 3, 4…). Write the number on the top of the original questionnaire and insert a column in your spreadsheet to include the same number. By doing so, if you find any unlikely results when analysing the data, you’ll be able to quickly find the original questionnaire and check for any coding errors.

If the questionnaires are being returned electronically, the coding is likely to have been done through a system that will automatically read the responses into a spreadsheet. In this case, just follow the instructions from your software provider. Alternatively, you will need to print the electronic questionnaires and manually type the responses into a spreadsheet (as described above). Once the data is held within an electronic system, you are ready to start the analysis. But first, it is important that you are aware of how to store data.

Although it may be tempting to destroy the paper questionnaires as soon as the data has been entered into the system, there are benefits in keeping hold of them until you have completed your project. More often than not, you will need to refer back to the paper questionnaires to check a particular response. This type of information can also be subject to external auditing, so check before throwing anything away. There are no specific guidelines on how long you should keep questionnaires, but a minimum of three months following completion of the project is suggested. When you dispose of these documents, it is essential that they are shredded to maintain respondent confidentiality. With electronic files, you are legally required to separate any personal contact details from the actual data. This ensures respondents’ answers are confidential and removes the possibility of making a connection between a specific respondent and their data: all data should be anonymous once analysis begins. For further information on data protection, refer to the Market Research Society website: www.mrs.org.uk and select ‘Standards and Guidelines’.

6.2 Data Management Systems A Data Management System is essentially a holding point that allows you to store data while extracting information for analysis. It is an extremely useful operational management tool that allows you to extract information on your workforce at a really specific level. For example: •

How many full-time coaches are there?

Original questionnaires

Where are they coaching?

It is essential that any data you collect is stored securely without unauthorised access and meets the requirements of the 1998 Data Protection Act (to jeopardise this may lead to a distressed respondent claiming compensation). For more information on the Act, please refer to www.ico.gov.uk

Who are they coaching?

How many coaches are getting paid?

Which sports are they working within?

Who employs these coaches?

How many coaches are qualified to Level 3?

Equally, if you choose to store data off site (eg through an archive storage facility), their security measures must also meet these criteria. If you received funding from an alternative source to conduct the research, you might want to check their guidelines on storing data.

How long have these coaches been coaching?

What is the distribution of these coaches across the UK?

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In simple terms, this involves setting up a database that you update periodically, and that is configured to allow you to extract useful information (usually as a summary). At this stage of your audit, it is not essential for you to 35


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have a data management system; however, it is something that you may want to take into consideration for the future. In the long term, this type of system will allow you to analyse and interpret your data quickly and simply. It will also widen the accessibility of your data within your organisation, bringing further benefits from conducting workforce audits in the first place. If you do decide to develop a Data Management System, be aware of data protection issues. It is essential that respondents agree to be part of such a system and are willing to have their data available for wider analysis. It is also important to consider who will have access to the data and who will be able to update it. (For example, will your coaches be able to access and edit their own profiles, or will it be updated through an annual workforce audit survey?) To help you assess the benefits and weaknesses of such systems, the table below highlights the key issues. Table 9: Benefits and weaknesses of Data Management Systems Benefits of Data Management Systems

Weaknesses of Data Management Systems

Data interrogation – quick, Cost – initial set-up cost simple and cost effective can be high Flexibility in accessing data – many different uses, can extract data/reports from the system

Designing a system for your sport can be trial and error; no single data system will work for everyone

Additional data can be It may be difficult to inserted quickly and easily reconfigure the functionality (what it can do) after set-up

On behalf of the coaching industry, sports coach UK is currently in the process of developing recommendations relating to the creation of consistent data-collection fields across the coaching landscape. The document will provide suggested data fields in the following areas: •

recruitment and induction

registration

minimum standards for deployment

accreditation data

development of the coach

deployment of the coach.

As the work progresses, we will ensure this User Guide is kept up to date to reflect the decisions taken nationally. Keep an eye on the sports coach UK website for the latest news on this area: www.sportscoachuk.org

Reflection point •

Have you made arrangements for coding your data into a spreadsheet/database?

Are all questionnaires stored in the most appropriate place (electronic and paper copies)?

Is your database accessible and ready for analysis?

What developments would enhance data capture and management?

Think about the bigger picture and how completing an audit can contribute to this.

Stop: Return to your project plan calendar and update with any key deadlines and dates based on the decisions you have made within this section.

It requires regular updating for the information to be useful.

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7 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION By this stage you will have: •

developed an understanding of the key principles on which the coaching workforce methodology is based

gained an insight into carrying out your workforce audit

designed your questionnaire(s)

sent your questionnaire(s) to your sample of coaches/clubs

received completed questionnaire(s)

entered your data into a spreadsheet/database

stored your questionnaires somewhere safe.

The most commonly used packages to analyse date in research include Excel, SPSS, and SNAP, although many others do exist. Unfortunately, it is not possible to teach people how to use such packages in just a couple of paragraphs, but we felt it was important for you to know what your consultant would probably be using to analyse your data. See Further Advice and Guidance (Section 9) for contact details of relevant organisations if you would like further information. •

Excel: A widely available package through Microsoft Office. Allows data to be quickly transformed into graphs and charts.

SPSS: Particularly useful for analysing large data sets, quickly comparing one answer against another for all respondents (cross-tabulation table). However, high costs are associated with this product.

SNAP: Can be used to design/host online web surveys and then gather the electronic responses (saving time on the data-entry phase). Again, high costs are associated with this product.

The next stage is to analyse your data and figure out what all the numbers mean. This section focuses on the process you need to go through to extract information from your data. Due to the technical nature of research analysis, it is presumed that you will have a researcher (either internally or externally) to conduct this section of work for you. For this reason, we will not go into the detail of every process, but will highlight the key procedures that need to be undertaken so you have a clear understanding about what your researcher/consultant is doing.

7.1 Data analysis packages The analysis of data typically takes places in an analytical software package.

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7.2 Preparing your data Once all your data is ready in a spreadsheet, you need to prepare it for analysis. This involves cleaning the data, which is a basic checking process to ensure it looks correct. There are no definite rules as to how this should be done, but you are looking for things that appear unusual. It is sometimes useful to approach this by running a basic frequency table (see Section 10, the Glossary of Terms for further information) for each variable to see what sort of data you have – if anything looks incorrect, it probably is.

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For example, if a respondent states that they coach 200 hours per week, then this must be an error as it exceeds the total number of hours in a week (168 hours). If you find abnormalities like this in your data, the initial action is to re-check the original questionnaire to confirm whether or not it is a coding error. If the original data also states 200 hours per week, action will need to be taken as it will mislead the results from the other respondents. To address this issue, you could either re-contact the coach to identify the correct answer, or exclude this particular answer from your analysis.

7.3 Identifying the key messages When analysing data, begin by looking at each variable or question in turn and identifying key messages that are emerging or standing out. Next, you will want to see what impact demographic data (such as age, gender, disability and ethnicity) have on each variable. For example, do your female coaches have higher-level qualifications than their male counterparts? You may also have key coaching measures (such as length of time coaching, qualified coaches, qualification level etc) that you will want to use to break the data down in the same way as you did with the demographic data. By doing these calculations, you will begin to add further weight to your key data messages, and may also begin to identify additional areas for more detailed analysis.

In the 2008/2009 workforce audits, we applied a 5% year-on-year increase on the coaching workforce. This figure was identified as a reasonable growth target, based on recent growth in the overall UK coaching workforce. Once the growth target was applied to data, further adjustments were then applied to take into account turnover and recruitment within individual sports.

7.4 Modelling and projections

When making the move from present to future, there are a number of elements you may want to take into consideration.

You may decide that basic analysis of the data is enough for what you require. However, you may be interested in taking the analysis to the next stage and begin to think about the future size and shape of your workforce and identify a process to achieve this vision. There are no rules to how you should project data, so it is extremely difficult to specify how it should be done. On a basic level, though, it is about assessing: •

what you have now

•

where you would like to be in the future, based on aspirations and policy targets.

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Once you have an idea about these different elements, you will have a better idea as to how your workforce will ideally be proportioned and deployed in the future. To create your projections, it is now a case of working from A to B (ie look at what you have currently got and decide how you can move to where you want to be, using a year-on-year increase). Some changes take time to implement and any increases may be small in the short term. Remember that only coach-education candidates at Level 1 are new to the sport.

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Now it’s your turn What does your current workforce look like? •

How many coaches work full-time/part-time/on a voluntary basis?

How many are in England/Northern Ireland/Scotland/Wales?

How many are qualified/unqualified?

How many are Level 1, Level 2 etc?

On average, each year, how many coaches: •

move between qualifications (ie from Level 1–Level 2, or Level 2–Level 3)

start coaching

stop coaching?

You might realise at this point that some of these insights require several audits in order to establish the trend. •

What are your aspirations for your sport?

Do you want to stay the same or increase/decrease in size?

Do you want to offer your sport to more or less participants?

Would you like to change the current coach:participant ratio?

What proportion of your coaches would you like to be qualified/unqualified?

What proportion of your coaches would you like to be qualified at Level 1, Level 2 etc?

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

You will also need to be aware that your targets will need to be reset every couple of years as new audit data becomes available.

7.5 Workforce Development Plan The purpose of collecting the audit data, in addition to being better informed about your current situation, is to enhance your sport’s management and development of the coaching workforce. Let us assume you have a coaching strategy and a coaching development plan, which will identify priority objectives and targets.

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❐ You need to ensure the coaching workforce is able to deliver the development objectives. Therefore, you will now use the data and insights you have obtained to construct a Workforce Development Plan. This form of planning has been described as the right coaches, doing the right job, matched with the right participants, in the right place at the right time. You need strategies and action plans to build the relevant skills and capacity in the workforce to deliver your sport’s goals and, as with other aspects of auditing, this is a skilled task, so you may wish to mix your internal resources with some external assistance.

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When preparing your Workforce Development Plan, there are a number of things to keep in mind: •

It is not just about recruitment; it is also about being flexible to achieve the necessary number of coaching hours.

You need to support the existing workforce and develop it with specific goals in mind. This means continuous professional development and changes to certification expectations.

Bear in mind your resources (personnel) and the existing commitment of the sport to a more managed approach. It may be realistic to begin with relatively modest changes and build on these once the momentum has been established.

Workforce planning in governing bodies of sport has a number of challenges. These should not deflect you from adopting a more managed approach, but it is useful to acknowledge them and perhaps to adjust your expectations: •

Governing bodies of sport tend to be authority regulators of matters relating to education and training, quality assurance and working practices (eg coach:athlete ratios, safety), but they do not always employ coaches directly.

You will probably have a mix of mainly voluntary activity within clubs and (usually to a lesser extent) some paid employment (both full- and part-time).

There is a distinction between skills shortages (lack of persons with the appropriate skills, evident in vacancies and recruitment difficulties) and skills deficits (lack of appropriate skills of persons in post). The former is an issue largely of recruitment, and the latter one of retraining and up-skilling coaches.

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Governing bodies of sport do not draw from a ready pool of labour. Coaches generally need to begin at entry level and the movement of coaches between clubs is limited. The voluntary coaching commitment means there is generally no coaching career in a progressive employment sense, which impacts on the workforce development plan in terms of incentives and motives for recruitment and training/education.

Having acknowledged some of the difficulties, you can begin writing your Workforce Development Plan and identifying the following five stages: Stage 1: Interpret your data Stage 2: Interpret your supply evidence Stage 3: Interpret your demand evidence Stage 4: Identify your objectives and targets Stage 5: Construct your action plans to make progress towards these targets. Given the nature of this work, it is important for you to realise that this User Guide can only give you a taste of the process. You will need to work with your own data and circumstances to achieve your own detailed plan.

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Stage 1: Interpret your data Let us illustrate this by an imaginary set of findings: Having analysed your findings, you realise that:

As a result you are considering:

you have an older workforce

a promotional campaign among current participants

the majority of the coaches operate for fewer than two hours per week

some incentives for coaches to progress to higher awards

the great majority of your coaches are volunteers

that it may not be possible to increase coaches’ existing commitment

your coaches are generally former participants

a recruitment campaign at local and national competitions

you have a high proportion of unqualified coaches

ways to get this ‘ready’ pool of recruits into coach-education

a disappointing number of Level 1 course candidates go on to become active coaches

instigating a coach tracking system

few coaches are attending continuous professional development events.

re-examining the relevance and attractiveness of your continuous professional development programme.

Now it’s your turn You should carry out this exercise for your own data. Go through each measure and decide what it is telling you. This would make a worthwhile workshop exercise for you and some senior colleagues. The implications of each of your findings will begin to construct an agenda for your planning.

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. Do I need to follow up on this activity? Yes

No

Stage 2: Interpret your supply evidence

Are there any obvious gaps?

The second stage of creating your Workforce Development Plan includes a number of key elements:

Are there patterns that concern you; for example, too few Level 3 coaches?

the projection of the audit data to national levels

the estimation of coached hours

Is there a substantial number of clubs that report to have no coaches, or unqualified ones?

the throughput of coach-education.

Does your coach-education system have the capacity to expand if required?

Are you happy with the coach:participant ratios in clubs?

You will now know who your coaches are and who they are coaching. This requires some judgement on your part to identify what the data is telling you: The Coaching Workforce User Guide

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Stages and participant domains

Stage 3: Interpret your demand evidence

It is difficult to give clear advice in this area due to the early developmental stage of most Participant Development Models. If your sport has adopted a Participant Development Model based on the longterm Participant Development Model, it may be possible to make a judgement of the current supply of coaches in each of your sectors, describing their qualifications, characteristics, experience and working practices.

This has already been dealt with earlier in the document to some extent when we discussed how to project your data into the future. You may have been using:

You may find yourself making some fairly general judgements about children’s coaching, club coaching and high-performance coaching, for example. Hopefully, you will be able to estimate the number of coached hours currently devoted to each sector.

an incremental growth model (eg 5% year-on-year increase)

growth estimates based on your membership trends and club sizes

aspirational targets identified in your and other strategy documents.

It is also important to take into account the number of coaches who stop coaching each year, as this will have an impact on the size of your overall coaching population. In the early stages of collecting audit data, you may need to estimate this ‘churn’ (ie turnover) figure.

Now it’s your turn It would be relatively easy to construct an ideal model of numbers of coaches, level of qualifications, and deployment models within clubs, but how do you make this happen? Is the sport ready for it? How much of the deployment do you control? Even with a Participant Coach Development Model at an early stage, it would be worthwhile for you to devise a target deployment of coaches by clubs and by sector. Can you work out how many coaching hours are required in each area? Predict how these additional hours could be achieved. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. Do I need to follow up on this activity? Yes

No

The result of this is that you now have a target figure for coach deployment over the period of your planning, and you need to create achievable steps towards these targets.

Stages 4 and 5: Identify your objectives and targets/Construct your action plans to make progress towards these targets The final two stages of writing a Workforce Development Plan can be considered together.

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❐ It is particularly important to stress that workforce planning is about more than simply setting coacheducation targets; however, you need your audit data to ensure you are working from an accurate evidence base. We recommend you establish a fairly broad planning framework and then devise action development plans for each two-year period. This will allow you time to make progress but ensure that you reassess where you are and incorporate new audit data on a regular basis.

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Remember that we established the workforce management and development to embrace education, training, deployment, support, and promotion of coaches and coaching. Therefore, your workforce plan will attend to: •

recruitment targets

changes to the pattern of coaching qualifications (ie up-skilling)

specific deployment within Participant Development Model domain (performance coaching, children’s coaching)

coach-education targets

coach databases

regulation/licensing

continuous professional development programmes

incentives, rewards and promotion

club-coaching deployment patterns.

Unfortunately, we cannot cover all of these issues in this User Guide, so you may wish to consult more widely about them. We suggest you talk with colleagues in other sports who have been through this stage in workforce planning and can provide examples, or contact the sports coach UK Research Team at: research@sportscoachuk.org Bear in mind that, as a governing body of sport, you can influence some of these features of coaching more than others.

7.6 Building up the picture By going through these processes, you will gain an insight into how you could move your sport forward. But remember, it is just an insight and this will need to be used to complement your experiences and alternative information sources. Making the predictions for the first year is always the hardest, but each year you collect data you will gain a better idea as to how your workforce is growing, which in itself gives you an idea as to how you can project your data forward. Bearing all these issues in mind, it is important to remember that this process offers you a very powerful tool to apply to many situations, including employing and deploying coaches, allocating and identifying budgets, targeting specific types of coaches and identifying the need for specific coach development.

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These elements, among others, will offer great benefits to you and your sport. Potential ways to use the data to benefit your sport include: •

coaching delivery plans

funding submissions

strategy development

employment/deployment of coaches

development of coaches.

7.7 Future research work On completion of your Workforce Development Plan there may be areas that you feel you need to know more about. This is an ideal opportunity to look into the data further and, if necessary, conduct further research or analysis. On the basis that most of your workforce data will be of a quantitative nature if there are additional areas to explore, it is likely that you will want to use qualitative data to add detailed insight and richness (see Measures – Choosing What Data to Collect [Section 4]). Qualitative data is particularly useful for answering the why questions, such as: •

why does the majority of your workforce work on a volunteer basis

why do more men than women coach

why don’t more coaches do higher-level awards?

7.8 Reflecting on the audit After you have finished any research project, it is always important to debrief or reflect on the processes that you have undertaken and the results you achieved. This will not only inform the development of future audit projects you may undertake, but will also inform the development of other research studies. The reflection process might also inform: •

staff training and development needs

your priorities in terms of future research projects

future improvements to this project.

The box overleaf highlights some questions to ask yourself and your team after the project has finished. It is useful to get everyone who was involved in the project together to do this, as people with different roles and responsibilities on the project will have a different view about how it can be developed in the future.

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Now it’s your turn Key questions to ask yourself and the project team: •

What have you learnt from carrying out your audit? Think about the process, the methods you used and your results.

Were the right people involved?

Was the process as you expected? What were the unexpected events and how did you respond?

Did you/your sport benefit from the process? Why?

Have you used the data to inform/impact on changes? How will you use it in the future? Is the data you have received useable?

What would you do differently and why in your next audit?

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. .............................................................................

Do I need to follow up on these questions? Yes

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8 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS By this stage you will have: •

developed an understanding of the key principles on which the coaching workforce methodology is based

gained an insight into carrying out your workforce audit

designed your questionnaire(s)

sent your questionnaire(s) to your sample of coaches/clubs

received your completed questionnaire(s)

entered your data into a spreadsheet/database

stored your questionnaire(s) somewhere safe

analysed and interpreted your data

reported key findings.

In this next section, you will find some of the answers to the most frequently asked questions (FAQs). If you have any more questions, please send them to the Research Team at sports coach UK at: research@sportscoachuk.org who will endeavour to update the FAQ section of this document on a regular basis.

Q. How do I populate my Participant and Coach Development Models? Populating your Participant/Coach Development Models is not something that can be done quickly. It is an iterative process, which should really be done in consultation with colleagues and possibly experts from outside your organisation. In the first instance, it is recommended that you contact your Coaching System Manager who will be able to advise you on where to

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start and who to contact. For research on the area, please refer to the sports coach UK research publication page: www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php?PageID=5&sc=23& uid= or search the Coaching Research Database www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php?PageID=5&sc=24& uid= User guides have been produced and are available on the sports coach UK website at: www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php? PageID=2&sc=65&uid=

Q. I’ve got limited funding, how can I undertake the research? Starting small is better than not starting at all. Think carefully and be realistic about what you would like to achieve and what you can achieve. Look at the project plan calendar included earlier in the User Guide, which will tell you how long things will take. They will give you a baseline to work from and will provide invaluable experience of conducting research/audit projects to help you in the future.

Q. My colleagues are not convinced about the benefits of workforce auditing, how can I sell it to them? Although at first it can be time consuming and there are some costs associated, workforce auditing is the best way of finding out exactly who your workforce are, what they do, where they work, what skills and qualifications they have, and how much time they spend doing a variety of tasks.

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Once you have gathered all this information, think of the benefits for your staff and your organisation as a whole. You might discover that you are significantly lacking Level 3 coaches to deliver the programmes you want to. It’s better to have this information than find out when you have participants waiting to be coached but no coaches to coach them…knowledge is power!

Is the questionnaire clear in terms of its layout?

Is it easy for the respondent to navigate their way through the questionnaire?

Do all instructions you provide make sense? Test them with someone who hasn’t seen the questionnaire before.

Q. Can you explain the projections methodology to me, I’m a bit confused?

Is the questionnaire reasonably quick to complete? You don’t want your respondents getting bored and giving up.

To project data you have to make assumptions. There is no other way, so this is the information we took into consideration:

Q. We sent out the questionnaires two weeks ago and so far have only received a few completed ones. Is there anything I can do to increase the response rate?

home country strategy in relation to coaching (targets and aspirations)

national survey data from the last three years relating to coaching and participation in sport.

The projections methodology in this User Guide is just one possible method for projecting your data forward. This is our first attempt at doing this so there might be a better or more robust way. For more information, please refer to The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document.

Q. How often should audits be repeated? Ideally, we would recommend that audits are carried out annually to ensure you are always using the most up-to-date data available. However, we appreciate this is not always going to be possible or even appropriate given the cost and time implications associated with the task. Biennially (every two years) would probably suit most sports and this would ensure that the projections calculated can be reflected on, and adjusted, if necessary.

Q. I am worried my questionnaire doesn’t look very professional. We only have a limited budget so can’t afford for it to be designed. What can I do?

Don’t panic! First, we suggest that you consult Section 5.3 on maximising response rates. Give some of the ideas a try and see what results you achieve. You need to be realistic in terms of your response rates; you will never be able to achieve 100% unless you conduct all your interviews face-to-face and spend months, if not years, working on it.

Q. I have got my report from my consultant, but I don’t understand it. How do I interpret the results? Speak to your consultant. It’s a good idea to try to resolve this sort of issue with your consultant at an early stage. You have paid them to carry out the work so they are here to help you. Before you approach your consultant, it is useful to sit down (maybe as a group) and work out what it is you don’t understand, how you would like to see the data presented, or how it could be adapted to suit your needs. Sometimes, it is useful for the consultant to present the results to you face-to-face so you can ask questions and understand where numbers have come from. If you are still struggling, please contact the sports coach UK Research Team at: research@sportscoachuk.org

Ensuring you have the right questions is more important than the colours and pictures you include. Your budget would be better spent piloting your questions than on designing the questionnaire. The key points to remember are:

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9 FURTHER ADVICE AND GUIDANCE sports coach UK documents/ contact details To access the full version of The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document please visit www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php? PageID=5&sc=23&uid=367 For information on potential consultants or data interpretation advice, contact the sports coach UK Research Team at: research@sportscoachuk.org For an up-to-date list of Coaching System Managers based at sports coach UK and the sports they work with, please see the document Governing Body of Sport Relationship Management at the following link: www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php? PageID=2&sc=65&uid= The sports coach UK Coaching Research Database can provide you with research from across coaching in the UK and beyond: www.sportscoachuk.org/index.php? PageID=5&sc=24&uid=

Sport organisations Visit SkillsActive for more advice on workforce development and specific tools available at: www.skillsactive.com/training/workforce-development/ For help on sourcing funding for your projects, contact the relevant Home Country Sports Council: • •

sportscotland www.sportscotland.org.uk

Research information For more information on the Data Protection Act, please refer to www.ico.gov.uk Market Research Society – generic research advice www.mrs.org.uk National Centre for Social Research – generic research training and advice www.natcen.ac.uk/index.html Quantitative data analysis software you can buy online and look into training opportunities: SNAP: www.snapsurveys.com SPSS: www.spss.com/UK For advice on conducting qualitative research, visit the Association of Qualitative Research at: www.aqr.org.uk The Social Research Update provides useful academic papers on a variety of research topics including: data analysis, piloting and using other methods for data collection, such as the Internet and ethical issues: http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/

Advice on making your documents accessible: For help and advice with making your questionnaires and audit tools accessible: •

Sport England www.sportengland.org

Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) www.rnib.org.uk/Pages/Home.aspx

Sports Council for Wales www.sports-council-wales.org.uk/index

Royal National Institute for Deaf People (RNID) www.rnid.org.uk

Dyslexia Action www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk

Equality and Human Rights Commission www.equalityhumanrights.com

Sport Northern Ireland www.sportni.net

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10 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Below are a selection of words, terms and phrases that you will find in research projects involving workforce auditing and development. Please add in your own if you come across any others that your colleagues would find useful. Audit: An audit is the evaluation of a person, organisation, system, process, enterprise, project or product. Audits are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability of information; also to provide an assessment of a system’s internal control. In simple terms we might think of it as a check of the current status of something (eg coaching). Coach Development Model: The Coach Development Model is an aspirational tool; it is still evolving. It sets out where we want to be, rather than where we are and has been developed in consultation with key partners. It is generic and high level, guided by key principles and is evidence-based, related to similarity of need, goals, motives and age/stage of development. The Coach Development Model identifies core components – populations, segments, stages of development, and pathways and capabilities. Cross-tabulation: A cross-tabulation (often referred to as a cross-tab) is a table of data that allows one variable to be broken down by another variable. For example, you might want to know how many of your qualified coaches are female.

Are you a qualified coach? Gender Male %

Female %

Yes

53

46

No

47

55

Source: Sports Coaching in the UK II (2007) Note: due to rounding up, figures may not total 100%

Data entry: This is the process you or an external agency will go through when you have received your completed questionnaires. All the answers or data will need to be entered into a system – be it an Excel spreadsheet, SNAP database or SPSS file – so you are then ready to analyse your data. Data Management System: A data management system is essentially a ‘holding point’ for data that allows you to store data while extracting information for analysis purposes. Demand (for coaching): What participants are asking for in terms of coaching; for example, the number of available sessions, length of sessions, level of participation. Frequency table: Frequency tables present a selection data to indicate the number of occasions on which a particular response has been given. Method/methodology: While method describes what you have done (sometimes the word procedures is used), methodology is about your reasons for doing it that way.

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Open-ended question: In research, an open-ended question is one that is likely to provoke some kind of discussion or debate. It is best used in a face-to-face interview so that the researcher and respondent can interact, as the answer you receive will not just be yes or no. Participant Development Model: The Participant Development Model provides a method for showing how participants should develop in and through sport. The model is generic and high level. It is evidence based, related to participants’ needs, goals, motives and age/stage of development. It is guided by key principles and identifies core components. Pilot: When you conduct a pilot you are testing a specific element of your project. In the context of this project, you are testing your questionnaires and collection methods for the following things: is it user friendly; have you used the correct language and terminology; are you distributing the survey in the best format for the respondents? Population: Your research population is the total number of potential subjects for your research. If this population is larger than you need or can cope with, then you should use a rational and unbiased process for reducing the number (sampling). Proposal/tender: This is the document you will receive from researchers/consultants after you have put your project brief out to tender. This document should address all the issues raised in your project brief. Qualitative data: Qualitative data will focus on depth and subtlety in a single or small number of settings, rather than counting characteristics over a larger number of settings or responses from more people. This method can provide a rich and more in-depth data set. Researchers will often use qualitative methods to complement quantitative methods and vice versa.

validity. In some sectors, statistical presentation is respected more than any other format. Project brief: The project brief is the document you develop to provide details of your research project. This is the document you will send out to potential researchers and consultants and will contain information on the following: background to the research (why you are doing it), aims and objectives of the research, proposed research methodology, budget and timescales. Response rate: The proportion of people asked to take part in research who actually become respondents is your response rate. Non-response occurs when you have selected a sample and some of them do not provide data. Usually, face-to-face surveys will have a non-response rate of around 25% and postal surveys nearer 70%. Sampling: Sampling is the process by which you reduce the total number of possible respondents for a research project (the research population) to a number that is practically feasible and theoretically acceptable (the sample). Supply (of coaching): The amount and type of coaching provision currently available. Surveys: Surveys can be defined as the systematic collection of data (facts, ideas, opinions) from a number of people for the purposes of analysis. Tabular or frequencies are sets of data which provide a count of the number of occasions on which a particular answer/response has been given across all of those respondents who tackled the question. For example, how many coaches have identified themselves as having a disability? Do you identify yourself as having a disability? Number

Quantitative data: Quantitative data is that which can be stored in reasonably well-defined categories and in sufficient volume (ie number of responses) to permit tabular and cross-tabular presentations, and possibly statistical analysis. It is about counting and offering findings as numbers or percentages. The strength of this approach lies in the precision and clarity with which findings can be stated and the scope that exists (via appropriate statistical tests) for establishing general

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%

Yes

114,000

10%

No

1,063,000

90%

Source: Sports Coaching in the UK II (2007)

Variable: Any factor which may be relevant to a research study. In a survey, for example, you may choose to analyse data by the age and gender of respondents: age and gender are variables.

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APPENDIX 1: MODEL QUESTIONNAIRES WITH GUIDANCE This first appendix provides you with guidance for developing or updating model questionnaires. It highlights key elements that you will need to update to ensure your questionnaire is suitable for your sport. It also highlights areas that you may want to consider providing definitions to, to help your respondents complete the questionnaire(s).

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Both questionnaires have been tested and implemented by sports coach UK, so are good starting points for collecting workforce data within your sport.

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CLUB QUESTIONNAIRE

[insert governing body of sport logo]

Generic club questionnaire [Governing body of sport] is conducting research into coaches and coaching provision. Action! Inserting your sport’s logo will provide Purpose legitimacy and weight to the questionnaire. The purpose of the research is to understand more about the coaching workforce; for example: •

whether more coaches are needed

where coaches are needed (eg in what clubs, at what level, disciplines)

whether coaches need further development

what kind of development opportunities they need

how these development opportunities can be provided.

The results of the research will be used by [governing body of sport] to allocate funding and improve services to [sport] clubs.

Confidentiality The research is completely confidential; [governing body of sport] will not be able to match your contact details with your responses. All data collection, management and analysis are being conducted by a third-party agency with full adherence to the Data Protection Act 1998.

Filling out the questionnaire Most questions have either a tick box, or require you to fill out some brief details in the tinted boxes provided. Important: Please answer as many questions as you can. We realise there will be some questions you do not know the answers to, but please complete those you can answer and return the questionnaire. Your response is very important to us.

Incentive This project is extremely important to the future development of coaches in [sport]. However, we are also offering the following incentive for completion [insert incentive]. If you have any questions about the research, please contact [insert contact name and details]. Please return your responses to [insert details] by [insert date]. Thank you for contributing to this important project.

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Club details Please complete in BLOCK CAPITALS Name of club:

Contact name:

Address:

County:

Action! Think about making the county question compulsory. This will make analysis easier.

Country:

Postcode:

Telephone:

Email:

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Your club and its participants Q1. What sport/discipline(s) do you provide at your club? Sport: Discipline(s):

Q2. On average, over the last 12 months/season, how many individuals in total were participating in sport at your club? Total:

Q3. Of those participants identified in Q2, how many were in the following age groups? Younger children (4–11 years) Older children (12–16 years) Young people (17–20 years) Adults (21+ years) Total

Q4. Of those participants identified in Q2, how many are playing/competing at the following levels? Note: Please enter the highest level the participant plays/competes at.

Beginner/learner Club competition County/regional competition High performance

Action! Are these categories relevant to your sport? Will your clubs understand these categories? If not, make sure you add a definition to help them complete the questionnaire accurately.

Recreational Total

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2

Male only

1

Female only

0

Mixed group

Average number of sessions for male/female participants per week

1

Male-only group

1

Female-only group

0

Mixed group

Average number of sessions per week where a coach is present

1

Average session length (hours) (eg 30 mins = 0.5 hours)

12

Average number of participants per session

2

Average number of coaches providing coaching per session

*We realise this is a difficult question to answer, particularly in clubs with many teams and groups. Please do your best and, as a minimum, please make an estimate for all your participants in the mixed-group row.

.........................

Other (please specify)

.........................

Other (please specify)

Recreational

Mixed group (ie sessions for mixed levels)*

High performance

Country/regional

Competition

Club

Recreational

Example Competition

Session level

Q5. Please provide information on typical sessions that take place at your club:

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Coaching in your club Q6. In total, how many individuals provided coaching at your club in the last 12 months/season? Please note these are the roles coaches play, rather than their level of qualification. Coaches who coached exclusively for your club Head coaches Coaches Assistant coaches Other coaching role Total (A)

Coaches who coached at your club but also coached for other clubs/providers Head coaches Action! Are these roles relevant to Coaches your sport or do you need to add/remove some roles? Assistant Will your coaches clubs understand these roles? If necessary, add a definition of each Other coaching role role to help them complete the question Total (B) accurately.

Total coaches coaching in your club (ie A+B): Note: It is very important that you provide an answer to this question.

Q7. Of those coaches identified in Q6, how many were in the following categories? Notes: Travel and other sundry expenses do not count as payment. The totals in Q7 should be exactly the same as the totals in Q6. If your club operates satellite clubs, include these in the first column. Coaches who coach exclusively for your club

Coaches who coach at your club but also coach for other clubs/providers

Unpaid (voluntary) less than 10 hours per week

Unpaid (voluntary) 10 hours or more per week Paid part-time/sessional for less than 10 hours per week Paid part-time/sessional for 10 hours or more per week Paid full-time for over 30 hours per week Total

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Q8. Of those coaches identified in Q6, how many were in the following categories? Please complete for all coaches who coached at your club in the last 12 months/season. Note: Total 1, 2, 3 and 4 should add up to the total number of coaches coaching at your club in the last 12 months/season (Q6). Gender

Disability

Males

Coaches with a disability

Females

Coaches without a disability

Total (1)

Not sure Total (3) Age

Ethnicity

15 years and under

White

16–21 years

Mixed

22–29 years

Asian or Asian British

30–39 years

Black or Black British

40–49 years

Chinese and other ethnic group

50+ years

Not sure

Total (2)

Total (4)

Coaching qualifications and continuous professional development Q9. Of those coaches identified in Q6, how many held a governing body of sport coaching award/qualification at the following levels? Qualification level No qualification Level 1

Number

Note: [The governing body of sport] understands that almost all clubs use unqualified individuals to provide coaching, so please be honest about the number coaching in your club. This will help [the governing body of sport] to provide qualified individuals.

Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Total

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Q10. Has your club provided any of the following continuous professional development opportunities for its coaches in the last 12 months/season, either directly or by funding the opportunity? Insert the number of coaches who have undertaken each type of continuous professional development.

Provided by the club

Funded by the club

Coaching conferences Coaching qualification Education outside coaching Online learning (ie Internet) Reading coaching books, magazines and journals Watching coaching DVDs, videos, CD-ROMs Working with a coach mentor Working with/observing coaches from your sport Working with/observing coaching from other sports Workshops/training events/courses One-on-one Training Needs Analysis with a coach Other (please specify)

Q11. How many coaches in your club have completed the following governing body of sport awards/qualification levels in the last 12 months/season? Qualification level

Number

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Total

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Coaching gaps Q12. Has your club been able to provide all the coaching it would like to participants in the last 12 months/season? For example, has demand from existing participants, or new participants, exceeded the provision by the club and its coaches? Please tick one. Yes No

❐ ❐

Q13. Have you had any coaching gaps that you have actively tried to fill/recruit for over the last 12 months/season? Please tick one. Yes

Continue to Q14

No

Go to Q17.

Note: These vacancies may have been filled in the last 12 months.

Q14. Which of the following were the reasons for the coaching gaps/vacancies? Please tick all that apply. A coach, or coaches, have left/retired from the club, or reduced hours

The club is growing so we need more coaches

The club is trying to improve its coach:participant ratios

We have introduced coaching for the first time

❐ ❐

Other (please specify)........................................................................................................................

Q15. Please provide details (ie the number) of any gaps/vacancies (filled and unfilled) over the last 12 months/season: Filled gaps/vacancies Paid

Unpaid

Unfilled gaps/vacancies Paid

Unpaid

Total number in the last 12 months/season: Qualification level Unqualified Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Paid/unpaid Number of unpaid Number of paid

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Q16. What are the main problems you experience when recruiting new coaches? Please provide details in the box.

Planning coaching provision next year Q17. Do you plan to make any changes to the numbers/types/economic status of your coaches over the next 12 months? Yes

â??

Continue to Q18

No

â??

Go to Q20.

Q18. How many coaches do you plan to have coaching at your club during the next 12 months/season? In addition to last year (ie new coaches in addition to those reported in Q6) Head coaches

In total (ie what you had last year [Q6] plus new coaches for the next 12 months/season)

Other coaching role

Action! Are these roles relevant to your sport or do you need to add/remove some roles? Will your coaches understand these roles? If necessary, add a definition of each role to help your coaches complete the question accurately.

Total

Total

Coaches Assistant coaches

Q19. Of those new coaches (identified in Q18), how many will be in each of the following categories? Only include new coaches (ie those who are additional to those identified in Q7). Unpaid (voluntary) less than 10 hours per week Unpaid (voluntary) 10 hours or more per week Paid part-time sessional for less than 10 hours per week Paid part-time sessional for 10 hours or more per week Paid full-time for over 30 hours per week Total

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Q20. Do you plan to provide any continuous professional development opportunities for your coaches in the next 12 months/season, either directly or by funding the opportunity? Insert the number of coaches who will undertake each type of continuous professional development over the next year.

Provided directly by the club

Funded by the club

Coaching conferences Coaching qualification Education outside coaching Online learning (ie Internet) Reading coaching books, magazines and journals Watching coaching DVDs, videos, CD-ROMs Working with a coach mentor Working with/observing coaches from your sport Working with/observing coaching for other sports Workshops/training events/courses One-on-one Training Needs Analysis with a coach Other (please specify)

Q21. How many coaches do you plan to put through the following governing body of sport award/qualification levels in the next 12 months/season? Enter numbers in table. Qualification level

Number

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Total

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Q22. Do you have any other comments that you would like to feedback to your governing body of sport concerning coaches and coaching? Please provide details in the box.

Data Protection Act 1998 The information provided on this questionnaire will be held by [insert governing Action!body/research organisation] and used to assess the current coaching workforce and inform future policy decisions. Don’t forget to insert the name of your governing body. I confirm that the information on this form is correct to the best of my knowledge. Signed: Dated:

Thank you for taking the time to complete this form. Please return it to [insert contact details]. Action! Don’t forget to insert the name and contact details of the person who is collecting the completed questionnaire.

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COACH QUESTIONNAIRE

Insert governing body logo

Action! Inserting your sport’s logo will provide legitimacy and Generic coach questionnaire weight to the questionnaire. [Governing body of sport] is conducting research into coaching.

Purpose The purpose of the research is to understand more about the coaching that you do, to: •

help you to find the right coaching opportunities

help you with coach-development opportunities

value and recognise the coaching that you do.

The results of the research will be used by [governing body of sport] to allocate funding and improve services to [sport] coaches, through clubs or directly.

Confidentiality The research is completely confidential; [governing body of sport] will not be able to match your contact details with your responses. All data collection, management and analysis are being conducted by a third-party agency with full adherence to the Data Protection Act 1998.

Filling out the questionnaire Most questions have either a tick box, or require you to fill out some brief details in the tinted boxes provided. Important: Please answer as many questions as you can. We realise there will be some questions you do not know the answers to, but please complete those you can answer and return the questionnaire. Your response is very important to us.

Incentive This project is extremely important to the future development of coaches in [sport]. However, we are also offering the following incentive for completion [insert incentive]. If you have any questions about the research, please contact [insert contact name and details]. Please return your responses to [insert details] by [insert date]. Thank you for contributing to this important project.

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About you Please complete in BLOCK CAPITALS

Title: (Miss/Mrs/Ms/Mr/Dr/Other)

Surname:

First name(s):

Address:

County:

Country:

Postcode:

Telephone:

Email:

Date of birth: (dd/mm/yyyy)

Club/place of employment:

Total number of clubs/places you currently coach in:

Public:

Private:

Other:

About your coaching Q1. Have you undertaken any [insert sport] coaching in the last 12 months? Please tick one. Yes

Continue to Q2

No

Go to the equity questions only (end of

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Q2. Have you typically coached in an unpaid/voluntary, paid part-time and/or paid full-time capacity in the last 12 months? Please tick one box in the first column (ie your coaching capacity for [insert sport]. If applicable, please also tick one box in the second column (ie your coaching capacity across all sports that you coach).

In [insert sport] only

In all sports you coach

Unpaid (voluntary) less than 10 hours per week

Unpaid (voluntary) 10 hours or more per week

Paid part-time/sessional for less than 10 hours per week

Paid part-time/sessional for 10 hours or more per week

Paid full-time for over 30 hours per week

Not applicable

Q3. On average, how often have you coached in the last 12 months, or, if applicable, in the last season? Please tick one only. Almost every working day

At least once a week

At least once a month

At least once every six months

At least once in the last year

Action! sports coach UK define a coach as someone who coaches at least once per month. What definition does your sport use? Make sure the options in Q3 reflect your definition so you can easily identify your active coaches.

Q4. On average, how many hours per week do you typically undertake the following coaching activities for? Activity

Hours

Preparing for coaching

hours

Delivering coaching (training/competition)

hours

Communicating to parents/others outside coaching

hours

Reviewing, monitoring, evaluating coaching

hours

Coaching-related administration

hours

Travel to and from coaching

hours

Professional development and learning

hours

Total

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hours

Calculating hours: 15 mins = 0.25 hrs 30 mins = 0.5 hrs 45 mins = 0.75 hrs 60 mins = 1.0 hrs 1 hour 15 mins = 1.25 hours 1 hour 30 mins = 1.5 hours 1 hour 45 mins = 1.75 hours 2 hour 15 mins = 2.25 hours 2 hour 30 mins = 2.5 hours 2 hour 45 mins = 2.75 hours

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Q5. Please indicate in which of the following coaching settings you have coached in the last 12 months? Please tick all that apply. Single-sport club

Multi-sport club

Health and fitness club/private club

College/sports college/Further Education

Community project/scheme

County/regional training centre

High-performance training centre

Outdoor activity centre

Holiday camps

Home (private coaching)

Institute of Sport

Leisure centre/local authority

Private sports facility

School (within PE lessons)

School (outside of PE lessons)

Schools of sport (Northern Ireland only)

University

Youth club/youth organisation

Other (please specify) .........................................................................................................................

Action! Don’t forget to make sure that the list of settings is relevant to your sport.

Q6. Which of the following best describes your involvement in coaching over the last 12 months? Please tick all that apply. Head coach

Coach

Assistant coach

Other (please specify) ...........................................................................................................

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Action! Are these roles relevant to your sport or do you need to add/remove some roles? Will your coaches understand these roles? If necessary, add a definition of each role to help your coaches complete the question accurately.

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Other (please specify) .................................

Other (please specify) .................................

Other (please specify) .................................

High performance

Competition

County/regional

Club

Recreational

Beginner/learner

Level of participants(s)

Sport/discipline (ie archery, football, gymnastics, netball) Younger children (4–11 years) Older children (12–16 years)

Young people (17–20 years)

Average number of participants in group

Adults (21+ years)

Note: If you coach more than one individual/groups within the same participant level, please provide average/typical data.

Coaching setting (ie club, regional academy, school, university)

Average number of hours per week spent delivering coaching to this group

Q7. For each level of participant you have coached in the last 12 months, please provide the relevant information in the table below (ie group sizes, settings, hours coached).

Specific coaching experiences in the last 12 months

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Other roles and experiences Q8. Have you undertaken any of the following coaching-related activities in the last 12 months? Please tick all that apply. Coach mentor

Coach educator (tutor)

Tutor trainer

Coach assessor

Coach verifier

Other (please specify) .......................................................................................................................

Action! Will your coach understand these activities? If necessary, add a definition of each activity to help your coaches complete the question accurately.

Coach qualifications, licence and continuous professional development Q9. Do you have a [governing body of sport] recognised coaching award/qualification? Yes

Continue to Q10

No

Go to Q11.

Action! Q9 and Q10: Don’t forget to update the name of your governing body.

Q10. Please provide information on your highest [governing body of sport] coaching award qualifications: Please enter your highest qualification. Award/qualification name Example: County coach

Year achieved Example: 2002

Q11. Do you have a [governing body of sport] recognised licence to practise? Yes

Continue to Q12

No

Go to Q13.

Action! Q11 and Q12: Don’t forget to update the name of your governing body. Also, only include these questions if your governing body operates a licence system.

Q12. Please provide information on [governing body of sport] licence: Please enter licence details. Year licence was gained Example: 1998

Year licence is due to expire Example: 2008

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Q13. In addition to any awards/qualifications you may have taken, have you undertaken any (other) continuous professional development since you began coaching? Please tick one. Yes

Continue to Q14

No

Go to Q16.

What is continuous professional development? For more information about continuous professional development, have a look at the list of learning ideas/opportunities in Q15.

Q14. Have you undertaken any CPD within the last 12 months? Please tick one. Yes

Continue to Q15

No

Go to Q16.

Q15. Looking through the following list of CPD learning experiences/sources, please indicate if you have used them in the last 12 months and whether you would like to utilise this learning in the next 12 months. Please tick all that apply. Used in the last 12 months

Want to use in the next 12 months

Coaching practice (putting your skills into practice)

❐ ❐

❐ ❐

Coaching qualifications – governing body of sport or UK Coaching Certificate (UKCC)

Education outside coaching

❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐

❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐

❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐

❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐

❐ ❐ ❐

❐ ❐ ❐

Coaching conferences

Experience at work outside coaching (your day job) Experience of being a parent Experience as a player/competitor Online learning (ie Internet) Reading coaching books, magazines and journals Reflecting on past coaching Watching coach-related DVDs, videos, CD-ROMs Working with a coach mentor Working with athlete(s)/player(s)/participant(s) Working with/observing coaches from your sport Working with/observing coaching for other sports Working with/observing my coach when I was a player Watching/observing players in competition Workshops/training events/courses One-on-one Training Needs Analysis with a coach developer Other (please specify) ...............................................................................................

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Q16. Which of the following safety/equity workshops have you undertaken in the last three years? Please tick all that apply. Equity

Disability

Safeguarding children

First aid

Other (please specify) ................................................................................

Future coaching and coach development Q17. On average, how many direct coaching delivery hours per week (training and competition) would you expect to undertake over the next 12 months? Enter number of hours per week. Average coaching week:

hours

If your working hours vary throughout the year, please provide a winter and summer response instead. Average summer week:

hours

Average winter week:

hours

Calculating hours: 15 mins = 0.25 hours 30 mins = 0.5 hours 45 mins = 0.75 hours 60 mins = 1.0 hours 1 hr 15 mins = 1.25 hours 1 hr 30 mins = 1.5 hours 1 hr 45 mins = 1.75 hours 2 hr 15 mins = 2.25 hours

Action! Do your coaches work continuously throughout the year, or are there seasonal variances in their coaching? Make sure Q17 reflects your sport.

Q18. Does your answer to Q17 represent more, the same, or less coaching over the next 12 months when compared with the previous 12 months (look back at your answer to Q4)? Please tick one and double check your answers with Q4 and Q17. More

Same

Less

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Q19. Do you intend to take the next level governing body of sport award/qualification over the next 12 months? Please tick one. Yes

Continue to Q20

No

Go to Q21

Not sure

Go to equity information (end of questionnaire).

Q20. If ‘yes’ to Q19, what award/qualification level will you be taking? Please tick all that apply. Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Q21. If ‘no’ to Q19, why not?

Equity information It is important for our workforce planning that we have information on the make-up of the existing workforce. Please provide the following information:

Gender Please tick one. Male

Female

Ethnic group Please tick one to indicate your cultural background. White British

Irish

Other white

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Ethnic group (continued) Please tick one to indicate your cultural background Mixed

Black or Black British Caribbean

White and Black African

❐ ❐

White and Asian

Other Black

Other mixed

White and Black Caribbean

African

Chinese or other ethnic group Chinese

Asian or Asian British

❐ ❐ ❐ ❐

Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian

❐ ❐ ❐

Other

❐ ❐

The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 defines a disabled person as anyone with a ’physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse affect upon his/her ability to carry out normal day to day activities’.

Do you consider yourself to have a disability? Please tick one. Yes

No

If yes, what is the nature of your disability? Please tick one. Visual

Hearing

Physical

Learning

Multiple

Other

Prefer not to say

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Data Protection Act 1998 The information provided on this questionnaire will be held by [insert governing body of sport/research organisation] and used to assess the current coaching workforce and inform future policy decisions. I confirm that the information on this form is correct to the best of my knowledge. Action! Don’t forget to insert the name of your governing body. Signed:

Dated:

Thank you for taking the time to complete this form. Please return it to [insert contact details]. Action! Don’t forget to insert the name and contact details of the person who is collecting the completed questionnaire.

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APPENDIX 2: TEMPLATE PROJECT BRIEF When developing your brief to appoint consultants, it is important to find a balance between providing potential researchers with enough information to deliver what you want and need, but at the same time the freedom to advise you on what they think you need. Sometimes you do not know what you need, so a fresh pairs of eyes might be able to provide you with something you hadn’t previously considered! This is an example of a brief developed by the sports coach UK Research Team to appoint consultants.

Governing bodies of sport – workforce audits 2009/2010 Introduction sports coach UK wishes to commission a consultant to carry out a sport-specific workforce audit. Continuing the work already established through The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document, this work aims to provide sports with an understanding of the process of workforce data collection, analysis and interpretation. It will also provide an invaluable insight into their current coaching workforce and allow them to make evidence-based decisions on workforce planning. The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document was launched at the fourth Coaching Summit in Glasgow, April 2009, by sports coach UK1. The document sets out a methodology for gathering and analysing data on the coaching workforce. It also takes the analysis stage one step further by developing a process for projecting workforce data, allowing sports to identify an achievable process for meeting targets and objectives.

chosen consultant(s) can meet them. Where possible, further suggestions should be identified in your proposal to illustrate project improvement and enhancement. The deadline for submitting your proposal to sports coach UK is [enter time] on [enter date]. Proposals will be accepted by email and post via the contact details provided at the end of the document.

Proposed approach The appointed consultant(s) will be required to work with [governing body of sport] across England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. As part of this project, we will expect the following activities to take place with each sport: •

Development of a sport-specific questionnaire based on the generic questionnaires for clubs and coaches developed by sports coach UK.

Piloting final versions of the questionnaires with key fieldwork groups (eg coaches, clubs, and governing bodies of sport and their county and/or regional structures). The aim of the pilot is to illustrate to the sports how to conduct future audits. It is essential that a pilot for all questionnaires takes place to illustrate good practice, confirm questionnaire design and illustrate overall understanding from the participant’s perspective.

Develop innovative ways to maximise response rates. Consider using incentives or prize draws to meet the needs of the respondents in each particular sport. Incentives should also be considered during the pilot phase.

The sections below identify the proposed methodology and requirements of this project. It is essential that the

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www.sportscoachuk.org/research/Research+Publications/The+Coaching+Workforce+2009-2016.htm

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• •

Identify and design research data collection and data-storage tools. We anticipate that primarily paper and online methods will be used. Conduct and manage all aspects of the fieldwork, maintaining the support and involvement of the sport to further increase response rates. Consolidate data and conduct data cleaning as appropriate. Analyse data and present results in a report (Workforce Development Plan), identifying suitable recommendations for future development. Support the sports with data interpretation and advise on actions and recommendations.

We expect that the consultant will provide us with regular updates as to how the project is progressing and any issues encountered.

Outputs The following outputs will emerge from the work with each sport: •

Evidence of piloting process (including data collection, piloting tools, etc).

Final data set for all target groups (ie coaches, clubs.) in a useable format (ie Excel, SPSS) to allow the sports to continue manipulating data and investigating workforce trends.

A review of the successes and failures of the data-collection process, including lessons for future data collection. This will be used to inform forthcoming workforce auditing.

Timetable The provisional timetable for the work is as follows: Action

Date

Distribution of the tender brief [Insert appropriate date] Deadline for submissions

[Insert appropriate date]

Consultant(s) appointed

[Insert appropriate date]

Meeting with appointed consultant(s) and sports to discuss the project

[Insert appropriate date]

[Insert any other tasks you would like to set a deadline for]

[Insert appropriate date]

Tender requirements Consultants wishing to tender for the project must illustrate their ability to conduct each of the following elements and, where relevant, provide evidence of projects that have required similar skills and abilities. They must: •

demonstrate their familiarity, understanding and experience of undertaking sport-specific workforce audits

A Workforce Development Plan identifying key findings and actions for development, as well as illustrating how the sport can develop year-on-year (projection tables/graphs).

demonstrate their familiarity, understanding and experience of making appropriate recommendations within Workforce Development Plans

detail proposed methodology for the project, including identifying fieldwork, maximising response rates and data collection

[Insert any other outputs you feel relevant to your project.]

detail proposed management of the project, including justifications for altering any time frames and identifying any key inputs from the sport and sports coach UK

identify any areas where they propose to involve third parties and their rationale for doing so. If applicable, please provide detailed descriptions of the organisations and individuals that would be involved, highlighting any key skill sets or experience that would be relevant to a workforce data audit

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provide a full and detailed cost analysis of all aspects of the project, including all staff costs, travel and subsistence, and the use of incentives etc if applicable, provide budgets for any additional areas of work or further options that would be of benefit to the sport and their workforce audits provide a detailed timetable for completion of the project, including timings for questionnaire design/piloting, data collection, data cleaning, reporting and presenting findings to the sport. Include any additional actions that may arise through the use of alternative methodologies provide details of the proposed project team, identifying key roles and responsibilities (ie project manager, researcher). Provide details of any previous projects, knowledge or experience that will be beneficial to this project

provide details of previous work undertaken for clients in the sport and physical-activity field

provide two references of previous work undertaken (where possible these should be relevant to workforce auditing)

provide a copy of their standard business terms and conditions and their equality and diversity policy

provide details of their quality-assurance mechanisms, including external systems and standards.

Management The project will be managed by [Insert name and job title of the person responsible for the project].

[Insert your requirements in relation to contact between yourselves and the consultant (eg you expect a weekly/monthly email or phone conversation about how the project is progressing).]

Contractual details Each consultant must provide a detailed breakdown of how the budget will be allocated within the project [You will need to make a decision about whether you want to release budget details or not. If your budget is reasonably limited (under £5000) it is advisable to let potential consultants know so they can be realistic in their tenders.]

[Enter here your company’s policy on payment of contractors – do you pay 50% up front and then 50% on completion or a stage approach?]

Contact details Any questions or queries can be directed to:

[Enter full contact details of the project manager – name, address, telephone number (mobile and landline), email address.]

[Insert any other requirements that might be specific to your organisation in terms of contracting work.]

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APPENDIX 3: ASSESSMENT CRITERIA The next appendix provides you with a framework for assessing the bids you receive from consultants. This can be used for all research projects you put out to tender. You might find there are other areas you wish to assess the bids on and these can be added into the pro-forma.

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Bidding organisation

Presentation of bid

Understanding of issues Method

Expertise

Experience of similar work

Tender selection criteria Please write brief notes in each box. Please also provide a 1–5 rating in each box (1 = lowest and 5 = highest)

Cost Capacity to undertake work

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The Coaching Workforce User Guide  

A guide to provide governing bodies of sport with the knowledge, tools and confidence to underake workforce auditing and planning.