Page 1

Learning Lab


Learning Through Design


Through Design


“The Global Achievement Gap� as described by Tony Wagner is a phenomena which plagues the modern education system. The world is changing, yet children continue to be taught in outdated classrooms using methods that served another century & the result? Students are leaving school & university ill-equipped and without the necessary life skills to navigate the demands of a 21st century workplace. Whilst the landscape of education is in the throes of transformation, we need to move beyond changes to course content & curriculum, taking into consideration the learning environment as a whole. This presents a real opportunity for industrial designer’s whose user centered approach can be easily grounded within contemporary learner centered educational models.


A call to Action


bstract

pproach

rtefact


Learning is a process of being; of thinking, questioning, making and doing. A lesson can be taught, but becomes more powerful when it is outwardly experienced. Learning environments are designed to give life to our thinking. Whether we realize it or not, the way we act and behave in these spaces can be largely attributed to the design of the environment itself. Our mode of operation & capacity to learn is quite literally shaped by the tangible objects that surround us. The project aims to investigate the role of Design within these contemporary learning spaces, both physical and digital. By taking a research approach, the project intends to provide a snapshot of the future learning environment. Proposing affordances around the key themes; Material Play & New Digital Realities.

Abstract


reflecting on my my personal learning journey

understanding societal shifts/ trends

engaging communities of practice

Approach In this spirit, I took a research approach to the semester, exploring the domain of education on 3 different levels: society, communities of practice & personal learning experiences


On a societal level it was my aim to construct a visualization of the future of education. This was generated through researching trends and mind mapping.

On a personal level, I endeavoured to reflect & analyze my own learning journey & continue to research vocational opportunities within this field. This was achieved through a number of means: Personal Development Plan DESIS melbourne workshops

For research purposes I have also endeavored to engage relevant communities, in order to gain further insights and a deep understanding of the subject area. Insights garnered from informal interviews and conversations, informed & impacted my proposal. Acting as a facilitators in a number of workshops has also assisted in the development of my proposal, roles include:

511 north south forum RMIT seeds women in social enterprise forum, BMW Edge

2012 KidsView Conferance (primary & high schools) AGIDEAs Next Forum (primary)

Continuing my role as part of RMIT’s SSCC student council Participation in the research of Helen Mclean, RMIT Phd (recorded interview)

Mauro Porcini design thinking workshop facilitator (university) Agideas Futures Presentation, Ave Maria College (high school) Running an Indesign workshop for peers (university) Footscray City High-school schema Art play, Birrarung Marr


Artefact About this book Reflection Chapter Research Chapter Statement Chapter


Idelogical Drivers Research Methods A Design by Making Ethos Materiality & Aesthetics Key Design Moments Tools & Action Appendix


reflection


In the book I Seem To Be a Verb, architect Buckminster Fuller wrote: “I live on earth at present and I don’t know what I am. I know that I am not a category. I am not a thing- a noun. I seem to be a verb, an evolutionary process- an integral function of the universe.” Verbs denote action, and it is as a being of action that I am obliged to serve out my role as a designer. Always with the best interests of society at heart.

fo noitpircsed deliated erom A A more detailed description & sfeilof ebmyngdesign ised ym

Design requires action. It is participatory.

Ideological Drivers

ideals & social agenda can be found in the chapter appendix. Here you will find “Social Conscience: a personal design manifesto” written during a design studies course. As well as My Personal Development Plan (PDP) written on completion of undertaking Exchange.

Design pedagogy, having operated in the past in the shadow of art or engineering education, is gradually gaining autonomy as the field of design is growing and eventually diversifying itself into various subfields and different academic levels. Having started as craft-based training with rather narrow vocational aims, design education is developing into an interdisciplinary academic field in order to prepare designers for the new knowledge economy Artemis Yagou


Aesthetic Values Aesthetics pertains to the way we see the and makes sense of the world around us. For a designer, understanding how & why we come to making such judgements is crucial. Consideration must be first & foremost be given to those we are designing for and not to ourselves. Somewhat ironically, since undertaking an Industrial Design degree I have gained a new appreciation for craft processes and the handmade. In this respect my favourite modern designer would have to be a Filipino called Kenneth Cobonpue His work has a distinctive cultural & Asian aesthetic. He uses alot of natural fibres such as rattan, which are woven into shape by highly skilled craftsman. Overall I like to research objects with cultural value and meaning. Whose form tells a story or denotes its historical place in time. Through undertaking such design studies courses as “Thing Speak� I have developed a greater notion of cultural aesthetics, & would like to continue to explore how they influence a consumers perception (i.e notions of beauty, balance etc)

“

Aesthetics is the study

of our own experience of things


Photographs taken by Siobhan Cribbin However the work pictured is attributed to the designer, Kenneth Cobonpue


Research Methods

Design

I like to read and write, my approach to design has always been to research, thoroughly. As I believe it is always important to get a broad understanding and theoretical foundation on which to build an idea or premise.

As a designer prototyping is a skill that not only allows you to visualize your designs in a more tangible way but it also one of the key ways you to sell your idea. I have come to the conclusion that whilst emerging technologies may take the “labour” aspect out of modelling it does not replace the physical sensibility and understanding of form that you get from generating your own prototypes. I will always strive to continually develop this “skill of my own hands” so that I have the ability to more accurately and efficiently translate the ideas I have in my head into reality.

The techniques I use to explore an initial idea or “hunch” largely depends on the type of project I am undertaking. When designing for traditional product manufacture, market research and analysis is probably where I would instinctively begin. Although blue-skies innovation or a service design problem would be instead dealt with using mindmaps, flow charts, visualizations of data and analysis. Regardless of the project type, I have found prototyping early on in the design process is always a good way of materially validating your concept. By placing your design thinking in the real world you can more quickly become aware of any potential problems & streamline the design.

Model making is the realization of your imagination

Making


Good design needs to incorporate thinking, research, action, In other words, it requires our heads but also our hands & hearts

‘ ”


ach ring respresents of the 26 moons

ym fo noitpircsed deliated erom A & sfecalled ileb ngised I completed a social studio

uch to put the tokens into. full moon

n pouch to insert tocken

Fifth Goal. Based on the Fifth Millennium Goal outlined in the United Nations Framework it was a project which explored how design interventions could reduce maternal mortality in Assam, a region of India. I was attracted to this project due to it’s cross cultural focus and the way it chose to deal with aspects of social justice within a design context.

"Bo Ni" The Weaving The Weaving Woman Proposal Woman Proposal

This project aimed to harness the is a well fact that women almost remarkable Itskill the known Assemese every household in Assam ownsas already possess and use their craft a handloom, with the state home an entry point to highest engageconcentration and educate to the of weavers in India. Using a tradition the community about maternal health. that is intrinsic to the region's culture A range of initiatives were devised with and identity, the "Bo Ni" project the goal ofaims capturing spirit to harnessAssam’s the remarkable skill that the Assemese women of making and exploring the potential already possess and use their scope for textile maternal health craft as and an entry point to engage innovation. and educate the community about maternal health.

The proposalThe can be aim read in project its entirety overall of this is to Assam’s spirit of making via the link:capture http://issuu.com/scribbin/ and explore the potential scope docs/siobhan_s_weaving_proposal?mod for textile and maternal health e=window&viewMode=doublePage innovation. Design: Siobhan Cribbin Agency: The Action North East Trust


System Design: Transitions Transitions was a proposal that focused on system design. This included the visualization of a new medical carrier system designed to get a woman in labour or experiencing birthing complications on the outlying islands to an appropriate emergency facility. It focused on the unique geographic features of Assam, including the Brahmaputra river.

er

s

Project Aim: Increase and facilitate access to emergency obstetric care for the 15% of women who need it. In June 2010 Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi unveiled a plan by the Government of Assam to pass a bill, which would make it mandatory for private hospitals in the region to treat all patients that come into there care, irrespective of their financial condition. He proposed that, “Private hospitals in the state should treat a certain percentage of poor patients at subsidized expense to extend much needed medical care to these needy individuals� In keeping with this recent development, the goal of this project is to explore the transition & medical conveyance possibilities of the Brahmaputra river, identifying potential points of design intervention and improvement. Early preventative action, mobile phone infrastructure and the natural geography of the region all have the potential to become a mobilizing and lifesaving force for women experiencing birthing complications in a rural Majuli island context. When it comes to emergency care, there can be no doubt that time is of the utmost importance.

Ma

jul

i Is

lan

Co d

nta

ct

via

Em ph

erg

on

e

A copy of the graphics can be seen via the link: http://issuu.com/scribbin/ docs/siobhan_minor_final?mode=wind ow&viewMode=doublePage

en

Am cy

Bo

at

Ho

bu

sp

lan

ita

l

ce

to


Trans-national Experience Going on exchange was a pivotal moment in my design education. It broadened not only my scope for design but my entire world view, as I negotiated a different set of living conditions & cultural values. Confronted with the notion that people not only live & think differently, but actually design differently, forced me to become adaptive in my design process. I threw myself into my studies, picking assignments I would never usually consider. From engineering electronics to conducting field research at a design fair, I gave everything a go. It was a steep learning curve, with a mixture of failures and successes. Through the experience I have learnt how to be flexible in my approach, a skill that will be essential in navigating the changing demands of the modern industry. Moreover, I now realize just how important it is to be open to this change & I have become a better designer because of it.


�

Experience, travel these are as education in themselves Euripides


Consider the following scenario construction, a next generation of ambient intelligent lamp fixtures exists,not only can those lamps shine in different colours, they can be programmed to project a

�

custom light behaviour The project brief for this course required each person in the group to individually design a lamp capable of generating light behaviour within the context of its own action possibilities. A system, or shared protocol, was then required to be designed around these lamps therefore enabling the generated output from one lamp to be retrieved & interpreted by the other products in the system.

Sharing Product Behaviour

ym fo noitpircsed deliated erom A I found this to be a very interesting & sfeileb ngised premise and enjoyed broadening my skill set to include programming and working with electrical components. Although electronics id not my forte, working in a team environment, assisted and propelled my learning as I immersed myself into a new world of technology. This included building and soldering my own circuits from scratch, making process videos and working with xbee and wireless forms of communication. Creating interactive objects, that responded to user input, presented a range of challenges. Overall I found the most effective prototypes I made were those which incorporated direct playful interaction.

A link to the Sharing Product Behavior process video can be accessed via the link: http://vimeo.com/24800629


Tools & Applications As industrial designer’s the tools and applications we use depend on the type of outcome and what we wish to communicate. Idea is king and the method employed must illustrate its point succinctly and directly. I value clarity of communication. At RMIT this has meant a focus on graphic design and layout as documentation submissions have most often been required in a folio or book format. InDesign has become my best friend in this respect, although I have developed skills across the Adobe Suite. On exchange in the Netherlands, I was surprised to encounter the fact that not all design students work like this! The type of projects completed, especially those incorporating “experience design�, were often best recorded using video rather than still images. This semester I have set myself a number of skill development goals, & video editing is one of them. On right you will find a graphic which highkights some of the key skill sets I wish to work on this semseter & how I plan to do so.


sketching as a tool to document research

learning video editing software

See propositional sketch book pages for reference and examples, of how I achieved this through extensive mindmapping, & use of the RSA animate teachnique

Using it as a documentation tool, integrate it within each project. Move beyond imovie and explore other professional design tools that offer more freedom and flexibility.

build an online presence Start blogging and putting my design writing into practice. Be confident enough to share my ideas and voice opinions. This was achieved thorugh blogging & writing weekly reflections on classwork as part of a digital journal and archive of progress

Goal Development


Future Aspirations What I most truly want is....

design experience, employment experience, life experience. My future aspirations are humble. I anticipate that I will have to be creative in my job search but any design related internship or sales job will be a start.

Creativity: Whether I get paid for it or not I will always be a designer-maker. Thinking up side projects that feed my creative impulses.

Long term: Eventually I know I would like to teach. I’d love to apply design thinking to a learning environment. However I believe to be a good teacher necessitates both industry and life experience. I am young, and would like to explore these options first, I must learn before I have soemething worthwhile to teach.


I see my path but I don’t know where it leads. Not knowing where I am going is what inspires me to...

...travel it Rosalia de Castro

�


Appendix

Personal Development Plan written whilst on exchange at TU/e Eindhoven


Traveling presents a unique opportunity to gain a truly global perspective of my chosen profession. As an Industrial Design student my ambition to study abroad is predominantly motivated by what inspires me as a designer; art, architecture, craft, culture and emerging technologies. In this regard I feel the European way of life and an exchange program to TU Eindhoven has much to offer. Up until this point the majority of my design education has been completed at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. Theoretically I believe RMIT has provided me with a good grounding and competent understanding of the design principles. During this semester I will not only strive to synthesize the knowledge I have gained over the previous 2 years of my degree, but also expand my design vision. Constructing my own unique meaning of design through exposure to a diverse set of experiences and a range of design perspectives. Last semester my studio project required me to take a completely immersive approach to research. I enjoyed the challenge of working on a case study that, as a designer, required me to go beyond my usual modes of thinking. Although I now find myself in a completely different context, I see this trip as an extension of my previous cultural studies, the ultimate immersion experience. I anticipate this semester will be a challenge, not only in a professional sense but also on a personal level, as I learn to adapt and negotiate my newfound circumstance. I come to TU/e not only with the intention of exploring new design possibilities and challenges, but also with the hope of clarifying my future design direction. I will be returning to Australia at a critical time in my studies, wherein important decisions will have to be made about the future direction I want to pursue in my final

year major in 2012. I hope that being in the TU/e competency environment will continue to foster my individual self reliance and teamwork skills, as I work towards the long term goal of becoming an autonomous design professional. From my understanding the TU/e faculty has a strong focus and expertise in the area of intelligent and adaptive systems. I am excited by this prospect as I have only limited experience and knowledge of interaction design. This semester I have made a clear strategic decision to focus on my weaknesses and specific areas I believe I am lacking knowledge and skills, particularly within the Complexity and Quality theme. Not only do I strive to improve these perceived faults and failings but anticipate new knowledge and areas of weakness and strength will reveal itself through out the course of the semester. I chose the Sharing Product Behaviour project because of the range of skills I believe it will challenge me to improve. With minimal knowledge of programming and the arduino platform I am aware that I am going into the course at a beginner level, although hopefully the Introducing Electronics Assignment I have chosen will give me some added confidence in this respect. It is my understanding that, “an intelligent product or system is able to autonomously generate behaviour that is judged meaningful and appropriate by its users. The environment, including people and other products or systems, can be sensed and interpreted by the product or system and provides the indispensable input enabling the system to act and behave intelligently� (Berry Eggen Professor of User Centered Engineering TU/e) I find this to be an endlessly fascinating premise and relish the opportunity to explore this project through the medium of light.


In our Complexity and Quality kick off session our coaches specifically addressed their desire for us to “learn by doing.” It should be duly noted however that in our pressure cooker session our group spent about 80% of our time on our intial brainstorm and only about 20% on the form iteration and the physical model. Hopefully this semester we will learn to change our design habits and use incremental prototyping as a learning tool and not just a vehicle to illustrate our final concepts. “Designing is not just a mental activity, it is also very tactile. Just make a prototype, reconsider, make another one, and so on. This is indeed research through design, a fundamental way of increasing designing competencies” (Ronald Van Tienhoven, designer). In Australia, a thorough and practical knowledge of “making” is also highly valued. Whilst abroad I aim to continue to maintain and progress such skills by undertaking a Prototyping Assignment. Mastering the practical application of form is particularly imperative in my situation as it is a skill that I have often felt I am lagging behind in, when compared to my classmates. The Trend Cockpit Assignment also provides me with the opportunity to travel to and analyze an international design fair, an experience I would never get in Australia! As an assignment which sits outside the traditional realm of Industrial design I am excited about the prospect of reconciling a fresh perspective to my current understanding of the industry. Through my studies so far I have learnt that good designers must have an innate ability to empathize with the situation they are designing for. Human beings always sit at the centre of this context. Ergonomics is an important consideration which I have been introduced to in Australia, but user testing is an area in which

I do not have alot of experience. I hope to change this through participation in the UFP Assignment. Overall, this semester, I recognize a distinct need for me to shift to a higher more independant level of design thinking and working, a concept often referred to as Conscientization. This mode of education can be defined as a critical consciousness whereby the learner continues to engage and question. As a designer operating in the 21st century, I must learn how to adapt to the changing needs of our contemporary global society. As such I recognise the personal responsibility I have for my own education and believe the TU/e competency centered approach lends itself well to this philosophy of experiential and continued learning. According to David Kolb, an educational theorist, knowledge is continuously gained through both personal and environmental experiences. He states that, “in order to gain genuine knowledge the learner must be willing to be actively involved in the experience; be able to reflect on the experience; must possess and use analytical skills to conceptualize the experience; and the learner must possess decision making and problem solving skills in order to use the new ideas gained from the experience.” I plan to use these 4 considerations to guide and evaluate my design progress. Ultimately this semester I want to find a clearer sense of direction in my chosen vocation. I hope to achieve this by continuing to explore, discover and define not only what I privilege as a designer but also as an individual.

I must continue to question myself & the ways in which I work.


My complete TU/e showcase & reflections can be accessed via the link hattp://www.wix.com/ scribbin-22/tueshowcase#!vstc1=home1


Appendix

Social Conscience: a design orientated manifesto

A surge of anger rose from the pit of my stomach. This is not right, something needs to change.....maybe I need to change? Whilst pondering these thoughts over and over in my head I stood, at once aloof and observant. I watched the interactions of the children on the street. The smiling faces on top of ragged gaunt bodies. They seemed happy enough so why did this situation fill me with such quite despair? I felt small and helpless in a situation that so clearly required action. Many people are inspired by the places they visit: London, Paris, New York, Rome. Travelers are drawn to these countries because of the art, culture and history they provide. I too was far from home, in a foreign land with a language and customs I didn’t understand. I couldn’t believe it, I was standing in the middle of a slum in the backwater of Manila, Philippines, and I’d never been more inspired in my life. There wasn’t any examples of grand architecture in sight, only row upon row of decrepit ramshackled “housing”. There was no clean running water, and the vile stench of waste filled the air. Yet I was inspired by the fortitude of the people and their ability to get on with life despite the fact they clearly owned so little. Indeed this community was not without its problems, but such a place challenged me, instantly widening my perception of the world. A sudden jolt of reality that redefined my sense of purpose, as both a person and as a designer. I believe situations and experience inform beliefs. As an industrial designer I am constantly faced with problems (issues of usability and cost of manufacture etc) for which I must find solutions. What hadn’t fully occurred to me before were the wider social implications of design and how my actions could extend beyond a purely commercial realm. Yet on that day, I was faced with the most basic of human needs; problems I couldn’t see a reason for or a solution to. That scared me, but I was also empowered by a renewed sense of responsibility. And so began a search to find out how I, a student, a designer, and a fellow human being could help this situation. A personal search for good and how I could design it.


Ultimately this manifesto aims to address issues of social justice within the context of design. It is a meditative reflection coloured by my own personal experiences. I believe creative thinking has the ability to transform our world. When applied to socially responsible design this change has the potential to become even more meaningful and profound. I advocate the use of education as a tool of empowerment and believe we should channel our creative knowledge towards designing a better future. I am a human being first and a designer second First and foremost, Social justice is NOT optional, it is an obligation. It is important to recognize that as human beings and members of wider society we have an inherent responsibility and duty of care towards others. In his book I Seem To Be a Verb, Architect Buckminster Fuller wrote, “I live on Earth at present, and I don’t know what I am. I know that I am not a category. I am not a thing — a noun. I seem to be a verb, an evolutionary process – an integral function of the universe.” Verbs denote action, and as a being of action I am obliged to serve out my role as a designer, always with best interests of society at heart. Secondly, Buckminster went on to define a designer as, “an emerging synthesis of artist, inventor, mechanic, objective economist and evolutionary strategist” Essentially we are creative thinkers, who seek to generate ideas and enact change through alternative means. Working for mass manufacture gives us the power to influence a wide collective of people. Therefore the needs of everyone who comes into contact with what we create must be carefully considered, from the manufacturer to the end user. Universal design is an example of how catering for such extremes can result in benefits for all. The invention of the hearing aid, in 1948, improved the lives of countless sound impaired people but also provided the technological breakthrough needed to create the

first transistor radio. Such technology revolutionized the field of communication during the 20th century. (D Berman, 2009) However it is important to acknowledge that disabilities are not purely physical ailments alone. As reflected in my experience of the Philippines, many of the problems faced by society (and the 3rd world in particular) are a result of socioeconomic disadvantage. It has been observed that, “the majority of the world’s designers focus all their efforts on developing products and services exclusively for the richest 10% of the world’s customers. Nothing less than a revolution in design is needed to reach the other 90%.” Dr. Paul Polak, International Development Enterprises It is imperative designers take ownership and responsibility for their actions. As a design discipline we must heed this call to action with a localized and worldwide code of ethics that provides an industry standard and seeks to promote ethical practice within our industry. Designers must be made aware of the social impacts of their work and not just the importance of their client’s bottom line. If each and every designer pledged to spend 10% of their professional time working on projects that focused on designing for “the other 90%” we could effectively kick start such a design revolution, helping to bring millions of people from subsistence to new income. You may not be able to chose who you work for but you most certainly have control over the way you work. In order to improve the lives of those less fortunate, designers need to develop products which successfully miniaturize current technologies so they can be implemented on a grassroots level. Affordability is a key, if not the sole most important consideration, for those living on less than a dollar a day. Products must also be modular and “infinitely expandable.” They need to be able to fit into the existing structures of society and become part of the system.


I fundamentally believe, objects do not sit in isolation, “they are embedded in situ” (Syd Mead, Visual futurist) and remain part of a system that has a dynamic social history and ethnography. Every product comes with its own individual set of cultural conditions and political implications which in turn affects the way it looks and how it is used and portrayed within society. I was reminded of this during my visit to the Philippines when ...

between and among the designers of tomorrow.

I was crowded, as curious youngsters peered, entranced by my camera. Wholly engaged, an expression of absolute delight spread across there faces when they recognized themselves in “the mirror.”

We sit at a nexus, the turn of a new century, where advances in technologies are rapidly changing our society into a “singular human community.” Computer technology, more specifically the Internet has had a huge transformative effect upon the way we interact with the world around us. From how we do business to the way we design, the online realm continues to broaden the potential for new customers and a wider audience.

Just like the camera screen, the functional aspect of every product denotes its purpose and provides the platform on which to engage the viewer. Ultimately, no matter what the designer’s intent, it is the end user that ascribes meaning to a product experience. In the case of the children and I, this object represented vastly different things, yet continued to serve the same simple purpose. Good design should always be able to transcend such cultural sensitivities, and function on both a personal level as well as within the larger, complex systems of society. “When you see the world through the eyes of others, things change” Good designers must have an innate ability to empathize with the situation they are designing for. Human beings always sit at the centre of this context, therefore their cultural, political and social values need to be recognized and understood. In my experience travelling extended my world view, whilst I have also found learning a secondary language helps promote a more sophisticated level of understanding. As such I believe all facilitators of design education have an obligation to provide initiatives like student exchange in order to foster relationships and understanding

“In a well designed future, it will be the message crafters, the product designers and the experts in transporting ideas and artefacts across great distances and generations who may hold the greatest responsibility” (D Berman, 2009)

Designers should be able to anticipate and fulfill the changing needs of our contemporary global society. 20th century philosopher, Foucalt, used a method of studying the past and the history of the Ancient Greeks, “to learn what extent the effort to think ones own history can free thought from what it silently thinks and so enable it to think differently” (Foucoult, Mark Johnson) In this way I believe, it is an informed and historically grounded design process which, has the most potential to defeat habit and affect change. While real-time experience and reactions inform how I understand myself and the world around me, a historical outlook also gives context to what I see, think and feel; here and now. In the continual pursuit of self improvement, designers must be critical of themselves and their own practice as well as being historically critical. Identifying and challenging old outdated processes and ways of doing things is essential to the advancement of technology and our design profession. Looking at history through multiple lenses allows designers to effectively build their own narrative and


foster a unique way of the looking at the world around them. Education empowers people. I believe education is a formidable design tool that has the power to increase awareness and the probability of change twofold. Currently, “educators are teaming up with engineers, designers, and social entrepreneurs to find ways to bring educational resources to remote areas via innovative educational tools,” such as portable microfilm libraries and low cost computers. Improving such access is critical if we are to break the poverty cycle, yet designers can also have a positive effect in the way they exert their influence over broader society. Repetition promotes ritual and ritual begets tradition. With each new product we design we effectively predict, qualify and influence the interactions people have with that object .In this way, small repetitive actions, have the ability to ingrain themselves into the collective psyche of society and transform the social landscape. Ultimately the way we as designers educate the general public will impact the consumption choices they make in the future. In the end the free market trades on the basis of supply and demand. If the consumer demands better products then companies will be forced to change their habits in order to stay competitive. Innovation however must come not only in terms of technological but social progress. Investing in the education of children is an investment towards the future of human society .

Although the street kids I met on my travels, essentially had no worldly possessions to call their own, I was to learn more than I could ever hope to teach them. Overall the experience has lead me to conclude that, rather than sharing our cycles of style and consumption with the third world, “designers can (and should) use their professional power, persuasive skills and wisdom to help distribute ideas the world really needs.”


Appendix

Helen Mclean PHD Research Interview


Sample themes and questions for focus groups/interviews with students. I want to know things like:

How and why will these abilities be useful?

• how the assessments may have prompted you to learn

What specific abilities do you think you will need to have to be successful in your future work?

• what abilities for the future you may have developed as a result of the assessment process

What particular abilities have you developed through the assessments with Academic X?

• how effective you believe the assessment was or will be for supporting your ongoing learning and future endeavours

How has the experience of this course and assessment approach helped you in your immediate learning? Have there been any spinoffs or benefits in areas of your life other than university?

• what it was like to experience these assessments What were your expectations of this course? Have they been met? How did the assessment prompt your learning? Tell me how you went about the assessment activities. What effect did the assessment methods have on your approach to learning (ie deep, surface, strategic) in this course? How much time did you spend studying? How did you study? How independent were you? How did you relate to your classmates?

What sort of things do you think you should be assessed on or should have been assessed on during your degree? How should you be assessed? Did you enjoy the experience? What was useful? What was not so useful? What could be improved?

In what ways did you receive feedback? How did you use the feedback you received?

What effect did the approaches have on the way you related to Academic X and your peers?

How did you engage with standards? How comfortable do you feel about being able to judge the quality of your work and others?

How well did you manage the assessment requirements alongside the commitments and other responsibilities in your life?

Thinking about the future, how has the assessment experience in the course with Academic X helped in preparing you for your life as a professional and lifelong learner? How prepared do you feel? What particular skills and knowledge did you learn that you think will help you when you are working as a professional?

What did you think about the assessment methods that were used? Were they useful, interesting? motivational etc?


Appendix

On a broader level I am interested in how design and the notion of creative thinking can be applied to learning environments; designing educative tools to enhance learning experiences. But what are the best practices and most innovative approaches serving education today—and as a result, how does it serve the children of the future? This was one of the main issues discussed at the Education Designed to Improve Life Conference, Copenhagen 2011 [3] . One such example of using design to empower or generate change was also the 2010 Index Design Challenge: Designing For Education, wherein the participation of “1300 students from over 90 universities in 35 countries...created more than 100 unique solutions.” [4] The winner was a project called TeddyBag, a cardboard school backpack that also turned into a desk, allowing children to carry all they needed to study at school and home. It was awarded the prize based on the simple criteria: form, impact and context, as well as its rapid manufacturability, ease of dispatch in emergency situations and ability to create learning environments in the home. Such a product is indeed an example how a manufacturable tangible object can enrich lives, yet it should be noted that there are other alternative (albeit less tangible) ways of creating an impact.

Methods Proposal Relevant Extract

Within the specific context of my project I identify a need for educative resources and tools that not only teach but also empower. Previous Index award winner Kiran Bir Sethi describes such a user centred method in her Design for Change Project which, “developed a simple design process that enables children to become drivers of change. The process gets children to feel (any issue that bothers them), imagine (a way to make it better), do (implement the act of change) and share (make it visible).” [5] The aim of the project was, “to develop new teaching formats based on design thinking and


design methodologies,” implementing them in classrooms so that students could, “experience a creative design process where they themselves design solutions for global challenges....relevant to their own lives.”

11. Yagou, A. 2007, Design Pedagogy, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://www. designophy.com/designpedia/article. php?UIN=1000000000&sec=term>

Overall Index’s philosophy mirrors my own personal position and I agree with there assertion that Design Thinking, “is often seen as one of the means to establish learning environments needed to give future generations the skills needed [to navigate] the 21st century.” [6]

13. Usability Professionals’ Association, 2010. Methods: Cultural Probes, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://www.usabilitybok.org/ methods/cultural-probe)>

1. Unicef, 2005, The State of the Worlds Children, Last Accessed: October 2011, <http://www.unicef.org/sowc/archive/ENGLISH/The%20State%20of%20the%20 World%27s%20Children%202005.pdf> 2. Bahay Tuluyan, 2010, Educational Resources, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://www.bahaytuluyan.org/children-right_educational-resources_7_36_1.html> 3. Index, 2011, Education Designed to Improve Life Conference, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://designtoimprovelife.dk/index.php?option=com_content_custom&vi ew=article&id=652&catid=18&Itemid=287> 4. Author Unknown, 2010, Index Design Challenge 2010, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://www.indexaward.dk/designchallenge/index.php> 5. Kirin B. S, 2010, Design For Change, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://www. designtoimprovelife.dk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=631> 6. Index, 2011, Education, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://designtoimprovelife.dk/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=480&Itemid=295> 6. Index, 2011, Education, Last accessed: October 2011, <http://designtoimprovelife. dk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=480&Itemid=295> 7. Fuller, R.B.1969, Operating Manual For Spaceship Earth, Simon and Schuster, NY. 8. Kelley, T. & Littman, J. 2001, The Art of Innovation, Doubleday, NY. Hummel, C. & Vinke, D. 2009, Eindhoven Designs, Eindhoven University of Technology, NL. 10. Preece, J. 2007, Interaction Design: beyond human-computer interaction, John Wiley, Whichester, England.

12. Sheets-Johnstone, M. 1999, The Primacy of Movement, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

14. Strauss, A. L. 1987, Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 15. Van Manen, M. 1990, Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for Action Sensitive Pedagogy, State University of New York Press, Albany, New York. 16. Cooper, Harris M. 1998, Synthesizing Research: a guide for literature reviews, Last accessed: September 2011, <http://books. google.com/books?id=ZWvAmbjtE9sC&printsec=frontcover&hl=zhCN&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false> 17. Index & Ordrup Gymnasium, 2009, Design to Improve Life Curriculum for Secondary Education Institutions, Last accessed: October 2011, <(http://www.indexaward.dk/education/)> 18. Berman, D. 2008, Do Good Design, Peachpit Press, Berkeley. Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group, USA. 20. Aklat NG Bayan, 2010, Prof. Jose Ma. Sison’s latest books launched inAmsterdam, article, Last accessed: September 2011, <http:// aklatngbayan.org/ page/2/> 21. Endrina, A. B. 2006, The Pinoy Solutions, Last Accessed: October 2011, <http://pinoysolutions.blogspot.com/2006/03/ten-biggestproblems-facing.html> 22 a & b. Polak, P. 2011, The Future Corporation: Thoughts from Paul Polack, Last Accessed: October 2011, <http://www.vilcap.com/thefuture-corporation-thoughts-frompaul-


Schools of thought Influential Figures Books & Journals Theories Key Case studies Field Research Technology User Profile Interviews Community site visits Workshop Facilitation


research


A digital archive of all my extended research can be accessed via http://siobhancribbin. wordpress.com/ Throughout the semester this blog was used as a tool to capture many divergent lines of design enquiry and thinking. 69 posts were completed in total This research chapter provides a brief overview of the digitally archived content, but does not feature all of it. For links to case studies, video & multimedia multimedia content it is reccomended that you also visit to the website.

Tixel Technology Storybooks 10 Ways that Mobile Learning Will Revolutionize Education Un-learning Gamification The Pocket School Engaging Your Audience Why Flip The Classroom When We Can Make It Do Cartwheels? Voluteering & Experiential Learning Augmented Reality in a Sandpit, video Caineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Arcade, video Tinker, make, collaborate, question If school kills creativity, can toys bring it back to life? What if schools werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t schools anymore? Once upon a time... Khan Academy lost craft, rediscovering the value of traditional skills The flipped classroom Passion+learning, video Where good ideas come from, video Child driven education & Sugata Mitra Eike Konig, video Lego serious play, video Easy Pour Play happens quote Everything is designed even learning experiences Wonder Object, video Tech4Dev Design Thinking for Educators Sparklab Learn through Making Prototype Design Camps Solve for X, moonshot thinking

Blog Archive


Just for fun Education+Design thinking Playful Design manifesto Teaching for Tomorrow, Today The d.school K12 Education Make Believe Real Stanford d.school method mixed tapes Make Space Multi-modality The Stanford Learning Lab Is the freelance surge the industrial revolution of our time? The Future Belongs to the Curious, video A simple reminder Tony Wagner Active Tile, video Pogo Constructivist Theory Futurist Ray Kurzweil LG & mass produced ink displays Hack your Eduction? Gerard Darby on BBC 4Thought Imagine by Jonah Lehrer, video Co-design, Co-exist, Co-create Better than Lego? The Reflective Practitioner Lessons worth sharing Ted Ex Interactive Learning quote Explosion of creativity & colour Changing Education Paradigms Microsoft- partners in learning Social Innovation Service Design Thinking, video


Schools of Thought Influential Books The Third Teacher by Bruce Mau Designs Growing Up Digital by Tapscot 21st Century Skills by B Trilling & C Fadel The Global Achievement Gap by T Wagner The Geography of Thought by Nesbit The Reflective Practicioner by D Schon Make Space By Stanford D School Design Thinking for Educators Toolkit Thought Leaders Sugata Mitra Ken Robinson, Academic Dr Stuart Brown, Academic Ray Kurzweil, Futurist Maria Monteressi, historical John Dewey, historical Hilary Cottam,social innovator Stephen Hebbel, architect Theories Constructivist Multiple intelligences UDL & UDI PLA


Field Research User Technology Profile Aislinn, Hannah & Tess Interviews Claire Christie, school teaching rounds Claire Scobell, primary school teacher Kathleen Cefai, intergration aide Helen Mclean, PHD assessment models Victoria Hellyer, Artplay cardboard spaces Jemma Mcviegh, student teacher Leanne Cribbin, student teacher Community site visits Footscray City High-school, vocational training college Art play, Birrarung Marr, cardboard play spaces Workshop Facilitation Kidsview Conferance Facilitator Mauro Porcini Workshop Agideas Next Forum RMIT SAB â&#x20AC;&#x153;anywhere anytimeâ&#x20AC;? learning & business building Activating Change case study S&S online forum case study


Stanford D school Make Space

David Berman Do Good Design


Donald A. Schon The Reflective Practioner Visualizing the future world of work

Nesbit, philosopher Geography of Thought Summary 1. Your place in the world effects your thinking 2. Your surroundings will influence your behaviour


The Third Teacher A book called, The Third Teacher, by Bruce Mau Design’s.It includes 79 ways you can transform education by designing today’s schools, for tomorrow’s world!

Elizabeth, ma/id Thesis 2011-2012, 3rd June 2012, Accessed via: http://www.fourc3.com/idthesis1112/?p=671


21st Century Skills A visual breakdown of the books key elements


DESIS network

As such I attended a couple of DESIS networking events and workshops. The first was taken by, Fabian Segeistrom, a service design researcher from Sweden. He presented his large body of work, and explained the concepts behind them. I particularly liked his analogy, "services are people intensive systems" I also attended a service design workshop held at RMIT. Here we worked in groups & learnt how to construct and use personas and other service design tools.

A new design discipline is emerging. It builds on traditional design skills to address social and economic issues. It uses the design process as a means to enable a wide range of disciplines and stakeholders to collaborate. It develops solutions that are practical and desirable. It is an approach that places the individual at the heart of new solutions, and builds the capacity to innovate into organisations & institutions.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

After reading the book, This is Service Design Thinking at the beginning of semester, I gained a renewed interest for this area of the design field.


Schools are still pretty much organised on factory lines. On ringing bells, separate facilities, specialised into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches. You know, we put them through the system by age group. Why do we do that? You know, why is there this assumption that the most important thing kids have in common is how old they are. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s like the most important thing about them is their date of manufacture.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Sir Ken Robinson


“ The whole process of public education came about to meet the needs of the Industrial Revolution.The current system doesn’t just represent the interests of the industrial model it embodies them”


Ken Robinson Every country on earth at the moment is reforming public education. There are two reasons for it. The first of them is economic. People are trying to work out, how do we educate our children to take their place in the economies of the 21st century. How do we do that? Even though we can’t anticipate what the economy will look like at the end of next week. as the recent turmoil has demonstrated. How do you do that? The second though is cultural. Every country on earth on earth is trying to figure out how do we educate our children so they have a sense of cultural identity, so that we can pass on the cultural genes of our communities. While being part of the process globalization, how do you square that circle? The problem is they are trying to meet the future by doing what they did in the past. And on the way they are alienating millions of kids who don’t see any purpose in going to school. When we went to school we were kept there with the story, which is if you worked hard and did well and got a college degree you’d have a job. Our kids don’t believe that, and they are right not to by the way. You are better having a degree than not, but it’s not a guarantee anymore. And particularly not if the route to it marginalises most of the things that you think are important about yourself. Some people say we have to raise standards if this is a breakthrough. You know… like really. Yes, we should. Why would you lower them? You know…I haven’t come across an argument that persuades me they’ve lowered them. But raising them, of course we should raise them. The problem is that the current system of education was designed and conceived and structured for a different age. It was conceived in the intellectual culture of the Enlightenment, and in the economic circumstances of the Industrial Revolution. Before the middle of the nineteenth century there were no systems of public education. Not really, you’d get educated by Jesuits if you had the money. But public education paid for from taxation, compulsory to everybody and free at the point of delivery, that was a revolutionary idea. And many people objected to it. They said it’s not possible for many street kids working class children to benefit from public education. They are incapable of learning to read and write and why are we spending time on this? So there was also built into the whole series of assumptions about social structuring capacity. It was driven by an economic imperative of the time, but running right through it, was an intellectual model of the mind, which was

essentially the Enlightenment view of intelligence. The real intelligence consisted in this capacity for certain type of deductive reasoning, and a knowledge of the Classics originally, what we’ve come to think of as academic ability. And this is deep in the gene pool of public education. There are really two types of people. Academic and non academic. Smart people and non smart people. And the consequence of that is that many brilliant people think they are not, because they’ve been judged against this particular view of the mind. So we have twin pillars, economic and intellectual. And my view is that this model has caused chaos in many people’s lives. And it’s been great for some – there’ve been people who benefited wonderfully from it, but most people have not. Instead the suffered this. This is the modern epidemic, and it’s as misplaced as fictitious. This is the plague of ADHD. Now this is a map of the instance of ADHD in America. Or prescriptions for ADHD. Don’t mistake me I don’t mean to say there is no such thing as attention deficit disorder. I’m not qualified to say if there isn’t such a thing. I know that a great majority of psychologists and paediatricians think there’s such a thing. – but it’s still a matter of debate. What I do know for a fact is it’s not an epidemic. These kids of being medicated as routinely as we have our tonsils taken out. And on the same whimsical basis and for the same reason medical fashion. Our children are living in the most intensely stimulating period in the history of the earth. They are being besieged with information and parse their attention from every platform, computers, from iPhones, from advertising holdings from hundreds of television channels. And we are penalizing them for getting distracted. From what? No – Boring stuff. At school for the most part It seems to me not a conscience totally that the instance of ADHD has risen in parallel with the growth of standardized testing. Now these kids are being given Ritalin and Adderall and all manner of things. Often quite dangerous drugs to get them focused and calm them down. But according to this attention deficit disorder increases as you travel east across the country. People start losing interest in Oklahoma. They can hardly think straight in Arkansas. And by the time they get to Washington they’ve lost it completely. And there are separate reasons for that, I believe. It’s a fictitious epidemic. If you think of it, the Arts – and I don’t say this is exclusively the Arts, I think it’s also true of Science and of Maths. I say about


the Arts particularly because they are the victims of this mentality currently. Particularly. The Arts especially address the idea of Aesthetic experience. An aesthetic experience is one in which your senses are operating at their peak. When you’re present in the current moment. When you are resonating with the excitement of this thing that you’re experiencing. When you are fully alive. And anaesthetic is when you shut your senses off, and deaden yourself what’s happening. And a lot of these drugs are that. We’re getting our children through education by anaesthetising them. And I think we should be doing the exact opposite. We shouldn’t be putting them asleep, we should be waking them up, to what they have inside of themselves. But the model we have is this. It’s I believe we have a system of education which is modelled on the interest of industrialism. and in the image of it. I’ll give you a couple examples.

Changing Paradigms Transcript called laterally. To think not just in linear or convergent ways. To see multiple answers and not one. So I made up a test for this. I mean one called the cod example would be people might be asked to say: How many uses can you think of for a paper clip? Follows routine questions. Most people might come with 10 or 15. People who are good at this might come with 200. And they do that by saying. Well, could the paper clip be 200 foot tall and be made of foam rubber? You know… like does it have to be a paper clip as we know it, Jim? The test is this. They gave them to 1500 people in a book called Breakpoint and Beyond. And on the protocol of the test if you scored above a certain level, you’d be considered to be a genius of divergent thinking. Alright – So my question to you is: what percentage of the people tested of the 1500 scored genius level for divergent thinking? I need to know one more thing about them. These were kindergarten children…. So what do you think? What percentage of genius level?

Well I know kids who are much better than other kids at the same age in different disciplines. You know, or at different times of the day, or better in smaller groups than in large groups or sometimes they want to be on their own.

80, OK? 98% Now the thing about this was a longitudinal study. So they retested the same children five years later, ages of 8-10. What do you think? -50? They retested them again 5 years later, ages 13-15. You can see a trend here coming. Now, this tells a interesting story. Because you could’ve imagined they’re going the other way. Could you? You start off not being very good but you get better as you get older. But this shows 2 things: One is we all have this capacity and Two: It mostly deteriorates. Now a lot have happened to these kids as they grown up, a lot. But one of the most important things happened that I’m convinced is that by now they’ve become educated. They spend 10 years in school being told there is one answer, it’s at the back, and don’t look. And don’t copy because that’s cheating. I mean outside school that’s called collaboration but, inside schools.

If you are interested in the model of learning you don’t start from this production line mentality. This is essentially about conformity. Increasingly it’s about that as you look at the growth of standardised testing and standardised curricula and it’s about standardisation.

This isn’t because teachers wanted this way it’s just because it happens that way. It’s because it’s in the gene pool of education. We have to think differently about human capacity. We have to get over this old conception of academic, non academic. Abstract, theoretical, vocational and see it for what it is: a Myth.

I believe we’ve got go in the exact opposite direction. That’s what I mean about changing the paradigm. There is a great study done recently on divergent thinking – Published a couple years ago. Divergent thinking isn’t the same thing as creativity. I define creativity as the process of having original ideas which have value. Divergent thinking isn’t a synonym, but it’s an essential capacity for creativity. It’s the ability to see lots of possible answers to a question. Lots of possible ways of interpreting a question. To think, what Edward de Bono publicly

Second, we have to recognize most great learning happens in groups. That collaboration is the stuff of growth. If we atomize people and separate them a judge them separately, we form a kind of disjunction between them and their natural learning environment.

Schools are still pretty much organised on factory lines. On ringing bells, separate facilities, specialised into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches. You know, we put them through the system by age group. Why do we do that? You know, why is there this assumption that the most important thing kids have in common is how old they are. You know, it’s like the most important thing about them is their date of manufacture.

And thirdly, it’s crucially about the culture of our institutions. The habits of institutions and the habitats that they occupy.


“ everything that is material affects the child’s temperament & development. ”

“ first the education of the senses, then the education of the intellect.”

We discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that it is a natural process which develops spontaneously

Maria Montessori


Predictions Exponential awareness/knowledge of the brain (doubling knowledge yearly); creating working models of brain simulations in exact mathematical terms Late 2020s — we’ll have computing that can simulate the human intelligence Wisdom vs. Intelligence? Ray is asked if he sees wisdom increasing as well as intelligence. He mentions the often discussed ‘wisdom of crowds’, like Google or the aggregate of the blogosophere. The democratizing of knowledge — huge impact on education. The cost barriers are dropping constantly, so anyone can create previously impossible projects/ products. Same with distribution of e-courses (i.e studying online at MIT’s). Ultimately, it won’t matter if you are in the classroom or not, as you should till have access to a high level of education. Educators will become “mature guides” to “guide you through the world” of education and information http://thinklab.typepad.com/think_lab/2007/01/futurist_ ray_ku.html

Ray Kurzweil A Futurist’s views on Education


Interactivity as a pedagogical technique requires a fundamental change in the way education is delivered. In his book, Growing Up Digtal, Tapscott identifies 7 ways this change occurs: From linear to hypermedia learning. From instruction to construction and discovery From teacher-centered to learner-centered education From absorbing material to learning how to navigate From schooling to lifelong learning From learning as chore to learning as fun. From the teacher as transmitter to the teacher facilitator

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Tapscott


Education scientist Sugata Mitra tackles one of the greatest problems of education -- the best teachers and schools don't exist where they're needed most. In a series of real-life experiments from New Delhi to South Africa to Italy, he gave kids self-supervised access to the web and saw results that could revolutionize how we think about teaching. http://www.ted.com/talks/sugata_mitra_the_child_driven_ education.html The Gatehead Experiment 32 children///groups, computer, British grandmothers. to skype a lesson 1 hour of broaadband time a week 600 hours of instruction The Turin Experiment learning across the languages barrier asking italian students a question in English i.e where is calcutta? who is pythagoras and what did he do? And seeing how they respond and find the answer, in spite of the fact they didn’t understand the question at first Explaination: “ Whats happened? we've stumbled acoss. a self organising system is one where the system structure apperas without explicit interevention from the outside the system “

Sugata Mitra a quest of attitude not technology

" Education is a self organising system, where learning is an emergent phenomenon" soles= self organised learning environments.


Imagine schools as incubators for a new generation of designers . Imagine schools that foster the type of thinking that bridges the chasms of ethnicity, nationality, religion and time

Imagine a world made sustainable because we first taught every child to overcome hatred & fear and educated them to be ecologically competent

best from each child

David Orr

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Imagine schools that draw the very


New technology , New terminology


Epistemology: A branch of philosophy concerned with how we acquire knowledge. Pedagogy: The method and practice of teaching. Ethnography: A scientific description of the customs of peoples & cultures. Modalities: A particular mode in which something exists, is experienced or expressed. Meme: is a cultural value, idea or pattern of behaviour that is passed from one person to another i.e thoughts, ideas, theories, practices, habits, songs, dances and moods. Net-gener the knowledge age skills gap digital native value chain technolution “grade four slump” echo generation ubiquitous computing the third teacher technology caves creative class Wikipedia Age new millenium learners engaged learning permeability of practice Un-college “hack your education” agile spaces economies of information global commons interconnectivity “distributed, plural, collaborative”


Design for Children Key Considerations safety, safe places to explore flexibility, multipurpose use stoarage & labelling sturdy furniture open low shelves leave as much open floor space as possible for play areas to display artwork a space with desicion making opportunities for the child hooks repositioned at childs3 height


UDL Universal Design For Learning UDI Universal Design For Instruction Universal design calls for designing and constructing buildings, homes, products which from the outset, accommodate the widest spectrum of users. UDL applies this general idea, â&#x20AC;&#x153;that curriculum should from the outset be designed to accommodate all kinds of learners.â&#x20AC;?

PLA Paticipatory Learning & Action


Literature Review

“ I use design to tackle some of the more intractable social issues of our day. I see myself as a facilitator, problem solver and inventor. All the projects are developed by a team which includes designers, other professionals from a range of disciplines, front-line workers and members of the public who, with me, are challenged through the design process to abandon their initial preconceptions and co-create something new and beautiful that works.” Previous project areas Hilary has worked on include school systems, hospitals & prison’s but Cottam believes, There is still so much more to be done! “For the future, two subjects are particularly dear to my heart: housing, where the design process might help to unlock entrenched debates and the design of the product is so important; and transport where again I believe that our approach has much to offer mobility in terms of both process and product.”

Hilary Cottam


Co-creation: “ Firstly within my approach all briefs are developed in partnership with those who will work with and use whatever is to be the final product. This is not simply a consultation exercise or populism, but a rigorous design process whereby a range of professionals work with users to develop a solution.” Policy guideline: “ Secondly all projects develop practical, workable solutions for the users while also developing policy guidelines – a set of principles which could help to change the framework within which future designs will be commissioned.” Budget Appraisal: “ Thirdly we have an underlying principle of smart spending. All my projects are developed within the same budgets as traditional approaches. We don’t need to spend more, we just need to spend differently. Sometimes this results in solutions which turn out to be cheaper than those developed through more traditional approaches.” It is fair to say that Cottam largely designs for a real world context, but with a framework of innovative thinking and ideological drivers. “ We are an experimental unit challenging accepted thinking on economic and social issues through design innovation. We run rapid turnaround projects as opportunities to develop practical design solutions for a range of social issues. Some of these projects are designed to provoke debate. Others provide the foundation. ”

Propositional Activity


Employment & professional milestone’s Currently regarded as a design strategist, her career has had insurmountable breadth and depth. Including a range of jobs and qualifications that position her as a woman with a vast amount of experience and talent. Hilary works predominantly within the public sector, creating and overseeing the implementation of government initiatives. Consultancy is done through her service design firm Participle. However having previously worked for Care and the World bank in some remote and poverty stricken parts of the world, it can be assumed that her drive and focus is not purely money motivated. Instead one gets the sense that she has a larger social agenda and is motivated by an overriding desire to change the world for the better.

Biography: 1965 Born in London.

1999 Starts the Do Tank Ltd. and begins a research project into the future design of the UK prison system.

1984 Studies modern history at Oxford University. 1987 Joins the humanitarian arm of the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front, working in Northern Ethiopia. 1989 Appointed field representative for CARE International in the Dominican Republic. 1991 Returns to the UK to complete a master’s degree at Sussex University. 1993 Joins the World Bank in Washington DC as an urban policy specialist with responsibility for Southern Africa. 1996 Returns to the UK to complete a Doctorate in Social Sciences at the Open University. 1998 Founds School Works with the Architecture Foundation and Demos, and is appointed a visiting fellow at the London School of Economics.

2000 School Works is awarded £10 million by the Department for Education to implement its ideas in the modernisation of the Kingsdale secondary school in Dulwich, south east London 2001 Joins the Design Council as Director of Learning and Public Services 2002 Publishes The Do Tank’s research into the design of the prison system as Learning Works: The 21st Century Prison. The proposals are endorsed by the prisons minister and the director of the Prison Service. 2004 Kingsdale School is completed and recognised as one of the UK’s 20 most improved schools. School Works starts to work with ten more schools. Cottam establishes the experimental RED Unit at the Design Council and becomes its director. RED launches a design strategy for citizenship. The House of Commons launches a select committee enquiry into prison learning. 2005 RED unveils a new design strategy for Health. Hilary Cottam is shortlisted for the Design Museum’s Designer of the Year prize. Hilary is now one the founding partners of Participle, a new social enterprise for designing the next generation of public services


Research Practice & Methodologies. A designers field of influence Supported with evidence from Alice Rawthorn’s Editorial, “Engineering a Brighter Future” Published in The New York Times The design actions and methodologies used by Cottam are clearly outlined in Alice Rawthorn’s editorial piece “Engineering a Brighter Future” written for the New York Times June 13 2010. The piece charts the course of one of one of Particple’s projects called “The Loop.” A program which enables disadvantaged youth with there personal development by setting up 3 separate work experiences in their community. Rawthorn describes Participle’s process, by narrating how it all started with “a hunch” rather than cold hard facts and figures. Although impetus for the project also came from a widely published Unicef study which demonstrated, “that the U.K. was the worst country in the Western world to grow up in.” Cottam’s field testing methods clearly comes to the fore in a subsequent paragraph which describes how Participle first engaged with their participants and target demographic. “The team started by parking buses in places where young people gather on Friday nights, and inviting them on board to chat over pizza.” Collaboration with ethnographers, psychologists and anthropologists also meant that some willing participants and their families underwent “intensive psychoanalytic interviews,” as part of the projects research phase. Rawthorn cleverly picks up on this strategy in her own writing, by using the construct of “Mo” and “Vickie”, as 2 examples of the program’s possible youth profiles. By introducing these characters to the reader Rawthorn further highlights and humanizes Cottam’s research process .

Cottam’s voice is also quite a strong presence in the article. In it she is openly critical of other government strategies, which she says often simply build, “new youth centers...to encourage young people to avoid risk” rather than fostering and developing positive experiences. Instead she proposes the opposite, arguing that, “Youth development comes out of having lots of experiences and engaging with risk.” An interesting premise, which is given precedance by Rawthorn’s mentioning of both the widely successful Harlem Children’s Zone project as well as the Dutch Saturday School program. However what sets The Loop apart, from the 2 aforementioned programs, is its wide use of reflective practices. After each session, the youth take part in an informal discussion group.. Without this, Cottam concludes, “the young people found it hard to identify what they’d learned, how to address mistakes, and what they’d like to do next. After reflecting, they tended to get more out of their subsequent experiences.” Overall Rawthorn’s enthusiasm for the design project ,and her glowing report places, “Ms. Cottam and her colleagues at the forefront of the increasingly influential discipline of social design.” Rawthorn’s full article can be accessed via: http://www.nytimes. com/2010/06/14/arts/14iht-design14.html?_r=1


informal learning environments â&#x20AC;&#x153;Muesuems invite learning rather than require itâ&#x20AC;?


ym fo noitpircsed deliated erom A & sfeileb ngised Where: Scienceworks What: Interactive Learning Centre Why: observe learning behaviour

From right to left Hannah Cefai Grade Prep Age 5 Tess Torrance Year One Age 6 Aislinn Cefai Year 3 Age 9

Field Study


Goals 1. To investigate the behavioural patterns of the particiants,& their approach to learning through play 2. Observe their interactions with technology


Technology User Profile Tess is in Year One. She owns an ipod touch and her favourite past time is using it to listen & dance to music. She doesn’t own a mobile phone yet but she is able to send messages and make unassisted calls on her mothers. She likes to use emoticons and symbols when texting.

Aislinn is 9 years old. Her prized possession is also her ipod touch. She uses it mostly to take video and capture the world around her. Aislinn’s favourite game is called “Readings” on her Nintendo DS. A spelling game where she wins stickers. She uses her home computer to complete homework, and her mothers ipad to play games. As well as her ipod touch & nintendo. She also owns a Wii & a play station.

Hannah may not be able to read or write properly just yet but she could definitely be classified as technology literate. She plays games on her DS, or Wii controller, although her favourite is “cooking” on her mothers ipad. She uses this device most days, either at home or at school (her prep classroom has 5 ipads) She likes to capture the world around her by taking photos & videos, which she can do unassisted. Although she sometimes gets in trouble for taking too many photos without permission.


Planetarium an immersive experience?

Technology is not a enough, the learning content must be engaging to the viewer, in order to maintain their focus...

& attention


The Planeterium, at Scienceworks consists of a projection system spanning the entire roof, reclining seats and surround sound. I expected the girls to be really engaged by this state of art technology! However, as clearly shown by the image on right, despite being surrounded by all this high end technology, Aislinn was still more engaged with her own personal devices (an ipod touch) It was found that the 2 younger girls, Hannah and Tess, were also quite fidgety. This can be attributed to the educational content (video) being shown, as it was too complex for their age group.


Active Engagement At 5 years old, Hannah is the youngest participant, and as a result often finished last in competitive activities. However this didn’t stop her from continually trying and giving everything a go. In fact, the more encouragement she received the better she performed, and the more likely she was to try new things. She responded particularly well to activities that mimicked “real life” situations, such as playing “shop keeper” in the Sciencework’s mini store or becoming a builder in the child construction zone.


Build & Create “Learning through doing”, is essentially the design process in action. Yet it is not restricted to professional practicioners. It is something children practice everyday through the act of,

play The activites demonstrated through the photo images on right all required some aspects of construction & working with tangible materials. They did not require interacting with digital screens like so many of the other exhibits. I found Tess’ disposition meant she was quite pre-disposed to working on this kind of activity. Throughout every activitiy she illustrated a high level of concentration and determination to get things done.


â&#x20AC;&#x153;

imagination is more important than knowledge.

For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Albert Einstein


Captures

her reality

The dinosaur room was very interactive and was by far Aislinnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s favourite. The robotic exhibits were very animated and made sound. The touch point displays were also rich in information. During the exhibit, It was interesting to observe that the small boy on right was using a digital camera to record his experience. Upon noticing this behaviour, Aislinn also promptly mimicked the boy, recording her own version of events, using her ipod.


Science Works Interview Tangible Learning

click image to play to play video


Visual Transcript Helen Mclean Interview PHD, Masters of Education


Visual Transcript Jemma McVeigh Interview 3rd year Student Teacher


Visual Transcript Claire Scobell Interview Primary School Teacher


Visual Transcript Claire Christie Interview Contemporry Learning school placement


Visual Transcript Kathleen Cefai Interview Teachers Aide, Primary School


ym fo noitpircsed deliated erom A & sfeileb ngised Where: Footscray City What: Vocational Learning Space

I went to take a look at Footscray City High, a vocational, practiced based learning school My sister Leanne is undertaking her teaching rounds there, and she accompanied me around the school, providing valuable insight into the problems & highlights of the spaces. A video â&#x20AC;&#x153;schemaâ&#x20AC;? was created with her narration. Please click the image on right, to play it.

Footscray City Vocational College Video Schematic


Goals 1. To investigate how the design of a school directky impacts student learning 2. Compare how a vocational learning space differes from a mainstream school. Analysing the advantages & diadvantages.


Bill Gates Radio National Podcast Summary


Stuart Brown TED Talk Play!


RMIT SEEDS Discusssion Synopsis Women in Social Enterprise Forum BMW Edge


Tim Brown Ted Talk IDEO


ym fo noitpircsed deliated erom A & sfeileb ngised

Kids View 2012 Conferance Facilitator Primary & Secondary school workshops Social Justice Conferance

Underwent prior training as part of my role


ym fo noitpircsed deliated erom A & sfeileb ngised

Agideas Next Forum Volunteer 900 schoolchildren 100 designers

100â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of ideas to change the world through design 1 mural


ym fo noitpircsed deliated erom A & sfeileb ngised

Artplay

Cardboard Play Spaces Birrarung Marr Visted Exhibition


statement


1. Participatory 2. Provocative 3. Propositional Positioning the project

New approaches in teaching and learning have seen a shift in the role of the teacher, from a figure of authority to that of a guide or steward. They must take the journey of learning together with their students, accommodating a diverse set of learning styles along the way. Such a user- centred approach also requires active participation from the student, whom must be willing and able to also take ownership of their own education. In the same way, when designing the spaces children inhabit, consultation and co creation are ideal methods, which will allow the designer to give an active voice to the child. Moreover, to place ownership of a design directly in their hands, not only encourages and facilitates creativity, but also empowers... & this is perhaps the greatest lesson you can teach. In the 21st century, to be active and engaged with your surroundings will be crucial. Children will shape the world of tomorrow, ergo we need to give them the tools to start making changes today.


â&#x20AC;&#x153; The Global Achievement

The Industrial Age is in decline, and the Knowledge Age upon us.

as described by Tony Wagner, embodies the current crisis in education today. The world is changing, yet children continue to be taught in outdated classrooms using methods that served another century & the result? Students are leaving school & university ill-equipped and without the necessary life skills to navigate the demands of a 21st century workplace. Whilst the landscape of education is in the throes of transformation, we need to move beyond changes to course content & curriculum, taking into consideration the learning environment as a whole. For it is the role of the physical spaces and objects in which a child engages, which is most often underestimated and overlooked. The question remains, How will we create environments that foster the children of today, and in doing so prepare them for the world of tomorrow ?

Gap,â&#x20AC;?

To visualize the future classroom is to glimpse this future world. One where ubiquitous computing will transform classrooms into technology caves that engage a future generation of digital natives. One where such constant interconnectivity will see a re-focus and shift in how we learn, and navigate this information overload. One where the 4 walls that contained a classroom no longer exist and the barriers between the student and the wider world are broken. Instead the classroom will become a place where collaboration and a proactive approach to study is nurtured. Students will learn to become leaders and managers of each other, and stewards of their own environment. Classrooms will begin to reflect microcosms of society and become places where the worlds problems can be raised and solved. According to futurist Ray Kurziel, by the time students today reach college they will have a far greater capacity to shape their world, than many previous generations combined. This denotes an opportunity for profound change.In a brave new world filled with uncertainty, hope will be found in these students capacity to continue to learn, and avoid repeating mistakes made by previous generations.


Chapter 3

propositional s ketch book


outside the classroom

ecologies of learning

inside the classroom


digital lifestyle

learning research

knowledge economy

Converging Forces


resources linking outside world

school


standardisation

publishing industry

traditional approaches

Forces of Resistance


propositional concepts method content mediating objects mediating environments


Jump! th!nk How can we design play space’s that get kids moving and thinking at the same time? A focus on tactile and sensory perception to enact kinesthetic learning i.e body, object,social or imaginative solo play, rough and tumble, spatial play i.e jungle gym concept wire frame obstacle course whcih turns into modular seating when componants are clipped to it Social furniture: modular furniture that invites social collaboration and interaction in the school yard context Wonder objects, inspiring creative play How can you design objects that evoke a sense of surprise or wonder? Can we manufacture emotions and manipulate form in order to mediate meaningful learning experiences. A Child’s Universe: What does the world look like when viewed through the eyes of a child? With an unparalleled imagination, a simple object can become much more than what it first appears to be. A rolled up newspaper can transform into a sword or a captains hat. A bump in the night could be explained by a monster under the bed. As a designer how can we explore this child like perception in our own work, creating objects which visually engage and evoke a sense of playfulness.

Surfaces: What if every classroom surface was inherently editable and could be written upon in order to create a community of ideas. What would it look like? how could we achieve this? 1. tear and share 2. paper scroll desk 3. layer table, each layer with a different work surface 4. curved walls for 3 dimensional projection 5. the wrmelamine or porcelain/enamel steel table top 6. universe table concept 7. etch a sketch....magnetphoric material or magnetic sand.... 8. digital: tableTAB Through a smart use of materials, we can build a classroom that is not only responsive to learning, but makes it visible. i.e thermochromic heat sensitive carpet why? a barefoot classroom with a “no shoe policy” has proven psychological benefits of assisting concentration. Children spend a lot of time on the floor, why not inject a sense of fun and playfulness into to a classroom by designing it so that it visually responds to student’s movements. Interactive reading mat, In either a communal circle shape or a modular tile formation. The second arrangement probably has a greater potential for user driven games. Incorporating lilypad arduino and pressure sensors.


“Study buddies” Assistive objects which encourage self directed learning. i.e playful storage solutions for learning tools (pens pencils etc) where do children hide or store things? hidden storage pockets under seats etc

Craftsman: facilitating inter-generational skill and knowledge transfer of lost skills. Parhaps translating them to different areas. Could this have a Melbourne focus? i.e potential “melbourne manufactured” project

What about smart intelligent objects which are capable of learning themselves? i.e an interactive, reactive task or study light which learns, from the simple intuitive interactions it has with its user.

Enabled: Assistive tools for learning disabilities.

Make: play with a purpose Building blocks: learning for life The design of lego-like building blocks that exploit the capabilities of 3D printing to create parts which interlock and have an increased level flexibility and movement. Allowing children to build up and generate their own designs, that have interactive moving parts. Hands from minds Workshop model of construction. Cultivating a “think by making” approach which taps into contemporary DIY and rapid prototyping movements Tinker box a “pop up” portable workspace, with hidden drawers and compartments, that add as sense of theatre and performance to the process of making. Could be “wheeled in” and used in an art class type context

No Walls, education in the real world.... With the world as our classroom do students really need a desk at all? A case study demonstrating how ubiquitous technology is breaking down barriers to learning and how schools can work towards becoming technology caves. Story telling & augmented reality Using digital & physical elements to bring a narrative to life, whilst also encouraging reading and digital literacy. The key differentiator between this concept and a conventional movie or computer screen is the tangibility of the objects and its benefits. Play pretend Behaviour research shows that when children role play they are actually mimicking societies own social structures, which they have learn from adults. Children follow social scripts very closely, therefore, using role-play and design action scenarios ....could potentially be an assistive tool distill core values in young minds.


Wayung Kulit: an indonesian language learning program using cultural performance conventions (shadow puppets) Pen pals Exploiting social networking systems to facilitate distance education. “networked forms of communication change human interaction, human allocation and human labour” Pixel (or) Granular “chunked” learning in digital education environments. This concept refers to on demand content that can be accessed and consumed in a flexible way. Allowing students to choose when and how they learn, whilst providing online portals for collaboration and support. Re-thought: rethinking education methods, how new knowledge of the brain is changing how we understand learning. i.e multiple intelligences

P for Participatory We’ve all heard of generation x, y and z. But this new wave of learners, generation P, will have to acquire a different skill set than that of their predecessors. In an increasingly connected global society; communication, teamwork and negotiation will play an ever increasing role in the wider workforce. This in turn will see a shift in the way learning course are structured and delivered, with a focus on team building and leadership qualities. making systems visible: Schools are made up of numerous service systems, making them visible, whether it be water, heating, lighting or recycling is a great way for students to recognize and learn.... Assembly What do kids have to teach us? alot actually. Children often underestimate the power of their collective voice. This project would explore mechanisms that allow children to come together and empower them to make a difference in their own world.


â&#x20AC;&#x153; Technology is changing our way of living, thought & action processed at large â&#x20AC;?


Jump! th!nk How can we design play spaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s that get kids moving and thinking at the same time?

Social furniture: modular furniture that invites social collaboration and interaction in the school yard context

A focus on tactile and sensory perception to enact kinesthetic learning i.e body, object,social or imaginative solo play, rough and tumble, spatial play i.e jungle gym concept wire frame obstacle course whcih turns into modular seating when componants are clipped to it

Wonder objects, inspiring creative play How can you design objects that evoke a sense of surprise or wonder? Can we manufacture emotions and manipulate form in order to mediate meaningful learning experiences.

A Childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Universe: What does the world look like when viewed through the eyes of a child? With an unparalleled imagination, a simple object can become much more than what it first appears to be. A rolled up newspaper can transform into a sword or a captains hat. A bump in the night could be explained by a monster under the bed. As a designer how can we explore this child like perception in our own work, creating objects which visually engage and evoke a sense of playfulness.


Surfaces: What if every classroom surface was inherently editable and could be written upon in order to create a community of ideas. What would it look like? how could we achieve this? 1. tear and share 2. paper scroll desk 3. layer table, each layer with a different work surface 4. curved walls for 3 dimensional projection 5. the wrmelamine or porcelain/enamel steel table top 6. universe table concept 7. etch a sketch. magnetphoric or magnetic sand 8. digital: tableTAB

“Study buddies” Assistive objects which encourage self directed learning. i.e playful storage solutions for learning tools (pens pencils etc)where do children hide or store things? hidden storage pockets under seats etc

Through a smart use of materials, we can build a classroom that is not only responsive to learning, but makes it visible. i.e thermochromic heat sensitive carpet why? a barefoot classroom with a “no shoe policy” has proven psychological benefits of assisting concentration. Children spend a lot of time on the floor, why not inject a sense of fun and playfulness into to a classroom by designing it so that it visually responds to student’s movements. Interactive reading mat, In either a communal circle shape or a modular tile formation. The second arrangement probably has a greater potential for user driven games. Incorporating lilypad arduino and pressure sensors.

What about smart intelligent objects which are capable of learning themselves? i.e an interactive, reactive task or study light which learns, from the simple intuitive interactions it has with its user.


Make: play with a purpose Building blocks: learning for life The design of lego-like building blocks that exploit the capabilities of 3D printing to create parts which interlock and have an increased level flexibility and movement. Allowing children to build up and generate their own designs, that have interactive moving parts.

Hands from minds Workshop model of construction. Cultivating a “think by making” approach which taps into contemporary DIY and rapid prototyping movements

and compartments, that add as sense of theatre and performance to the process of making. Could be “wheeled in” and used in an art class type context

Craftsman: facilitating inter-generational skill and knowledge transfer of lost skills. Parhaps translating them to different areas. Could this have a Melbourne focus? i.e potential “melbourne manufactured” project

Tinker box a “pop up” portable workspace, with hidden drawers


Enabled: Assistive tools for learning disabilities.

Story telling & augmented reality Using digital & physical elements to bring a narrative to life, whilst also encouraging reading and digital literacy. The key differentiator between this concept and a conventional movie or computer screen is the tangibility of the objects and its benefits.

No Walls, education in the real world.... With the world as our classroom do students really need a desk at all? A case study demonstrating how ubiquitous technology is breaking down barriers to learning and how schools can work towards becoming technology caves.

Play pretend Behaviour research shows that when children role play they are actually mimicking societies own social structures, which they have learn from adults. Children follow social scripts very closely, therefore, using role-play and design action scenarios ....could potentially be an assistive tool distill core values in young minds.


Wayung Kulit: an indonesian language learning program using cultural performance conventions (shadow puppets)

Pen pals Exploiting social networking systems to facilitate distance education. “networked forms of communication change human interaction, human allocation and human labour” Pixel (or)

Granular “chunked” learning in digital education environments. This concept refers to on demand content that can be accessed and consumed in a flexible way. Allowing students to choose when and how they learn, whilst providing online portals for collaboration and support.

Re-thought: rethinking education methods, how new knowledge of the brain is changing how we understand learning. i.e multiple intelligences


P for Participatory Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve all heard of generation x, y and z. But this new wave of learners, generation P, will have to acquire a different skill set than that of their predecessors. In an increasingly connected global society; communication, teamwork and negotiation will play an ever increasing role in the wider workforce. This in turn will see a shift in the way learning course are structured and delivered, with a focus on team building and leadership qualities.

Assembly What do kids have to teach us? alot actually. Children often underestimate the power of their collective voice. This project would explore mechanisms that allow children to come together and empower them to make a difference in their own world.

making systems visible: Schools are made up of numerous service systems, making them visible, whether it be water, heating, lighting or recycling is a great way for students to recognize and learn....


Learning Lab  

Learning Lab is a premajor studio project undertaken by Siobhan Cribbin at RMIT University

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you