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Š The National Coaching Foundation, 2009 This document is copyright under the Berne Convention. All rights are reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to Coachwise Business Solutions. sports coach UK is the brand name of The National Coaching Foundation and has been such since April 2001. Coachwise Editor: Christopher Stanners Coachwise Designer: Saima Nazir Cover photograph Š The National Coaching Foundation

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PREFACE WHAT IS THIS DOCUMENT AND WHO IS IT FOR? This document is aimed primarily at governing body staff and other partners who play a key role in building their sport-specific coaching systems. Others involved in policy, funding and the development of coaches should also find sections relevant and useful to their roles. The document should also be of use to those involved in programme planning at club, school, community, county and regional level, in that it provides a framework for analysing the types of participants in a range of contexts. For those involved in different sports, it is recommended that you also consult with the materials from the coaching department of your governing body, as substantial progress has been made in the development of sport-specific models. This document is presented as a reader’s guide to coach development modelling. It is a user guide for you to dip into as appropriate. It tells you what generic information is currently available to help you build a coach development model that is relevant for your sport and what information will be available in the future. It also sets out step-by-step instructions on how to build your sport-specific coach development model. This resource is intended to complement the material contained in the Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document, and there will be some necessary overlap between these two documents.

The Coach Development Model User Guide

Some sports may be a long way down the line in terms of coach development modelling and may find little new information in this guide. For such sports, this becomes a review and checking tool. For other sports, this is relatively new information or information that has been given to you in stages. We have also posed some questions that relate to new or additional information to highlight the fact that this information is currently in development. The information presented in this document will be evolved, with updated versions produced at regular intervals.


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CONTENTS

Preface – What is this Document and Who is it For? Introduction

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What is Modelling?

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The Coach Development Model

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What will the Coach Development Model Influence? Potential Implications and Applications

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Case Studies related to the Coach Development Model

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Useful References

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INTRODUCTION

It is only just over one year since the formal launch of The UK Coaching Framework. During that time, 31 sports across the UK and each of the four home countries have begun to use The Framework as the key reference point for developing their coaching systems. The vision of The UK Coaching Framework is to create a cohesive, ethical, inclusive and valued coaching system where skilled coaches support children, players and athletes at all stages of their development and that is world number one by 2016. The Framework includes the agreed vision, principles and outcomes for stakeholders: to deliver fundamental changes in the UK Coaching System (Strategic Action Area 1 of The UK Coaching Framework) towards creating a world-leading coaching system. A number of the principles outlined in The Framework are directly relevant to the development of the Coach Development Model, including the following: •

Governing bodies of sport are recognised as the lead agencies in sport-specific coaching. Partnership working is essential; involving governing bodies, clubs, schools, communities, local authorities, further and higher education sectors and others. Fully inclusive participant and coach pathways, as outlined in governing body of sport plans, will be central to decision making.

was Building the Foundations and has established agreement on key goals, roles, ways of working, investment streams and performance measures. We are now in the first months of the Delivering the Goals phase, in which the mandate, goals, resources and monitoring procedures will be extended, and targeted outcomes will be achieved. When mention is made of the UK Coaching System (Strategic Action Area 1 of The UK Coaching Framework), this refers to the generic infrastructure and networks of coaching in the UK that support and deliver the aim of having skilled, active and qualified coaches at all stages of participant development in sport. The UK Coaching Model (Figure 1) is a high level diagrammatic representation of the these good practice prescriptions. It provides the blueprint for a world-leading UK Coaching System (Strategic Action Area 1 of The UK Coaching Framework) and explains this in terms of: •

key components

how these are developed sequentially

their interrelationships

to ensure that the system works in a coherent and effective manner.

sports coach UK will lead the development of generic technical products and tool kits, based on models of best practice and cutting-edge expertise, for adaptation by stakeholders into home country and sport-specific coaching systems. The first phase of The Framework The Coach Development Model User Guide

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The UK Coaching Model

Applied within governing bodies and home countries

P C

Deployment System

Coach Support System

Registration and Licensing

Value and Recognition

Participant Development

UKCS

FLC

Coach Development

S4C

PRV

R&D

The UK Coaching Framework

Key: The five boxes with arrows above The UK Coaching Framework represent the five Strategic Action Areas of The Framework as follows: UKCS UK Coaching System FLC

Front-line Coaching

S4C

Support for Coaches

PRV

Professionally Regulated Vocation

R&D

Research and Development

For further details of these, please refer to The UK Coaching Framework: A 3–7–11 Year Action Plan. The tennis ball at the top of the diagram represents the vital coach-participant relationship that the UK Coaching System aims to enhance.

Figure 1: The UK Coaching Model

A defining feature of The UK Coaching Framework vision and the UK Coaching Model is the centrality of participant and coach need in setting out a worldleading coaching system and in the shaping of the coaching workforce for the future. As a consequence, extensive work has been done on the underpinning concepts of participant and coach development during the Building the Foundations phase. This document aims to identify key principles, issues and good practice in relation to modelling coach development.

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At the heart of the world-leading UK Coaching System (Strategic Action Area 1 of The UK Coaching Framework) will be the participants and the coaches. This system will be built upon the strength of sportspecific coaching systems that are supported by wider coaching support networks involving a range of agencies. It is the role of governing bodies, in terms of contributing to system building within coaching, to develop a clear picture of the essence of the sport, how it contributes to participant development and what the

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implications are for the coaching workforce now and into the future. This approach will require us to project what participants should experience and what skilled coaches will look like in the future; for example, what will expert performance and expert coaching look like in your sport? What recreational activities will be both popular and effective for long-term sustainability in your sport? What type of physical activities will children be doing to help prepare them for your sport? How many coaches and what type will you need to support the variety of participants in your sport? For these reasons, it is recommended that each sport has a clear view of the following interrelated models: •

the Participant Development Model (PDM)

the Coach Development Model (CDM)

the UK Coaching Model.

Figure 2: The coach-participant relationship

involved in building coaching systems, can contribute to its effectiveness by fully understanding: •

the participants

the coaches

the relationship between the two.

Coach development modelling will focus our thinking on the types of coaches needed to work with and develop the various participant populations and segments identified within the PDM (see The Participant Development Model User Guide). Ultimately, this modelling will inform key policies and practice around coach development (eg in relation to coach recruitment, deployment/employment, Professionally Regulated Vocation [Strategic Action Area 4 of The UK Coaching Framework] and learning programmes for vocational qualifications and professional development). Identifying and providing the knowledge and skills to underpin an effective working relationship between coaches and participants is central to any coaching system. The challenge for your sport is to undertake a clear analysis of the priorities of the sport now and in the future. This should be based on a realistic assessment of the sport-specific participant populations and segments and the relevant coaching roles required to work with these diverse populations. After identifying what types of coaches are needed, understanding the relevant knowledge, skills and attributes required by coaches – the coach capabilities – should be set out. The general stages and sequence in which coaches develop these broad capabilities as they progress along the ‘novice to master’ continuum – the key stages of development – should be identified. Also, the different coaching opportunities available to them throughout their development need to be set out (eg to work within recreation or high-performance opportunities), along with what flexible, connecting routes – the potential coach pathways – they can decide to take through the different contexts to help them develop.

The coach-participant relationship is central to the creation of a world-leading coaching system. Participants and coaches have differing needs and a variety of motives for taking part in sport, including performance objectives, satisfaction, enjoyment and personal development. It is vital that we provide coaches with the skills to make sure this relationship works effectively for both parties. We, as people The Coach Development Model User Guide

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WHAT IS MODELLING? This section gives a broad outline related to the concept of modelling. This will help you understand what modelling is and how this approach can help to underpin the development of more effective coaching systems. Crucially, modelling is not just about the production of a series of pictures and diagrams that takes you away from your daily business – it should be part of your daily business. If this task is approached in the right way, it should inform a plan for your daily business in the future and, by making you think ahead, it should make your job easier in the long run. Modelling goes to the core of what your sport is about, what the sport contributes to participants and, therefore, what your coaching workforce needs to look like. Modelling is a technique to express, visualise and analyse, building on a clear evidence base of the present and a values-based view of the future. It is a process of thinking about how concepts and visions can be expressed in more concrete terms, developed from an evidence base rather than simply guesswork. In short, models may help in explaining and applying key concepts and theories. Modelling can also help us to visualise concepts and aspirations that do not exist at present or something tangible that needs modifying. Modelling is used in many different professions for slightly different reasons, but a core feature across professions is the creation of language and concepts that provide the basis for the building of systems (eg in medicine, architecture or education). Models usually involve the creation of both diagrams and explanations to describe the present and project into the future. In coaching, modelling is about describing where we are today and thinking for the future about what is and what is not possible (eg what your sport’s world-leading coaching system should look like in 2016). In order to build a model for the future, you must understand where your sport is today. So, while this document

The Coach Development Model User Guide

mainly deals with models for the future, it is essential that your approach is informed by a knowledge of the current position in your sport. The use of the methods described in the Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document will help you to achieve this, and it is also possible to apply the modelling methodology to give a current picture of your coaching system and the CDM for the sport. In summary, modelling provides a sound basis on which to plan for the future of coaching in your sport. It is a way of expressing, visualising and analysing the various components of the coaching system in your sport, and it makes us think in terms of: •

where we are now, what the various components of the coaching system look like now, how these components relate to each other and why they were built that way in the first place

what additional information we will need to build new or revised models for the future, what external support structures we can utilise to help us

who will need to be involved in these developments and how to plan for these in a phased approach

how we best describe what we want the various elements of the coaching system to look like in the future and what our models for coaching are.

The value of coach development modelling is that CDMs can be used: •

to help identify who your coaches are

to identify broad populations based on the similarity of coach development needs

as a tool for aiding understanding, planning and decision making in sport.

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THE COACH DEVELOPMENT MODEL The CDM is at an earlier stage of evolution than the PDM. As developments unfold, updates will be provided. It is important that the PDM is evolved first as the principles, issues and priorities identified through this work will inform the evolution of the CDM. The participant populations and segments identified within

the PDM (Figure 3) provide the basis for identifying the types or categories of coach that will be required to meet participant need. Figure 4 demonstrates this relationship by overlaying the four general coaching population roles on the participant segments identified within the PDM.

Figure 3: The Participant Development Model* * Please note the difficulty of showing overlaps clearly when presenting this model.

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Figure 4: Coaching Population Roles Research evidence has contributed to the evolution of both the PDM and CDM (Figure 5), but further research is required to progress the initial version produced. With the involvement and support of governing bodies, other key partners and individuals with relevant technical expertise, we will advance knowledge and understanding of this model.

Coach Development Model Populations being coached Stage of Coach Development

Children’s Coaching

Participation Coaching

Performance Development Coaching

High Performance Coaching

Master

Novice Pre-coaching sampling

Coaching experiences

Sport experiences

Life experiences

Figure 5: The Coach Development Model

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The model is designed to provide a reference point for coach development. It maps the development of coaches, as they progress from novice to master, to the four key participant populations identified in the PDM. It has a variety of potential applications and can be used in a number of ways by different partners (eg in developing, implementing and evaluating coach development systems/structures, and in workforce planning and deploying coaches effectively – see the Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document for more details). Figure 5 describes: •

the broad participant populations with whom coaches work (horizontal axis across the top)

the stages of development that coaches may progress through (vertical axis up the left).

The pre-coaching stage that is represented at the bottom of the diagram highlights how coaches’ previous experience is considered to be part of their development process. This previous experience will have had a major impact on the knowledge, skills and other attributes that they bring with them to inform their coaching practice and perhaps even shape their reasons or motives for coming into coaching. The four broad coaching population roles, related to participant populations, are: •

Children’s Coach

Participation Coach

Performance Development Coach

High Performance Coach.

Core components of the Coach Development Model The following information has been based on current research in the area. This section will show the interrelationships between the core components of the CDM. We have also offered a set of questions to inform the building of your sport-specific model.

Coaching population roles The coaching population roles reflect the participant segment with which the coach works. A coach’s role is to provide appropriate and effective coaching to

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participants; thus, it is sensible to define coaching roles by the participants they serve. From your participant development modelling work, you will have probably defined distinct participant populations and segments around children, adult participants, talent development and high performance. Coaches, therefore, should be developed and employed to meet the needs of participants in these populations and segments. This approach reflects a step change in how we view and deploy coaches; therefore, it may take a while for your sport to move from a ‘one coach fits all’ approach to one in which coaches are developed to be ‘fit for purpose’ in relation to the participant segment in which they coach. In managing this change effectively, careful consideration needs to be given to communicating and consulting with the coaching workforce in terms of how they see their roles and are deployed at present, and how this may change in the future, (eg in relation to the implications of the evolving PDM). This consideration should help clarify both the appropriate development opportunities and potential pathways for coaches and ensure all coaches are kept well informed about forthcoming changes and potential transition arrangements. Future work needs to consider the impact of the coach segmentation exercise in relation to other key factors, such as developmental needs, deployment issues and registration and licensing. Information from participant development modelling may help identify which activity programmes do and do not need qualified coaches. There may be an impact upon the resultant size of coaching populations; for example, are there enough coaches to service demand in each segment and is there a need for targeted recruitment programmes for coaches who service specific segments? Key questions for your sport to address are: •

What is the supply and demand within each coaching population role?

To what extent does your current coaching workforce map to the participant segments in your PDM?

Which coach capabilities are transferable and which are specific to the population being coached?

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Is there a clear understanding of what capabilities are needed by different coaches in relation to their stage of development and to the participant segment in which they are coaching? Have you considered the impact and implications of developments in the wider education and skills agenda (eg Sector Qualifications Strategy, review of National Occupational Standards and Minimum Standards for Deployment)?

In the Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document, the suggested classification into these five categories was explained as follows: •

What: capabilities related to key elements of the sport and participant development

How: capabilities related to planning, organisation, instruction, communication and feedback

Why: capabilities related to analysis, critical reflection and the refining of coaching practice

Who: capabilities related to the personal and social dimensions of practice (eg individual participants’, coaches’ and other stakeholders’ life histories/backgrounds)

Where: capabilities related to the environmental dimensions of practice.

Coach capabilities As with participant capabilities, coach capabilities refer to the broad skills, knowledge and behaviours that coaches need to develop to support their participants effectively and achieve their own development goals. The emphasis placed on these capabilities will obviously vary in terms of the different participant needs and environments that coaches will experience. A wide range of coach capabilities can be identified in relation to all the skills, knowledge and behaviours that coaches will need to be effective with particular participant segments, as and when they move to work with different groups. Currently, work is being undertaken to group these capabilities under broad headings. Initially, this appeared in the Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document (as Figure 2.6) as a diagram with five overlapping circles that were titled What, How, Where, Why and Who (reproduced here as Figure 6), which shows that these broad categories are seen as overlapping and interrelated.

These capabilities have now been discussed and evolved by a group of coaching practitioners and research experts into the broad categorisation that appears in Table 1. This includes knowledge related to participant development, knowledge of sport (previously referred to as the ‘what’), knowledge of learning/development, and coaching process and practice (previously referred to as the ‘how’), knowledge of the self (ie coaches’ self-knowledge/philosophy etc – previously referred to as the ‘who’ and ‘why’) and, finally, coaching knowledge of the social context (previously know as the ‘who’ and ‘where). Thus, the capabilities have been refined to distinguish more clearly between coaches’ self and the coaching ‘social context’. The capabilities have a better feel than the ‘what’, ‘how’, ‘why’, ‘who’ and ‘where’, but they are still subject to scrutiny and your comments are welcome.

Figure 6: Coach Capability Categories

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Table 1: Capability categories and descriptors (version 1) Capability Category

High Level Descriptor

Capability Component Descriptors

Participant-related

Knowledge of athlete development

Physical, psychological, biomechanical, nutrition

Sport-related

Knowledge of how to play/undertake the sport

Tactics, techniques/skills, laws/rules and codes of behaviour, drills/practices

Learning/development

Knowledge/skills related to pedagogical aspects of coaching

Learning theories, coaching methods (eg instruction, facilitating, motivating, listening, questioning, observing, analysis, feedback)

Social context

Knowledge of interpersonal skills, the coaching environment and stakeholders

Identity formation, group dynamics, managing stakeholders, coaching cultures and contexts

Self

Knowledge of the self as a developing and effective coach

Philosophy, leadership, decision making, critical thinking, reflection

Coaching process and practice

Knowledge/skills related to managerial aspects of coaching

Planning, managing coaching sessions, organising sessions/equipment, evaluating sessions, managing stakeholders

A useful approach to tidying and streamlining the capabilities is to think about them in terms of ‘understanding coaching’, ‘understanding participants and sport’ and ‘undertaking coaching’ (Table 2). Thus, ‘understanding coaching’ relates to how the coaches understand themselves, their knowledge, skills and approach in relation to the broader demands of the

The Coach Development Model User Guide

coaching context. ‘Understanding participants and sport’ relates to the – obvious – need for knowledge related to participant development, and the tactics and techniques of sport. ‘Undertaking coaching’ reflects that coaching is a ‘doing’ exercise, whereby knowledge and skills are facilitated/taught to participants, in a safe, structured and planned environment.

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Table 2: Capability categories and descriptors (version 2) Overarching Category

Capability Category

High Level Descriptor

Capability Component Descriptors

Understanding coaching

Self

Knowledge of the self as a developing and effective coach

Philosophy, leadership, decision making, critical thinking, reflection

Social context

Knowledge of interpersonal skills, the coaching environment and stakeholders

Identity formation, group dynamics, managing stakeholders, coaching cultures and contexts

Participant-related

Knowledge of athlete development

Physical, psychological, biomechanical, nutrition

Sport-related

Knowledge of how to play/undertake the sport

Tactics, techniques/skills, laws/rules and codes of behaviour, drills/practices

Learning/development

Knowledge/skills related to pedagogical aspects of coaching

Learning theories, coaching methods (eg instruction, facilitating, motivating, listening, questioning, observing, analysis, feedback)

Planning and managing coaching

Knowledge/skills related to managerial aspects of coaching

Planning, managing coaching sessions, organising sessions/equipment, evaluating sessions, managing stakeholders

Understanding participants and sport

Undertaking coaching

The classification of coach capabilities enables the development of a holistic approach for sports coaching across the UK. The capabilities have the potential to inform areas such as entry standards, coaching practice, coach development, National Occupational Standards for coaching, the standardisation of qualification syllabi and the mapping of related roles/associated entry programmes. 12

There has been some research and reasonably extensive consultation undertaken in this area in order to identify capabilities and inform classification. However, further work is to be undertaken to consult on this work before a consensus view is presented in relation to what the key capabilities are, how they should be classified and the terms used.

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sports coach UK is at an early stage in the process of collating and pulling all the concepts together so it would be remiss at this stage to make any definitive proposals. For the purpose of this document, the breadth of knowledge in each area has been offered. It should be noted that this is not an exhaustive list, and the aim is to engage with sports across the UK to develop, enhance and ultimately agree the definitions for wider use. This work will include contributions from governing bodies, coaches, the UK Centre for Coaching Excellence and individual technical experts a variety of backgrounds. In addition to this, consultation will also be undertaken with key partner agencies from across the UK. While all capability categories are relevant to all coaches, the content and emphasis are dependent upon the participant group being coached, the coach’s stage of development, the level of the participant, the sport, the environment and long-term outcomes. Work on how capabilities are ‘blended’ is being undertaken in relation to the UK Coaching Certificate (UKCC) at Level 4, in conjunction with the UK Centre for Coaching Excellence, which should inform this area. As outlined previously, these current classifications are not presented as a general consensus view. They are simply presented to stimulate discussion that should inform the more detailed updates to be released at regular intervals. Feedback on this, as well as other aspects of modelling coach development, will be sought, and anyone with an interest is invited to forward their views and suggestions to sports coach UK staff.

Stage of development Enquiry into this component is at an early stage of evolution. This refers to where coaches are, at any given time, in their development along a continuum from novice to master. At present, sports may be asking questions such as ‘what does an expert children’s coach look like in our sport?’ Understanding coaches’ stages of development allows us to: •

ensure that we offer the most appropriate learning opportunities and environments for their development

The Coach Development Model User Guide

consider how we employ and deploy coaches in the right environments so participants gain appropriate support that meets their needs.

The interrelationship between participants’ stage of development and coaches’ stage of development is an important point to consider. A coach’s stage of development may influence who, what and where a coach can coach. Before the current modelling work on participant and coach development was undertaken, there was little in the terms of guidance and structure to link the stage of development of a coach to participants. As a coach developed and acquired experience and coaching awards, there was a tendency to deploy these more experienced/qualified coaches into more adult and performance-oriented environments. Some awards actually required the coach to work with more developed adult performers as a prerequisite for progression. This led to a situation where few experienced coaches were working with children, or where the few experienced coaches who were working with children were not recognised or rewarded for their expertise. This situation must change if we are to produce a truly inclusive model of coach development, and many sports have already begun to address this. The CDM recognises that coaches’ stage of development is important to consider in relation to both the specific participant population in which they are coaching and to their personal coaching pathway if/when they decide to coach a different population or in a different environment. We need to understand the way in which coaches learn and develop through all sorts of formal and informal learning opportunities. We need to understand what skills and behaviours they display through this learning journey and use this information appropriately to help inform developments. As mentioned previously, all novice coaches come with prior experience, knowledge and skills, and whatever we class as a ‘stage of development’ must be flexible enough to accommodate the individual learning needs of the coaches. The work that is evolving in both the coaching expertise arena and the Support for Coaches area (Strategic Action Area 3 of The UK Coaching Framework) will help inform the information that we need to help us understand this area more fully. The Support for

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Coaches area has been considering how coaches learn and has based its design of the Support for Coaches systems around adult learning research, which also needs to be considered.

An individual needs-led approach is to be adopted.

The segmentation into coaching population roles is based on your PDM and informed by participant and coach need, stage of development and a long-term approach.

The model should be inclusive.

An evidence-based approach should be adopted.

Coach pathways This component refers to the different routes and opportunities coaches may opt to take in their development within a sport. It includes the entry routes into coaching and highlights where transitions could occur from one coaching population role to another. Pathways will be informed primarily by the choices that coaches make, based on their knowledge, skills, interests and motivation. Previous practice led to pathways tending to be more prescribed or implied (eg with high-performance athletes/players becoming highperformance coaches and less qualified/experienced coaches working with children and beginners). Coaches must understand participants’ stage of development and the potential pathways open to their participants in order to signpost them appropriately. The current tracking studies being undertaken should provide some useful information on this aspect. In taking decisions about their own personal development and pathway, coaches must recognise when their skill sets will need to be adapted and tailored to meet the variety of participant needs, both within and between participant segments. More evidence needs to be collected in this area. Again, the current tracking studies may help to further our understanding, both in terms of effective and ineffective transitions and connectivity between pathways.

Building your Coach Development Model This section will offer key steps in building your CDM. First of all, an essential part of building your model is considering how to engage the whole sport in this process and setting out the uses for the model once it is built. Secondly, identify the key principles for your model. These highlight what is important to your sport and will act as key reference points. These principles should have been arrived at through a detailed research and consultation process. The principles that underpin the CDM are as follows:

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The Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document explains the principles in greater detail.

Stage 1 Build your sport-specific PDM that identifies the different participant segments based on their needs, goals, motives, stages of development and the broad participant capabilities that are the prerequisite for development within and between each participant segment. Please refer to the Participant Development Model User Guide for further details.

Stage 2 Work out the coaching population roles that your sport requires in order to meet the needs of the different participant populations and segments identified within the PDM (eg children’s coaches and high-performance coaches). It may help at this stage to identify any gaps between the coaching workforce that currently exists and what is needed to meet participant need both now and in the future. Please refer to the Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document for further details.

Stage 3 Identify the key capabilities that coaches will need to be effective within your sport, both in a general sense (eg all coaches will require good communication skills) and when working with specific participant groups or in specific environments (eg being aware of the differing demands depending on whether coaches are deployed in adult recreation-based sport, children’s ‘learn to play’ activities or in a high-performance setting).

Stage 4 Set out the key development opportunities that coaches will need in order to enhance their capabilities so they can coach effectively, in general terms and when deployed with specific participant groups or into different coaching contexts or environments. Development opportunities should cover all areas, from

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formal qualifications to continuous professional development (CPD) and informal learning. It is particularly important to consider not only the ‘coach development curriculum’ that prepares coaches to work with a particular participant segment, or within a specific coaching environment (such as a school), but also the development opportunities that coaches will need when transitioning from working with one participant segment or coaching environment to another, what knowledge and skills they will bring with them and what additional knowledge will be needed to be effective in their new situation. These development opportunities should be mapped against the key stages of development identified within your CDM (eg using the four stages of novice to master identified within the generic CDM [Figure 5]). At this stage, it may help to identify the main potential pathways that coaches may choose to follow throughout their coaching life. These pathways should be flexible and broad to allow for individual needs to be met and will be determined by individual coaches, based on their knowledge, skills, interests and goals. Identifying potential pathways may help with mapping out development opportunities, particularly in relation to supporting transitions from one coaching situation to another.

Summary The preceding sections have identified key principles and issues in relation to modelling, with particular reference to the PDM and CDM. These have been explained in the context of the vision of The UK Coaching Framework. The concept of modelling is highlighted both as a technique to express, visualise and analyse and as a process used to describe where we are today and the thinking for the future in terms of coaching systems. The introductory text explains the centrality of the PDM and the CDM in relation to The UK Coaching Framework vision. The CDM is then explained in terms of core components, key development stages and implications and applications. In summary, the CDM: •

is aspirational – it sets out where we want to be, rather than where we are

has been developed in consultation with key partners and is still evolving

is generic and high level, guided by key principles

is evidence-based, related to similarity of need, goals, motives and age/stage of development

identifies core components – populations, segments, stages of development, and pathways and capabilities.

Stage 5 Review and refine your modelling work on participant and coach development. This review process should be done on a time frame that allows for sufficient information and evidence to be collected and consistent patterns to emerge.

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WHAT WILL THE COACH DEVELOPMENT MODEL INFLUENCE? POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS AND APPLICATIONS From the information provided so far, we have tried to make it clear that there are many uses for the CDM. Here is a quick summary for you. The framework provided by this model should help you to: •

review the current and future support systems and structures required by your segmented coaching workforce

build your sport-specific CDM

know your coaches better, through your background segmentation work

plan for the recruitment, development and deployment of your coaching workforce to meet participant need (see the Coaching Workforce 2009–2016 document for greater detail)

consider the development opportunities or ‘curricula’, both formal and informal, that your coaches should experience for optimum achievement, development, satisfaction and enjoyment

plan and manage the necessary changes more effectively.

The Coach Development Model User Guide

sports coach UK is intending to convene a Coach Development Model Steering Group (CDMSG) to provide a formal strategic and coordinating steering mechanism for the ongoing development of the CDM and its application into Front-line Coaching (Strategic Action Area 2 of The UK Coaching Framework) provision across the UK. Within the Delivering the Goals phase of The UK Coaching Framework (2009–2012), the CDMSG will provide guidance on the further development of the CDM to ensure it reflects the findings of all five Strategic Areas, in particular Strategic Area 2: Front-line Coaching, and provides a common reference point to direct improvements in coach development as part of a world-leading coaching system for the UK up to and beyond 2016. Any update on the current version of the CDM is planned to be communicated at the fifth UK Coaching Summit in Cardiff in April 2010. In the following section, sport-specific case studies will be presented. You should be able to see how the key principles, components and issues set out in the generic model have been adapted and applied in each sport’s particular context. This should inform your own modelling work.

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CASE STUDIES RELATED TO THE COACH DEVELOPMENT MODEL This section highlights the work specific sports have been doing in relation to modelling. As you can see, in both examples, the sports are still working to evolve these models and have begun to collect information related to Stage 2 of the modelling process outlined earlier.

Case Study 1 – Rugby Union

Another key observation is related to the buy-in process. It is very apparent that modelling has become a tool for managing change and considerable thought has been put into the change management and buy-in process within governing bodies of sport.

After some initial forays in August 2008, the UKCC rugby steering group progressed thinking in September. The outcome from this meeting is attached.

These case studies do not explain the detail behind the final model and associated diagrams produced. They are an overview of key observations made by the people involved in building the sport-specific coaching systems who have been responsible for facilitating the development of the model for their sport.

We concentrated initially on ‘context’, now referred to as ‘population’, and then took a preliminary look at roles.

In reply to the request from sports coach UK for an update on progress on the development of the CDM, we have the following answers to your questions: •

When did you start working on your CDM model?

Which part of the model have you concentrated on (eg capacities or market segmentation, roles)?

What information did you need to gather to design your model?

No research or information gathering has been done so far; all decisions have been based on members’ knowledge. •

How does this match the generic CDM?

We have an amended version to conform to the generic model, but still have some issues (eg about levels of expertise). •

Where do you feel you have gaps and need to work on key aspects in the future?

Figure 7: Rugby Union CDM The Coach Development Model User Guide

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We have developed from the initial design by adding four generic competences (capabilities) to the model for each population. We need to expand these so they align more closely with specific populations. We are now awaiting the results of the PDM research from Exeter University prior to evolving the CDM. •

Who was involved in building the model?

Members of the UKCC rugby steering group. •

How did you do it?

Through face-to-face meetings. •

What work have you got planned to evolve the model?

Apart from the essential integration with the PDM, we need to establish that it is seen as: •

an aspirational model

a model for formal and informal learning (qualifications and CPD)

an expertise model (linked to coach roles and populations)

a tool for analysing the capabilities, behaviours and practices of coaches at each stage of their development

an informant for coach development and coach education planning

an informant for coaches of relevant coach development opportunities

an enhancement to their contribution to player development

identifying the needs of all coaches: volunteer; part-time and full-time.

It will be underpinned by a rugby union technical reference document and be subject to ongoing research and development.

key difference this time is that it is wholly driven by a participant-centred approach. Modelling for us was a way of making us think about how and what we do to build swimming’s UK coaching systems with all our swimmers at the heart of this system. It’s a process really that allows us to imagine what could be possible. This is swimming’s coaching model for 2016. It begins to depict the vision for British Swimming’s UK coaching system in 2016. It is being built to support the swimmers and coaches and will be the third model to be produced in the series of three. The diagrams illustrate the components of the system. These components will be developed in a sequential way to ensure that swimming’s coaching system meets the needs of participants. Swimming has been able to build on their successful work of the previous four years around long-term athlete development (LTAD) and their Clubmark programmes. This has started the process of defining clear pathways within the competitive environment. The lessons learnt from this can be used across the other marketplaces within the sport. Before swimming could even contemplate building their coaching system, they had to project what their swimmers and coaches would look like and need in 2016 – in other words, by reference to a clear PDM that they refer to as their Participation Model.

Figure 8: Swimming Participation Model (PDM)

Case Study 2 – Swimming The case study illustrates how British Swimming is using the modelling process to help them think for the future and shows what stage they are at in the process. While British Swimming acknowledges that swimming coaching has undergone many changes in the past, the

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Environment Learn to Swim

Talent Development

High Performance

Lifestyle Participant

Support Coach

Coaching Role

Prior to the development of the swimming Participation Model, there was a need to identify the specific ‘marketplaces’ in which swimming operates. From this, a ‘participant flow’ diagram was developed. This shows the numerous pathways into and out of the different marketplaces. These two models are purposely simplistic, as they will be used to inform and educate the swimming industry. Further work will be happening to clearly identify the sub-groups within each marketplace.

Coach

Senior Coach

Master

Using this information, the identification of numbers, needs and characteristics will begin. Once this has been completed, it will be mapped against current provision and the swimming CDM. It involves asking questions such as: Who are the swimmers and how many of them are there? What are the populations and how can we group these? This is high level participant segmentation.

Figure 10: Swimming CDM By adapting the generic template developed by sports coach UK, swimming has an agreed CDM (4 x 4). Coaches will be defined by the marketplace that they work in and the role that they perform in that marketplace. The swimming model uses the four UKCC level definitions and the four identified marketplaces. As development on the PDM continues, it is expected that each of the 16 boxes will be subdivided to give a more specific CDM. So, swimming will produce three models as their visions for the future in this order: 1 The PDM – a model for the swimmers 2 The CDM – a model for the swimming coaches 3 British Swimming’s coaching model for 2016 – a model for the swimmer and the coach development systems.

Figure 9: Swimming Participant Flow Diagram

The work on swimming’s PDM and CDM will highlight how the components of swimming’s coaching system will be developed sequentially and how they interrelate to ensure the system works in a coherent and effective manner and delivers swimming’s coaching vision: To create a self-sustaining and inclusive coaching system that will provide 5,000,000 coaching hours per year by 2016, delivered by appropriately qualified and supported coaches, teachers and instructors across all aquatic environments. The modelling work for swimming is continually evolving. It is part of The UK Coaching Framework. British Swimming is currently working to enhance all three models and envisages the completion of the project within the next 12 months.

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USEFUL REFERENCES

Abraham, A. and Collins, D. (1998) ‘Examining and extending research in coach development’, Quest, 50: 59–79. Abraham, A., Collins, D. and Martindale, R. (2006) ‘The coaching schematic: validation through expert coach consensus’, Journal of Sports Sciences, 24 (6): 549–564.

Cassidy, T., Jones, R., and Potrac, P.(2009) Understanding Sports Coaching: The social, cultural and pedagogical foundations of sports practice. Second edition. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415442-72-5. Cellier, J., Eyrolle, H. and Marine, C. (1997) ‘Expertise in dynamic environments’, Ergonomics, 40 (1) 28–50.

Bell, M. (1997) ‘The development of expertise’, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 68 (2): 34–38.

Conroy, D.E. and Coatsworth, J.D. (2006) ‘Coach training as a strategy for promoting positive social development’, The Sport Psychologist, 20: 128–144.

Berliner, D. (1986) ‘In pursuit of the expert pedagogue’, Educational Researcher, 15 (7): 5–13.

Côté, J. (2006) ‘The development of coaching knowledge’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 1(3), 217–222.

Berliner, D.C. (1994). Expertise: the wonders of exemplary performance, in Mangieri, J.N. and Collins Block, C. (eds), Creating Powerful Thinking in Teachers and Students. Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Berliner, D. (2001). ‘Learning about and learning from expert teachers’, International Journal of Educational Research, 35: 463–482. Bloom, G. (2002) ‘Coaching demands and responsibilities of expert coaches’, in Silva, J. and Stevens, D. Psychological Foundations in Sport. Allyn and Bacon: Boston. pp. 438–465. Bloom, G.A., Salmela, J.H. and Schinke, R.J. (1995) ‘Expert coaches’ views on the training of developing coaches’, in Vanfraechem-Raway R. and Vanden Y. (eds), Proceedings of the Ninth European Congress on Sport Psychology, Brussels, Belgium: Free University of Brussels, pp. 401–408.

The Coach Development Model User Guide

Côté, J., Salmela, J., Trudel, P., Baria, A. and Russell, S. (1995) ‘The coaching model: a grounded assessment of expert gymnastics coaches’ knowledge’, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17 (1): 1–17. Côté, J. and Sedgwick, W. (2003) ‘Effective behaviour of expert rowing coaches: a qualitative investigation of Canadian athletes and coaches’, International Sports Journal, 7 (1): 62–77. Culver, D. and Trudel, P. (2008) ‘Clarifying the concept of communities of practice in sport’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 3 (1): 1–10. Cushion, C. (2007) ‘Modelling the complexities of the coaching process’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2 (4): 395–401.

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Cushion, C.J., Armour, K.M. & Jones, R.L. (2003) Coach education and continuing professional development: experience and learning to coach, Quest, 55, 215–230. Cushion, C.J., Armour, K.M. and Jones, R.L. (2006) ‘Locating the coaching process in practice: models “for” and “of” coaching’, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 11 (1): 83–99. DeMarco, G. M., and McCullick, B. A. (1997) ‘Developing expertise in coaching: learning from the legends’, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 8 (3): 37–41. English Sports Council (1997) Survey of coaches 1993. London: English Sports Council. Ericsson, K.A., and Charness, N. (1994). ‘Expert performance: its structure and acquisition’, American Psychologist, 48: 725–747. Erickson, K., Côté, J. and Fraser-Thomas, J. (2007) ‘Sport experiences, milestones and educational activities associated with high-performance coaches’ development’, The Sport Psychologist, 21: 302–316. Erickson, K., Bruner, M., MacDonald, D. and Côté, J. (2008) ‘Gaining insight into actual and preferred sources of coaching knowledge’, International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching, 3 (4): 527–538. Gilbert, W. (2007) ‘Modelling the complexity of the coaching process: a commentary’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2 (4): 417–418. Gilbert, W., Côté, J. and Mallett, C. (2006) ‘Developmental paths and activities of successful sport coaches’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 1 (1): 69–76. Gilbert, W.D. and Trudel, P. (2005) ‘Learning to coach through experience: conditions that influence reflection’, Physical Educator, 61 (1): 32. Gilbert, W. and Trudel, P. (2006) ‘The coach as a reflective practitioner’, in Jones, R.L. (ed) The Sports Coach as Educator: Re-conceptualising sports coaching. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415367-60-8. pp. 114–127. Herling, R.W. (2000). ‘Operational definitions of expertise and competence’, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2: 8–21. 24

Herrmann, N. (1989) The Creative Brain. North Carolina: Brain Books. ISBN: 978-0-944850-01-5. Irwin, G., Hanton, S. and Kerwin, D.G. (2004) ‘Reflective practice and the origins of elite coaching knowledge’, Reflective Practice, 5 (3): 425–442. Jones, R.L. (2000) ‘Towards a sociology of coaching’, in Jones, R.L. and Armour, K.M. (eds) The Sociology of Sport: theory and practice. London: Addison, Wesley Longman. pp. 33–43. Jones, R.L., Armour, K.M. and Potrac, P. (2002) ‘Understanding the coaching process: A framework for social analysis’, Quest, 54 (1): 34–48. Jones, R.L., Armour, K.M. and Potrac, P. (2004) Sports Coaching Cultures: From Practice to Theory. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415328-52-4. Knowles, Z., Borrie, A. and Telfer, H. (2005) ‘Toward the reflective sports coach: Issues of context, education and application’, Ergonomics, 48 (11-14): 1711–1720. Lemyre, F., Trudel, P. and Durand-Bush, N. (2007) ‘How youth-sport coaches learn to coach’, The Sport Psychologist, 21: 191–209. Lyle, J. (1999) ‘The coaching process: an overview’, in Cross, N. and Lyle, J. (eds) The Coaching Process: principles and practice in sport. Oxford: ButterworthHeinemann. ISBN: 978-0-750641-31-9. Lyle, J. (2002) Sports Coaching Concepts: A Framework for Coaches’ Behaviour. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415261-58-6. Lyle, J. (2007) ‘Modelling the complexity of the coaching process: a commentary’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2 (4): 407–409. Mallett, C. (2007) ‘Modelling the complexity of the coaching process: a commentary’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2 (4): 419–421. McCullick, B.A., Cumings, R., and DeMarco, G.M. (1998) ‘The road to expert coaching’, Georgia Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance Journal, 32 (1): 42–49. Petitpas, A. (2007) ‘Modelling the complexity of the coaching process: a commentary’, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2 (4): 423.

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Potrac, P., Brewer, C., Jones, R.L., Armour, K. and Hoff, J. (2000) ‘Towards an holistic understanding of the coaching process’, Quest, 52 (2): 189–199. Potrac P. and Cassidy, T. (2006) ‘The coach as “more capable other”’, in Jones, R.L. (ed) The Sports Coach as Educator: Re-conceptualising sports coaching. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415367-60-8. pp. 39–50. Sage, G.H. (1989) ‘Becoming a high school coach: From playing sport to coaching’, Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 60 (1): 81–92. Salmela, J.H. (1995) ‘Learning from the development of expert coaches’, Coaching and Sport Science Journal, 2 (2): 3–13. Saury, J. and Durand, M. (1998) ‘Practical knowledge in expert coaches: On-site study of coaching in sailing’, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69 (3): 254–266. Schempp, P., McCullick, B., and Mason, I. (2006) ‘The development of expert coaching, in Jones, R. (ed) The Sports Coach as Educator: Re-conceptualising sports coaching. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415367-60-8. sports coach UK (2004) Sports coaching in the UK: final report. Leeds: The National Coaching Foundation. sports coach UK (2007) Sports coaching in the UK II: main report – November 2007. Leeds: The National Coaching Foundation. sports coach UK (2008) The UK Coaching Framework A 3–7–11 Year Action Plan. Leeds: Coachwise Business Solutions/The National Coaching Foundation. ISBN: 978-1-905540-55-6. sports coach UK (2009) The Participant Development Model User Guide. Leeds: Coachwise Business Solutions/The National Coaching Foundation. Trudel, P. and Gilbert, W. (2006) ‘Coaching and coach education’, in: Kirk, D., Macdonald, D. and O’Sullivan, M. (eds) The Handbook of Physical Education. London: Sage Publications. ISBN: 978-0-761944-12-6. pp. 516–539. Werthner, P. and Trudel, P. (2006) ‘A new theoretical perspective for understanding how coaches learn to coach’, The Sport Psychologist, 20: 198–212. The Coach Development Model User Guide

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User guide for the Coaching Development Model

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