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Aungier Street

Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood

A project initiated and led by Dublin City Architects Division as an action of the Dublin City Council Public Realm Strategy. Researched in collaboration with Dublin Civic Trust and funded by Dublin City Council with support from The Heritage Council.


Dublin City Council Conservation Officer City Architects Division Block 4, Floor 2 Civic Offices Dublin 8 Phone: 01 222 3322 Email: cityarchitects@dublincity.ie Web: www.dublincity.ie Š Dublin City Council 2013 Design and layout: Environmental Publicataions


Table of Contents Foreword

5

1.0

Project Aims, Scope and Methodology

7

2.0

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy

13

3.0

Understanding the Layering

25

4.0

Aungier Street’s Archaeological Heritage

39

5.0

Conserving for the Future: Promoting Sustainable Developmen

51

6.0

Planning for a Modern Street

71

7.0

Place Making

79

8.0

Community and Economic Life

91

9.0

New Opportunities: Cultural Life and Tourism

105

10.0

Next Steps

115

Appendices A

Gazetteer of Buildings

121

B

List of Archaeological Investigations in the Study Area and its Environs

133

C

Acknowledgements and Select Bibliography

135

3


4


Foreword Often over-looked, Aungier Street is one of the great neighbourhoods in the historic core of Dublin and has a fascinating history.

This project aims to promote revitalisation of the area by rediscovering its historic value as a district and, through this process,

improve its quality and perception as a place to live, work and visit.

The street was laid out by Francis Aungier in 1661 through the former grounds of the Whitefriars monastery. Planning a street of

this scale among the narrow lanes of the medieval city was a new departure. The grandeur of the street also gave rise to a new

type of residence, the city mansion, several of which still survive to greater or lesser levels of intactness. These would have been

the grandest houses in pre-Georgian Dublin and the known survivors are designated as both recorded monuments and pro-

tected structures.

This urban project, initiated by my team in City Architects, seeks to create possibilities for this important Dublin Street. The project

aims to stimulate change on Aungier Street, transforming it from a place to pass through into a destination, showcasing the value

of its heritage and unique character and promoting economic regeneration.

The project is a pilot of the wider City Council Public Realm Strategy, adopted in September 2012, which recognises that the con-

dition, character and use of enclosing buildings is critical to the experiential quality of the public domain. This publication sets out

a number of recommendations and next steps to be undertaken in collaboration with local residents and businesses.

PIVOT Dublin, our design promotion initiative, also supports the innovation approach that is adopted in the Aungier Street project

- where we are looking at things afresh, rethinking the ground-rules and proposing change for the better. This is an opportunity to

reinvent a part of the city; to make the undervalued valued and the ordinary extraordinary.

I thank our colleagues in Dublin Civic Trust for their dedicated work and enthusiasm for this project and also The Heritage Council

for the funding which made it possible for us to initiate the project and produce this publication.

Ali Grehan

City Architect

5


A new template in conservation—recent works carried out on the renovation of The Swan Bar in Aungier Street.

6

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 1

Project Aims, Scope and Methodology The Aungier Street Project is a dynamic exploration of new approaches to managing and conserving our built heritage. The project aims to demonstrate that conservation initiatives can guide strategic regeneration through n

balanced economic and commercial activity

n

engaging with the local community

n

the creation of inviting and attractive places

A key component is in demonstrating how good design in an historic environment can be complementary to that environment. There are also aspects of this project that can be applied more broadly to help with the management of the built environment in other historic areas of the city. 1.1 The study area: Aungier Street and environs Aungier Street was selected as the study

off residential quarter near to Dublin

Castle, and has many unusual building

types.

area because the special character of the

Detailed examination of the buildings in

early origins. It was the first classically-

ing number of residential buildings dat-

street and its environs, largely due to its

planned suburban block developed from

the post-medieval city in the seventeenth

century. The street has evolved over the

intervening centuries and each period

has left its mark, combining to form a fascinating urban and social history of the

development of our city. This is an

the project area has revealed a surpris-

classes. The nineteenth and twentieth

century saw the emergence of a largely working class population in the employ-

Now in the twenty-first century Aungier

lection of pre-1700 buildings. In fact, the street is an example of the layering of urban fabric from the seventeenth cen-

tury right to the present day. However,

above ground floor level, fragile and vul-

urban form. It was conceived as a well-

to the merchant and professional

No other street in Dublin has such a col-

substantially intact historic streetscape.

city originally established itself as an

Its streets and environs have a distinctive

changed by the mid-eighteenth century

ing from pre-1700, surviving within a

much of the surviving fabric of this sev-

urban settlement beside the River Liffey.

the city’s social elite but this had

ment of the Jacobs factory and other

archaeologically rich area which con-

tributes to our understanding of how the

The first residents of Aungier Street were

enteenth-century is substantially derelict

commercial establishments in the area. Street has a new dimension with a vibrant

student population and a strong active

resident local community.

The Aungier Street project objective is to

explore how to plan and develop an his-

toric area like this appropriately for its

nerable and regarded as increasingly

future, taking into consideration the plan-

city.

Dublin City Development Plan 2011–

redundant to the needs of the modern

Project Aims, Scope and Methodology

ning and development policies of the

7


collaborative undertaking between Dublin

issues of sustaining historic city fabric:

Dublin) and the tentative designation of

Dublin Civic Trust to map out a new

n

World Heritage Site. However, the

built heritage.

n

2017, and recent initiatives such as the bid for World Design Capital (PIVOT

historic areas of the city as UNESCO

research also takes account of the

changed economic reality of the country and the city, and in particular the chal-

lenges we face to support, encourage and guide the conservation of our historic

building stock.

1.2 Background to this project The publication of this report on the

Aungier Street Project is a first step in this

City Council (City Architects Division) and

approach to the conservation of our city’s

The project actions promote a collaborative and informed approach to managing

historic areas of the city; melding the old

with the new, unlocking the economic

n

balanced economic and commer-

cial activity

engaging with the local community the creation of inviting and attrac-

tive places

This strategy is supported by an increas-

and social potential of the built heritage

ing focus and interest in heritage as a key

and enhancing sense of place.

seen as an important visual expression

The project aims to demonstrate that

short, we are developing an increasing

resource and stimulating new investment

economic driver, with our built heritage

of our distinctiveness and identity. In

conservation initiatives can guide strate-

recognition of the unique and irreplace-

the heritage dilemmas facing individual

ment and its potential to deliver important

gic regeneration by addressing not just buildings but also the many complex

able qualities of our historic built environeconomic and social objectives.

Aerial photo of the study area with the fine grain of historic buildings evident, surviving adjacent to contemporary development.

8

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Project Aims, Scope and Methodology

9


CafĂŠ on Aungier Street that illustrates the potential for the regeneration of existing buildings. The methodology and conservation-led

approach, together with the final recom-

mendations and suggested follow-on ini-

tiatives, are key outcomes of this project.

ing for conservation work, more creative

approaches to the conservation and

rehabilitation of historic built fabric need

to be explored. It is also essential that

The project also sets out to establish the

rejuvenation projects are linked to other

mental teams to guide the dissemination

ing, energy efficiency projects and to cul-

toric city. It advocates collaborative and

development programmes.

value of multi-disciplinary, inter-depart-

and compilation of core data on the his-

community-focused

regeneration.

approaches

to

The project team has drawn on interna-

tionally-recognised, best conservation practice, as promoted by European

Union programmes and UNESCO initia-

tives. In the absence of government fund-

10

initiatives such as environmental upgradtural

tourism

and

sustainable

1.3 Methodology The Aungier Street Project is a dynamic

exploration of new approaches to man-

aging and conserving our built heritage.

This report sets out, in a series of illus-

trated essays, the issues explored during

analysis of the project area - Aungier Street and its environs. The report is

accompanied by a database and a street

inventory which provide comprehensive

information on the study area and its his-

toric building stock. The project is struc-

tured in two phases. STAGE I

(supported by the Heritage Council)

The initial stage of the project has con-

centrated on:

n gathering information on the area

n identifying key organisational structures of the community

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


n

identifying potential stakeholders.

servation recommendations for the street, emphasising the use of appropri-

Inventory information prepared by Dublin

ate materials for façades, windows and

torical context to the project, including

maintenance of historic fabric. Stage I of

Civic Trust has been drawn on to give his-

building assessments, historical maps, and reports.

Information generated by Dublin City Council through interdepartmental col-

the project is now complete and com-

will be a learning forum which will discuss

and develop a future strategy for the

on projects are proposed, providing a

demonstrating how good design in an

baseline information. A number of follow-

series of immediate to long-term actions

STAGE II

A gazetteer informs the overall scale,

ity

and

character

of

the

historic

streetscape. This gives rise to key con-

specialist consultants and NGOs. This

prises the compilation and publication of

agement of the street by the local author-

grain, historical and architectural capac-

staff, key stakeholders—building owners,

residents and other interested parties,

for Aungier Street and its environs.

ity in a single coordinated database.

Participants will include local authority

shopfronts and sensitive repair and

laboration has been compiled to provide comprehensive information on the man-

respond well to their surroundings.

The next stage is to disseminate the infor-

mation gathered on Aungier Street and to

convene

a

‘Building

in

street. A key component of the activity is

historic environment can be complemen-

tary to that environment. A key objective

of the workshop will be to expand the project beyond Aungier Street and address the issues of management of

the built heritage and historic buildings in

Context

other parts of the city. Stage II will also

gramme that gives decision makers the

gramme for the achievable outcomes of

Workshop’, organised as a training pro-

tools to recognise how projects can

put in place an implementation pro-

this project over a five-year period.

Recommen d a tion s 1. Publish this project report - ‘Aungier Street; Revitalising a Historic Neighbourhood’ - as an online document to make the information about the street’s remarkable architectural and historical evolution accessible to as wide an audience as possible. 2. Deliver guided walking tours of Aungier Street on a regular basis and raise awareness of its architectural and historic legacy through the hosting of cultural heritage events. 3. Work with local residents, businesses and colleges to develop an appreciation of the architecture and history of the neighbourhood and the benefits that this unique heritage can bring to the area for future generations.

Project Aims, Scope and Methodology

11


Aungier Street in the 1950s.

12

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 2

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy Aungier Street’s history is eclectic: from its origins as an up-market suburb to busy inner-urban quarter – it was even at one point a battlefield for independence. This history infuses and enriches today’s district. 2.1 A hidden history

considerable amount of built fabric sur-

sition of the street. Similarly, its wider hin-

To the causal passerby, Aungier Street

construction in the 1680s. Likewise, the

medieval street plan, is highly frag-

ent, dating from a second wave of devel-

tury road widening, large volumes of

viving from the street’s initial phase of

holds all the appearances of a typical

fine grain of smaller buildings is appar-

units on the ground floor and containing

opment

Dublin commercial street, lined with shop

a mix of residential and institutional build-

in

the

1720s.

There

are

subsequent divisions of earlier plots in

ings. However, the brick and render

continuous waves of modification.

shops hide the extraordinary secret of

In turn, all of this is layered on top of

façades and large array of shuttered

terland, which still follows a distinctive mented by the effects of twentieth-cen-

traffic, redundant light industrial buildings

and isolated pockets of housing, offices

and educational establishments. It is, in

effect, an unrecognised and undervalued

part of the city lying between other areas

ancient ecclesiastical foundations, the

of attraction.

dating from the late seventeenth and

winding street patterns and surviving reli-

The aim of this project is to stimulate

along this route.

archaeological and architectural heritage

it from a thoughway into a destination in

this city thoroughfare—the oldest, and

formerly the grandest, houses in Dublin,

early eighteenth centuries, survive hidden

Aungier Street comprises the central

ghosts of which can still be observed in

gious institutions. This conglomeration of

comprises an urban scene of immense

unique character.

the city. This heritage asset must be pro-

2.2 Historical legacy

enhanced so that Aungier Street and its

Aungier Street was laid out in the 1660s

tration that can be found nowhere else in

Stephen’s Green and St Patrick’s

moted - conserved, managed and

sandwiched

between

St

Cathedral, forming part of the main pas-

sage out of the city to Rathmines beyond the Grand Canal.

Aungier Street was one of Dublin’s first

exclusive residential suburbs to expand

environs can be secured for future gen-

and research reveals that it had two

regeneration.

denced by the predominant number of

erations as a model of sensitive urban

Aungier Street faces many challenges.

beyond the old city walls and was a thor-

Many of its important buildings have

importance in the city.

endangered—the result of systemic

oughfare of considerable architectural

the city that showcases its heritage and

importance to Dublin—a unique concen-

route through an ancient late-medieval

district

change on Aungier Street, transforming

been neglected and in some cases

building periods—pre-1700 as evi-

monuments lining the east side of the street, and a subsequent reworking in the

early eighteenth century identifiable by

the character of the buildings to the west

side of the street. De Gomme’s map of

under-valuing and under-investment by

1673 suggests that residences on sub-

generous width of the street, its axial

the city authorities, until recently, to fully

out Aungier Street commenced along the

Street leading into the city core, and the

architectural and archaeological compo-

This heritage manifests itself today in the alignment with South Great George’s

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy

owners and occupiers, and a failure by

understand and manage the complex

stantial building plots on the newly laid-

east side of the street, starting from the north and progressing southwards.

13


George’s Lane, the ceremonial route

leading from the Castle to St George’s

Church. From the south, the route into

the city was characterised by a gradually

inclining road with the Dublin Mountains

as a backdrop and offering glimpses into

the Castle complex as one approached

the

city.

Aungier’s

own

residence

appears to have been established within

the site of the former Whitefriars

monastery. The first plots laid out on the

street were for substantial mansions,

subsequently reduced to more modest

plots, on both sides of the street and

these were leased to the speculators who

built the houses. (Burke, p. 374)

This early phase of development was

notably characterised by large town-

houses aimed at the wealthy upper

classes. One example is 21, a large four-

bay, four-storey over basement mansion,

which still survives with its original stair-

case intact. The house is considered to

be one of the most significant surviving urban domestic buildings of the late sev-

enteenth century in Ireland.

‘Records indicate the presence of large aristocratic mansions on the East side

and rows of the smaller speculative ter-

races interspersed to the North. The

Bishop of Kilmore had a substantial resi-

Map from ‘An Early Modern Dublin Suburb: the Estate of Francis Aungier, Earl of Longford’, Nuala Burke. (Burke, p. 365).

monastic precinct of Whitefriars. At 70

The site selection for this high-end sub-

feet (21m) in width, it was one of the most

spacious streets in Dublin at that time.

Lands obtained from the City—the

Vicar’s Choral of St Patrick’s Cathedral

14

Dublin’

due

to

its

unfinished

state.

Dublin Castle. The topography of the site

1660s. After an initial flurry of building

access to the viceregal court based at

was higher than the surrounding area,

which in turn fell away towards the coast.

in

not

Speculators included John Linegar, a

was one of the ‘first extensive planned developments

Aungier Street as a residence, but could

urb was specific and chosen to facilitate

with views to the east opening towards

suburban

monastery of Whitefriars. In 1677 [the

using Sir Robert Reading’s Mansion on

and the lands of St Peter’s parish—were

included in the Aungier estate. The estate

a large mansion near the former

Duke of] Ormond himself considered

Francis Aungier, 3rd Baron, laid out the street in 1661, cutting though the old

dence on the east side and Aungier had

the expanse of St Stephen’s Green,

To the north, the street was connected to

slater, who built eight houses in the

activity in the 1660s-70s , the next signifi-

cant building period was initiated c. 1720

following

the

joint

Macartney and Cuffe.’

inheritance

of

(Casey, Dublin, p.510)

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


When James McCartney and Michael

Cuffe inherited the estate in the 1720s,

the demand for such large houses had

fallen, and speculation was given over to the well-to-do merchant class and bar-

risters. The move away from the Aungier

Street area appears to have been influ-

enced by the development of other estates such as those of Dawson, Jervis

and Molesworth.

However, evidence of the remaining pres-

tige of the area is given by the construc-

tion of a significant public building in the district in the 1730s, as noted in The

Dublin Stage 1720-1745: A Calendar of

Plays & Entertainments (Greene & Clark) By this time, Sir Edward Lovett Pearce,

the Surveyor General and the Architect of

the magnificent Parliament House had been commissioned to design and con-

struct the theatre. Before February he

had drawn up plans for the building and

interested ’many gentlemen of fortune’ in

Right: Bernard De Gomme’s Map of Dublin, 1673.

sharing the cost of the construction.’

The account goes on to outline the con-

tract and states that two weeks after signing,

‘the foundations of the new theatre were

begun (DEP 10 March 1733) on the very

spot where once stood a stately

Monastery of the Order of Greyfriars. In

Charles the 2d’s time, the Earl of Longford

made it his Residence, after whose

Decease it fell into Ruin.’

The Ordnance Survey began to value the land of Ireland in 1824. Surveyors marked

topographical features on the basic large-scale map known as the Fair Plan

maps. Names of features identified from

local landowners and clergy were recorded in Field Name books. A record

of Aungier Street, published in ‘The Ordnance Survey Letters County Dublin’ notes ,

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy

21 Aungier Street, a mansion dating from the 1680s and characteristic of some of the early housing typologies on the street. 15


Name plate reads Sráid an Áimséaraig.

Thomas Moore was born at 12. 74, 75

and 76 cover part of the site of old St

Peter’s Church. John Fitzgibbon is buried

in the churchyard. At the corner of Great

Longford Street a theatre was opened in

1733.

Charlement

and

Hardy

the

Biographer lived in Aungier Street. Lord

Edward was concealed here in Dr.

Kennedy’s house after the arrest at Oliver

Bond’s.’

2.3 Architectural legacy Aungier Street has all the signs of the lay-

ered architectural development common

to many of Dublin’s commercial streets.

However, as the street has an earlier origin than many of the city’s thoroughfares

and went into decline at an early date,

early buildings still survive relative to

other parts of the city. Waves of modifi-

cation and recycling of buildings took

place in the eighteenth and nineteenth

centuries, lending further complexity to

the street’s evolution and architectural

character. Surviving buildings, therefore,

need to be carefully examined as it is

likely that they contain fragments from

earlier building periods, and potentially

from the seventeenth century. EARLy BUILDINGS

Early houses, such as 21 Aungier Street,

restored by Dublin Civic Trust in 1998

(Staircase Guesthouse), are a unique typology—large brick town houses, four

bays in width, four storeys in height,

some having basements. The discovery

that 19–20 Aungier were originally built as one 7-bay house is highly significant, as

it represents the only surviving example of a house of this scale. The significant survival of a crux form roof in 9-9A has

added to our understanding of the con-

Plan of Aungier Street indicating building periods.

16

struction of this seventeenth-century

house type, indicating that these earlier

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


structures were built with overhanging

eaves and massive party-wall chimney

breasts connected to a central structural

spine wall. The houses of the early eigh-

teenth-century period were smaller, two

and three-bay, four-storey, gable-fronted

or parapeted buildings. From the latter

part of the eighteenth century onwards, the more common parapeted appear-

ance of the Georgian town house was

preferred, as evident in the imposing

house at 24 Aungier Street. Today, many of these former residences are largely

under-used and derelict on the upper floors. Researches through rates records

and using street directories indicate that

approximately 30% of the building stock is under-performing.

VICTORIAN CHANGE

Victorian modification and alteration of

faรงades and roof structures had the

greatest influence on the appearance of

Aungier Street, together with commercial

intervention and sub-division. This can be seen in the replacement faรงades of many

The terrace from 6 to 10-10A comprises some of the oldest properties on Aungier street.

buildings such as 10-10A, stuccoed

fronts such as 22, the Victorian shop

frontage of 17 and the parade of shops

at 63-65. The elaborate brick-clad

Carmichael School of Medicine (Avalon House) constructed in 1872, was

extended in terracotta to meet Aungier Street in 1905 by Albert Murray. Larger

window panes with sheet glass were introduced at this time and changed the

appearance of buildings. A large section

of the street is occupied by the Carmelite Priory

and

Church

of

Whitefriars.

Originally constructed between 1825 and

1832 and gradually enlarged in the

1860s, the present rendered faรงade and entrance dates to 1914 and incorporates

earlier houses that fronted onto the

street. The complex has probably the sin-

Carmelite Church and Old Priory.

gle greatest influence on the architectural character of the street.

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy

17


MODERN DEVELOPMENT

Towards the southern end of Aungier

Street many original buildings—almost all

formerly gable-fronted houses—were demolished in the 1960s and 1970s, and

replaced by larger footprint, brick-clad

apartment blocks in the 1990s. The ground floors of these buildings are, for

the most part, in use as commercial units

with apartments overhead. The large

block flanking DIT Aungier Street, part of

which stands on the site of the former St

Peter’s Church (regrettably demolished in

the 1980s), is entirely in office use.

2.4 Social legacy The principal motive for the building of

Aungier Street was the establishment of a

well-to-do residential suburb located to

the south of the old historic enclosure of

the city. From the outset, it appears to have attracted a mixture of well-off mer-

chants in smaller houses, and more pres-

tigious residents such as the Bishop of

Kilmore and Sir Robert Reading in grander city mansions.

Above:Two of the many bisuit tin brands produced by the Jacobs factory at its Aungier Street premises. Below: Aungier Street, 1980s.

This prestige was not to last for long,

however, as the approaching expiration

of the first instalment of leases by the

1720s lead to a general decline in the

status of Aungier Street. Many of the

houses were described as ruinous by

that time, or were in the course of being

subdivided for smaller merchant homes

and commercial uses. This appears to

have marked the turning point of Aungier

Street, transforming the street in the eigh-

teenth century from an exclusive resi-

dential

enclave

into

a

bustling

commercial thoroughfare. Interestingly,

Rocque’s Map of Dublin, 1756, indicates

few garden plots to the rear of street

properties at this date, though the plots

on the east side of the street are substantial on De Gomme’s Map of 1673.

18

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Information extracted from nineteenth-

century street directories suggests that

the houses of Aungier Street were occu-

pied by businesses on the ground floor

from relatively early times. There appears

to have been little differentiation between

business and residential use on Aungier

Street, with both existing side by side by

the mid-Georgian period. A directory of

Dublin for 1738 contains just four names

on Aungier Street; of these, two are

painters, one is a land agent, and the fourth is the vicar of St Peter’s Church.

By the nineteenth century, many of the upper floors had become tenements with

shops and businesses below and the

street would have been termed a ‘second

class shopping street’ of that time. On Bishop Street, the large industrial site of

Jacobs’ biscuit factory was established

in the nineteenth century. This factory

was a major employer with a workforce of 1,059 men and 2,085 women in

1913—many of whom lived in the sur-

rounding district. The census return for

the Smyth family of Aungier Street in

Above: The Swan Pub, recently renovated. Below: The Swan pub photographed in1922, with relatively recent bullet holes clearly visible.

1901 lists Catherine Smyth, widow, aged

56, and her daughter, Ann Jane, aged 30,

as factory supervisors. The return for the

Johnston family, also of Aungier Street lists Elizabeth Johnston, aged 36, as a

biscuit factory woman, and her daughter,

Katie, aged 18, as a factory girl. The 1911

census return for the Regan family in

Bishop Street lists Kathleen Regan, aged 17, as a factory girl.

Many of the residents are likely to have

witnessed the events of the 1916 Rising as there is evidence of the physical dam-

age from gun shots to the façade of the

Swan Bar and accounts of the insurgents

been holed up in this prominent corner

commanding

a

view

towards

St

Stephen’s Green. An account of the skir-

mish within Jacob’s factory is preserved

in the following written record from a let-

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy

19


ter, dated 6 May, from the Managing

Director

of

Jacob’s

to

the

Chief

Secretary’s Office, in which he states that - ‘Very little damage was done to Jacob’s

by the occupying forces and the building

was not shelled by troops because it was

surrounded by dense housing’—and that

they have resumed business, and that

the factory ‘is practically uninjured after the occupation by the rebels’. Care was

taken by the rebels to disclose the loca-

tion of several bombs, which they left behind so that they could be disabled.

THE CARMELITES AND WHITEFRIARS OF AUNGIER STREET

The first group of Carmelites arrived in

Ireland in 1279 and established a friary at Leighlinbridge, Co. Carlow. In 1230, Sir Robert Bagot, Chief Justice of the King’s

Bench, built the friars a house in St

Peter’s Parish on the south side of the

walled city of Dublin where the present

Whitefriars church stands. He had

bought the land from the Cistercian

Abbey of Baltinglass in Wicklow. Speed’s Map of 1610 shows a considerable prop-

erty: comprising a church and spacious

buildings, orchard gardens, dwelling

houses and two meadows, on about five acres. In 1539, the entire property was

confiscated by the Crown as part of the

Dissolution

of

Monasteries

and

bequeathed to Nicholas Stanihurst. In the early seventeenth century, the property

changed hands and came into the own-

ership of Sir Francis Aungier (later 1st

Baron Longford). The Carmelites, like

other orders, went into hiding after the

Reformation but surfaced again by 1728

when they settled in French Street, now

Mercer Street. They opened a small

church in Cuffe Lane in 1806-1827, a pre-

cursor to the present church. In 1825, the Carmelites moved back to the original

Top and middle: Early images of Whitefriars Street Church and Priory Bottom: the Priory as it appears today.

20

site and commissioned Sir George Papworth to design a new church with an entrance from Whitefriar Street. This was

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


later extended and a priory was added in

1840. The principal entrance was built in 1852 facing Aungier Street and a new pri-

ory and hall designed by CB Powell of

Rathmines was completed in 1914. The

interior of the church was totally reversed

in 1954. Today the church continues to

serve the religious and social needs of

the local community.

Recommen d a tion s 1. Actively target vacancy and dereliction in the area by engaging directly with building owners. 2. Assist building owners by offering guidance on building fabric and faรงade repairs. 3. Provide advice on appropriate shopfront design. 4. Explore new ideas and prepare exemplars for the use of vacant upper floors of buildings. 5. Promote ideas for new uses on Aungier Street - specialist shops, cultural activities and design outlets. 6. Promote Aungier Street as a cultural tourism destination.

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy

21


The Aungiers, ‘Men of Means’

N

uala Burke’s article ‘An Early Modern Dublin Suburb: The Estate of Francis Aungier, Earl of Longford’, published in Irish Geography, VI (1972), is the definitive work to date on the Aungier Estate. Primary research undertaken for this project has been limited to the examination of leases in the Registry of Deeds. Research on the Aungier family has not been pursued but this is an objective when resources permit.

Sir Francis Aungier, 1st Baron Longford It is reported that the Aungier family first came to prominence as a result of their successful campaigning for Oliver Cromwell during his conquest in Ireland in the 1650s.

The estate of Whitefriars (Carmelite) monastery, dissolved in 1539, was subsequently bought by Sir Francis Aungier, 1st Baron of Longford (1558–1632). Sir Francis, or Lord Aungier of Longford, came to Ireland as a man of means through marriage to the sister of the Earl of Kildare, one of Ireland premier peers. He had inherited his wealth from his father, a bencher of Gray’s Inn in London and a prominent Cambridgeshire landowner, who is most remarkable for having been murdered by one of his own sons.

Ambitious and energetic, Aungier was a man of over twenty-five years standing at the bar by the time he arrived in Ireland in 1609. In Ireland, he displayed extraordinary energy, reputedly riding the circuit twice a year, and becoming the undertaker for the plantation of Longford. It is recorded that he built a mansion in Dublin which was considered one of the great residences of the time, situated on lands provided by the suppression of the religious houses.

Historian Maurice Craig challenges this account and suggests ‘that having obtained a grant of the Whitefriars lands… [Aungier] turned the abbey into a residence.’ Contemporary accounts of the interior decoration of Aungier’s new home describe a residence of considerable substance and prestige that Sir Francis may have either built within the former Whitefriars monastery or adapted

22

pots to the same belong, during her life; a perfuming pan of silver; a pepper-box of silver gilt; a gilt casting-box; two silver tuns; one maudlin-pot with a cover; one silver porringer with a ewer;

One red taffeta bed, curtains and valances; one damask bed, yellow and green; two little embroidered cushions; one red taffeta carpet for a chamber; two green taffeta window-cloths; one green coarser window-cloth; one little piece of needlework for a cupboard; two chamber –carpets of needlework; one child bearing cloth of scarlet; one great red window –curtain; James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, appointed Viceroy of Ireland upon the Restoration in 1660. Francis Aungier, 3rd Baron and 1st Earl of Longford, was one of the many associates of the Duke who rose to prominence upon his appointment and shared his ambitious vision to develop Dublin as a great European city. from existing buildings. Certainly, a review of John Speed’s Map of Dublin 1610 indicates the Whitefriar monastery as a substantial linear building facing towards the ‘Ormond Gate’ on the south approach to Dublin Castle from Ship Street south. There is no representation of any subsequent residence of the Aungier family.

A description of ‘A Schedule of all such goods and chattels as I do give, bequeath, and appoint to my dear wife, Lady Margaret Aungier’ with reference to the seventeenth-century residence at Whitefriars describes:

Imprimis all her apparel, rings and jewels; item my new coach and four-coach horses, lately brought out of England; the silver tankard which she brought with her and the cup which my Lord Grandison

gave unto her at our marriage; the plain white silver salt ordinarily used at my table, together with the trencher salt ordinarily used with the same; six silver spoons marked with the carbuncle and three other older silver spoons ; the use of my silver basin and ewer, and the livery

One damask table –cloth; one damask towel; two dozen damask napkins; two diaper table-cloths and two towels/ one dozen and a half of diaper napkins; two fine chamber towels of Holland; two pairs of Holland sheets; one pair of worse sheets; Two big down-beds with the bolsters ; two feather beds with the bolsters; five flock beds; two down pillows; one great new caddow; six little new caddows; eighteen blankets and caddows; one great red caddow; Two diaper table-cloths ordinarily used.

Six pairs of forest-work hangings; three Turkey-work carpets used in the dining room; one chamber needlework carpet; fourteen new high needlework stools; two great needle work chairs; two new low needlework stools; one red velvet chair with stools;

All utensils and other things in my lady’s closet; all my household stuff in my house at Longford; the andirons, fire shovel and tongs used ordinarily in my dining-room at the Whitefriars;

The source for the above description is The Judges in Ireland 1221-1921, Monarchists and Cromwellians, Book III 1603 to 1690. The will and inventory, both documents of exceptional interest, perished with other public records in 1922. The will was dated 1628 Nov 26 and was proved 1632 Nov. 9. Both it and the inventory were in Aungier’s own handwriting.

Sir Francis Aungier, 1st Baron Aungier of Longford, married several times. His second marriage to Anne Barne produced two children, George Aungier and Francis Aungier. His last marriage to

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Margaret Cave, daughter of Sir Thomas Cave, had no issue. Sir Francis Aungier died on the 8th October 1632 and was buried at St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Gerald Aungier. After his death his body was interred without funeral pomp according to his desire in a little chapel near his town residence, but two months later a funeral pageant of extraordinary magnificence was held in St Patrick’s Cathedral and his body, or possibly a wax image, was laid in the choir. At his funeral, Sir Francis Aungier was described by the Bishop of Clogher as ‘a man of integrity, singularly happy in his family relations, and with wide sympathies, evinced in a library of history, divinity, and ‘discourse’, as well as of law, but above all it bespoke him as a master of detail, rivalling in that respect his contemporary the Earl of Cork.’

Francis Aungier, 3rd Baron/ 1st Earl of Longford ‘A later Francis Aungier, created Earl of Longford in 1677, turned the family demesne into a building estate, laying out Aungier Street, Longford Street and Cuffe Street to commemorate the Cuffes, who were connexions by marriage.’ (Craig, Dublin, p.40)

It is the 3rd Baron Aungier, a grandson of Sir Francis, who is remembered for the development of Aungier street. Even as a young nobleman and cavalry captain he was noted for his political astuteness and praised by the Duke of Ormonde for his ‘diligence and loyalty’. Contemporary accounts note that his timing of a letter to Charles II offering his services on the eve of the Restoration in 1660 ‘evoked a gracious reply’. This ‘most sedulous young nobleman … more serviceable than any to you and … anxious to serve you’, obtained the patent for the incorporation of the town of Longford in 1669, and was made Viscount Longford in 1675. (Burke, A Genealogical History, 1866)

In 1677, Francis became 1st Earl of Longford and was by all accounts at the centre of political life in Westminster, attending to 68 committees and active on eight tellerships. In 1682, he was appointed a Commissioner of the Revenue, a post which he held until 1687. It is reported that ‘he attended James’ Parliament in Dublin in 1689, but after the battle of the Boyne went into King William’s camp and kissed hands’. In 1697 he was appointed Keeper of the

Aungier Street: An Urban Legacy

Map from ‘An Early Modern Dublin Suburb: The Estate of Francis Aungier, Earl of Longford’ (Burke, 1972). Great Seal of Ireland, at which time he was also a member of the Privy Council of Ireland, Governor of Carrickfergus and Master of the King’s Ordnance, supposedly bought with Ormonde’s help on foot of a public disgrace arising over him embezzling £1,500 intended for the purchase of arms. (Henning, The House of Commons, 1660-1690)

Francis Aungier married Lady Anne Chichester, younger daughter and coheir of Arthur, 1st Earl of Drogheda, and

widow of John, Earl of Gowran. It is reported that Aungier died on the 22nd December 1700 in straightened circumstances as a result of the Williamite wars. He too was buried in St Patrick’s Cathedral, leaving no heir, with his honours devolved, according to the patents, upon his surviving brother, Ambrose Aungier. He was the last of the family to sit at Westminster.

23


St Peter’s Church, Aungier Street in the 1950s, now demolished.

24

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 3

Understanding the Layering Archaeological research, which studies the past through material remains, can teach us about a place like Aungier Street and show how it evolved.

3.1 The value of archaeology

medieval church which is located close

The following provides a brief archaeo-

through material remains. Archaeological

The area also lies close to the edge of the

history to 1610. The early modern period

place and can physically demonstrate its

site of early Viking-age burials and activ-

to avoid overlap but a thorough archaeo-

involves investigation, survey, excavation

Street and Golden Lane.

mended for the area from prehistory to

more about the past. It relies on cross-

Aungier Street is also unique in Dublin

Archaeology is the study of the past

research informs our understanding of a

evolution. The archaeological process

and analysis of data collected to learn

disciplinary research.

Dublin’s archaeological heritage is a non-

renewable cultural resource which is fragmentary after centuries of activity. It is

vulnerable to destruction through unre-

to the present Whitefriars building.

Black Pool of Dublin and very close to the ity at South Great George’s Street, Ship

and of high archaeological importance

present along with a thorough analysis of

the relevant primary and secondary

sources as the next stage, in collabora-

We know from later documentary

raphy and history arising from the study

ideas and theories about Dublin’s topog-

logical and historical study is recom-

buildings.

ing clusters of upstanding pre-1700

This section outlines the archaeology as

Archaeology

and later periods are not discussed here

tion with the City Archaeologist.

allows us to ‘ground proof’ questions,

development.

development of the study area from pre-

because of the presence of three surviv-

3.2 Archaeology of Aungier Street and its environs

strained

logical and historical background to the

sources that four over-land prehistoric

routeways, known as slighte, converged

on Dublin and provided a reason for its

initial settlement. Nearest the study area,

what we now call Aungier Street, were the Slighe Chualann running from the south

of written sources.

a resource for the Aungier Street area. It

This chapter is a preliminary archaeolog-

draws largely on the author’s working

the Commons Water to the Poddle

area, and the precursor to a more

employed has been to review secondary

intersected. The Slighe Dála is thought to

ical assessment for the Aungier Street

detailed study. However, the assessment

indicates that the study area is one of

high archaeological potential as the site

of a possible early medieval monastic

does not involve primary research as it knowledge of the area. The methodology

contain topographical references drawn

study area before turning abruptly south

Irish Historic Towns Atlases (2 Vols.) that

(Clarke, 2002).

in the Irish Historic Towns Atlases for

The location of the early medieval

consulted.

important research questions to be

ecclesiastical sites and archaeological

Understanding the layering

southernmost end of the Aungier Street

from primary and secondary documen-

Dublin 2002 and 2008 have also been

burials associated with St Peter’s

Crossing where the two major roads

have continued to the east to meet the

tary sources. The relevant maps included

investigations have previously revealed

Dála, running from the west alongside

documentary sources, particularly the

settlement in Dublin. The study area includes a number of important medieval

to the Poddle Crossing, and the Slighe

monastery of Dublin is one of the most

addressed in Dublin (Simpson, INSTAR

25


medieval walled circuit. Dublin began to

overspill its defensive enclosure in the eleventh century resulting in four discrete suburbs. The most populous, judging

from the number of churches, was to the

south, between the Poddle and Steine rivers. The Carmelites of St Mary’s Priory

occupied the southern end of the study area. To the east of the study area was St

Stephen’s Green, a large open space serving as common pasture for citizens

of the south side of the Liffey. The pool

had shrunk in size by the early eleventh

century as demonstrated by Speed’s

Map 1610.

Church of St Peter on Aungier Street in the 1970s.

The medieval parish church of St Peter

astical enclosure. However, the discovery of an early Christian cemetery at Golden

Lane and a road at Chancery Place serve

to suggest that the monastery lay west of

Hulle (of the hill) in the Ancient Records

of 1262, a reference to the natural high

revealed evidence of the medieval grave-

poor to be taxed and by 1370 it was in

parish (Coughlan, 2003).

Immediately north of the study area, on

South Great George’s Street, excava-

was dominated by the Black Pool or Dubhlinn, a large natural pool caused by

the scouring action of the Poddle River.

Medieval historian Howard Clarke has

argued that the alignment of Stephen Street Upper, Peter Row and Whitefriar Street is the remnant of an oval ecclesi-

26

1179 and referred to as St Peter de la

failed to

yard and boundary ditch of St Peter’s

close to the Black Pool. The study area

termed the church of Sts Paul and Peter.

ern end of the study area within the curv-

uncover early medieval features, but have

been located in the southern suburb,

(Clarke, 2002). The first reference to it is

in the Book of Ui Maine c.1121 where it is

It was the property of Holy Trinity Priory in

ing alignment have so far

report). The monastery is thought to have

lay in the northern part of the study area

the pool and outside the Aungier Street

study area. Excavations at the the north-

The Hospital in Stevens Street.

and the leper house of St Stephen c.1192

tions in advance of the Dunne’s Store

development revealed the edge of the Black Pool, evidence for Viking habitation

and pagan burial. Other Viking burials

have been found in the vicinity of Ship

Street and Golden Lane, and there have been antiquarian finds at Bride Street,

indicating that there may have been a

Viking grave field near the monastic site

located around the perimeter of the Black Pool in the ninth century.

The study area lies within the southern

suburb of medieval (1170-1540) Dublin,

well outside and to the southeast of the

ground it occupied. By 1294 it was too ruins. The church is shown on Speed’s

Map of 1610. Although it is not shown on

the first edition, its site is marked as an

open space on 1892 Ordnance Survey

map, inside the north quadrant of the

study area.

Following a number of investigations,

excavations at the medieval cemetery of

St Peter’s Church were undertaken in two

phases in advance of development in

2001-2 by Tim Coughlan of IAC Ltd. The

area excavated measured 23m x 21m

and yielded 150 burials. Three main

phases of activity were identified - a ditch, a walled enclosure and post-

medieval activity. The earliest feature was

the ditch, which curved sharply at the southern end, and was dated by pottery

to the 12th century. It was concluded that

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Understanding the layering

27


it represented the enclosure for the

parish church and graveyard (Coughlan,

the exact site of this foundation has not

been identified by excavations carried

tions in advance of ancillary development

to the rear of the yMCA on Aungier Street

2003).

out to date. By the time of the Restoration

St Stephen’s parish church was associ-

Peter and St Stephen were in bad repair.

Church of St Peter.

new parish church were provided by the

Dublin City Council’s archaeology files

the early seventeenth century, Sir Francis

graveyard and reports on the subse-

ated with the medieval St Stephen’s

Hospital, the exact site of which is still

unknown. The first reference to it is in

Crede Mihi after the Anglo-Norman inva-

in the 1660s, both the churches of St Land and finance for the building of a

first Earl of Longford, Francis Aungier. In

sion, c.1215. In 1533 it was in use by lep-

Aungier, Master of the Rolls to James I,

the Calendar of Patent Rolls describes it

solved Carmelite Friary and converted

ers, and was still there in 1541. In 1610

as comprising church or chapel, church-

yard, tenement, three gardens and close. Thought to be located on Stephen’s

acquired much of the property of the dis-

revealed residual in situ burials and grave

slabs associated with the post-medieval

contain an exhumation report for the

quent archaeological excavations by

Ruth Elliot of ADS Ltd. Architectural frag-

ments and exhumed human remains

the monastic buildings into his residence

from the church, demolished in 1982, are

Francis Aungier, 1st Earl of Longford,

while grave slabs from the site are in tem-

(described in Section 2). His descendant,

stored in the derelict church of St Luke,

began turning this property into an exten-

porary storage in the Cricket Ground at

Leper House of St Stephen by 1230. By

the first planned suburban development

of Dublin was built.

to move these to the ruined church of St

ities. It is described as three stone

One of the largest in Dublin, St Peter’s

Cabbage Garden.

Norman invasion. The church moved

The inventories produced by the archae-

Street Lower, St Stephen’s Hospital was

founded in 1192 and was known as the 1535 it was in the care of the city author-

sive estate and between 1660 and 1685

the yMCA in Sandymount. It is intended

Kevin’s on Camden Row along with van-

dalised grave slabs from the nearby

houses in 1541. By 1509 it was under

parish dates from the time of the Anglo-

hall precinct in 1601. The hospital has not

from Stephen Street to Aungier Street

ologists who excavated this site should

replace the ruined church of St Peter Del

cal report on the study area. According

repair and constituted three castles and been identified through archaeological

excavations to date.

St Mary’s Priory (Carmelite) was founded

by Sir Robert Baggot c.1270-80, com-

when a new church was built in 1680s to

Hille. The new St Peter’s was enlarged in

1773 and between 1863 and 1867 was

be included with any future archaeologi-

to the osteo-archaeological advisor to the

St Luke’s Conservation Plan, ‘The burials

rebuilt in the Gothic style (influenced by

from St Peter’s, which were moved to the

houses). The Manse was enlarged in

Carson, retaining only the nave walls of

extremely vulnerable state and have lost

tery in 1424 and gate in 1502. At the time

The churchyard continued in use until c.

prising three messuages (or dwelling-

1403 and there is reference to a cemeof its dissolution in 1540, it is recorded as

a priory church with bell tower, dormitory

hall, chamber, stable, two cellars, three

Pugin) by architect Edward Henry

the original church (McDonald, 1982).

tory of the material from St Peter’s

redeveloped as offices of the yMCA at

St Luke’s) is recommended in the St

and the human remains removed to the

architectural fragments within the crypt

Coombe.

should either form part of a display of

was demolished in 1982. The site was

which time the graveyard was exhumed

most other buildings were destroyed by

crypt of St Luke’s Church on The

1541 and the site and its belongings were granted to Nicholas Stanyhurst in

1542. By 1598 it was described as the

site of a monastery comprising three castles, a hall, diverse rooms, other build-

much of their archaeological significance

due to vandalism.’ An architectural inven-

1883. The church closed in 1975 and

gardens, two former orchards and build-

ings in need of repair. The church and

crypt of St Luke’s in 1980, are in an

The western boundary of the develop-

ment site corresponded to the border of

the twelfth-century parish of St Peter’s. It

(including the reredos which is stored in

Luke’s Conservation Plan - ‘surviving space should be retrieved, recorded and

surviving loose architectural fabric, which

could be housed in an area of the crypt

and be available for research or general

display, or, alternatively be curated by an

ings, yards, three gardens and two fields.

is suggested that this boundary may

appropriate existing museum.’

house of Carmelites’. It is thought to have

a pre-Viking monastic settlement (Stout

CARTOGRAPHIC SOURCES

In 1601 it is referred to as the ‘great

been sited on Whitefriar Street East but

28

have derived from the older enclosure of & Stout, 1992). Archaeological excava-

The cartographic review in this publica-

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


tion focuses mainly on early maps. A

more detailed cartographic search for the Aungier Street area is, however, recom-

mended. The Sites and Monuments

Record (SMR) files should be consulted

for further detail in relation to the sites

listed on the RMP. The Archaeological

Survey (ASI) www.archaeology.ie should also be consulted..

Clarke’s Map of Medieval Dublin c.840-

c.1540 (IHTA, 2002) shows the study

area as a possible monastic teardrop-

shaped enclosure, bounded by a linear

earthwork and containing the three

medieval foundations of St Peter, St

Section of John Speed’s map of Dublin, 1610.

Stephen and St Mary. Four extramural

gates are shown in and around the enclosure.

The first primary cartographic source for

Dublin, John Speed’s Map of Dublin c.1610, shows the study area immedi-

ately to the south east of the medieval

city walls near Dublin Castle. It shows Stephen’s Street with its distinct curva-

ture, an extra mural gate at the junction

of its western end, and houses perhaps

associated with St Stephen’s Church at the eastern end. Stephen’s Street is

linked halfway along to ‘George’s Lane’

(South Great Georges Street), with a lin-

ear north–south alignment. It aligns with ‘Cross Street’ (Golden Lane) to the west,

Section of De Gomme’s Map of Dublin , 1673.

leading to St Patrick’s Cathedral precinct.

side by ‘Aungiers Street’. ‘Whitefryers’

with new streets, notably york Street, link-

White Friars and the churches and

Stephens Street and a lesser gate at the

and Longford Street which runs from east

Also depicted by Speed are buildings at

precinct walls associated with the

parishes of St Peter and St Stephen. The remaining part of the study area to the

south is shown as undeveloped.

The earliest cartographic source of

Aungier Street is Bernard De Gomme’s

Map of Dublin of 1673. The main build-

ing shown is St Peter’s Church, ‘St Peters

on the Mount’, which sits in a small Dshaped enclosure bounded on the east

Understanding the layering

gate is shown at the west end of St

top of ‘Whitefryers Lane’ (Whitefriar

Street). This lane and Aungiers Street are

connected by an east-west route marked

as ‘Whyte Fryers Alley’ (Whitefriar Place).

ing Aungier Street to St Stephen’s Green,

to west. Some new lanes are shown,

including Longford Lane, Elbow Lane

and Goat Alley. St Peter’s Parish Church

and churchyard is shown on its new site

Fields are shown to the east of Aungier

in the south-west quadrant of the study

Street’s eastern end. Aungier Street ter-

along Stephen’s Street to the north and

(Bishop Street) and ‘Whyte Fryers’ Lane.

illustrations of civic buildings include a

Brooking’s Map of 1728 shows the area

a

Street and immediately south of Stephen

minates at the junction with ‘Butter Lane’

area. The parish boundary is shown just west of Whitefriar Street. Brooking’s

drawing of the hospital in Stephen Street, three-storey

detached

five-bay

29


masonry or brick building with round

headed/arched windows topped by key-

stones. The top-floor windows appear to

have 6 over 6 sashes, and the middle

floor has 9 over 9 sashes. String courses

separate the floors and the pitched roof

appears slated. To the front is a masonry or brick wall with tall obelisk-like gate

piers. A flight of four steps leads to a

double leaf gate.

Rocque’s Map of 1756 shows the area in

greater detail. Aungier Street is almost fully occupied with large domestic build-

ings, the largest of which are bounded by White Friars Lane and St Peter’s Church

on the west side. These houses have long narrow garden plots and several

have returns and mews buildings on

Section of Brooking’s map of 1728 showing Aungier Street and its environs.

Whitefriar Street. A building is shown cen-

tral to Aungier Street at the main junction

with york Street. This may have been a

watch house or served another public function. A watch house is also marked

at the junction of Stephen Street with Ship Street Great and Golden Lane. Mews buildings are shown on both sides

of Longford Lane. There are a few civic

buildings in and immediately around the

study area. An ‘Old Theatre’ fronts onto Longford Street and a Meeting House is

shown on White Friar Lane. The Mercer Hospital is shown at the east end of

Stephen Street. New features include ‘Stable Lane’ at the south-east of the area and Digge’s Court to the east of

Aungier Street, otherwise there is little change to the streets except that the kinked ‘Elbow Lane’ is now ‘Beaux Lane’.

The main development on the first edition

Ordnance Survey Map (1846-47) is the

Carmelite Chapel and convent built on the north side of york Row. White Friars

Hall is shown as a square building on

White Friars Lane adjacent to a Methodist Rocque’s map of 1756.

30

Alms House and Orphan School House

fronting onto White Friars Street, to the

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


rear of domestic plots. The southern end

of Whitefriar Street has been renamed

Peter’s Row. St Peter’s Orphans Society

House is noted on Aungier Street south of St Peters Church. A fountain is shown

on Bow Lane (formerly Beaux Lane).

Digge’s Lane is named to the rear of

Mercer Hospital.

3.3 Archaeological survey and statutory designation The study area lies within a zone of

archaeological potential on the Record of

Monuments and Places (RMP DU018-

020). These sites are protected under

Section 12 of the National Monuments

Amendment Act, 1994. The current

Dublin City Development Plan archaeo-

logical zone is based on the RMP maps.

9 and 9A and 10 and 10A Aungier Street are

on

the

Register

of

Historic

Extract from Dublin 1846-47 (RIA 2008).

Monuments (RHM) as are 20 and 21

Aungier Street. There was also a

Temporary Preservation Order (TPO) on

10/10A (PO 1/1999). There are a number

of individual monuments listed on the RMP and these are included at the end of this section (p. 33). Informal

communications

with

the

National Museum suggest that there are no topographical finds within the study

area, but this should be checked in the next stage of research.

The Dublin City Industrial Heritage Record

(DCIHR) is a paper and field survey of the

Industrial Heritage of Dublin prepared by Mary McMahon and Carrig Conservation

over a five year period. The information is

stored as a database accompanied by a set of maps available through the archae-

Detail from the Ordnance Survey Sheet1847 showing york Row, york Street and Aungier Street. but two sites lie immediately outside the

ology office of Dublin City Council and it

area to the east as follows:

to make it accessible to the public. There

DCIHR 18 11 175 Clothing Factory,

is intended that this data will be published

are no DCIHR sites within the study area

Understanding the layering

Longford Street Little; Digge’s Lane, a

corner-sited multiple tree-bay, three- and

four-storey formed factory building built

c.1930. There are substantial remains

and the now-modified factory is within the Dublin Business School. The DCIHR

31


Gravestones from the former Church of St Peter on Aungier Street. The slabs are currently stored in St Luke’s Church on the Coombe.

Specific areas could be prioritized and this would result in manageable data collection, which could be realistically com-

missioned

within

an

achievable

timeframe and within the template set up

by the Ship Street/ Werburgh Street

Archaeological Research Agenda. The

other main conclusion was that many of

the problems and past mistakes identi-

fied could be applied across the city and

this information placed in the research framework for the entire city. As a result,

the

expansion

of

the

Ship

Street/Werburgh Street Archaeolog-ical Agenda became the basis for an INSTAR

project.

3.4 Archaeology as a resource for Aungier Street In Ireland, the National Monuments legislation requires through planning condi-

evaluation gives it local significance.

historic core (Fishamble Street, John’s

tions,

Partial remains of a single-bay two-storey

ing southern suburbs (Kevin Street/Bride

resulted in a negative perception of

DCIHR 18 11 177 Smithy Bow Lane East.

Lane, Cook Street), as well as the adjoin-

smithy building built c.1900. The modern

Street area). As the archaeological and

smithy as seen on the OS Survey map

important constraints, the Archaeo-logi-

structure retains the original plan of the

editions, though many original features

have been replaced. A rare survival in the

Werburgh Street Framework Plan area

lies immediately to the north west of the

for

archaeology during the so-called ‘Celtic

tinue to persist unless greater State pro-

sioned by Dublin City Council as a

The result was a document that explored

The Dublin City Council Ship Street/

pay

cal Research Agenda was commis-

It is now Dublin City Council recom-

medieval material as a matter of course.

to

Tiger’ years, which persists into this

follow-on action of the plan.

gations should record in situ post-

developer

the architectural heritage of the areas are

city, it is rated here as of regional interest.

mended policy that archaeological investi-

the

archaeological mitigation. This has

period of recession and which will con-

vision is made for archaeological

resolution and/or greater regulation and

guidance is given by the State to the

commercial sector working for develop-

ways of producing an archaeology-

ers.

specific historic section of the medieval

The block at the northwest end of

a vast body of information has been

logical potential as it is the known site of

focused research framework plan for a

city. One of the first conclusions was that

accumulated over the years and that

Aungier Street has the greatest archaeo-

a medieval church and graveyard, and

there was an urgent requirement for a

potentially,

provide a general framework for various

medieval city, into which individual study

the foundation levels of the stone church

exploited. It is a stated intention of the

the city into study areas was a vital com-

study area. This plan was prepared to

sites which could be commercially

plan that its boundaries would be gradu-

ally expanded to include other badly neg-

lected historic quarters around the

32

research framework for the entire

the

early

ecclesiastical

monastery of Dubhlinn. Quite possibly

areas could be framed. This division of

survive at the back of 74-76 Aungier

ponent due to the amount of information,

as a severe development constraint.

both historical and archaeological, which is currently available.

Street. In development terms, this is seen

However, such constraints also provide

opportunities to add value to a develop-

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


ment, and to enhance the culture and

Witching Bottle excavated on site at Beaux Lane and exhibited there in the lobby of Beaux Lane House offices.

attraction of an area if managed carefully by the developer and other relevant inter-

ests. For example, a sensitive minimum

intervention approach to the redevelop-

ment of this particular block might be to

maintain standing historic buildings and to create a space or hard courtyard over

the remains of the church and graveyard. Alternatively, the church might be exca-

vated and the foundations exposed under a glazed floor or mezzanine so that

they are visually accessible in a new

building. Maintaining upstanding historic

buildings, where feasible, negates the

need to excavate a large portion of the archaeology of any street.

Where new development is desirable and/or the archaeological potential is

less, archaeological mitigation may be

the best approach in order to allow devel-

opment. In these cases the investigation of a site is best carried out within a

research

framework

such

as

the

Medieval Dublin Research Agenda funded by INSTAR and prepared by Linzi

Simpson

for

Dublin

City

Council

Archaeology and Heritage Office 2009.

This involves a research assessment of

all available archaeological information in

order to understand the place, its signifi-

cance and vulnerabilities and to identify

such as that of medieval and later Dublin,

is a skill that involves a toolkit including

history, archaeology and geography as a

schools. It can be difficult to understand

At a Heritage Council conference in

under represented as a resource in

and assimilate largely because the infor-

Dublin (Place as a Resource, 2010),

grey literature that needs translation, syn-

showed that historic townscapes have a

mation is held in technical reports and

thesis and dissemination in various

detailed analysis of the existing sources

The artefacts recovered from excavations

itors can happen across items which pro-

‘Every town and city needs to understand

voke thoughts about what is hidden in

medieval Dubhlinn monastery?’.

the layers under our feet. A good exam-

Urban archaeology is an often unseen

display of a salt-glazed stoneware jug in

can suffer from ‘out of sight, out of mind’.

Reading complex urban archaeology,

Understanding the layering

allow distinctive businesses to thrive;

Imaginative development and manage-

these only in a museum, citizens and vis-

part of our built heritage and as such it

impact than modern townscapes. He

demonstrated that historic environments

son in time. Rather than encountering

such as ‘did Sir Francis Aungier inhabit

curving street alignment reflect the early

substantially greater (10 times) economic

they create oases in towns and cities

tools in telling the story of a place or per-

the Whitefriars precinct?’ and ‘does the

David Geddes of Colliers International

are often the most obvious and evocative

research questions. In Aungier Street for

example these could address questions

old spell device for protection against evil

spirits.

media to target the non-specialist reader.

allows for the drafting of site-specific

pins, suggesting it was a witch bottle or

minimum. In Ireland, archaeology is

gaps in available knowledge as well as

the potential of the resource. Such

rayed and found to contain items such as

which encourage social interaction.

ment can achieve outstanding results -

its historic environments and what might

be done with them to create an attractive

ple of where this has been done is the

“mosaic” of experience.’

a small case in the public foyer of a com-

THE INSTAR PROJECT

House at Mercer Street. The jug was x-

‘Landscape and Settlement’, is a pro-

mercial building called Beaux Lane

The INSTAR project, under the theme

33


ASSESSMENT OF AUNGIER STREET’S

The INSTAR aims are: n

n

ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL

To address key issues in current archaeological practices and identify past

mistakes

To promote a consistency of approach to to archaeological mitigation and

Aungier Street and its immediate envi-

rons (Aungier Place, Stephen Street

Upper and Lower, Longford Street Great

and Little, South Great George’s Street,

best archaeological practice

Whitefriar Street/Place, Bow Lane East,

n

To provide a framework for future synthesis and research

n

To recognise and promote the preservation of the historic city

over 60 archaeological investigations

n

To improve public awareness and appreciation of the archaeology of the

n

n

medieval city

To assess the archaeological resource of the city and its importance, both

nationally and internationally

To provide an archaeological and historical background for the research

area

york Street etc.) have been subject to since the early 1990s, including some major archaeological excavation (notably at Longford Street (part of the medieval

cemetery of St Peter), Peter’s Row (remains of the exhumed post-medieval

graveyard of St Peter’s) and South Great

George’s Street (early Viking activity and

warrior burial around the pool). The infor-

mation gleaned from this site investiga-

tion work represents a substantial and

n

To identify gaps in the archaeological record

n

To synthesise results from previous archaeological excavations

n

To identify research topics and questions

scheduled as recorded monuments evi-

n

To address how the resource could address these research topics and

potential for a way of exploring and pre-

n

largely untapped cultural resource.

provide preliminary answers, where possible

To investigate international best practice for archaeological, engineering,

and architectural solutions to the policy of ‘preservation in situ’

Aungier Street has four dwelling houses

dent in the streetscape which offer great senting

seventeenth-century

Dublin.

Recent research indicates that there are

other buildings of this early period on this

historic street that also need protection by

adding them to the RMP and RPS. gramme of collaboration between Dublin

City Council and Margaret Gowen and

Co. Ltd. The author, Linzi Simpson, is the principal investigator with a series of proj-

the Dublin City Development Plan and

the Dublin City Heritage Plan) which can

be used by relevant stakeholders to

inform future decisions in both planning

ect participants including the City

and research within the historic city.

Duggan (Heritasge Officer) and Prof.

It is recommended that the INSTAR pro-

Archaeologist, Dr Ruth Johnson, Charles

Seán Duffy (Trinity College, Dublin).

gramme should be reviewed in detail for

pared by Katharina Becker, formerly of

mation and research questions arise

Additional work on piling has been preMargaret Gowen and Co. Ltd.

The aims of the medieval research pro-

gramme are to formulate an archaeological research framework for medieval

Dublin, (in support of the objectives of

34

Archaeological works must be under-

taken under licence and summaries of

excavations are posted on the database

of Irish excavation reports (www.excava-

tions.ie) and in the Excavations Bulletin (see Appendix D for these). This publica-

tion and website represent the most

comprehensive and publicly accessible collection of archaeological site data. It is

the Aungier Street area. Where new infor-

a recommendation that these sites and

from Aungier Street Project, the INSTAR

the final reports analysed in detail in

document should be revised to reflect

these and inform the collaborative approach that is being adopted for revitalizing this historic neighbourhood.

report summaries be GIS-mapped and

order to gain a greater appreciation of

the archaeology of the study area. This

would enable a detailed research

agenda to be determined for future excavations in the area.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Web-mapping the archaeology of Dublin

City is a proposed Heritage Plan project

to be undertaken in partnership with the

National

Museum,

the

National

Sites listed within the study area are on the Record of Monuments and Places (RMP DU018–020) DU01802039

Ship Street Great Stephen Street Upper

Gateway Site

DU0102089

Stephan Street Upper / Aungier Street / Longford Street Great

Church Street

City Heritage Plan (to be adopted in

DU018020162

Longford Street

Theatre Site

been chosen to pilot the uploading of full

DU01802052

Longford Street Great

Dwellings Site

DU018020232

Whitefriar Street

Gateway Site

It is also recommended that the carto-

DU018020165

Whitefriar Street

Meetinghouse Site

be studied in further detail and maps not

DU018020164

Meetinghouse Site

Atlases for Dublin should be consulted.

Whitefriar Street / Whitefriar Lane

DU01802049

Whitefriar Street / Whitefriar Place / Aungier Street / Longford Lane

Priory Site

DU018020184

Aungier Street

Dwelling

DU018020389

Stephen Street Upper / Johnson Place / Stephen Street Lower / Glover’s Alley / york Street / Mercer Street Upper / Digges Street Upper / Peter Row / Whitefriar Street

Ecclesiastical Enclosure

DU018020340

Aungier Street

Dwelling

DU01802063

Stephen’s Street Lower / Digge’s Lane

Hospital Site

DU018020593

Johnson’s Place / Stephen Street Lower / Digge’s Lane

Church Site and Graveyard Site

DU018020193

Bow Lane East

Gateway Site

DU018020415

Aungier Street

Church Site and Graveyard Site

DU018020124

Bishop Street

Cross Site

DU018020194

Aungier Street / Digges Street Upper

Gateway Site

Monuments Service and the Department of Arts, Heritage and Gaeltacht. This proj-

ect aims to develop an integrated GIS-

based web-map for the archaeology of

Dublin and is a priority of the new Dublin 2013. The Aungier Street study area has

archaeological reports in PDF format.

graphic sources for the area should also included in the Irish Historic Towns

STEPS TO PROTECT AND PROMOTE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORIC

FABRIC ON AUNGIER STREET

Agreement and implementation of key policies and a collaborative plan of action

is essential to protect and promote the

archaeological, architectural heritage

and cultural potential of Aungier Street:

C17th or C18th Chinese bowl excavated on site in Longford Street.

Understanding the layering

35


A59 D21 A61 B12 A18 A60

St Peter’s Church (C. of I.) (c. 1121) Theatre Royal (1736) St Stephen’s Church (C. of I.) (c. 1215) St Stephens Hospital (c. 1192) Methodist Meeting House (c. 1750) St Peter’s Church (C. of I.) (c. 1680) Mural Tower/Gate Watch House

Dublin 1610 to 1756—map extract from the Irish Historic Towns Atlas (IHTA) no. 19, Dublin, part II, 1610 to 1756.

36

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Recommen d a tion s

1. Raise awareness about Aungier Street’s special archaeological and historic character through planned events, signage and web-based information e.g. archaeology GIS 2. Reconnect Aungier Street to the medieval city by forming pedestrian links to Ship Street, Dublin Castle, St Patrick’s Cathedral, and to the medieval city and the city walls 3. Enhance Aungier Street through careful, informed planning decisions that rehabilitate its remaining historic fabric and maximise the potential of its archaeological past 4. Encourage the business community to participate in schemes that promote the historical character of the area and take ownership of the surviving elements of historic fabric on the street 5. Work with the local community support structure to capture the folklore and oral history of the Aungier Street area 6. Exhibit the gravestones from St Peter’s Church at St Kevin’s Church on Camden Street and implement the relevant and related actions of the St Luke’s Conservation Plan 7. Engage with local third level colleges, history societies, Trinity College Dublin, The Friends of Medieval Dublin and other interest groups to raise awareness of archaeology and history of the area - through publications, exhibitions, lectures, visits to schools and colleges, TV programmes and through website and social media 8. Establish an implementation group for archaeology objectives to devise a research agenda for the area and expand the INSTAR project to include Aungier Street 9. Devise smart phone apps that can show excavation photographs, data and reconstructions of different periods 10. Work to locate (through archaeological investigation) the medieval church and graveyard of St Peter and devise a methodology for its presentation and preservation insitu and allowing access to the site 11. Publish the relevant findings of this project in ‘Friends of Medieval Dublin’ to raise awareness about the area. Bring the research to publication standard and present the project at a Friends of Medieval Dublin Symposium 12. Bring the archaeology of this area to public attention by displaying local finds in the area (as initiated with the display of the witch bottle in Beaux Lane House)

Understanding the layering

37


Interior showing the staircase of 68 Aungier Street, now demolished.

38

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 4

Aungier Street’s Architectural Heritage The history of Aungier Street lies behind today’s façades where older structures are hidden by more recent work, and where layers of building by successive generations have catalogued a record of the changing life of this district through time

4.1 The secrets of Aungier Street The buildings of Aungier Street represent an extraordinary chapter in Dublin’s

architectural history. A cursory glance at

the street’s façades and rooflines reveals

the layering of different periods typical of Dublin

merchant

thoroughfares.

However, the secret of Aungier Street lies

behind its façades, where early mansions

of the late-seventeenth and early eigh-

tieth-century modern façades can con-

development of Aungier Street in 1728 is

Aungier Street is always to be cautious

from is evident in the sole surviving struc-

ceal earlier buildings. The general rule on

and open-minded about the survival of

early built fabric in buildings of all ages.

4.2 Understanding early buildings A greater understanding of the early

ture of 31 Aungier Street.

Similarly, questions about the origins of

the plan form and typology of the

Mansion House (1710) in Dawson Street

have remained unanswered but more recent detailed investigations carried out

of 9-9A Aungier Street have helped shed

building types in the city, in particular the

light on the typology of the Mansion

influence in the development of estates

building types of the emerging city. This

teenth centuries are concealed by later

large Aungier Street mansion and its

buildings could be early Georgian town-

in other parts of Dublin, has been a major

alterations; stuccoed Victorian merchant

of particular interest. The reduced plan

House, its architectural style and the

work was carried out with conservation

houses, while an early twentieth-century

outcome of the research carried out for

ceal a prestigious city mansion of the

informed by a conference hosted by

of the specialist conservators. One of the

relating to the ‘Dutch Billy’ in Dublin city

be to continue to progress research and

ness of this early building type and iden-

Dublin.

yellow brick re-faced tenement can con-

1680s. Aungier Street is remarkable

because of the early and distinguished

this study. The project has also been

Dublin Civic Trust in 2011 on research

origins of its architecture.

and nationally. The seminar raised aware-

The level of change and alteration that

tified the significant characteristics of

has taken place over centuries differs

from building to building. In some cases,

only the façade of an early building may

have been replaced, while in others only a small portion of a house’s substructure

may have survived a more extensive modification.

Consequently

what

appears to be asubstantially nineteenth-

century building may also retain fabric from the seventeenth century. Even twen-

funding from the City Council, the per-

mission of the owner and the enthusiasm

outcomes of the Aungier Street study will

highlight the pre-Georgian heritage of

seventeenth-century and early eigh-

TyPE 1: THE CITy MANSION

types and structural arrangements which

structed on Aungier Street were those

teenth-century typologies, as well as plan

were adopted by the upcoming wealthy merchants. The Aungier Street research

The most prestigious houses con-

built between the 1660s and the 1680s. While many modest houses were also

suggests that the Dutch Billy form may

built at this time—indeed lease records

teenth-century Aungier Street typology as

more numerous than larger houses—it

have derived from the earlier sevena modified and reduced plan form. The

importance of the second phase of

Aungier Street’s Architectural Heritage

of building plot sizes suggest these were

was the high status, possibly free-stand-

ing mansion that dominated the early

39


9-9A Aungier Street, section, structural analysis and phothgraphs courtesy of MESH Architecture.

40

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


thoroughfare. These dwellings were large

The structural analysis 9-9A Aungier

descriptions of several houses. The orig-

large mansion, and in particular the evo-

been typically four bays in width with a

framed construction of the late-medieval

and well appointed, as detailed in the

inal plan arrangement appears to have

Street provides a clear insight into the

shaped balusters. The house has also

retained its unusual timber-framed inter-

nal partitions, and a large proportion of its

lution of structural form from the timber-

original roof and floor framing.

central doorcase, over-hanging roof

period to more solid masonry structures.

The interior of 9/9A has been altered over

out a full basement. The roof profile was

ture of 9-9A are massive timbers—almost

eaves with small dormer windows, with-

dominated by massive, organic-shaped

chimneystacks situated on the party

walls. This is a picturesque house type

that does not accord with our current

early Georgian impression of Dublin but

is more like the London houses of the

same period. Surviving examples on

Embedded within the floor and roof struc-

number of layers and has many unusual

the size of entire trees. However, over-

details arising from different building peri-

members to span from a central spine

without doubt the main staircase—origi-

dependency and use of long timber

wall perpendicular to the main façade caused

some

technical

ods. The highlights of the interior are

nal to the structure—which rises vertically

difficulties

off-centre in the plan to a high-pitched

ularly evident in 9-9A as a result of histor-

structure is a rare survivor in Dublin). The

(Gibney, 1997). Structural failure is partic-

Aungier Street include 9-9A, 10-10A, 19,

ical undermining of the central spine wall

divided state. The smaller house type

the front façade and structural timber

20 and 21. Others may survive in a sub-

time but still retains an extraordinary

roof or attic space (the early cut roof

exterior of the building is known to have

with new openings, the replacement of

been modified in the nineteenth century.

constructed on Aungier Street at this time

decay. The demand for building timber in

retained and clearly shows that the earlier

research is required in this field.

wood timbers from Scandinavian and

unlike the façade with parapet that can

where investigations revealed the domi-

Staircase), which dates from an 1810

is not fully understood and further

The large mansion typology appears to

have been translated to other parts of the

city, most notably St Stephen’s Green,

the Mansion House on \he same four-bay

plan with deep-set staircase, wainscoted

interior and formal landing at first floor. Confusion surrounding these plan types usually arises from their subdivision (as

reflected in their addresses), with an

additional staircase of usually late-eigh-

teenth-century design inserted into annexed accommodation. Interestingly,

interconnecting doors have been traced

within shared party walls confirming the

earlier plan arrangement.

The influence of the Aungier Street man-

sion house on the subsequent ‘Dutch Billy’ house requires further research and

this is proposed as an outcome of this

study. However, it can be concluded that

the Aungier Street mansion differed significantly in scale and status and was

Ireland was met by a steady flow of soft-

Baltic countries, as is confirmed in 9/9A,

nant use of soft timbers, with oak pegs

used to secure the various mortise and

However, the A-frame roof structure was form of the roof had overhanging eaves

be seen at 21 Aungier Street (The restoration.

tenon joints and to serve as the stringers

20 Aungier Street is the other intact man-

has a substantial staircase with thick

street. In spite of the loss of its roof struc-

to the carved staircase balustrade. 9/9A

moulded handrails and turned vase-

‘Though now predominantly C18

and C19 appearance, at least four

or five C17 houses survive masked

by later façades. These are of brick

construction with massive

chimneystacks, similar to the free-

standing brick stacks found in

timber-framed buildings. They are

of double-pile plan with a

continuous structural spine wall

between the front and back rooms

and stud partitions between the back rooms and the staircase’

developed for a very different status of

resident.

Aungier Street’s Architectural Heritage

Casey, Dublin, 2005

sion house of this period to survive on the ture, it retains part of an early staircase

and massive square chimneystacks. Like 9-9A, it is a house of national signifi-

cance.

A surviving photograph of the staircase of 68 Aungier Street (now demolished)

provides some information about the

quality and detail of these city mansions.

This house is said to have been the resi-

dence of John Wolfe, Lord Kilwarden, who was murdered in the Emmet upris-

ing in 1803. In an article in The Irish

Builder (15 Sept 1891), it is stated that

“the staircase of this house is of massive

oak, beautifully carved, and the walls are

wainscoted with same material”. This

staircase, which rose from the hall to the

top of the house, probably dated from

the early years of the eighteenth century.

41


42

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Interior Description of an Aungier Street House

T

he house, to begin with, was a very old one. It had been, I believe, newly fronted about fifty years before; but with this exception, it had nothing modern about it. The agent who bought it and looked into the titles for my uncle, told me that it was sold, along with much other forfeited property, at Chichester House, I think, in 1702; and had belonged to Sir Thomas Hacket, who was Lord Mayor of Dublin in James II’s time. How old it was then, I can’t say; but, at all events, it had seen years and changes enough to have contracted all that mysterious and saddened air, at once exciting and depressing, which belongs to most old mansions. There had been very little done in the way of modernising details; and, perhaps, it was better so; for there was something queer and by-gone in the very walls and ceilings--in the shape of doors and windows--in the odd diagonal site of the chimneypieces--in the beams and ponderous cornices-- not to mention the singular solidity of all the woodwork, from the banisters to the window-frames, which hopelessly defied disguise, and would have emphatically proclaimed their antiquity through any

It had carved balusters and a heavy

handrail and newel posts, all of pine. The

conceivable amount of modern finery and varnish.

An effort had, indeed, been made, to the extent of papering the drawingrooms; but, somehow the paper looked raw and out of keeping; and the old woman, who kept a little dirtpie of a shop in the lane, and whose daughter - a girl of two and fifty - was our solitary handmaid, coming in at sunrise, and chastely receding again as soon as she had made all ready for tea in our state apartment; this woman, I say, remembered it, when old Judge Horrocks (who, having earned the reputation of a particularly “hanging judge,” ended by hanging himself, as the coroner’s jury found, under an impulse of “temporary insanity,” with a child’s skippingrope, over the massive old banisters) resided there, entertaining good company, with fine venison and rare old port. In those halcyon days, the drawing-rooms were hung with gilded leather, and, I dare say, cut a good figure, for they were really spacious rooms. The bedrooms were wainscoted, but the front one was not gloomy; and in it the cosiness of antiquity quite overcame its sombre associations.

leading to a narrow hall and the main

But the back bedroom, with its two queerlyplaced melancholy windows, staring vacantly at the foot of the bed, and with the shadowy recess to be found in most old houses in Dublin, like a large ghostly closet, which, from congeniality of temperament, had amalgamated with the bedchamber, and dissolved the partition.

Extract from ‘An account of some strange disturbances in Aungier Street’, by J. Sheridan Le Fanu originally from Dublin University Magazine, (1853)

Ceiling in Fanagans Funeral Home, Aungier Street.

adapted or demolished, vacant plots

staircase. It had full-width apartment

were filled and new rows of houses were

and not oak.

level with chimney breasts and fireplaces

modest scale than their mansion fore-

The description of another early house

landing off the staircase.

‘Dutch Billy’ typology of gable-fronted

walls were also wainscoted, but in pine

nearby, 36 Bride Street, in the Georgian

Society Records, indicate its magnificent

accommodation overhead at first-floor

at either end, accessed from a formal

TyPE 2: FORMERLy GABLE-FRONTED

laid out. These dwellings were of a more

bears, almost universally following the

buildings until these gradually declined in

fashion in the 1740s. Houses typically

dimensions with compartmented ceil-

HOUSE

comprised plots of two and three bays.

structural chimney breasts, substantial

second phase of development of the

Trademark features include massive cor-

plan and a central entrance doorcase

ing which time existing houses were often

ings, full-height wainscoting, enormous

and elegant staircases set deep into the

Aungier Street’s Architectural Heritage

This house type flourished during the Aungier estate from the mid-1720s, dur-

ner chimneystacks, projecting closet

returns to the rear elevation and cruci-

43


form shaped roofs. Most of the original buildings on the east side of Aungier

Street from york Street to Digges Street

were built in this way—31 now being the

sole survivor and one of the most intact

houses of its kind in the city. Other

houses that may have conformed to this

typology are likely to have been altered or replaced but this is difficult to determine definitively.

The gable-fronted house was built to suit

wealthy merchants who often lived over their businesses. They retained the tradi-

tional structural support of large corner fireplaces and continued the seventeenth-century tradition of wainscoting for

interior decoration, prestige and comfort.

Top left: Historic view of Aungier Place. Below: 31 Aungier Street today and as it appeared in an illustration by Flora Mitchell in Vanishing Dublin.

44

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Examples of this house type, all in a

TyPE 4: VICTORIAN COMMERCIAL

However, the defining contribution of the

interior features, appear to include 18,

These buildings were erected or adapted

layering of modernising features onto

modified state but often retaining some

the bridal shop at 25 (with an apparently

PREMISES

from earlier buildings during the commer-

Victorian period to Aungier Street is the existing buildings. Shopfronts were the

early modification of its roof), the houses

cially prosperous nineteenth century. They

most common, as can be seen with the

Stephen Street. In some cases, buildings

Victorian period, such as machine-made

65, added to what are mostly early

at 65 and 80, and the former dairy at 19

exhibit characteristics common to the

may retain earlier fabric from the seven-

red and yellow brick, windows with large

elements or as recycled building mate-

shopfronts and carved stonework. These

teenth century incorporated as retained rial.

TyPE 3: GEORGIAN TOWN HOUSE

parade of three handsome shops at 63-

Georgian buildings. Others can be seen

paned sashes, and elaborately detailed

at 72 and 73 and the elegant front of the

elements can be seen at the former pub-

Street.

lic house at 43 on the corner with Digges

former Coyle’s hat shop at 8 Aungier

Street which has Victorian-style windows,

A rare example of purpose-built houses

rative stone dressings to its attractive pub

located on Whitefriar Street, where a ter-

This type of house on Aungier Street was

machine-made brick façades, and deco-

eighteenth century, probably replacing

frontage. The former Carmichael School

race of three elegant yellow brick build-

wave of redevelopment in the early

an

survives in exceptionally good condition.

constructed in the second half of the

‘ruinous’ houses that had escaped the

1700s. Typically Georgian in appearance,

they exhibit classically proportioned win-

dows, a shallow roof and a flat parapet

of Medicine, now the Avalon Hostel, has elaborately-detailed

1870s

brick

façade and a charming terracotta exten-

sion of 1905.

and shops of the nineteenth century is

ings with apparently original shopfronts

yellow brick is also a recurring theme in

the re-facing of older buildings for tene-

fronting the street. Some may be termed

‘transitional’ houses, still displaying some old-fashioned characteristics such as

small window opes and exposed sash

boxes as seen on the charming set-piece pair of 76 and 77 which date from 1758-

60. More imposing is the former town

house at 24, which features an impres-

sive staircase dating to the 1760s, while

houses of a similar date with good stairs

and internal mahogany doors can be

found in a truncated format at 74 and 75.

Because Aungier Street was declining as

a fashionable location at this time, there

are not many examples of this Georgian

house type on the street, and small-scale

adaptation and subdivision of older

buildings was probably more common. It

is also more likely that houses built in the

latter part of the eighteenth century were erected on cleared ground, rather than

incorporating earlier structures, because

of changing fashions and advances in building construction techniques.

24 Aungier Street.

Aungier Street’s Architectural Heritage

45


ment use, as seen at 8, 9-9A and the

three-bay house at 23. Red brick was

used to reface buildings such as 15, 73

and 10-10A Aungier Street.

TyPE 5: MODERNIST BUILDINGS

There are a number of examples of build-

ings with modernist façades of the 1930s-1960s on Aungier Street. Some of these can be deceptive in age, such as

16 which features a well-handled red

brick façade of c. 1930 with horizontal

render banding. However, but a more tra-

ditional rear elevation and massive roof

structure both suggest a much earlier

building that was modernized in the early

1900s—a common practice across the

country at this time. Other buildings with

Top: Former merchant houses on Digges Lane in the late nineteenth century. This traditional gable style of house was commonly found throughout Dublin.

Below: 11 Aungier Street c. 1980. This was once a fine brick house, apparently of eighteenth century date, before being overhauled with an applied temple front façade in the nineteenth century (depicted above in this illustration by Flora Mitchell of the birthplace of the poet Thomas Moore at 12 Aungier Street, now also demolished and replaced). The building was demolished for road widening in the 1990s.

46

modernist façades include 3 and 79. Such buildings require a cautious

approach to intervention because of the

possible survival of earlier fabric, which needs to be determined in advance of

works being planned or undertaken.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Aungier Street Charles Goad Fire Insurance Map, Dublin City Council (updated to 1961),

Whitefriar Street - purpose-built houses and shops from the 1820s.

Aungier Street’s Architectural Heritage

47


Top left: 79 Aungier Street. Top right: Dutch Billies in Longford Street in the 1950s. Left: An 1980s view of 43 Aungier Street. Above: Robert Paul & Co, Hardware Merchants, Aungier Street, 1960s.

48

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


TyPE 6: RECENT INFILL

A number of derelict sites developed in

the 1990s and the first decade of this

century. In some cases historic buildings

were demolished, as happened at 7

Aungier Street, where an early eighteenth-century house was recently lost.

Other recent development includes

apartments, shops and offices on the

western side of the street at 66-67 and at

68-70 on the corner of Longford Street.

The southern stretches of Aungier Street

have been more comprehensively rede-

veloped where larger-scale apartment

68–70 Aungier Street and new Whitefriars Development.

and office buildings were erected on

sites cleared between the 1960s and the 1980s.

Recommen d a tion s 1.

Promote further research on building typologies in Aungier Street by directing academic institutions towards student and graduate research in this field

2.

Disseminate information gathered to date on the building typologies of Aungier Street by publishing and presenting research at architectural heritage events

3.

Seek greater statutory protection for 8 Aungier Street based on the known significance of its surviving fabric

4.

Actively seek funding mechanisms to support and encourage the conservation of historic buildings at risk on Aungier Street

5.

Continue to make the unique architectural history of Aungier Street more widely appreciated—through exhibitions, guided tours and community events

6.

Host a workshop for building owners and their professional advisors specifically to address historic building repair and building in context issues

Aungier Street’s Architectural Heritage

49


No. 21 Aungier Street

50

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 5

Conserving for the Future Introducing a coordinated strategy for planning, cultural heritage, building conservation and urban design will ensure that our historic buildings have a central role in the future sustainable development of the city. 5.1 Introduction Aungier Street was selected as the focus

A key challenge is to tie this incredible

seventeenth-century legacy to the future

regeneration and conservation of Aungier

for this project because of its known

Street, making the remaining structures

form. Dublin was a city of comparatively

This project has been initiated by the

importance, its early origins and unusual

modest size until the late-seventeenth

century, with few built areas outside the

of the Aungier Estate central to the plan.

Conservation Officer in Dublin City

Council with the objective of implement-

tected for the first time. Very few interiors

had previously been scheduled for pro-

tection in Dublin city and none had been identified in Aungier Street.

Aungier Street currently has 28 sites iden-

tified as protected structures; however, the additional protection status of

medieval walls. However, the period from

ing achievable conservation objectives

National Monument (of which there are

the city’s political and mercantile impor-

research has been undertaken in the

has contributed significantly to the sur-

Development Plan and has been guided

ing to the historic seventeenth-century

1660 was marked by a major increase in

tance, and a population growth that

would place Dublin among the ten

largest cities in Europe by 1800. A new ruling class emerged led by James

Butler, Duke of Ormonde, who was

appointed Viceroy of Ireland by Charles

II in 1660. Together with his friends and

associates, such as Francis Aungier, he

sparked the transformation of Dublin

for an historic area of the city. The

context of the current Dublin City

by international conservation charters

and associated conventions, declara-

six sites on the street and its environs)

vival of so many standing structures relat-

streetscape. The opportunity to assess

coordination

between

conservation,

tions and guidance which are relevant to

planning and archaeology in the protec-

of urban areas like Aungier Street.

structures up until now has taken place

the future management and conservation

tion and management of these sites and mainly through the review of planning

applications, not as a proactive inter-dis-

5.2 Conservation of buildings on Aungier Street

Council.

The Conservation Officer interfaces with

To date, the dissemination of information

ber of ways through the Plan-ning and

not been linked to provide an overview of

(1670s). These developments were pre-

of changes to the legislative framework in

Aungier Street. Neither have the dynamic

about in the eighteenth and nineteenth

buildings formerly scheduled as List 1 or

from a medieval town into a modern European capital.

Town planning in the formal sense began in Dublin in the 1660s, with the layout of

new residential areas such as Aungier

Street (1661) and St Stephen’s Green cursors to the grander plans which came

centuries and which define the city we see today.

Conserving for the Future

owners of protected structures in a num-

Development Act 2000. The introduction

1999 extended additional protection to

List 2, making the exterior, interior and site features associated (or within) the cur-

tilage of the principal structure fully pro-

ciplinary activity within Dublin City

gathered by the various disciplines has

the significance of historic streets such as

changes which affect its character—

changing-use trends, the condition of his-

toric fabric, the quality of the public realm or the insertion of new development—

been comprehensively considered.

51


Conservation Policies Relevant to Aungier Street Government Policy on Architecture,

Dublin City Development Plan,

‘Areas where efficient use of land, high

7.2.5.1 Promoting Sustainable

2009–2015

2011 –2017

quality urban and landscape design and

Development in Conservation

infrastructure combine to create places

old buildings can play a pivotal role in the

effectively integrated physical and social

people want to live in.’

Extract from the Government policy on Architecture 2009–2015

The Government Policy on Architecture 2009–2015 aligned Ireland’s manage-

ment of its built heritage with European

The retention, rehabilitation and re-use of

sustainable development of the city. In

many cases they make a positive contri-

bution to both streetscape and sense of

place. Dublin City Council will promote

the city’s built heritage, including pro-

tected structures, through development

management and guidance to building

policy and initiatives. It has provided a

owners (see section 11.4.8).

to contribute to and support the formula-

It is the policy of Dublin City Council:

nationally regarding the quality of our

FC26 To protect and conserve the city’s

road map for architectural conservation

tion of new planning practices and policy built environment. It sets out the need for

an integrated approach to the design of

our built environment and addresses the issues of architectural quality and sus-

tainable development. The policy reiter-

ates the primary aim of Government action to be the creation and manage-

ment of sustainable communities and

neighbourhoods.

AACO (Association of Architectural Conservation Officers)

cultural and built heritage; sustaining its

unique significance, fabric and character

to ensure its survival for future genera-

tions.

FC27 To seek the preservation of the built

heritage of the city that makes a positive

contribution to the character, appearance

and quality of local streetscapes and the sustainable development of the city.

FC28 To continue to protect our built her-

Conservation Officers work within local

itage, and development proposals affect-

embedded in the Government Policy on

accordance with the DoEHLG document

for implementing conservation, as that

Guidelines for Planning Authorities, 2004’

authorities nationally. The strategies

Architecture are the primary framework

policy sets out the importance of research agendas, awareness-raising

ing the built heritage will be assessed in ‘Architectural

Heritage

Protection

FC29 To co-operate and facilitate part-

nerships with relevant agencies for the

and the establishment of coherent man-

continued development of integrated

semination of information and providing

ter, cultural significance and tourism

agement practices as integral to the disan understanding of an area.

52

policies in order to reinforce the characpotential of the historic areas of the city.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


First edition Ordnance Survey, 1847. The findings of this research and the

sharing of this information has con-

tributed to an entirely different apprecia-

tion of the area. The street’s rich

archaeological and architectural layering, it present day strengths and weak-

nesses, and the significant survival of so

many seventeenth-century houses all set the street apart as a distinctive urban

form in the context of the wider city.

It is evident from a review of the informa-

tion compiled from various databases

and resources that conservation skills

of the street, awareness of its architec-

5.3 Promoting sustainable development

materials and repairs to benefit the over-

The

degree of change in general appreciation

tural heritage and the use of conservation

all streetscape.

However, in the current economic climate

opportunities to promote small-scale and

preventative maintenance are virtually

non-existent and there is no mechanism

to promote best conservation practice

which supports the architectural heritage

of the area. It is of growing concern that,

available

through

the

National

Conservation Grant Scheme directed at

vulnerable buildings has brought about a

Conserving for the Future

approach builds capacity and allows

potential to be realised. Key outcomes for this project are: n

n

have difficulty in realising an economic return from their properties, to the detri-

ment of the historic fabric.

has

interact and define their role. The

vacancy and underuse, building owners

heritage of the street. Limited funding

positively contributed to the architectural

research

in order to inform a working / present day

n

conservation to address the challenge of

Street

context in which all stakeholders can

in the absence of funding incentives for

with coordinated planning efforts have

Aungier

reviewed and added to pre-existing data

n n

Demonstrating the significance of

Aungier Street’s built heritage layers

Understanding the street form, scale

and building typologies

Identifying cultural heritage potential Analysing the public realm and

looking at how it can be improved

Engaging with the local businesses

and residential community

53


View of the east side of Aungier Street.

funding and providing support to

The project demonstrates the benefits of

a collaborative process in delivering

consensus of opinion and approach. By

changing planning practice from an

n

owners of historic buildings.

Mapping and analysis of core data

and the dissemination of information

incremental approach to a shared vision

to key stakeholders, property owners

promoted at the heart of sustainable

the local authority.

and general practitioners including

it is hoped that conservation can be development in the city.

NEW APPROACHES TO MANAGING

THE HISTORIC URBAN LANDSCAPE n

Working as a multi-disciplinary team disseminating past and current

survey information in order to provide

n

54

a coherent vision for the area.

Providing a basis for attracting

n

objectives identifying new partners in the

community, such as educational and

institutional bodies, as well as wider

opportunities and potential support of

government departments.

of Aungier Street at community level,

5.4 Aungier Street— Conservation Case Studies 2000 - 2012

and to inform future planning and

Dublin City Council has offered conser-

heritage at its heart.

to Aungier Street properties in recent

Building in Context workshops to

raise awareness of the significance

to advise owners of their obligations development—regeneration with

Recommendations arising from this research set out as short- to long-term

vation expertise on a case-by-case basis

years by providing a technical conserva-

tion input into planning applications for

protected structures and buildings of

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


monument status, also for unauthorised

works, derelict sites and dangerous

buildings, for conservation grant works and for buildings at risk.

The importance of conserving the historic

fabric of Aungier Street has been recognised since the inception of the current

planning legislative framework in 2000. A number of previously identified protected

structures and monuments were actively monitored through the Buildings at Risk Register, set up by a dedicated Buildings

at Risk Officer working with a technical input from conservation on a case-bycase basis.

The following case studies are based on

conservation files on Aungier Street buildings, which outline the process and commitment of time and resources

needed to achieve the conservation

objective. It is noted that the absence of

an overriding planning framework for the area has made it difficult to guide new

development and promote conservation-

led interventions. Conservation projects

10/10a Aungier Street.

have been carried out on an individual

Street appears, from historical mapping,

ness of projects previously undertaken

residences to have survived until recent

basis. It is hoped that by raising aware-

that the benefits of a conservation-led

approach will inform future strategy.

[The Conservation Officer is indebted to

to have been one of the most significant times. Its eventual demise and subse-

quent removal appear to have been pro-

moted on the basis of a road-widening requirement for traffic to cross Aungier

the many owners and practitioners who

Street from Longford Street Little to

information and to key sites surviving in

ner seems to have suffered a similar fate.

have assisted with access to technical

Longford Street Great. The opposite cor-

the area].

Today Longford Street Great retains a

10-10A AUNGIER STREET

that is likely to be a remnant from Sir

cerned 10-10A Aungier Street where the

which was in this location.

result of the loss of 11 Aungier Street, a

9-9A AUNGIER STREET

house

Buildings at Risk Register, the case of 9-

classical doorcase in a boundary wall

The first case that came to notice con-

party wall required stabilisation as a substantial seventeenth-century townclearly

discernible

in

Flora

Mitchell’s illustrations of Aungier Street in Vanishing Dublin (1966). 11 Aungier

Conserving for the Future

Edward Lovett Pearce’s 1730 Theatre

Whilst this building remains on the

Rear elevation of 9/9A Aungier Street.

9A Aungier Street represents a consider-

able success story. By combining the

55


efforts and skills of the various conserva-

tion inputs, 9-9A Aungier Street is thought to be the sole survivor with a rare cruci-

presentation of conservation work and

skills. This potential has been tentatively

communicated to heritage organisations

form cut roof now conserved (the only

such as Dublin Civic Trust and the Irish

construction method to survive in

been to the fore in the rescue and re-use

known roof of this seventeenth-century

Landmark Trust, organisations that have

Dublin). Repairs to its external envelope

of historic buildings.

improved and urgent remedial structural

Subsequent works will be undertaken to

have also been made, window openings

works successfully implemented to ‘hold’

the building whilst the next step of its

9-9A on foot of the preparation and sub-

mission of information to the National

rehabilitation can be decided. The roof

Conservation Grants Scheme promoting

planned programme of conservation

There is evidence that the Aungier Street

structure was saved by a carefully

works, where every roof timber was

best practice through regular site visits.

façade was refaced in the nineteenth

recorded and located.

century which perhaps accounts for the

The specialist skills of a structural engi-

fabric. Subsequent works to the exterior

lack of awareness regarding its internal

neer experienced in working on historic

included the re-pointing of the exterior

were central to developing an appropri-

joint) and the repair and replacement of

structures and a conservation architect

with lime mortar (using a simple struck

ate conservation strategy based on best

nineteenth-century windows.

tion. In some instances the timber-bear-

65 AUNGIER STREET

and no longer met building construction

proven to have positive outcomes, such

practice principles of minimal interven-

ing ends of the roof timbers had failed

standards.

Only the very rotten timber sections were

Timely small-scale interventions have

as at 65 Aungier Street, which was temporarily supported whilst urgent remedial works were undertaken under the super-

removed and the historic structural mem-

vision of Dublin City Council’s Dangerous

tions. The key outcomes of this work was

Officer and the Conservation Officer. The

safe access was facilitated to record its

that was largely a shell. Proposals

bers supplemented with new steel secthat the building was stabilised over time,

Buildings Section, its Buildings at Risk primary focus was to stabilise a building

unusual construction, and analysis was

focused on the urgent need to weather

ultimately leading to a greater under-

vide structural support in the form of a

made possible of the structural typology, standing of the Aungier Street building period.

The full rehabilitation of 9-9A hasn’t

occurred to date, largely due to lack of

funding to complete the internal works

the structure from water ingress and pro-

temporary steel frame, designed to ensure minimal impact to the important

features of the interior, the chimney breasts, window linings and other decorative features. Part of the brief was that

the

temporary

works

be

carefully

and a failure to identify an economically

designed by a structural engineering firm

its significance. This building, because of

ing that future construction works were

viable reuse which will not detract from

its rarity in the city, provides a unique opportunity for investigation, training and

56

65 Aungier Street.

19 Stephen Street Upper.

with specialist conservation skills ensur-

achievable with the steel framing in place, and that any temporary works

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


could be reversed on completion of the structural repairs. A subsequent planning

application was lodged for the full con-

servation of the structure as part of the

adjoining Carmelite complex and the structure now has an active high quality retail use currently in place at ground

floor level.

19 STEPHEN STREET UPPER

This building, a protected structure,

came to notice through the National

Conservation Grant Scheme. The archi-

tectural history of the building, including

its former use as a dairy supplying the immediate area, adds considerable inter-

est to the social history and cultural value

Cruciform roof at 19 Stephen Street Upper prior to repair.

of this part of the city, yet, despite its cultural potential, the building remains

vacant.

The roof structure of this building is also

of a cruciform type, though of a later con-

historic glass as an important aspect of

our architectural heritage.

Unfortunately the drive for energy effi-

struction period than 9-9A Aungier Street

ciency and improved thermal efficiency

nally by its steep slopes and internally

historic windows with many owners

(c.1728). The roof is characterised exter-

where the cut-roof members meet at the

has been seen to negatively impact on

replacing them to provide improved insu-

apex of the roof structure. This site is an

lation properties. However, a recent study

disappearing typology of gable fronted

Heritage Council funding demonstrated

excellent and authentic example of a fast

buildings in the city, known traditionally

as ‘Dutch Billies’.

31 AUNGIER STREET

This building is also an example of a

undertaken by Dublin City Council with that the removal and replacement of his-

toric windows with double-glazing was

not necessary and should not be justi-

fied, given that options such as draught-

proofing, the use of shutters, the repair of

‘Dutch Billy’ typology. The National

the window linings, and the hanging of

ported the repair and retention of its his-

vide an equivalent performance to dou-

Conservation Grant Scheme also sup-

heavy curtains or thermal blinds can pro-

31 Aungier Street.

toric windows, particularly its exposed

ble-glazed

retention of other original fabric. Where

Street a pair of windows to the upper

Vanishing Dublin (1966).

appropriate replacements were guided

recently removed and replaced with infe-

THE SWAN BAR

proofing and full working repair was

teenth-century

york Street arose from an urgent request

funding as it encouraged the retention of

an attractive pedestrian archway over the

box frames to the rear, and the repair and

missing elements were required, the by the Conservation Officer. Draught-

regarded as an integral part of the grant

historic windows, their details and their

Conserving for the Future

units

minus

the

cost.

Unfortunately, in the case of 31 Aungier

floor of the front elevation have been rior substitute uPvc units. This early eighbuilding—with

an

authentic interior at the upper level and

laneway abutting its side gable—was

vividly illustrated by Flora Mitchell in

A more recent case study at 58 and 59 for remedial works on foot of a

Dangerous Buildings Notice, served due

to the spalling of large pieces of mortar

57


from the building’s façade. 58 york Street was initially considered to be a mid-nine-

cementicious content. Full removal of the

external plaster was not supported but

teenth century structure that was ren-

where it was tested and found to be

during the 1916 Rising. However, anom-

replaced. Evidence of historic bullet

dered after shot damage to its façade

alies in its construction and its irregular

blown, the sections of blown plaster were

holes has been retained as part of the

plan form suggest that this may in fact be

character of the building and the part it

teenth century but with much of its origi-

iron ligatures, which were the basis on

an earlier structure, re-made in the nine-

nal structure extant.

The focus of the remedial works has

been the heavy articulated external render and decorative work, which was

formed using a Roman plaster with

played in the 1916 Rising. The rusting

which the decorative window heads were

formed,

have

been

removed

and

replaced with stainless steel armature

and wires. An exact template was made

of the decorative profiles so that a new

form could be made in timber and metal

and used to run the new surrounds and

to repair damaged or lost sections of the

decorative profiles.

The main damage caused to the building

primarily stemmed from the poor condi-

tion of the parapet allowing water ingress

through the roof wall plate and window

heads. The severe winter weather condi-

tions of Decem-ber 2010 and January

2011 and the repeat freeze-thaw frost

action on saturated masonry caused the

Top: The Swan Bar before façade repair. Above: on completion of works, 2012, by Lotts Architecture.

58

The Swan Bar. repair details.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


extensive damage evident at the upper

levels of the façade. The works have

become more extensive at this site with

the discovery of the poor condition of

structural wall plates bedded within the

wall, eaten away by wet rot. However, the positive side of the project has been the

pride of the owner of this building and the commitment to complete the work to a very high level of craftsmanship.

CONSERVATION OF 21 AUNGIER STREET

21 is a large, four-bay mansion, amongst the oldest recorded buildings in the city, whose title deeds date back to 1680. It

was built at the onset of the development of the Aungier estate, when Sir Francis

Aungier began to lease large plots of

land along the street. This encouraged

the development of grand houses with basements and garrets in the attic area.

21 Aungier Street is typical of this type of

house. Its façade is forty feet wide and

was renewed in about 1810. Its notable

features include a centrally located mag-

nificent heavy timber staircase and two

21 Aungier Street, front elevation before conservation, Dublin Civic Trust.

major central chimney stacks on the

DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING

house of the Parson family, the Earls of

feet by 40 feet of load-bearing brick con-

spine walls. The house was the town-

Royal Hospital Kilmainham. Two early

21 is a four storey, four-bay house, 40

eighteenth-century window sashes were

Ross, who were supporters of King

struction in the outer walls, with a shop at

expected for a house of this date, it has

house passed in the early eighteenth

tance lies in the intact state of its plan

James at the Battle of the Boyne. The

century as trade and commercial activity

reused in partition walls. As would be

the ground floor. Its architectural impor-

undergone continuous alterations over

with four rooms around a centrally posi-

1810 with red-brick facing and was

the years. The front wall was rebuilt c.

spread into the street, to William Fielding,

tioned staircase and two major chim-

cement-rendered in the mid-twentieth

there for most of that century.

floor. The internal walls are timber framed

on the first floor were refitted in the style

a coach maker, whose family remained

20 formed a pair with 21 whose original

neystacks flanked by closets on each

and constructed in a way which represents a development of medieval prac-

century. The two main reception rooms

of the early-nineteenth century with sim-

ple plaster cornices, dados and shut-

third floor was removed. It retains only

tice. The staircase survives intact with

tered window cases.

was removed at ground floor level and

handrail and very handsome pear-

By 1992, the building was virtually derelict

flights from ground to third floors and is

permission granted the same year, when

three flights of its original staircase which from the top flight. 20 was formerly the

Ram’s Inn while 22 was owned by

Alderman King, maker of the brass stair-

case in Castletown House, and was

occupied for a time by Van Nost, the sculptor.

Conserving for the Future

square pillastered newels, a wide heavy shaped Classical balusters. It runs in six the most complete of the remaining sev-

enteenth-century domestic staircases in

Dublin today. It is similar in scale and

design to the original staircases in the

and due to be demolished of foot of a

Dublin Civic Trust intervened. Once the historic importance of the house was

recognised, Dublin Corporation arranged for a ‘site swop’ with the developer who

59


60

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


had purchased it from them and together

with the Department of the Environment,

gave Dublin Civic Trust a grant to help

with the initial stages of saving the building.

Dublin Civic Trust took possession of the

building in 1995 and Dublin Corporation

transferred the title to them. The building had no rear yard and no off-street car parking so access for refurbishment pur-

poses had to be sought from the adjoin-

ing neighbour at 22.

BUILDING SIGNIFICANCE OF THE

HOUSE

The significance of the building was first identified by An Taisce in 1987 and it was

subsequently scheduled a listed building

( List 2-1991 DCDP). In 1992, planning

permission for its demolition was refused on appeal by An Bord Pleanála. Dublin

Civic Trust got planning permission in

21 Aungier Street, rear elelvation before conservation and restoration.

mix of uses including retail/service at

its bowing and the collapse of many of

1995 for its restoration for a sympathetic

ground floor while respecting the plan

and layout of its rooms with future use for

commercial/residential uses on other

floors.

The staircase was carefully retained in

situ during restoration works. The internal

walls are timber-framed of a type which

the floor structures.

FAçADE

sources and the entire façade re-pointed using a cement-free, coloured lime using

tuck pointing. Nineteenth-century window

detailing was maintained: six-over-six

The front elevation was rebuilt in 1810,

pane timber sliding sashes were inserted

a shop at street level. The upper floors

viving examples.

possibly to accommodate the insertion of

were supported on timber bressumers

supported, in turn, on cast iron columns.

on all floors with profiles copied from sur-

A simple, detailed, early nineteenth-cen-

echoes medieval practice. It is the clos-

The elevation on the upper floors sur-

ber-framed house in the city.

occurred as a result of water saturation

CONDITION IN 1995

floor structures. However the bowing was

located on South King Street, now the

were inserted in the building in the 1980s

Centre.

est surviving structure to an internally tim-

As is common with projects of this kind,

a long-standing backlog of maintenance and neglect affected the structure and

stability of the building. The original roof

of the house was removed around 1960 and replaced with a crude flat, felt roof

structure, which itself was poorly main-

vived intact, though some bowing had

and the lack of lateral restraints from the restrained: steel channels and tie bars and remained at a level where the façade

could be maintained and consolidated with internal steel strapping.

The original brickwork on the façade was

tained and resulted in extensive water

in reasonably good condition. The render

and timber lintels in the front wall caused

spalled bricks replaced from salvage

saturation. The saturation of the timbers

Conserving for the Future

was stripped, the pointing raked out,

tury shopfront was provided, in keeping

with the character of the upper elevation.

This was based on a group of early nine-

teenth-century shopfronts which were

site of the St Stephen’s Green Shopping

REAR ELEVATION

Examination indicated that the rear ele-

vation of the building was substantially

original. The quality of the brick used

originally was poor, so it was re-rendered

using a rough-cast lime render. Since

there was no surviving or documentary

61


21 Aungier Street, interior staircase before conservation and restoration.

evidence to show what a 1680s Dublin

domestic window looked like, it was pro-

posed that the detailing of the rear win-

dows would follow the pattern of two

sashes which were discovered in an

internal partition but which would have originally been used externally. ROOF

The roof was removed in the 1960s and

no documentary evidence exists of its

original pitch. The professionals carrying

out the work consulted with the Dublin Civic Trust on the appropriate valley lay-

out and pitch of the new roof. Permission

was granted in May 1996 in relation to the restoration of a hipped roof on 21

Aungier Street. FLOOR PLAN

The floor structures were characteristic of

the late seventeenth-century, with massive square beams projecting below ceil-

ing levels, supporting subsidiary square

joists in a complex interlocking system.

Most of the timbers were rotten due to

water saturation so it was decided that

the original main beams would be

replaced with steel girders, which is

established conservation procedure for

floor structures of this kind. A similar

practice was undertaken at Hampton

Court Palace, London, following fire dam-

age in the 1980s. STAIRCASE

There was considerable deflection in the

level of all the staircase landings and

beams. The staircase was jacked up in

position, removing as much as possible

of the slope running towards the partition

wall with the adjoining rear rooms.

Defective landings were replaced entirely

in timber, using original beam profile and

sizes.

21 Aungier Street after conservation. 62

INTERIOR FEATURES

The first and second floors were sal-

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


dealt with, and internal strapping and joist

and window replacement undertaken, an

fabric by addressing not only heritage

but also the many other aspects of sus-

investor had to be found to carry out the

tainability in the city—including access,

specification to avail of the benefit of the

resources.

purchased in 1998 for £110,000, subject

Many planning and conservation reports

included retaining its special heritage fea-

Council, but they generally exist in isola-

final phase of reinstatement to an agreed Section 19 tax incentive. The building was

to the Heads of Agreement which

tures and use of the property as a cafe on

the ground floor and as a guesthouse on

the first, second and third floors. The

thermal efficiency and considered use of

have been commissioned by Dublin City

tion and the practicality and relevance of

their information and guidance has

acceptance of its special heritage fea-

tures was subject to an agreement

21 Aungier Street, front elevation after conservation. vaged for reinstatement. Fireplace sur-

rounds and fire grates, door architraves,

window architraves and bases and shut-

ters and dado rails were all salvaged and

reused and, where necessary, copied from surviving intact examples.

between

the

purchaser,

Planning

Authority and the Dublin Civic Trust under

Section 38 of the 1963 Local Government

Act, in order to preserve its distinctive architectural and historical features.

The more recent history of this building has been erratic. It changed ownership

and has been used first as a refugee

hostel and then as accommodation for

young offenders on early release, under

a scheme funded by the Department of

PLASTER FINISHES

Justice. It is considered that this use is

partitions were maintained where possi-

cant building.

Old lime plaster wall finishes and plaster

ble. All lath and plaster ceilings had failed

due to water damage.

STABILISING WORKS AND

RESTORATION (JUNE 1995)

The building was situated outside of the

unsuitable for such a fragile and signifi-

However, this case study does highlight

the potential of reviving tax incentives for culturally significant buildings. The man-

agement and setting up of such financial

schemes would require careful consider-

designated area of urban renewal. It was

ation or further refinement to ensure that

Revenue Commissioners under the 1982

uses and public access to the cultural

approved for Section 19 status by the Finance Act. This incentive certified the

building to be of architectural merit, enabling the owner to offset the cost of

restoration and maintenance of its fabric

long-term objectives such as appropriate heritage are stipulated for the benefit of

the structure.

bility, provided public access was allowed for 60 days each year.

5.4 Other Considerations; Sustainability, Universal Access

Once stabilised with the internal walls tied

An objective of this project is to demon-

junctions, the façade and rear of building

guide strategic regeneration of core city

on an annual basis against their tax lia-

to external walls to ensure bonding at the

Conserving for the Future

strate how conservation initiatives can

Built to Last —The Sustainable Reuse of Buildings and Lower Rathmines Road—Conservation and Urban Regeneration Study. 63


tended to diminish over time. Various

inventories have also been commis-

exempt from the prescriptive measures

of building control standards. However

Key challenges for regeneration are the

practical measures of upgrading and

sioned but these also lose resonance, as

while buildings may be exempt, there is a

converting historic buildings for use for

planning and development system.

ments to conform as much as possible

Low-impact alternative technologies can

they do not remain dynamic within the

From the outset, it was the intention of this

project to build on work completed that

requirement to make appropriate adjust-

to the technical guidance. A holistic

approach is required in the development

of strategies which encompass the latest

informed or guided an approach to the

thinking on access upgrades, fire im--

City Council’s publication Built to Last—

Furthermore, these issues need to be

(2004) made a persuasive argument for

or archaeological significance and pro-

conservation of heritage buildings. Dublin

The Sustainable Reuse of Buildings

contemporary living and working units.

be part of the conservation strategy for

these buildings and would be desirable to making them attractive. The historic

roofs of Aungier Street could allow solar

provements and thermal efficiencies.

and photovoltaic panels to be installed

addressed in the context of architectural

possible without loss of significant roof

and this has been demonstrated to be

fabric or building integrity.

retaining and reusing buildings on the

posals must be measured, well-consid-

paring the process of repair and conser-

on the significance of the site.

re-building of a similar sized unit.

Subdivision of historic structures to mul-

ings of on-going research. A five-year

lenging form of regeneration and re-use

ditional buildings has been put in place

tion and universal access. The develop-

impact of the upgrading works and mon-

basis of their economic benefit by com-

vation versus the demolition, removal and

A subsequent City Council publication

Lower Rathmines Road—Conservation

and Urban Regeneration Study (2005)

examined in detail a stretch of historic

streetscape which formed part of the lin-

ear approach route from the southern

suburbs to the city centre (of which

Aungier Street is a distinctive compo-

ered and should avoid adverse impact

tiple occupancy remains the most chal-

in terms of facilitating fire compartmenta-

ment of the rear portions of building plots

over time has also limited the potential of

many structures to accommodate single

family residences or ‘living over the shop’

and interventions that would restore the

of new community amenity areas in the

addressed public realm issues which

process.

tures such as boundary railings and gar-

This study also highlights the importance street as part of the regeneration

ENERGy EFFICIENCy POTENTIAL FOR

dens. The report examined the layouts of

BUILDINGS ON AUNGIER STREET

which are generally three storeys over

building periods—structures predating

the houses on Lower Rathmines Road, basement, and in various stages of

repair. It then modelled the likely impact

of fire regulations depending on the use

Aungier Street comprises of two distinct 1700, which may have panelled or part-

panelled interiors and early eighteenth-

century structures, comprising plain and

of the structure, the re-configuration of

decorative lime-plaster interiors and clas-

tical unit.

unusual roof forms built perpendicular to

the plans and the subdivision of the ver-

A number of Aungier Street buildings are considered to pre-date 1700 and thus

64

itored the performance of the materials

used to enhance the efficiency of the

extant fabric. The following is a summary

of their key findings, which may inform

Technical conservation repairs consid-

future developments on Aungier Street.

had arisen out of the erosion of key fea-

by Historic Scotland, which looked at the

lary spaces is regarded as worthwhile for

historic streetscape, provided guidance

overall integrity of the terrace, and

monitoring programme on upgraded tra-

our approach in Dublin.

opportunities to share services and ancil-

on primarily external conservation repairs

Trust with Historic Scotland in 2010 pro-

vided an insight into the technical find-

type arrangements. The investigation of

nent). The study recorded the architec-

tural character and significance of the

A workshop convened by Dublin Civic

sical joinery. The earliest structures have the streetscape (where they have not

been replaced with a flat roof) orientated on an east/west axis.

ered to greatly benefit or enhance historic

buildings (but not supported at present

by the Sustainable Energy Authority of

Ireland, SEAI) although normally under-

stood to be best practice conservation

maintenance include: n

Weathering the external envelope

and the removal of water from the

masonry walls including re-pointing,

n

n n

lime renders

Draught-proofing windows while

maintaining appropriate levels of

ventilation

Reuse of shutters and heavy curtains The existence of well functioning

rainwater goods and downpipes,

including French drains and the

removal of build-up of ground to the

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


The Challenge of Adapting to Energy Efficiency Dublin City Sustainable Energy Action Plan 2010-2020

Dublin City became a signatory to the Covenant of Mayors in March 2009, which reinforced the commitment to achieve the principles of best energy policy and to go beyond the EU targets of a 20% reduction in carbon emissions by 2020. A key deliverable as a signatory city to the Covenant of Mayors is the creation of this Sustainable Energy Action Plan, to be reviewed every two years. If all the measures outlined in the Action Plan are put into place, it could have a significant impact on reducing carbon emissions in Dublin City. A huge opportunity lies in residential and commercial buildings, which currently account for 55% of the city’s total greenhouse gas emissions and represent the biggest possible opportunity for CO2 abatement. Even simple measures such as proper insulation of these buildings could save over €37 million each year, in the period up to 2020. While Dublin ranks 21st out of 30 cities in Siemens’ European Green City Index, CODEMA (City of Dublin Energy Management Agency) is hoping that the work of Dublin City Council will help to improve this ranking in the future.

Opportunities for upgrading Buildings as envisaged by CODEMA Residential and commercial buildings account for 55% of total CO2 emissions and represent the biggest possible opportunity for CO2 abatement in Dublin. The per capita emissions for Dublin’s buildings are 5.36 CO2/capita/ yr, which is high compared with other cities in a similar climate. Thus, there is considerable scope for improvement of the energy performance of Dublin’s buildings.

Conserving for the Future

Extra insulation, boiler replacement and CFL light bulbs combined can save 6.5 m tonnes CO2 over the next 12 years, equal to just over 0.5 m tonnes CO2 per year—or about 10% of Dublin’s total emissions. It is relatively inexpensive to include extra insulation and more energy-efficient equipment at the design and construction stage of a building but much more costly to retrofit into existing buildings. For this reason Dublin City Council has, through a variation to the City Development Plan, specified high energy standards in all new residential and commercial building development. The longterm sustainability vision for the city is enshrined for the first time in the current Dublin City Development Plan 2011 2017.

of such BER ratings for a historic buildings is not widely understood or known by owners of such properties. These conservation upgrades may also be considered in Aungier Street where they don’t cause an adverse impact to the historic fabric. As part of the study the restoration of lost roof profiles was examined due to the ideal orientation of the street and the capacity of the roof profiles to accommodate solar or photo voltaic panels as part of their future regeneration / conservation strategy. However having regard to other jurisdictions it would be most beneficial in terms of capital expenditure if Aungier Street was treated as a single ‘entity’ for the installation of new energy efficient measures and technologies as the burden on individual owners wouldn’t encourage upgrading.

This is a key consideration for the ongoing maintenance and potential conservation of the almost 9,000 protected structures which fall under Dublin City Council’s remit. However, no specific guidance or understanding is currently available to owners of historic buildings and the approach thus far has been to exclude them from grant schemes on the basis that they can’t achieve efficient ratings and that there is a conflict with planning legislation for buildings with a protected status. Most owners only have access to energy upgrading information and grants through websites or from contractors providing upgrading products. Sustaining the old with new technologies A case study of a Georgian townhouse modelled originally to an ‘E’ rating under the BER analysis illustrated a structure remodelled with upgrading repair works with minimum impact to the roof and windows to improve its overall performance to produce a minimum B3 rating. It then measured the inclusion of secondary glazing and was potentially capable of achieving a B1 rating. The achievement

65


n

perimeter of historic buildings

The retention and use of chimney-

stacks and fireplaces for ventilation and the on-going regulation of

n

moisture

Re-covering roofs to provide integrity

Advice

Series

publication

Energy

siderable impediment to owners of his-

part of the energy-efficiency message

them to undertake appropriate upgrad-

The introduction of secondary

glazing where it can be achieved

Internal insulation using a clay

repaired façade will perform better and

façade with a leaking downpipe must be

which, unfortunately, is today more

focused on insulation products and other technical building kit and installations.

The message currently being given is

board/fibre board to interior face of

one which does not include the extensive

be reviewed on a ‘case by case’

the most dramatic change in the per-

basis n

The application of a new lime render

n

The installation of secondary glazing,

n

on the upgrading of historic building

stock can be found in the Department’s

cool less rapidly than a badly weathered

external walls – appropriateness to

n

initial steps that are needed must focus

more clearly promoted. Some guidance

of breathable insulation product

Additional enhancement measures:

n

Holistic guidance needs to be provided

for owners of protected structures and the

of an historic building, also needs to be

on good repair. The concept that a well-

without loss of historic fabric

n

their fabric continuously.

be incorporated into the upgrading works

of covering and the inclusion of

250mm insulation, ensuring the use

n

bility so that moisture is regulated from

externally using polystrene balls as part of the matrix

thermal upgrading of shutters where

appropriate

The installation of breathable

insulation to extant cavities behind timber paneled interiors

The installation of floor insulation and attic insulation to a minimum depth of 250mm

Promotion of a holistic

understanding or guidance on approach

Owners of historic or traditionally-constructed buildings need to be aware that

there are several steps to be taken into

account before considering substantial investments and alterations of their properties. Many owners do not fully under-

stand protected structure status, the myriad of building types and forms of

construction, and are not sufficiently aware of the way historic buildings per-

Efficiency in Traditional Buildings but

more building specific advice is a con-

toric buildings, and makes it difficult for ing works.

There is also a need to start to address

buildings as a group or collection to off-

set the substantial capital costs that cur-

rently prohibit individual owners buying

list of maintenance items that may effect

into new technologies. As part of the

formance of a historic building, if under-

this historic street could become a

such as appropriate controls, improved

energy project in the city to show econ-

taken. The range of new technologies

boilers, alternative energy supplies, solar

panels and PV panels, all of which may

Aungier Street study it is suggested that

demonstration area for a community

omy of scale and greater advantage of investment.

Planning and Protected Structures

Owners must consult with the Local Authority prior to commencement of the works if the property is on the Local Authority Record of Protected Structures

(RPS) list or is in an Architectural Conservation Area (ACA). The installation of

any energy efficiency measures is likely to require approval from the Local

Authority and is likely to require specialist knowledge on the part of the con-

tractor involved because of the possible impact of such measures on the char-

acter of the building and the architectural heritage value of the element to be

changed or upgraded.

Similarly, there are certain works that may change the external character of a

conventional property, not on the RPS, to such an extent that approval may

need to be sought from the Local Authority e.g. the installation of external insu-

lation and alteration of the front profile of a property in certain cases. An alter-

ation to glazing and doors could similarly require permission from the relevant Local Authorities.

Further information on the Special Advice and Precautions listed above can be found in the relevant Buyers Guides available at www. seai.ie/betterenergy-

homes

[SEAI, Better Energy Homes scheme Application Guide]

form and their requirement for breatha-

66

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


5.5 Current Redundancy Challenges

An analytical approach is considered

There are examples of new approaches

essential to raise awareness of the issues

making a difference in the city that may

Aungier Street, and is applicable to any

Street. The repair and reuse of vacant

vacant properties which, where wide-

Ireland. It is considered essential for plan-

Wellington Quay has been successfully

the security, character and potential of an

tiatives, and for targeting funding whether

A key objective of this project is to address the issue of undervalued and

spread, have the ability to detract from

facing historic streetscapes such as

street or urban block in any town or city in

ning and informing future policy and ini-

entire area. The review of historic inven-

internationally, nationally or locally.

of decline in Aungier Street properties

Databases such as those produced for

tory data has revealed a significant trend from the 1980s that is on-going today.

Derelict sites, Dangerous Buildings,

Planning Enforcement and Buildings at

It has been demonstrated that small

Risk exist in isolation of each other within

intervention to take place to stem the dete-

lecting of data by various groups does

amounts of funding have allowed timely

rioration or collapse of historic buildings.

However buildings that remain vacant for

long periods will not survive indefinitely.

Dublin City Council. The incremental col-

not allow the importance of the street or its problems to be considered holistically.

shops

on

completed. These buildings had been “What heritage really offers is to be

one of the most potent ways,

alongside landscape, in which people connect themselves to their

past, imbue the present with their

memories and create high quality places that are distinguished one

from another by their history as

much as by any other single factor.

Heritage is a resource for living at all

functional.”

incentivising owners/tenants to have

Conserving for the Future

pop–up

into line rather than encouraging and

projects, the challenge of funding the proapproaches and strategies.

for

levels, from the emotional to the

focus of enforcement for bringing owners

tection of historic buildings requires new

buildings

Too much store is placed on the single

With the current funding deficit for con-

servation and large-scale regeneration

inform a future strategy for Aungier

buildings in good working order and performing to full capacity.

financial, from the spiritual to the ‘Heritage and Beyond’ English

Heritage

67


Table 1 Comparative analysis of key international charters and recommendations 1968

Identified threats

Proposed policy and recommende d strategies

Definitions

General principles

68

1976

1987

2005

Recommendation concerning the preservation of cultural property endangered by public or private works.

Nairobi recommendation concerning the safeguarding and contemporary role of historic areas.

Washington charter for the conservation of historic towns and urban areas.

Vienna memorandum on world heritage and contemporary architecture—Managing the historic urban landscape.

(a) Urban expansion and renewal projects removing structures around scheduled monuments. (b) Dams, highways, bridges cleaning and levelling of land, mining, quarrying, etc.

(a) Newly developed areas that could ruin the environment and character of adjoining historic areas. (b) Disfigurement of historic areas caused by infrastructures, pollution and environmental damage. (c) Speculation that compromises the interests of the community as a whole.

(a) Physical degradation and destruction caused by urban development following industrialisation. (b) Uncontrolled traffic and parking, construction of motorways inside historic towns, natural disasters, pollution and vibration.

Socio-economic changes and growth that would not respect historic cities’ authenticity and intergrity as well as their inherited townscape and landscape.

(a) Enact and maintain legislative measures necessary to ensure the preservation or salvage of endangered cultural properties. (b) Ensure adequate public budgets for such preservation or salvage. (c) Encourage such preservation through favourable tax rates, grants, loans, etc. (d) Entrust responsibility for preservation to appropriate official bodies at national and local levels. (e) Provide advice to the population and develop educational programmes.

(a) Prepare detailed surveys of historic areas and their surroundings including architectural, social, economic, cultural and technical data. (b) Establish appropriate plans and documents defining the areas and items to be protected, standards to be observed, conditions governing new constructions, etc. (c) Draw up priorities for the allocation of public funds. (d) Protection and restoration should be accompanied by social and economic revitalisation policies in order to avoid any break in social fabric.

(a) Conservation plans must address all relevant factors including sociology and economics and should ensure a harmonious relationship between the historic urban area and the town as a whole. (b) New functions and activities should be compatible with the character of the historic area. (c) Special education and training progremmes should be established.

(a) Planning process in historic urban landscapes requires a thorough formulation of opportunities and risk in order to guarantee well-balanced development. (b) Contemporary architecture should be complementary to the values of the historic urban landscape and should not compromise the historic nature of the city. (c) Economic developments should be bound to the goals of long-term heritage preservation.

(a) Immovable: archaeological, historic and scientific sites including groups of traditional structures, historic quarters in urban or rural built-up area and ethnological structures. (b) Movable: (not relevant here).

(a) Historic and architectural areas; group of buildings, structures and open spaces in an urban or rural environment, the cohesion and value of which are recognised from the archaeological, architectural, prehistoric, historic, aesthetic or sociocutural point of view. (b) Environment: Natural or man-made setting which influences the static or dynamic way these areas are perceived or which is directly linked to them in space or social, economic or cultural ties.

Historic urban areas, large and small, including cities, towns and historic centres or quarters together with their natural and man-made environment.

(a) Historic urban landscape goes beyond the notions of historic centres, ensembles, and surroundings to include the broader territorial and landscape context. (b) Composed of characterdefining elements: landuse and patterns, spatial organisation, visual relationships, topography and soils, vegetation and all elements of technical infrastructure.

(a) Preservation of the entire site or structure from the effects of private or public works. (b) Salvage or rescue of the property if the area is to be transformed, including preservation and removal of the property.

(a) Historic areas and their surroundings to be considered in their totality as a coherent whole whose balance and specific nature depend on their composite parts. (b) Elements to be preserved include human activities, buildings, spatial organisation and their surroundings.

(a) Conservation should be an integral part of coherent policies of economic and social development and urban regional planning. (b) Qualities to be preserved include urban patterns, relationships between buildings and open spaces, formal appearance with surrounding setting and functions.

(a) Continuous change acknowledged as part of city’s tradition: response to development dynamics should facilitate changes and growth while respecting inherited townscape and its landscape as well as historic city’s authenticity and integrity. (b) Enhancing quality of life and production efficiency helping to strengthen identity and social cohesion.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


granted permission for demolition as part

are now in place. Dublin City Council has

Aungier Street was conceived as a

proceed. The vacant buildings were not

options through planning policy and con-

many changes through the centuries,

not generating income and seriously

that small funding be sought for a case

of the main entrance of the adjacent

sustainable development within the his-

use were supported and temporary uses

distinctive cultural tourism experience.

of a larger hotel development that did not only falling into poor repair, but also were detracting from the amenity and security hotel. Proposals for their repair and re-

a role to play in encouraging such

planned urban set-piece, and despite the

trol. A recommendation of this study is

enough remains to give a glimpse of how

study to upgrade a group of buildings—

Aungier Street as a living, working, thriv-

toric city which in turn would produce a

targeted

planning

could

revitalise

ing place that showcases the best of

Dublin’s history and heritage.

Recommen d a tion s 1.

Convene a ‘Building in Context’ workshop inviting discussion on the regeneration on Aungier Street at community level

2.

Make recommendations for the addition of further buildings of particular historic and architectural merit on Aungier Street to the Record of Protected Structures and review designation of the area as an Architectural Conservation Area

3.

Devise a research project to develop a set of appropriate solutions for reducing CO2 emissions for typical historic buildings on Aungier Street to inform owners of best practice in conservation

4.

Designate the Aungier Street area as an energy district in the city to be in a position to avail of possible EU funding schemes such as the REFURBAN project

5.

Prepare case studies to show the rehabilitation of historic buildings demonstrating well-considered interventions and modifications that have upgraded them to contemporary living and working standards

6.

Seek funding for a conservation-led project to demonstrate the practical re-use of a historic building with on site retraining of craft skills in traditional building methods (such as the Halland Model)

7.

Prepare a proposal for the conservation and refurbishment of 43 Aungier Street

8.

Work with the owners of 21 Aungier Street to try and find a more appropriate and accessible use for this surviving seventeenth-century building

Conserving for the Future

69


Vacancy and dereliction as seen in Aungier Street today.

70

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 6

Planning for a Modern Street Coordinating strategies for planning, cultural heritage, building conservation and urban design allows our historic buildings the opportunity to play a central role in the future sustainable development of the city. 6.1 Introduction

cation establishments in the immediate

Aungier Street was conceived as a

historic built fabric and fine urban grain

planned urban set-piece. However, the historic significance of the street’s original

form has gradually diminished through

successive centuries of development. In

recent decades, the southern end of the

street has been extensively redeveloped with larger apartment buildings on accumulated plots, many incorporating shops

and own-door office units at street level. The northern end has retained much of

its historic fabric although this has been

affected to varying degrees by trunca-

area. Crucially, much of Aungier Street’s

survives today, representing a remark-

edged that this architectural heritage is

not presented to its best advantage,

there are sections of the street that pro-

street that showcases the best of Dublin’s history and heritage.

The quality and ambience of the street is

There are significant challenges for

fic artery connecting the southern sub-

inherent

building stock that are compatible

location, a vibrant and strong local com-

with their character and architectural

munity (such as that represented by the

Council), a range of community facilities and resources such as the local yMCA

and Carmelite Church, and a dynamic

student population from the Dublin

Institute of Technology (DIT) college, the Dublin Business School, and other edu-

Planning for a Modern Street

needs to be maintained and new

economic uses promoted for older

strengths, including an advantageous

Whitefriar and Aungier Area Community

n

the planning process.

The regeneration of the street within

a constrained economic climate and

addressing long-term vacancy and

dereliction needs to be actively pro-

moted.

The Dublin City Development Plan

n

many

and the strong sense of community

in the area need to be supported in

The street’s remaining historic fabric

Notwithstanding this, Aungier Street conpossess

The authentic character of the street

need to be addressed through the plan-

ning and development process:

to

n

egy for their management.

6.3 Recognising the potential of Aungier Street’s rich heritage

Aungier Street and its environs which

urbs with the city centre.

tinues

pedestrians, access to businesses

community need an integrated strat-

vide a glimpse of how Aungier Street

could be a living, working, thriving city

The conflicting demands of traffic,

and the needs of a substantial local

able link back to the city’s post-medieval

6.2 Planning challenges

also affected by its strategic role as a traf-

n

development. While it must be acknowl-

tion, under-investment, lack of mainte-

nance, site acquisition and speculation.

maintain economic vibrancy and rel-

evance in the wider city context.

n

n

emphasises the opportunities that exist

for Aungier Street to capitalise on its his-

toric fabric by tying it in with Dublin’s his-

toric core. The Record of Protected

importance.

Structures lists 24 protected structures

sustain the street’s rates base and

adjoining streets in the study area.

Maximising the use of buildings will

its economic value to the city.

A greater mix of uses on the street

needs to be encouraged to stimu-

late day and night-time activity and

on the street, with a further six on the Aungier Street is also located within the Zone of Archaeological Interest which

covers most of the historic city centre. The development plan promotes the city’s

71


Vacant units, Aungier Street. archaeological inheritance as a corner-

Street. The Ship Street/Werburgh Street

the east and west include established

includes a number of recorded sites and

adjoining area to the north-west of the

such as those at Mercer House and

rich archaeological and architectural her-

lenge of returning the upper floors of

stone of its heritage policy. The study area monuments linked to the ecclesiastical origins of the area (Whitefriar Abbey),

while elements of the existing built fabric–

such as 9-9A, 10-10A, 20 and 21 Aungier

Street – date to before 1700, giving these

buildings added significance under cur-

rent built heritage legislation and recorded

monument status. Aungier Street is the

only street in Dublin with four upstanding recorded monuments making it of partic-

ular architectural interest.

Framework Plan (2006), devised for the

area, provides a good synopsis of the

itage of this part of the city – a heritage that should be viewed as a resource to attract greater numbers of tourists and

city visitors to this area.

6.4 Maintaining a vibrant local community Aungier Street was originally conceived

City Council-owned housing complexes,

Whitefriar Gardens. However, the chal-

older buildings on the street to residential use has not been resolved. Aungier

Street was designated in the Living Over

the Shop (LOTS) tax incentive scheme which ran until 2006. However, for a vari-

ety of reasons, little investment in above-

shop premises took place. Most of the buildings which currently have a residen-

tial element have been constructed in the last 15 years. The reasons for the limited

These features, and the proximity of the

as a high quality residential street and,

take-up of LOTS on Aungier Street

cal and archaeological significance, such

ture of the street. The 1990s saw the

principles that underpinned the scheme

study site to other areas of major histori-

even today, residential use is a major fea-

as Dublin Castle and the City Walls,

development of a number of large apart-

capital that can be harnessed on Aungier

the street, while the immediate areas to

emphasise the great potential of cultural

72

ment buildings on the southern end of

should be assessed, especially as the

were largely sound and the scheme met

with a degree of success in other parts of

the city (most notably Capel Street and

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Dublin City Development Plan 2011 – 2017 The Dublin City Development Plan is the primary statutory planning document of the city. Aungier Street’s status as a city centre street is firmly recognised by the street’s uniform designation as Z5 zoning. The development plan sets the following objective for such zoning: “To consolidate and facilitate the development of the central area, and to identify, reinforce and strengthen and protect its civic design and character.” The study area in the context of the Dublin City Development Plan illustrates Aungier Street’s Z5 zoning status. The red hatching denotes the

non-statutory Conservation Area designation of Aungier Street and its immediate environs, while a red astrix denotes a building that is included in the Record of Protected Structures. The street is also located wholly within the city centre Zone of Archaeological Interest and contains four standing structures that are on the Register of Historic Monuments. The Z5 zoning objective facilities a broad mix of uses that are conducive to the development of a city centre street, including retail, commercial, residential and services. Furthermore, the Development Plan seeks to support a

vision of Aungier Street as a thriving urban street, with active street frontages that protect its character. While there are no statutory local plans or designations specific to Aungier Street, the street is designated as a Conservation Area - a measure which gives some added protection to areas of particular character and architectural quality although non-statutory. The wider area to the north of Aungier Street includes the statutory Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) incorporating Grafton Street and its environs and the South City Markets area.

Above: A derelict property on Aungier Street. The lack of use ofupper floors is a significant challenge for the street. Right: An Extract from the Dublin City Development Plan showing the extent ofthe study area. Planning for a Modern Street

73


floor, although more in-depth analysis of

this floor space would be required to assess how suited it is to modern resi-

dential use.

Continuing to grow the street’s popula-

tion will have other attendant benefits,

particularly for commercial life on the

street. Further growth will stimulate

demand for additional shops and serv-

ices on Aungier Street and its secondary

streets and address the significant

degree of vacancy found at street level.

6.5 Maintaining a vibrant retail mix As a street of established commercial

Clarendon Hall, a modern apartment building with ground floor shop units on Aungier Street.

character, Aungier Street provides a wide

nearby Camden Street). It would be a

has experienced a population growth of

restaurants to educational and commu-

those factors specific to the street could

adjacent Royal Exchange B (which

worthwhile exercise to consider how

be addressed in the context of future incentive schemes or targeted invest-

ment programmes.

The sizeable resident population of Aungier Street and its environs is a major

advantage for the future of the street.

17.5% since 2006, whilst conversely, the

includes part of the study area) recorded

a decrease of 5.4%.

The potential to consolidate and grow the

population in the study area is evident

given the degree of vacancy above

nity uses. However, there is considerable

scope to improve the quality of the

street’s retail offer and to provide a

greater degree of what is termed ‘comparison shopping’ – shops such as fash-

ion or lifestyle. The street could also accommodate a number of venues which highlight its rich cultural qualities.

ground-floor level on the street. Research

The lively student population could in turn

some 3,000 sq m of floor space remains

ment about the street.

According to the 2011 Census, the elec-

carried out for this study estimates that

includes the Aungier Street study area)

vacant or under-utilised above ground

toral division Royal Exchange A (which

range of uses, from shops, cafes and

reinforce the sense of energy and entice-

Population change 2006 - 2011 Area

% Population change 2006 - 2011

Population 2006

Dublin County

10.6%

1,187,176

1,270,603

Royal Exchange Electoral Division A

17.5%

3,602

4,233

Dublin City

Royal Exchange Electoral Division B

3.8%

-5.4%

506,211

2,020

Population 2001 525,383

1,911

(Source: CSO 2011)

74

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Irish Design Shop on Bowe Lane East. These small independent operators are ideally suited to the older buildings on Aungier Street. One area of concern is the prevalence of

The development of a new dublinbikes station on york Street could be carried out in conjunction with public realm improvements.

standards for buildings change. Room

inactive frontages at street level, particu-

sizes, services, access, fire safety stan-

which can have a deadening effect.

nificant challenges for buildings which

larly along the southern part of the street,

dards and energy efficiency all raise sig-

Measures should be considered to

were conceived long before these factors

there are own-door offices or residential

built heritage as a direct link to our past,

enliven buildings and the areas where uses at street level, such as 1-10

Whitefriars. However, it should be

acknowledged that most of the street

provides a healthy mix of uses and lively frontages.

6.6 Adapting to modern demands and standards Urban life is complex and correspond-

ingly the demands we make on the build-

ings, streets and spaces of our cities are

greater. Centuries-old buildings, such as

many in Aungier Street and surrounding

streets, increasingly struggle to remain useful and relevant as demands and

Planning for a Modern Street

were considered. yet, we also value our

one that imbues our urban centres with

Similarly, small room sizes in upper floors

act as a barrier to providing good quality

apartments, which are now subject to

minimum floor areas, storage space requirements and access arrangements.

Adapting upper floors to new uses often

requires careful design to overcome the

constraints of the buildings while retain-

character and quality. A balance must be

ing their character.

uses and traditional fabric and character.

Many older buildings are not suited to

found between modern demands and

The demands of modern retailing can be seen on the street, where floor space and

multi-tenant occupancy due to their size

or internal arrangement, but it may be

feasible to consider other functions for

delivery access can be limited. The size

these buildings, such as live-work units. It

remains a problem in attracting certain

tected structures pose too many con-

of the average unit on Aungier Street

comparison tenants, particularly wellknown brands and high street retailers,

but is perfectly suited to smaller inde-

pendent retailers and specialist stores that might place lesser demands on their

properties.

remains a common perception that prostraints

to

development

and

are

expensive to maintain. While this may

hold a degree of truth, readapting older

properties to new uses is regularly

proven possible through good design

and imaginative thinking, and there are successful models to demonstrate this.

75


Above left: Shuttered frontages on Aungier Street. Vacancy remains a significant issue for the streets. Above right: Poor quality repairs to the pavement mar the quality of the public realm on the street. The potential for targeted grants or incen-

tives to aid restoration in such cases

should be considered.

6.7 Public transport and pedestrian connectivity As a city-centre location, Aungier Street

is well served by public transport in the

a vital route for buses and cars travelling

6.8 Cluttered Public Realm with a Prevalence of Poorly Maintained Buildings and Shopfronts

Street and the city centre. However, the

Quality in the public realm is a key deter-

However, a key characteristic of Aungier

Street is its role as a major traffic artery

through the city centre. The street forms

from the southern suburbs to Dame

prevalence of traffic on the street has an

minant of our positive view of a street or

adverse effect on other street users.

area. The quality of materials, the com-

hurriedness all negatively impact on the

public spaces and the presentation of

Noise, fumes and the general sense of

fort and attractiveness of pavements and

form of buses and the nearby LUAS ter-

pedestrian’s experience of the street and

green line LUAS service has had a posi-

and relax there.

order to create an inviting place.

The fragmented quality of many of the

Aungier Street has a rich architectural

also noted. It is important, with the size-

backdrop to the street. Whilst many of

minus at St Stephen’s Green West. The tive effect on accessibility to this part of

the city. It is likely that, with careful improvement of the connecting routes to

St Stephen’s Green, businesses on

Aungier Street will continue to benefit from this key infrastructure.

limit the opportunities for people to enjoy

secondary streets off Aungier Street is

able residential population in the area,

buildings and other features on the street

all need to be carefully considered in

heritage which should serve as a fitting the buildings fronting Aungier Street

that these streets reflect this primary func-

remain intact, their full architectural and

Cycle lanes are provided and cycle park-

are provided to St Stephen’s Green and

by ill-conceived interventions such as

dublinbikes stations nearby on Golden

area. Greening these secondary streets

of original features such as timber sash

ing is available on the street. There are

Lane, Exchequer Street and St Stephen’s Green. The potential for a new station

adjacent to Aungier Street on york Street is being actively pursued.

76

tion and that attractive connecting routes

other open spaces and attractions in the

with tree planting and other measures

would be greatly beneficial.

heritage value is masked in many cases

poorly-maintained brickwork or the loss

windows. Some buildings have also lost

their upper floors, which greatly diminishes the coherence of the streetscape.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


The way businesses on the street pres-

ent themselves to the passerby is also of

great importance. While there are a number of very good examples of well-main-

tained shopfronts along Aungier Street,

coherent vision and determined action in

many more fail to reflect the quality and

order to realise its undoubted potential to

Aungier Street is a street that requires a

residential city centre street.

character that this streetscape merits.

develop as a thriving commercial and

Recommen d a tion s 1.

Ensure that planning strategy for Aungier Street is based on an appreciation of its past and that its high quality streetscape is not underestimated as a means of attracting vibrant residential and commercial life. Keep historical information dynamic in the planning process

2.

Establish a stakeholders’ group to become involved with the rejuvenation of Aungier Street and ensure that property, business owners and residents are made aware of the historical significance of the area and its buildings

3.

Develop a local business partnership that can articulate a vision for the street along with other key stakeholders (membership of the Dublin Business Improvement District (BID) could be considered as such a mechanism)

4.

Work to improve the public realm – support building owners in improving their properties by offering guidance on shopfront restoration and design and on building façade repair work to best practice standards

5.

Adopt a coordinated approach from South Great George’s Street and Aungier Street to Camden Street and South Richmond Street (the Camden Corridor) to realise public realm improvement

6.

Devise a strategy to increase pedestrian space to make Aungier Street more inviting and attractive by de-cluttering and widening the footpaths, possibly through ‘build outs’

7.

Employ traffic-calming measures and improvements through road surface treatments to improve the environment for pedestrians and cyclists

8.

Undertake a detailed audit of existing signage, historic shopfrots and street furniture and start the process of coordinating these with the new citywide initiatives on street design

9.

Implement measures to green the urban realm through tree planting, coupled with the installation of street furniture at appropriate ‘plaza-like’ locations

10. Begin the process of designating Aungier Street as a statutory Architectural Conservation Area Planning for a Modern Street

77


Whitefriars Street Church and Priory viewed from Aungier Street.

78

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 7 Place Making

Understanding and revitalising Aungier Street’s public realm is central to making it an attractive place to live, work and visit. 7.1 Aungier Street’s place in Dublin’s public realm

7.2 Aungier Street’s public realm

7.3 Objectives for Aungier Street

The public realm is a vital part of our city

Aungier Street forms part of the main

The Public Realm Strategy has identified

and it is important that we seek to under-

stand it, particularly with an eye to devel-

southern approach to the city from the

public realm improvements under its

Street Framework Study prepared as an

2013-2014. The street is identified as an

oping vision and policy in the future. The

street was part of the Rathmines/ Aungier

Dublin City Public Realm Strategy (Sept

action of the Urban & Villages Renewal

public realm as ‘all the publicly accessi-

the Grafton Street Quarter and the his-

recently adopted Your City, Your Space,

2012) highlights this aim, defining the

ble space between buildings’. It encom-

passes everything from paving, street

furniture, lighting, trees and planting to

shopfronts and building façades.

The quality and ambience of an historic

toric core of the city and has strong phys-

local centre of commercial activity, as a

ical and functional connections with both

of these areas. Although the designation

and identification of ‘character’ areas in the city is important, they can suffer from

directly affects the city’s performance as

focus for surrounding residential com-

munities and as an important public

transport, vehicular and pedestrian route

in and out of the city. The public realm of

the street therefore needs to reflect the

victim of this falling somewhat between

immediate environs. It needs to be robust

Camden

for movement and circulation. Its quality

ment of the urban structure, acting as a

unclear boundary definition and strong

good-quality public realm. As a key ele-

the public realm is a space which allows

important corridor within the inner city

and considered to be an important ele-

functional character. Aungier Street is a

ment of a city’s identity and public life,

‘Dublin Streets’ project for delivery in

Programme 2000 - 2006. It is adjacent to

street such as Aungier Street as a place

to live, shop or visit is reinforced by a

Aungier Street as appropriate for further

suburbs of Rathmines and Rathgar. The

Street

and

South

Great

George’s Street while undoubtedly having a very distinct character of its own.

various functions of the street and its enough to accommodate the demands

of heavy traffic, attractive and welcoming to boost commercial and retail activity,

and provide amenity space for the many

As previously described, Aungier Street

people who use the street.

Aungier Estate when it was laid out in

Designing public space to meet these

Strategy calls for the uniqueness of

widest street in the city at that time and,

lenging.

acter to be acknowledged. Its guiding

laneways of the day, made a significant

a whole.

The vision set out in the Public Realm Dublin’s great spaces and historic char-

design principles include protecting and enhancing the city’s distinctive and his-

toric public realm. It also concludes that

we must develop research on users’

needs, historic context and best practice.

Place Making

was the principal thoroughfare of the

1661. At just over 60 feet it was the

when compared with the medieval

impact which is still apparent today.

often conflicting demands can be chalFour

specific

design

approaches are suggested for Aungier Street and its immediate environs.

Improving and maintaining a quality pub-

OBJECTIVE 1: CREATING AN

wider efforts to revitalize the area.

The impressive width of Aungier Street is

lic realm on Aungier Street is central to

ANIMATED CITy CENTRE STREET

unrivalled in a part of the city which still

79


has many lanes of medieval proportions.

The street is lined, for the most part, by handsome, well-crafted building façades

which are one of the street’s strongest physical characteristics. The advanta-

geous north-south orientation brightens

Trees and other planting can be highly

urban grain. Ongoing demolition and

effective in creating an attractive and

reconstruction, however, and the widen-

hard surfaces, provide protection from

accommodate a busy traffic route have

inviting streetscape. Street trees soften

the elements in all seasons, absorb CO2,

filter air and light and add beauty to

ing of the junction with Cuffe Street to produced an unresolved urban space,

with a visual lack of purpose.

these façades and creates opportunities

streets. In some areas, street trees or

ing the street and attracting leisure and

defining sheltered spaces, and con-

of Technology College, formed by the

for sitting, eating, visiting or just taking

Peter Row and Bishop Street, presents

for outdoor seating and café life, animat-

business activity.

Aungier Street is generally well served

with good quality, wide pavements. The use of concrete flags on the street, offset

with Wicklow granite kerb stones, pro-

vides a simple but functional surface. The

planting can have a major impact in

tribute to an environment which is inviting

time out. There are, however, few trees on

Aungier Street while the width of the

junctions of Aungier Street, Digges Lane,

interesting challenges. Activity generated

by students from the various educational

pavement would appear to lend itself well

facilities in the locality brings a bustling

would be greatly enhanced by introduc-

The entrance area to the college, in par-

to trees and other planting. The street

street is well lit with good quality heritage-

ing formally planted street trees with nar-

and other street furniture, such as bol-

restrictions imposed by services would

style lamps. The provision of signage

The space in front of the Dublin Institute

row canopies in the footpath, if the

and vibrant air to this part of the street. ticular, is a natural gathering space which

spills over onto the adjacent footpaths. Historically, this area was an identified

lards and bins, is reasonably restrained

permit this. Trees planted symmetrically

market place and it seems fitting to

It is important that a good quality envi-

highly effective and aesthetically pleas-

ern civic space in this location. With care-

foundation for further improvements.

would create structure and order in an

and does not overly clutter the street.

ronment is maintained on the street as a Utility works need to be carefully monitored to ensure that pavements are prop-

erly reinstated on completion. It is

suggested that the streetlamps be

along both sides of the street would be

ing. Pruning and sculpting tree canopies

urban setting. Generous tree pits would

need to be provided to ensure healthy

trees. Decorative tree guards and grilles

would reinforce the urban qualities of the

repainted in a darker colour to give them

street.

smaller complementary lighting stan-

Other ‘greening’ measures to enhance

added presence in the street, while dards would enhance the character of

incidental spaces and smaller secondary streets and lanes leading from Aungier

Street.

the street should also be considered,

such as introducing planters or baskets

to lamp standards for added colour.

Businesses could also play their part by

incorporating floral displays into their

reflect this former use by creating a modful design, what currently functions as a

complicated junction could be reconfig-

ured to provide an attractive forecourt

area to the college taking advantage of

the southerly aspect of the space which

could also be linked to the green area on

the east side of Redmond’s Hill. While it

is envisaged that traffic will continue to

pass through the space, careful design and use of different surface treatments

could help create an impression of a

more pedestrian friendly shared space.

The Redmond’s Hill section of the street

While there are few opportunities for cre-

shop frontages or by placing planters

Street, many food outlets and cafes have

entrances.

front of their buildings to create outdoor

OBJECTIVE 2: REMAKING PUBLIC

43 Aungier Street, the prominent building

although a tendency to inappropriately

ON AUNGIER STREET

Upper. This building, a former public

ating formal public space on Aungier

made use of the pavement space to the dining areas. This is to be welcomed,

with decorative shrubs at their shop

SPACE – CREATING A CIVIC SPACE

offers a visual draw into Aungier Street

when approached from the south, lead-

ing into the historic core of the city. The

street is book-ended on the east side by

that forms the corner with Digges Street

enclose these spaces with poor-quality

Aungier Street forms a vital part of the

house, is currently derelict. Its restoration

Usually the simpler design approaches

ern suburb—Redmond’s Hill marks the

add significantly to the street and the

materials can detract from the street.

are the most effective.

80

great approach to the city from the south-

commencement of the street. Historically, the streetscape here had a much finer

and return to use is a priority and would

development of a civic space at this location.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Top left: Unsatisfactory open space outside DIT College, and top right, on Redmond’s Hill. Bottom left: Dublin City Council’s 2012 Public Realm Strattegy. Bottom right: Public realm improvement proposal for Redmond’s Hill, (Urban Projects, 2004) OBJECTIVE 3: MAKING STREETS FOR

and adjoining attractions, such as St

LIVING

Stephen’s Green and Grafton Street to

area is important and the schools, third-

Marsh’s Library to the west.

facilities reflect an established, devel-

york Street is typical of the secondary

social dimension to the area’s character

and urban form diminished through suc-

The residential character of the study

level institutions and range of community oped neighbourhood. This important is however poorly reflected in the streets

surrounding Aungier Street, which can

appear uninviting and over-dominated by car parking and traffic.

the east, and St Patrick’s Cathedral and

Street to St. Stephen’s Green and the South Georgian Quarter.

None of the earlier houses that lined york

Street survive and for much of its length

the street lacks the formal edge that the

streets in the study area, its significance

earlier Georgian houses would have pro-

cessive periods of redevelopment and

force the formality of the street by

street parking. This was once a hand-

riageway, creating a stronger visual con-

meeting the demands of traffic and on-

vided. A simple solution would be to rein-

creating a tree-lined edge to the car-

some street of substantial townhouses

nection to the Green, making it more

nection between Aungier Street and St.

tors and residents.

attractiveness. Street trees and planting,

able residential street with a fashionable

There are many residents on york Street

calming measures would create more

Street is notable and the street continues

located here. The most recent scheme,

Simple improvements to these streets

would enhance their character and

decorative lamp standards and traffic

pleasant links between Aungier Street

Place Making

set out to provide a strong physical con-

Stephen’s Green and linking a fashion-

recreational space. The width of york

to form the primary link from Aungier

inviting for pedestrians and cyclists, visi-

with three public housing complexes

designed by Sean Harrington Architects

81


82

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


for Dublin City Council, is a prize-winning

example of successful, sustainable, pub-

lic housing that has re-created a strong

street edge. Improving the public realm on york Street, through tree planting and ‘greening’ would enhance residents’

experience of their area. Similar opportu-

nities for improvement also exist on other

streets adjoining Aungier Street such as Longford

Street,

Whitefriar

Place,

Whitefriar Street, Digges Street, Mercer

Street and Bow Lane.

OBJECTIVE 4: CONNECTING TO THE

HISTORIC CORE

The area to the west of Aungier Street is rich in history and attracts many visitors

to Dublin. Aungier Street and its adjacent streets could be part of this attraction

with archaeological sites highlighting the

ecclesiastical origins of the area and

buildings dating from the seventeenth

century. Creating animated and attractive

york Street in 1962.

connections to Dublin Castle and the

medieval city will enhance the potential

for business on Aungier Street. St.

Patrick’s Cathedral is the third most vis-

ited building in the city and Dublin Castle

is also a major tourist attraction. A new route from the Castle Gardens to

Stephen’s Street Upper would offer new opportunities for Aungier Street.

7.2 Design principles DESIGN AND PLACE MAKING STRATEGy

The public realm on Aungier Street needs

to be attractive and its design should, in

some ways, reflect the historical layering

that explains the development of the street. Guidance in the form of a design

and place-making strategy based on

clear, simple principles is required. These

principles should be devised to be site

Recent Dublin City Council Housing on york Street.

Place Making

specific and particular attention should

be paid to traffic engineering solutions

83


84

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Left: Street trees and planters can greatly improve the public realm. Right: Historic paving on Stephens Street. residents and visitors can

which can tend to be of standard design

resulting in clutter in restricted spaces. It

is particularly important that barriers to

understand and find their way

pedestrian movement and the principles

n

Public

promotes

n

agement and maintenance. Bearing this

n

of universal access be avoided. The Realm

Strategy

improved quality through design, manin mind, the following principles should

be applied to the design of the public realm of Aungier Street and its environs: n

n

n

n

Diversity: Create a street with variety

gathering point and additional space is

Sustainability: Create a social,

and others who use the street. Creating a

sustainable street for the future

would give opportunity for greater appre-

and choice

economic and environmentally

A space cannot be re-made without

historic context while creating the

following must be considered carefully:

public realm

marking the start of Aungier Street has

been identified as a potential area for

dealing specifically with the elements that

identity of the street and invoke the

in the Aungier Street area. The junction

Adaptability: Create a street that can

adapt to change

Character: Reinforce the distinct

make the space i.e., the buildings, so the

change and traffic calming. It is a natural

needed here for students and residents

pedestrian-dominated space in this area

ciation of the significance of Aungier

Street’s history as well as making the street generally more attractive for

pedestrians and cyclists.

The green space at Redmond’s Hill has

Enclosure: Create a street with

n

Restoration and repair of existing

also been identified as an area for

and attractively defined

n

Management of the spaces in

of york Street and its connection to St

are safe, comfortable, well

n

Attention to design for new

gested, as has the provision of a new

public spaces that are coherently

Quality: Create public spaces that

maintained, welcoming and n

around

do exist for improved traffic management

accessible to everyone

buildings

between

interventions

Movement: Make the street easy to

Addressing vehicular traffic, its impact,

easy to move around in, particularly

importantly, how its management could

get to within the wider area and also for pedestrians

Legibility: Create a street that both

Place Making

improvement and the visual improvement Stephen’s Green has already been sug-

dublinbikes station on york Street. A pro-

posed entrance to the RCSI/St. Stephen’s Green

Car-park,

(Mercer

Street/St.

how it is currently managed and most

Stephens Green) has planning permis-

be improved, is vital to realising the

tion at the york Street and Mercer Street

potential of Aungier Street. Opportunities

sion. This would improve the traffic situa-

junction, allowing access to and from the

85


Aungier Street area: potential for improved links.

existing car park entrance (providing

traffic and increase the footpath widths.

1,200 parking spaces). Upper and Lower

Finally, in order to create a successful

there is potential here to rationalize the

need increased attention. Investment in

Stephens Street are narrow streets and

86

street, the buildings that define the street

quality repairs to buildings and their

facades, coupled with appropriate uses,

has been demonstrated in other areas to benefit all stakeholders.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


View looking south up Aungier Street.

View of space at Redmond’s Hill.

View looking east along york Street from Aungier Street.

Pla c e Ma ki n g

87


7.5 Re-ordering the Street— practical guidelines BUILDINGS AND FAçADES

The Aungier Street Building Inventory

(Appendix A) includes design prompts

or pubs. Historic paving should be pro-

in general could be improved.

identity of the street. It is vulnerable to

Aungier Street should be presented as a

tected as it is a fundamental part of the damage and incremental loss and should

valuable, important resource to be appre-

Historic flags and kerbs survive and

lighting columns should be fitted with

be recorded as part of the street audit.

ciated and enjoyed. The existing public

for properties on the street and general

should be repaired and reinstated in

shopfronts are contained in Section 4.

and accessibility standards in conjunction

street-specific events or to advertise city-

FOOTPATHS (STREET FURNITURE

lenge but is not an insurmountable one.

Day Festival.

A street survey and audit is needed to

Well-placed lighting is a cost effective

recommendations for buildings and

AND ACCESSIBILITy)

identify redundant or unnecessary items

selected areas. Meeting modern transport with maintaining historic paving is a chal-

Potential locations for information points

better appreciated at night. While the

concept of highlighting the hidden archae-

paths also needs to be addressed.

ing, outdoor areas for cafes, restaurants

The new city way-finding signage is

of importance and discrete up-lighting for

doorways would allow the street to be

be allocated for places of rest e.g. seat-

wide initiatives, such as the St. Patricks

already in place in the city but needs to be

use of façade lights to highlight buildings

Footpaths which are wide enough should

or flags which could then be used for

way of upgrading the streetscape. The

of street furniture and signs. The issue of

parking on landings at the rear of foot-

permanent supports for vertical banners

existing lamp standards do not require

upgrading, lighting levels along the street

extended to the Aungier Street area.

and signage have been identified. The ological character of the street to the

passer-by should also be a core priority.

Placemaking; Urban Initiatives for Aungier Street Specific Design Approaches: 1. Create an animated city-centre street 2. Remake public space

3. Make streets for living

4. Connect to the historic core

Design Principles n

n

n

n

n n n n

88

Character: Reinforce the distinct identity of the street. Invoke the historic context while creating the public realm.

Continuity and Enclosure: Create a street with public spaces that are coherently and attractively defined.

A Quality Public Realm: Create public spaces that are safe, comfortable, well maintained, welcoming and accessible to everyone.

Ease of Movement: Make the street easy to get to within the wider area and also easy to move around in, particularly for pedestrians. Legibility: Create a street that both residents and visitors can understand and find their way around. Adaptability: Create a street that can adapt to change. Diversity: Create a street with variety and choice.

Sustainability: Create a social, economic and environmentally sustainable

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


CARRIAGEWAy

7.6 Summary

agement on Aungier Street are believed

Guidance is needed to ensure that his-

Improvements in the area of traffic man-

to be possible in principle. However, a

specific traffic study (initially desk-top)

needs to be carried out as an initial step

to fully assess the existing situation and

explore the possibilities for improvement in the area.

toric Aungier Street is managed in an

safe and clutter-free streets that respect

local distinctiveness and historic charac-

ter while also meeting current legislation

and standards. Your City, Your Space -

integrated way, with a coordinated and

Dublin City Public Realm Strategy (Sept

guidance, supported by effective train-

approach.

multidisciplinary approach. Good quality

ing, interdisciplinary working, and strong

2012) fully supports this integrated

leadership can bring about attractive,

Recommen d a tion s 1.

Initiate recommendations for Aungier Street in line with the City Council‘s recently adopted Public Realm Strategy

2.

Prepare an immediate program of implementation for some of the easily-achieved public realm improvement works suggested such as tree planting and ‘greening’ projects to kick-start the process

3.

Commission a traffic study of the Aungier Street area to report on opportunities to reduce or calm traffic in the adjoining neighbourhood streets. Carry out a trafficmanagement study and devise a traffic and mobility strategy

4.

Devise a design and maintenance statement specifically for Aungier Street that deals with building frontages, footpaths and surfaces, lighting, street furniture and landscaping

5.

Include the public spaces on Aungier Street at Redmond’s Hill and outside the DIT College in the City Council’s city-wide strategy for creating green spaces in the city

6.

Explore the idea of creating a community garden on the large vacant site between Great Longford Street and Upper Stephen Street

Place Making

89


Children at the opening of Digges Street pitches.

90

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 8

Community and Economic Life Aungier Street is vibrant—it has a large resident population, many shops, restaurants and bars and a number of third level institutions and hostels which bring a lively, multicultural dimension to the street. 8.1 Strong city centre community The study area comprises Aungier Street and Redmond’s Hill together with the net-

work of surrounding streets and lanes,

bounded by Mercer Street to the east,

Stephen Street to the north, Whitefriar

when the street was laid out in the seventeenth century. His original plots for

large detached houses were intended to

attract the wealthy upper classes. The

house which survives at 21 Aungier

Street, at one time the townhouse of the Earls of Rosse, is an example. However,

by the early eighteenth century the

there was gunshot damage to the façade

of the Swan Bar at 58 york Street and there are accounts of how the insurgents

were holed up in this prominent corner

which commanded a view towards St. Stephen’s Green.

In the early nineteenth century St Peter’s

Street and Peter Row to the west, and

demand for such houses in this part of

Parish was the largest in Dublin with a

Estate was originally conceived as a self-

ionable, and smaller terraced houses

Today, the sizeable resident population of

professional classes on Aungier Street

advantage for the street, feeding into its

Cuffe Street to the south. The Aungier

contained residential district, complete with its own parish church and a market

space. Today this area still has a sub-

stantial resident population that is sur-

prising to find so close to the city centre. There is a vibrant community with a

church and community centre, a primary

school and a number of third-level institu-

tions which all contribute to an estab-

the city had fallen as it became less fash-

were developed for the merchant and

and the adjoining streets of Stephen

Boater Lane and Cuffe Street.

Aungier Street area, has experienced a

The 1911 Census is invaluable in piecing

The potential to consolidate and grow the

Longford Street, Digges Street, Great

together a social history of the changing

circumstances of the street at the turn of

class community, many of whom live in

dominantly working class, many of whom

House and Whitefriar Gardens. The vari-

Bishop Street, a major employer in the

ous third level institutions and tourist hos-

tels bring a lively, multinational student population to the street that frequents many of its shops, restaurants and bars.

The current social profile is very different to that envisioned by Francis Aungier

Community and Economic Life

economic and community life. The 2011

Census records that the electoral division

the twentieth century. The census reveals

social housing complexes such as Mercer

Aungier Street and its environs is a major

Street, york Street, Whitefriar Street,

lished, developed, stable and multicultural neighbourhood. There is a strong working

population of 16,292 and 1,650 houses.

that the street’s occupants were pre-

Royal Exchange A, which includes the population growth of 17.5% since 2006.

population is evident given the substan-

tial floor space that remains vacant or

underutilised above ground floor on much of Aungier Street. Continuing to

grow the street’s population would have

worked in the Jacob’s Biscuit Factory on

benefits, particularly for commercial life

area from the mid-nineteenth century.

demand for additional shops and serv-

housing which still survives on Cuffe

liction on the street.

1,059 men and 2,085 women in 1913.

There are a number of City Council hous-

The factory also provided some workers

Lane. The factory had a workforce of

Many of the residents probably wit-

nessed the events of the 1916 Rising as

and activity on the street, through

ices, and addressing vacancy and dere-

ing complexes in or adjoining the study

area including Digges Street/ Cuffe Street

91


Early twentieth-century postcard view of Aungier Street.

A similar view in 2011.

92

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Social Life on Aungier Street

I

nformation from street directories suggests that the houses on Aungier Street were occupied by businesses at ground floor from an early date. From the eighteenth century business and residential uses existed side by side on the street. Taking a closer look at the pattern of use and occupancy of one of the earlier buildings, 8 Aungier Street, provides an insight into the character and status of typical residents over a period of time. From 1812, 8 Aungier Street was occupied by James Bennett, a coach manufacturer. It appears that he had land at the rear amalgamated from the rear gardens of 8 with some or all of 9 and took his access via Dawson Court to serve his coachworks. The directories list Bennett as occupying the property until the late 1840s. The next occupier is listed as A. Robinson, a silk and woollen dyer and the house continued to be occupied by various dyers over the next decades. Robinson was in occupation until his death in the 1870s, followed by Richard Eustace, another dyer. In his time a second occupier was listed, Mrs Watson, dress warehouse. In the language of the day a

warehouse was a retail establishment and it is possible that Richard Eustace had his dyeing works on the ground floor while Mrs Watson operated from the upper floors. The valuation records list Emily Robinson as succeeding Abe Robinson, probably being either his widow or daughter, and remaining until 1904. New occupiers are then listed as Richard, James and Thomas Eustace, who operated under the business name of Eustace Brother Dyers. At the same time the valuation records changed the description of the premises from ‘House offices and yard’ to ‘House shop and yard’, increasing the valuation from £35 to £50. The Eustace brothers ran their business as dyers and cleaners from 8 but did not use the premises for dyeing, having a works in Cork Street where this end of the business was carried out. They did not occupy the entire building, and the records also list a Mary McGurk at the property who carried on business as a dressmaker. The street directories list Eustace Brothers at 8 Aungier Street until the late 1930s and they were still listed at the address in the trade

directory in 1940. According to Bill Coyle, his father established his hat shop at 8 Aungier Street in 1925, though the street directories did not acknowledge this for another fifteen years. The valuation records also give 1940 as the date of the change from Eustace brothers to Coyles. Whatever the date of its arrival in 8 Aungier Street, Coyle’s hat shop was based on the ground floor of the building for many years, closing only on the retirement of Bill Coyle in spring 2004. The Coyle family lived in Artane and later in Drumcondra, and did not occupy the upper floors of the shop in Aungier Street. These floors were let to tenants. So, it can be seen that 8 Aungier Street has been in business use for at least two centuries at ground floor level, and at times on the upper floors as well. The valuation records added ‘shop’ to the description of the property in 1904 and it seems likely that this was the date of the installation of the shopfront.

Former merchant houses on Digges Lane in the late nineteenth century. By the mid-nineteenth century much of the area had descended into tenancy driven by the growth of factories and industrial uses in the area.

Community and Economic Life

93


Left: Avalon Hostel. Right: The public library on Kevin Street which is to be refurbished by Dublin City Council.

Flats, Mercer House (a protected struc-

ture), york Street (west end), york Street

There is a popular tourist hostel at Avalon

House at 55 Aungier Street with a popular

There are no secondary schools in the

study area. St. Enda’s School has cre-

(new), Glover’s Court, Whitefriar Gardens

coffee shop at ground floor and a

them comprise 408 social housing units

The yMCA Hostel on Aungier Street is

College of Surgeons (RCSI) on St

While these schemes are generally very

Peter’s Church. The City of Dublin yMCA

adjoin the study area and have a major

and McDonagh House which between in a relatively small geographical area.

Salvation Army Hostel on Longford Street.

constructed on the site of the former St.

settled, it is only since 2011 that the legal

was founded in 1849 and is the second

flats has been in place. It is an initiative

is the city-centre headquarters for the

framework to allow for tenant purchase of

that could prove to be very successful in this area.

Private housing, primarily in apartments

such as Clarendon Hall and Grafton Hall,

exists in several modern blocks on

Aungier Street. Many of these units are situated above shops, echoing the earlier typologies on the street. In older build-

ments generally. In addition, the Dublin

young men between 18 and 25 years old.

established in 1975, is Ireland’s largest

dation and community youth services for

Combined with large student population

in the area it is not surprising that there is such diversity, life, activity and vibrancy in

this part of the city.

The local primary school for the area is St

floor level. However, in older building

Enda’s in Whitefriar Street; a 16 teacher

in some instances, completely derelict.

DEIS Category 1 school (Delivering

94

impact on the street in terms of footfall

organisation which provides accommo-

number of offices and businesses at first

There are three hostels in the study area.

Stephen’s Green. Both these colleges

and activity on the street and accommo-

8.2 Schools and colleges

stock many upper floors are vacant and,

College of Business and with the Royal

oldest yMCA in the world. Aungier Street

ings, there are some examples of small

apartments above shops, as well as a

ated links through sport with both DIT

school currently with 134 pupils. It is a Equality of Opportunity in Schools).

dating and servicing student require-

Business School on Aungier Street,

independent third-level college with over 9,000 students. It provides a compre-

hensive range of full-time undergraduate

and postgraduate courses. Both the DBS

and the RCSI have high numbers of foreign students.

8.3 Community facilities Dublin City Council’s library on Kevin

Street is a quintessentially Dublin library,

built in 1904 by the Carnegie Foundation,

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Left: Whitefriar Street Church entrance. Right: Community activity at Comhairle na nOg, the Carmelite Community Centre.

it has been used by generations of

out the year by many couples who come

izens meet during the week for recre-

many years, it housed a music library—a

watch over them in their lives together.

also includes a gymnasium where vari-

from other branch libraries. Now tagged

The Whitefriar Street Community Centre

martial arts, or use it for other pursuits.

President Mary Mc Aleese and serves the

contemplative centre which can be used

Dubliners from the surrounding area. For

special service that set Kevin Street apart

for refurbishment, this important branch library is to be modernised and regener-

to pray to St Valentine and ask him to

was officially opened in May 1999 by

ation. Another is an art studio. The centre

ous groups play indoor soccer, practice

The top floor has a ‘Quiet Room’ and

ated and will also become a centre for

needs of the local people. The centre

city.

Competition, a wonderful achievement

built with the users of the building in mind

whole. It was developed following a seri-

layout and equipment.

ings adjoining the primary school. The

Dublin

munity to assess the needs of the area

Area works very closely with the

holding data on renewable energy in the

Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church is one

recently won an all-Ireland Pride of Place

for the centre and for the community as a

of the largest in Dublin and attracts great

ous fire in 1995 which destroyed build-

the relics of St Valentine. These were

Carmelites then consulted with the com-

Gregory XVI to an Irish Carmelite priest

and what sort of services and facilities

numbers of visitors because it houses

given as a token of esteem by Pope

called Father Spratt who visited Rome in

1835. On Father Spratt’s death interest in

they could offer tp local people. The new centre has its main entrance onto

for meditation as well as for other treat-

ments and meetings. Everything was and many of the rooms reflect that in their

City

Council’s

Community

Development Section in the South East

Whitefriar Community Centre and the

yMCA youth centre to assist in providing

youth and community services locally.

the relics waned and they were put into

Aungier Street and includes a full-time

They are based in a community facility

shrine were constructed to house them.

door play areas, a ‘coffee dock’ for those

housing scheme, accessed from Mercer

depicts the saint in the red vestments of

passers by, and a range of multi-purpose

hand. Today, the shrine is visited through-

‘Golden Wonders’ room where senior cit-

storage until the 1950s when an altar and

The statue was carved by Irene Broe and a martyr and holding a crocus in his

Community and Economic Life

crèche with trained staff, indoor and out-

developed as part of the new york Street

doing courses, availing of the centre or

Street, and they plan, organise and run

rooms. One of these is known as the

groups, ranging from barbeques and

events locally during the year for all age

picnics to walking tours, festivals and

95


The Irish Design Shop and J. Williams Ltd., a former forge, both in Bow Lane

even cookery classes. Together, the three

centres provide a high quality community

service which is continually evolving and

improving. One of the latest initiatives in

the area is the ‘Strings’ project which

started in December 2011 and is intro-

ducing primary school children to musical theory, practice and performance.

Aungier Street has evolved as a thor-

and robust management these types of

has functioned as a commercial street for

develop a distinctive retail and commer-

oughfare over a period of 300 years and

most of this period. The built fabric of the

cial character.

cases buildings and elements survive

Aungier Street’s potential lies in provid-

street spans this period and in some

that date back to the initial construction

of the street. To manage this significant but fragile built heritage while remaining

dynamic and relevant to modern com-

8.4 Shopping and commercial life and its future on Aungier Street

challenge for the street.

Traditional ‘market’ streets such as

uses and many urban centres in Ireland

Aungier Street face continual pressure to

remain relevant in the modern city. The

most successful commercial streets con-

streets do successfully adapt and

mercial and business needs is a major

Retail is perhaps the most volatile of land

have seen this in recent times. Adapting

to meet modern retailing requirements, such as large regular floor space and

ing a more intimate shopping experience

such as that which is increasingly found

on nearby streets such as South William

Street and Exchequer Street. This can be

done by creating an attractive mix of

smaller specialist shops and boutiques,

complemented by cafes, quality restau-

rants and services for the local commu-

nity. The smaller shop units on the street

would suit specialist stores and the

streetscape’s architectural quality and

charm could be enhanced to attract

tinuously evolve and adapt to meet new

high profile street presence, can often sit

these types of shops.

need to invest in the quality of their

historic streetscapes and the sense of

Aungier Street currently has a varied and

presentation of their businesses in order

cities. The process of change can be dif-

tastes and demands. Successful streets

streetscape, their public realm and the to remain attractive places to visit and enjoy.

96

at odds with the desire to retain quality

place which they offer to our towns and

ficult for traditional streets such as

Aungier Street. However, with clear vision

diverse range of shops and services, par-

ticularly on the northern part of the street. Like the adjoining Wexford and Camden

Streets, Aungier Street attracts the small

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Building Uses on Aungier Street Cafe Restaurant

Barber Shop / Beauty Salon Casino

Charity Shops

Church / Community

12 6 1 4

6

Comparison

7

Educational Facility

3

Dry Cleaners Estate Agent

Funeral Directors Hostels

1 1

1 2

Internet Cafe

1

Medical Clinic

1

Lifestyle Shop

Mobile Phone / Internet

7 2

Public House

7

Shop Convenience

5

Off-Licence Takeaway

Travel Agent Vacant

yMCA

1 2 1

18 1

(2012 data) Above left: Table listing the current building uses on Aunger Street. Above right: Pie chart showing building uses on Aungier Street. Bottom: Pie chart showing floor areas for building uses. specialist retailers, niche market stores

and services such as hair salons and

beauty shops which find the lower rents on the street more attractive than higher

degree of good-quality convenience

shops and specialist food stores. Cafes,

half of floor space. These services are

quite prevalent on the street, benefit from

community and reinforce the important

restaurants and bars, which are already

profile shopping areas in the nearby

both passing business and local custom.

efit from their proximity to the local cus-

BUILDING USES

Grafton Street area, and which also bentomer base.

The residential and student populations

of the street and its immediate environs

are significant. This suggests that the

most sustainable future for Aungier Street

could lie in meeting local needs. The street could accommodate a greater

Community and Economic Life

ices predominate, accounting for almost

The current uses are catalogued in the

Aungier Street Inventory (Appendix A) and are summarized in the table above.

Aungier Street benefits from a broad and

diverse range of uses, reflecting its tradi-

tional market role. Maintaining this healthy balance is vital to the street’s

continued prosperity. At street level, serv-

hugely beneficial to the surrounding local role of Aungier Street as a high street.

However, the percentage given to con-

venience shopping (i.e. food and general

household goods) is quite low and sug-

gests that there is room to develop these types of shops on the street.

It is noticeable that towards the southern

end of the street, where the traditional

buildings have been replaced with mod-

ern apartment buildings, the quality of

97


shop uses diminishes. There are more

mines the appearance of the street and

stores and stationary shops, reflecting

space also has an economic cost

fast food shops, pop-up mobile phone

discourages investment. This vacant

matter

needs

to

be

proactively

addressed, given that prolonged levels

of vacancy create problems of poor

demand from students but generally of

whether through the loss of rent to the

maintenance of buildings and even dere-

the quality and intensity of shops and

rentals, or the loss of commercial rates to

of blighted, unattractive and unwelcom-

mercial uses. Stimulating the greater use

pers and visitors.

street.

The vacant units should be seen as an

poor quality. There is potential to improve services on this part of the street, partic-

ularly if this was boosted by public realm

improvements and perhaps a new public

space in front of the DIT College on Aungier Street.

8.6 Vacancy at ground and upper floors A striking feature of the street is the

degree of vacancy and disuse at upper

floor levels. This manifests itself in the poor maintenance of upper storeys (in

some instances this has led to complete

dereliction) which in turn seriously under-

building owners from apartment or office

the City Council from the potential com-

of upper floors is a key challenge for the

The number of vacant units at street level

is also significant. However, the length of time the units have been vacant is

unknown and the degree of vacancy

should be viewed in the context of the

prevailing economic environment and the numerous units that remain vacant in

liction, which in turn foster an impression

ing streetscapes in the minds of shop-

opportunity to redefine the retail potential

of the street and to attract new uses and

businesses to the area. In this regard,

creating a welcoming environment on the

street, with good quality, well maintained

frontages, an inviting and attractive pub-

lic realm, and clear connecting routes to

surrounding attractions areas such as St

other retail streets in the city. In October

Stephen’s Green, the South City Markets

recorded, representing 19% of the total

important. Stimulating public realm

2011 there were 18 vacant properties

number of properties on the street. This

area and the Castle Quarter, is extremely

improvements could also help to coun-

Before and after images showing how modest improvements to the public realm and the upgrading of building facades could enhance the image of the street.

98

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Based on employment densities, the following uses at ground floor level in currently vacant floor space could create the following employment:

Extrapolated Rates Base (Source: Dublin City Council) Rate source

Rate payable (€) Total

Current rates base

€470,333

Possible additional revenue from vacant ground-floor properties

+ €42,214

Possible additional revenue from restoration of truncated property and restoration of streetscape (50%) 2

+ €55,000

Possible additional revenue from existing vacant floor space above shop floor level (50%) 1

€470,333

+ €41,000

Total possible revenue base for Dublin City Council 3

€608,547

Possible % increment in rates to Dublin City Council

29.4%

Employment Potential Use

Density

Potential Additional Employment

15 sq m/ full time job 5

4.7

19 sq m/ full time job

51.6

Cafe/Restaurant

20 sq m/ full time job

70

Cultural Attractions

36 sq m/full time job

38.9

Retail Comparison (net sqm floor spaces)4 Retail Convenience (net sqm floorspaces)

6

Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Both ground and upper floors are based on a 50% clawback by existing ratepayer arising from 12 month vacancy. Based on existing rateable value. Figures derived from- Employment Densities: A Full Time Guide – English Partnerships & the Regional Development Agencies. Net Comparison retail floor space relates to area of the store which is devoted to the sale of goods, usually 80% of the Gross figure. Whilst English Partnerships study notes this figures to be 20 sq m it states smaller footplates tend to have higher densities of between 10 – 15 sq m. 6. Net Convenience retail floor space relates to the area of the store which is devoted to the sale of goods, usually relates to 70% of the gross figure.

teract the ‘deadening’ effect of inactive

argument emerges for encouraging the

that the level of rates to Dublin City

of the street where own door offices and

and disused upper floors. Based on the

€42,500 per annum. When the potential

street-level frontages at the southern end

residential uses prevail.

return to use of vacant ground floor units

most up-to-date analysis, Aungier Street

and the surrounding streets which form

the study area, currently provide com-

8.7 Economic rationale for regeneration

per annum to Dublin City Council.

When the commercial rates base of

However, when the existing vacant

rons is examined, a strong economic

commercial use (i.e. retail) it is estimated

Aungier Street and its immediate envi-

Community and Economic Life

mercial rates of approximately €469,500

ground floor properties are put back to

Council would rise by approximately of upper floors that are currently vacant and/or in residential use are considered,

this research suggests that some 2,420

sq m remains vacant above ground floor

level on Aungier Street and this excludes

any potential additional floor space that

could be generated from restoring truncated properties to their original height.

99


It is desirable that a significant portion of

development, to consolidate commercial

residential use, as this resident popula-

are in place, such as in the city centre, as

upper floors remain in or be converted to tion in turn supports the businesses and services on the street. However, even if only 50% of the estimated vacant floor space above ground floor level was

realised for commercial use, the potential

growth in Dublin City Council’s rates base

activity where existing municipal services

opposed to green-field areas where

additional expenditure in public utilities

and infrastructure by both the local

authority and the investor is necessary.

mately €92,000 per annum (see table).

8.8 Employment opportunities for the street

environment of the street improves over

The 18 vacant units at ground floor on the

rates improves, adding further growth to

vacant space, and clearly there is a

from Aungier Street would be approxi-

Furthermore, as the social and economic time the potential to increase business Aungier Street’s rates base.

It makes economic sense, and indeed is

a key principle of sustainable urban

street represent some 1,400 sq m of

that significant potential exists to develop

good quality apartments above shops for

future residents as well as additional

commercial uses such as small office or

clean

workshop-based

businesses.

These new residents and commercial

businesses would in turn support serv-

ices on the street further enhancing eco-

nomic and commercial activity and

employment-generation potential.

The potential to grow commercial activ-

ity on the street also justifies investment

in the restoration and rehabilitation of the street’s older properties; indeed the two

strong case to be made to return these

are mutually dependent. It is estimated

realise the street’s full economic, social

provided for mixed-use development

vacant properties to commercial use to

and cultural potential. It is also apparent

that an additional 1,700 sq m could be through the reinstatement of currently

truncated properties. Given Aungier

Street’s location and its extraordinary and

unique historical and cultural signifi-

cance, there is clearly scope to attract

new commercial and cultural uses to the

street which will in turn provide sustainable employment.

It should be noted that these figures are

based on ground-floor use only and do

not take into consideration any additional

employment growth that could be gener-

ated from utilising vacant floorspace

above ground level or through restoring/

redeveloping existing properties in the

area.

So, from both an economic and employ-

ment-generation perspective, the case to maximise the existing building stock on

Aungier Street and to invest in the attrac-

tiveness of the street is apparent.

A key challenge for Aungier Street is to create a sense of the street as a distinc-

The value of presenting good quality shop frontages should be highlighted to property owners and efforts should be made to improve the quality and attractiveness of the public realm to encourage people to linger and relax on the street.

100

tive ‘destination’ in its own right. In this regard, the street has many existing

advantages that can be capitalised on, including the architectural qualities of its

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


streetscape, the street’s advantageous

location and its connectivity to the wider city.

The proximity of the street to the south

retail core around Grafton Street offers a

distinct advantage in that Aungier Street can offer ‘something different’ and

bespoke to the shopper. The competitive

advantage of lower rents and business

rates to would-be tenants should also be

exploited to attract new uses to the street.

Indeed the comparatively lower rent than that of Grafton Street presents an excel-

lent opportunity to promote alternative fashion and cultural uses on the street

that can be an impetus to create a

unique cultural and commercial destina-

tion in the city. The unique character of

the buildings on Aungier Street is ideal for

supporting more innovative and creative

uses which can use historic fabric and

features as the set for their merchandise

or activity.

Successful shopping streets also benefit

from high profile, good quality flagship

stores which serve to ‘anchor’ smaller

shops and services. Currently, Aungier

Street lacks these flagship stores, but the

adjoining South Great Georges Street offers a number of larger retail units

which could serve as anchors to other

retail activity on both streets. It is impor-

tant that the businesses on Aungier

Street recognise that the success of their

street is intrinsically linked to the vibrancy

of the wider area and that its connection to the south city retail district is important.

The nearby South City Markets (George’s

Street Arcade) also provides an excellent

example on how to cluster and develop

small bespoke shop units to create an enticing retail experience.

The high degree of connectivity of the

street to the wider city is also an impor-

tant advantage. Aungier Street lies on

Community and Economic Life

Before and after images showing how modest improvements to the public realm and building facades could greatly improve the image of the street.

101


102

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


one of the primary routes into the city

ate a hectic and noisy atmosphere, limit-

centre from the southern suburbs of

ing the desire to linger, browse and relax.

connections to the street are excellent.

The negative effects of traffic can be mit-

passes through the street can often cre-

lic realm and the introduction of street

Rathmines and Rathgar. Public transport However, the high volume of traffic which

igated through clever design of the pub-

trees and planted buffers. The potential to create more public space should also

be examined, while the residential char-

acter of the surrounding streets should

be recognised and reinforced with

broader pavements and tree planting.

Recommen d a tion s 1.

Identify Aungier Street stakeholders and establish a dedicated project team to plan and drive change, regeneration and vibrancy in Aungier Street and its environs

2.

Set up an arts project with St Enda’s Primary School to encourage local children to look at and learn about their area and design a street poster, jigsaw or logo

3.

Liaise with DIT College on Aungier Street and the Dublin Business School to instigate research projects that explore the marketing of intangible assets such as the significance of place, using Aungier Street as a demonstration model

4.

Promote Dublin City Council’s City Neighbourhoods competition in the local area

5.

Promote community garden projects in Dublin City Council flat complexes in the area

6.

Encourage shops and businesses to theme their window displays to tell the story of the street thereby raising its profile

7.

Encourage local businesses to assist in ‘greening’ the street by means of window boxes or hanging baskets

8.

Engage in community consultation with residents and stakeholders on ideas for improving the public realm

Community and Economic Life

103


Opportunity knocks: historical door detail, No. 9 Aungier Street.

104

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 9

New Opportunities: Cultural Life and Tourism Aungier Street’s unique and significant architecture and attractive streetscape underpin its potential to develop as a cultural tourism destination. 9.1 Introduction Our sense of a place is intrinsically linked

to its culture and history. We visit historic

cities and towns, as much to experience the everyday life and traditions of an area, as to view its architectural monu-

9.2 Cultural significance of Aungier Street today

medieval to classical building construc-

One of the key outcomes of this project is

The examples on Aungier Street have

tion are rare, a finite resource whose ori-

to demonstrate the potential which the historic fabric and cultural and social

makeup of Aungier Street offers to sus-

gins, even now, are not fully understood.

survived by good fortune rather than by

design and are an invaluable legacy pro-

viding a unique sense of place. It is

tain economic and social life on the street

remarkable that they stand today along-

The physical attractiveness of special or

project makes a cogent case for main-

busy commercial twenty-first century city

and international tourists has long been

of the street in order to build economic

ments.

historically significant areas to visitors

and to attract people to the area. This

taining and preserving the historic fabric

recognized. Cultural tourism is a subset

vitality in the area.

the culture of a place and the attributes

The archaeological, architectural, and

of general tourism activity. It focuses on

of its society, such as its art, architecture,

cultural significance of Aungier Street

side later and modern buildings in this

street.

This project recognises the challenge of

funding the repair and conservation of

historic buildings and streetscapes on

Aungier Street in these financially-con-

and its environs manifests itself in many

strained times. However, raising aware-

tends to focus around key cultural insti-

of the area, to the particular urban form

uniqueness of this surviving streetscape

galleries. However, increasingly people

and their relationship to the Castle, to the

the potential of the area to develop as a

activities that make places distinctive and

that focused on the Castle. The crafts-

tance of such an initiative is that it may

cultural tourists spend more money than

can also be seen on the street in its

focused on activities that contribute pos-

struction methods and surviving ele-

shops, cafes and restaurants, or muse-

plasterwork.

traditions or religions that serve to shape

its way of life. In cities, cultural tourism tutions such as museums, theatres and

travel to visit and experience the daily

different. It is now generally agreed that average tourists and that this spending is

itively to local economies, such as small

ums and galleries. Cultural tourism is

therefore an opportunity, a chance to

revitalise a local economy and to rede-

fine how a place looks and feels.

ways. It spans from the monastic origins

and topography of the planned streets

palatial houses erected for the social elite

manship of 300 years of building history unusual building typologies, unique conments

of

decorative

joinery

and

ness of the architectural significance and

invites local stakeholders to reconsider

cultural tourism destination. The impor-

provide the only opportunity to revitalise

and conserve many of these important

buildings by matching new economic

uses to meet the demands of cultural tourism with built-heritage objectives.

On-street survey work carried out for this

The survival of so much of interest on

project, together with information gath-

period of transition from the medieval to

opment of its Public Realm Strategy,

ings which represent the transition from

dirty, rundown and lacking in key uses. A

Aungier Street is significant in marking a

modern city. Seventeenth-century build-

New Opportunities: Cultural Life and Tourism

ered by Dublin City Council for the devel-

reveal a public perception of the street as

105


106

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


A Cultural Strategy for Aungier Street and Environs Places to See

Places which are culturally and architecturally noteworthy but which may not be normally open to the public. Places which form satisfying urban views and perspectives, which may be open, but which can also be admired from without, for example St Patrick’s Cathedral and Leitrim House. This category includes the spatial experience of the streetscape of Aungier Street

Places to Visit

Places which are officially open to visitors and have visitors’ facilities ranging from ecclesiastical sites such as Whitefriar Church and Community Centre, to nearby cultural institutions such as Dublin Castle, Chester Beatty Museum and the National Archives

Places to Rest

Places which provide an opportunity to stop, to absorb, to refresh and to relax, including seating or benches forming part of the public realm

general improvement in the repair and

upgrading of the buildings which define the street is strongly recommended. A

coherent

approach

would

greatly

Opportunities and Attractions

Archaeological sites and remains of St Peters Church dating from C12th, Edward Lovett Pearce’s C18th Theatre, St Stephen’s Leper Hospital (dating from C12th), St Peter’s Church (dating from C17th century with architectural fragments and grave slabs now stored off site) Examples of C17th-century building typologies: 6, 7, 8, 9-9A, 10-10A, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 58 Aungier Street Examples of C18th-century building typologies with some examples of decorative plasterwork in Rococo and Neo–Classical style: 24, 25, 54, 63, 64, 65, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 & 80 Aungier Street 12 Aungier Street (re-built) - the birthplace of the C19th poet Thomas Moore 1916 Rising Connections - the damaged elevation of the Swan Bar on Aungier Street and the site of the former Jacob’s Factory

9.3 Responding to the emergence of experiential tourism

Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church originally dating from the C18th and re-modelled by George Papworth Relic of St Albert, C16th oak statue of Our Lady of Dublin (known as The Black Madonna), Relic of St Valentine Surviving ‘Dutch Billy’ gabled houses at 16 Stephen Street and 31 Aungier Street Leitrim House - home of the eminent C18th architect Nathaniel Clements Industrial Archaeological sites Jacobs Factory, C19th forge on Bow Lane, clothing factory on Longford Street Little, C20th factory on Digges Lane Public Housing Schemes - Mercer House 1929, designed by the City Architect, Horace T. O’Rourke, with Robert Sorley Lawrie

ket. The demographic profile of the over-

seas holidaymakers who visit Ireland’s

built heritage is understood to be young

and energetic, e.g. a mid-30s year-old

improve the ‘experience of the place’ as

Research recently compiled by Fáilte

sightseer and ‘culture vulture’. Fáilte

poor presentation of shopfronts are also

into the changing trends in tourism in

a stronger driver in making Ireland (and

described in Section 4. Vacancy and

identified as detracting from the street. A

Ireland provides an interesting insight Ireland. It confirms the importance and

common or recurring opinion amongst

the potential of conservation of built her-

cultural uses to be provided to enliven

icantly identifies an increased demand

those interviewed was a desire for other the street.

Ireland expects built heritage to become

Dublin) a priority destination. The organ-

isation is now increasingly targeting its

itage to cultural tourism and more signif-

strategies at a market for whom experi-

for experiential tourism in the Irish mar-

sights and culture is a primary driver of

New Opportunities: Cultural Life and Tourism

encing a destination’s most interesting destination selection.

107


108

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


New Opportunities: Cultural Life and Tourism

109


The interior of Whitefriars Church on Aungier Street with its famous statuary and relics of St. Valentine. Case studies in conservation delivered

by the Irish Landmark Trust demonstrate that significant built-heritage sites are

capable of providing distinctive tourist

attractions or destinations as well as sup-

remarkable crafted staircase, demon-

At a larger scale of planning and stake-

strates the capacity to ‘remake’ sections

holder collaboration this project recom-

value and relevance of other surviving

of the Aungier Street building typologies

of historic streetscape, and the continued

seventeenth-century

buildings

on

mends the conservation and promotion

as part of an overall cultural tourism

porting local life, cultural diversity and

Aungier Street.

Trust’s headquarters in Temple Bar, com-

The potential for providing a cultural

stabilise a number of important buildings

house with a rare panelled interior and

been considered as part of this study.

Dublin City Council and the National

economic prosperity. The Irish Landmark prising an early eighteenth century towncruciform roof, demonstrates the concept well. It comprises rental accommo-

dation overhead where visitors can stay in an authentic ‘merchant townhouse’ in the city as a key experience of their holi-

day.

tourism dimension to Aungier Street has

experience. In recent years, significant work has been carried out to rescue and

on Aungier Street with the assistance of

Small to large scale initiatives delivered

Conservation Grant Scheme. Because

the character and architectural quality of

the past two years these conservation

over time can change the perception of

this historic street. Initially the provision of

adequate mapping and the inclusion of

the street in the city’s way-finding signage

this grant scheme has been paused for works have not been fully completed and

alterative funding mechanisms need to

be explored for these buildings. One

system and on tourist trails will serve to

possibility might be the opportunity for

has already left its mark on Aungier Street

and its environs. Building a solid ‘brand’

for a time with organisations such as

Aungier Street, returning the former man-

attractiveness of its streetscape and pub-

known as the ‘Staircase’ because of its

people’s interest in the area.

Similarly the work of the Dublin Civic Trust with the rescue and conservation of 21

sion to use. This significant building, now

110

immediately raise awareness of the street

building owners to vest their properties

for the street, based on the integrity and

Dublin Civic Trust or the Irish Landmark

lic realm will serve to sustain and develop

provide and manage access to some of

Trust to carry out remaining works and

these unique buildings as part of the

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Dublin experience. Innovative funding

ideas are needed, such as the revolving

fund scheme that was previously used by

the Dublin Civic Trust and Dublin City Council. A demonstration project on Aungier Street to educate and show con-

servation repair at first hand, and upskill

construction workers in the area, would

be a great catalyst for the successful

regeneration and improved presentation of the street.

9.4 Maintaining the authenticity of an historic city quarter The authenticity and uniqueness of an area are hugely valuable attributes, and

particularly important to conservation. It is possible using readily available informa-

tion to plot the social history of Aungier Street from the earliest of times. The exist-

ing historic fabric provides a framework

for presenting this history which, if com-

bined with strong community associa-

tions, can enrich our knowledge and understanding of the area. The Whitefriar complex and Carmelite Priory, for exam-

ple, has a long and interesting history,

ment model employed by Francis

Aungier informed other early eighteenth-

century developers in Dublin, such as

and remains the key centre for commu-

Joshua Dawson and Robert Molesworth.

sistent role in the life of Aungier Street.

nineteenth century and insidious effect of

The project has also revealed the rich-

revealed by census records which note

Street, its early origins and the clustering

to Australia for burglary thieving and even

nity focus playing a continuous and con-

ness of the archaeology of Aungier of significant monastic and religious sites

because property owners have been

that several inhabitants were transported

have remained uninformed of the con-

murder. The pattern of use is catalogued

fact that many of the houses on the street

have access to. The development of the Aungier Estate in the late-seventeenth century connects to the political and

social changes in Dublin in this period.

The building typologies and develop-

panelled interiors and decorative ceil-

the Great Famine on the street is

highlighted many sites and finds that the would not be immediately aware of or

eighteenth-century staircases, joinery,

ings. However many buildings on the

in detail in more recent times by the cen-

average resident or visitor to the area

architectural elements such as early

The change in economic prosperity in the

in the area. Disseminating information from archaeological excavations has

still retain important and rare internal

street are in a vulnerable condition

frustrated in their desire to redevelop or siderable significance and potential of this space.

sus records, which bear testimony to the

One of the key objectives of this project

retained shops at ground floor and were

ing against the repair, redevelopment

has been to identify issues that are work-

multi-tenanted above. Many people living

and reuse of buildings on Aungier Street.

Jacob’s factory.

of awareness of potential is fundamental

in the area were employees of the nearby

Through research it has become appar-

The findings are that increasingly a lack

to many of the problems the street faces.

ent that many buildings on Aungier Street

New Opportunities: Cultural Life and Tourism

111


9.5 Aungier Street as a cultural destination Cultural life and tourism offer new oppor-

tunities to Aungier Street. In its own right,

Aungier Street has a distinctive cultural appeal in the form of its fascinating his-

tory which is manifested by the remain-

ing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century built form and street patterns, as well as

the area’s rich archaeological signifi-

cance. Indeed, its archaeological signifi-

cance should tie seamlessly into the rich and vibrant history surrounding both

Dublin Castle and City Walls area.

The proximity of the street to Dublin

Castle and the tourist quarter to the west of the street is a natural advantage. A

map of the immediate study area has

Guided walks on Aungier Street during 2012.

been prepared as an outcome of this

project indicating sites of interest identi-

fied as places ‘to rest, see and visit’, in

the same format as the east-west Cultural

Alignment Dublin project prepared by Dublin City Heritage Office. Access to

Aungier Street is within easy walking distance from Grafton Street, St Stephen’s

Green and Dublin Castle. Connections to

the Dublin Castle could be greatly

improved by reopening an entrance to

the side of Leitrim House on Stephen

Street Upper. Links to other parts of the city could also be improved by installing

a new dublinbikes station on york Street. This area also possesses great potential to develop more contemporary and cos-

mopolitan attractions to appeal to a wider local market and ensure that the area

remains vibrant and attractive. The large

student population in the area emanating from the DIT College and Dublin Business School on Aungier Street, and other institutions in the area, offers a ready audi-

ence for further arts, music and cultural venues on the street with a distinct stu-

dent vibe. This re-enforces the potential

to create a fashionable and bohemian

112

Irish Design Shop on Bow Lane.

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


atmosphere on Aungier Street. At a more

authenticity of this inner city community.

develop links and associations between

It is envisaged that the impact of regen-

School and the colleges and other stake-

able by the number of vacant, derelict

for the local community. The well-consid-

brought back into use and by a visible

contemporary living and working is con-

practical level, there is potential to

institutions such as St Enda’s Primary holders for mutual benefit, for example, by designing a street poster or logo to market the street, or developing a com-

munity garden project to reinforce the

eration on Aungier Street will be measur-

and under-utilised buildings that are

improvement in the overall architectural integrity and appearance of the buildings

on the street. The focus of this project is

to develop sustainable initiatives which

will enhance, not only the visitor experi-

ence, but also add to the ‘sense of place’

ered re-use of the historic buildings for

sidered preferable to setting up desig-

nated museum set pieces.

Recommen d a tion s 1.

Initiate a ‘greening’ the street project—start with tree planting on york Street and planter boxes on Aungier Street

2.

Install a new dublinbikes station on york Street

3.

Improve pedestrian routes and way-finding to adjoining areas and key tourist attractions. Create a new pedestrian link between Dublin Castle and Stephen Street as originally proposed in the Ship Street/ Werburgh Street Framework Plan

4.

Create a brand for Aungier Street and reinforce this by encouraging businesses on the street to work together to reinforce commercial and tourist activity

5.

Build on the walking tours already designed and delivered during Heritage Week and Design Week 2012 to offer a unique product for tourists to experience the architecture and urban history of Aungier Street

6.

Create pop-up museums/exhibitions in different venues on Aungier Street, for example in shop windows or in vacant shop units, to display and celebrate the archaeological history of the area

7.

Frame a plan and proposals to demonstrate how Aungier Street can be actively promoted within the city in terms of its cultural tourism potential

8.

Promote Aungier Street’s important literary connections—for example, Thomas Moore, poet, singer and song writer (1779-1852) who lived at 12 Aungier Street and Charles Robert Maturin, gothic novelist and great-uncle of Oscar Wilde (1782-1824) who was curate of St Peter’s Church and lived on york Street

9.

Promote the work of designers working in the Aungier Street area as part of Pivot Dublin ongoing activities

New Opportunities: Cultural Life and Tourism

113


Dublin City Council Strings Project, St. Enda’s N.S. Whitefriar Street

114

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Section 10 Next Steps

The Aungier Street project is envisaged as a long-term engagement with local residents and the business community who work in the immediate area. The following outcomes are proposed in

order to sustain and develop the project

n

in 2013 and beyond:

n

n

be to review this publication,

following:

carried out within a designated

n

n

Promote Aungier Street’s notable

literary connections – for example,

to make the undervalued valued

at 12 Aungier Street, Charles Robert

Frame a plan and proposals to

demonstrate how Aungier Street can

potential

stock [Dublin Civic Trust and Dublin

n

Thomas Moore, poet, singer and

in terms of its cultural tourism

sustainability for existing building

historic area

opportunity to look at things afresh

be actively promoted within the city

upgrading, accessibility and

VAT rate for conservation works

informed approach to urban

CULTURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL

for new building uses, energy

Next Steps

Embrace a collaborative and

and the ordinary extraordinary.

Host a ‘Building in Context’

considered as well as a possible

new tax incentive scheme or lower

through design initiatives – a chance

SUSTAINING A HISTORIC STREET

proposed initiative]

Halland Model, should be

and improvement works

project. PIVOT Dublin presents an

initiatives that should include the

City Council to partner on this

conservation work, such as the

service to building owners who want

the city - a core objective of this

plan an implementation strategy for

Aungier Street] and explore ideas

Offer a conservation advisory

regeneration in this historic part of

examine its recommendations and

historically sensitive areas [such as

a scheme to up-skill unemployed

construction labour for specialist

to carry out on basic façade repair

in the area

for designing new development in

employment potential of introducing

the historic fabric of their buildings

change, regeneration and vibrancy

workshop to set out a methodology

city. Ideas that emphasise the

potential and protect and maintain

a five-year period to plan and drive

n

of historic streetscapes to cultural

tourism and public perception of the

property holders to maximise the

improvement

The first task of the project team will

based on a recognition of the value

Dublin City Council can assist

implementation programme of

n

practice for protected structures

ways in which authorities such as

this research to a wider audience

with Aungier Street stakeholders for

repair of historic buildings in Aungier

Street to promote best conservation

floors of buildings and proactive

Disseminate the information from

Establish a dedicated project team

tenants to discuss measures that

use of redundant or vacant upper

and put in place an achievable

n

agencies on ways to encourage the

can be employed to make greater

STRATEGIC INITIATIVES n

Engage with building owners and

song writer (1779–1852) who lived

Maturin, gothic novelist and great-

uncle of Oscar Wilde (1782–1824)

who was curate of St Peter’s Church

and lived on york Street, and

George Fitzmaurice (1877–1963)

who in recent years become one of

the most remembered ‘forgotten’

playwrights of modern times

Draft ideas to present to

government and relevant state

115


PIVOT Dublin bid for World Design Capital 2014.

116

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Dublin House—a City Council idea for developing big sites in small pieces. BUILDING DEMONSTRATION PROJECT n

Commission a feasibility study on No. 43 Aungier Street, a historic

landmark building on the corner of

Aungier Street and Digges Lane, to

explore options for its strategic regeneration

n

Explore opportunities for

regeneration of the vacant site on

Redmond’s Hill, such as Dublin

House, a seed project of PIVOT

Dublin, which promotes the idea of

small-scale residential development in inner city areas aimed at people

who want to create family homes in

the city

ENERGy SOLUTIONS FOR HISTORIC BUILDINGS

n

Devise a research project with DIT

Finding a new use for 43 Aungier Street is important for the regneneration of the area. buildings, or groups of buildings, on

Architectural Technology students

and other relevant parties to

develop a set of appropriate solutions for reducing CO2

emissions for typical historic

Next Steps

n

allow it to avail of support such as

Aungier Street

the current European Union

Designate the Aungier Street area

the potential to improve overall

as an energy district in the city to

REFURBAN project and to examine

energy efficiency

117


area that were given during Heritage

Week and Design Week in 2012. A

walking tour map of the area has

been created to accompany these

walks n

Raise awareness about the C17th

Aungier Street house type through publication and preparation of

exhibition material such as that

displayed in the Dublin Civic Trust

headquarters in Castle Street during

Design Week 2012 n

Create a website specifically for the

Aungier Street Project

GREEN SPACES n

Ensure that the public spaces on

Aungier Street at Redmond’s Hill

and outside the DIT College are

included in Dublin City Council’s

city-wide strategy for creating green

spaces in the city Thomas Moore, who lived at 12 Aungier Street. PLACE MAKING AND THE PUBLIC

REALM n

n

Street, which takes into account the recommendations contained in this publication and the public realm

n

n

Ask the City Council Traffic Manage-

history of this part of the city

n

Liaise with DIT Aungier Street to set up a research project in the School

on opportunities to reduce or calm

assets such as the significance of

of the Aungier Street area to report

traffic in the adjoining

neighbourhood streets and to

118

community garden on the large

Street and Upper Stephen Street as a temporary use while the site

remains undeveloped

COMMUNITy AND EDUCATION n

Engage with the local community

through the Carmelite Community

Centre, St Enda’s primary school,

explore ways of marketing intangible

the DIT College, the yMCA and

place, using Aungier Street as a

community team

Dublin City Council’s local

demonstration model n

Explore the idea of creating a

vacant site between Great Longford

date on the historic significance of

of Business and Marketing to

pedestrian space on Aungier Street

n

Publish the research undertaken to

ment Sectionto initiate a traffic study

explore the potential to improve

environmental quality of the area

Aungier Street and the medieval

as tree planting and ‘greening’

Department to consider introducing greening initiatives to enhance the

street logo that could be used for

RAISING PUBLIC AWARENESS

improvement works suggested such projects to start the process

Organise a design competition for a

public realm areas

Group to commission a local public

Ask the City Council’s Parks

street trees on york Street and other

street branding and identification in

Ask the City Council Public Realm realm plan specific to Aungier

n

Continue the very successful guided walking tours of the Aungier Street

n

Organise a community or

neighbourhood event and a schools

project in the area in 2013

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


ARCHAEOLOGy AS A RESOURCE FOR

information in suitable spaces (as

THE STREET

n

Ask the City Archaeologist to

‘witching bottle’ in Beaux Lane

commission a detailed desktop

study of archaeological evidence in

the area to develop a greater

awareness of the Aungier Street and

its past n

initiated with the display of the

Consider measures to bring the

archaeology and early history of the

area to greater public attention by

displaying local finds and

House on Mercer Street) n

n

Promote the successful and popular

walk and map leaflet that has been

devised for the Aungier Street

Ask the City Archaeologist to make

a presentation on the Aungier Street

project at the Friends of Medieval

Dublin Symposium to be held in

May 2013 to encourage greater

public dialogue about the area and

its history

Stephen Street, 1964, Flora Mitchell.

Next Steps

119


york Street, 1964, Flora Mitchell.

120

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Appendix A: Gazetteer of Buildings

Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

1

Corner sited two-bay four-storey over concealed basement red brick building c. 1920, with modern timber shopfront to ground floor; five-bay side elevation fronting onto Stephen Street Lower with similar style shopfront to ground floor; cantered-bay to corner having entrance to ground floor.

2

Terraced two-bay four-storey over concealed basement rendered building c. 1800 with shopfront to ground floor.

3

Terraced two-bay four-storey over concealed basement rendered building c. 1960 with modern shopfront to ground floor.

4

Terraced two-bay, two storey yellow brick building c. 1830] with modern timber shopfront to ground floor; upper floors have been removed.

5

Terraced two-bay two-storey building, c. 1850, with partially remaining original timber shopfront to ground floor shared with 6; first floor reconstructed, c. 1980, with uppermost floor removed; one of a pair of similar buildings with 6.

6

Terraced two-bay three-storey building, c. 1740, with late-nineteenth century timber shopfront to ground floor; alternate quoins to south endwall; moulded stucco window architraves to upper floors.

1

Gazetteer of Buildings

2

3

4

5

6

121


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

7

Date, Type, Composition, etc. Terraced two-bay four-storey red brick building, c. 1998, with a modern shopfront to ground floor; separate door to north provides access to upper floors.

8

294

Terraced two-bay four-storey over concealed basement yellow-brick building, c. 1725; upper floors rebuilt or refaced c. 1900; with nineteenth-century timber shopfront to ground floor; separate entrance to north provides access to upper floors; three-storey brick return to rear; one of three similar buildings with 9 and 10.

9–9a

295 - 296

Terraced four-bay four-storey over concealed basement yellow brick building, c. 1680, upper floors refaced c. 1920; two shopfronts to ground floor; one of pair of similar buildings.

10–10a

297 - 298

Terraced four-bay four-storey over internal basemen, red brick building, c. 1680; upper floors refaced or rebuilt c. 1900; two shopfronts to ground floor; formerly two separate buildings.

12

DU018-020991

13–14

End-of-terrace two-bay four-storey red brick building, c. 1790, possibly earlier; refaced c. 1900; with modern shopfront to ground floor with partially remaining early timber cornice; separate entrance to north provides access to upper floors. Replacement twentieth-century building. Education use.

7

122

Corner-sited two-bay four-storey building reconstructed c. 1963, with three-storey extension to rear and public house at ground floor level. Birthplace of Thomas Moore.

8

9-9a

10-10a

12

13-14

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

15

End-of-terrace two-bay four-storey red brick building, c. 1790, possibly earlier; refaced c. 1900; with modern shopfront to ground floor partially remaining early timber cornice; separate entrance to north provides access to upper floors.

16

Terraced two-bay four-storey red brick building, c. 1930, with modern timber shopfront to ground floor.

17

Terraced three-bay four-storey red brick building of unknown date with shopfront c. 1880 and dormer attic added c. 1995; brick pilasters to both ends surmounted by large stylized brackets extending from ground to first floor; ground floor opening concealed behind hoarding.

18

Terraced three-bay, four-storey building (date unknown), dormer attic inserted c. 1996; modern timber shopfront to ground floor having separate door to north providing access to upper floors; alternate quoins to end-walls to second-floor level; third floor rebuilt or refaced c. 1996.

19

Terraced three-bay three-storey building of seventeenth-century origin, with shopfront to ground floor; third floor removed mid-twentieth century. Formerly joined to no. 20 and was a seven-bay mansion, the largest frontage on Aungier Street.

20

299

15

Gazetteer of Buildings

16

Terraced four-bay three-storey over concealed basement rendered building, c. 1680 with two timber shopfronts to ground floor. (Originally joined to no. 29).

17

18

19

20

123


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

21

300 DU018 -020184

22

301

Terraced four-bay four-storey over concealed basement cementrendered and painted building, c. 1690, with shopfront to ground floor having separate door to north providing access to upper floors; carriage-arch to south porvides access to rear.

23

302

Terraced three-bay four-storey yellow brick building, c. 1720, with two shopfronts to ground floor.

24

303

Terraced two-bay four-storey building, c. 1760, with shopfront to ground floor.

25

304

Terraced three-bay three-storey over basement cement-rendered building, c. 1740, with dormer attic inserted c. 1900; shopfront to ground floor with separate door to south giving access to upper floors.

57 - 58 york Street

21

124

Terraced four-bay, four-storey red brick building c. 1680; with timber shopfront to ground floor; major alteration and refurbishment was carried out on this building by Dublin Civic Trust in 1995. House built by A. King, brass founder and Lord Mayor who made the staircase bausters at Castletown House. Leased to the sculptor John Van Nost, who had a stoneyard here i the eighteenth century.

Landmark corner building of the nineteenth century but incorporating earlier building fabric. High quality joinery in groundfloor public house. Recent façade repair work.

22

23

24

25

57–58 york Street

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

26–30 Shelbourne

31

Detached ten-bay five-storey red brick purpose built apartment complex, c. 1990, with cement-rendered channelled ground floor elevation; modern shopfront to ground floor; projecting canopy with separate entrance providing access to upper floors located to main elevation; two-bay side elevation. 305

End-of-terrace two-bay three-storey rendered former townhouse, c. 1730, with shopfront to ground floor; top-floor removed c. 1970; formerly a gable-fronted house. Well preserved interior.

32–37

Grafton Hall

Terraced twelve-bay four-storey red brick building, c. 1990, with multiple retail outlets at ground floor level and apartments on upper levels.

38–39

La Touche Hall

Terraced four-bay four-storey modern red brick building, c. 1990, with retail outlets at ground floor levels and apartments above.

40–42

Three terraced single-bay single-storey commercial units, c. 1990.

26–30

Gazetteer of Buildings

31

32–37

38–39

40–42

125


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

43

306

Date, Type, Composition, etc. Prominent corner-sited two-bay four-storey red brick building, c. 1890, former public front at ground floor. yellow brick plat bands to each floor, good Victorian pub front. Earlier building incorporated on Diggs Street Upper.

45 - 53

Corner-sited thirty-bay three-storey brown brick apartment complex,

Whitefriars)

four-storey building to south.

(Formerly 1 - 10

c. 1988, with three gable-fronted breakfronts and hexagonal

54

307

End-of-terrace three-bay three-storey rendered building, c. 1760, with granite faced shopfront to ground floor, c. 2001, top floor removed c. 1960. High class decorative interior at first floor.

55

308

Formerly the Carmichael School of Medicine, 1879, designed by C.G. Hendersonwith terraacotta work by E. Murray, 2905. Corner-sited twobay two-storey red brick building with attic storey, c. 1880, having a projecting single-storey arcaded terracotta ground floor with canted entrance bay; multi-bay three-storey red brick side elevation fronting onto Whitefriar Place with modern mansard roof added to original threestorey rear block and two-bay gable-fronted breakfront to east having separate entrance to ground floor.

43

126

45–53

54

55

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

56-62 309 & 310 Carmelite Priory DU018-020389 & Church DU018-020164 DU018-020049

Corner-sited fifteen-bay four-storey rendered building, c.1820, with central three-bay breakfront having recessed arched entrance to ground floor with carved brackets supporting projecting three-sided pedimented central bay to first floor; Doric portico with round-headed recessed arched entrance to church at ground floor of No. 56 with entablature surmounted by pedimented bay having central statue case within.

63

311

Terraced two-bay four-storey brick building, seventeenth-century origins, with Victorian shopfront to ground floor; upper floors refaced midtwentieth century. Part of the Whitefriar complex and originally paired with no. 64.

64

312

Terraced two-bay four-storey rendered building, seventeenth-century origins, with early timber shopfront to ground floor; one of the three similar buildings.

65

313

End-of-terrace two-bay four-storey yellow brick building, seventeenthcentury origins, with Victorian shopfront to ground floor. Part of former mansion with no. 66 (demolished).

66 - 67 68 - 70

Replacement twentieth century infill building referencing street parapet line and four-bay fenestration. DU018-020052

56-62

Gazetteer of Buildings

63

Corner-sited six-bay four-storey red brick apartment complex built c. 1990, with side elevation to south fronting onto Great Longford Street.

64

65

66–67

68–70

127


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

71

Corner-sited single-bay single-storey building, remnant of earliest building period on Aungier Street.

72

Terraced two-bay three-storey red brick building with shopfront to ground floor. Rebuilt, but plot survives from earliest phase of Aungier Street development.

73

Terraced two-bay three-storey red brick building, c. 1740, with shopfront to ground floor; third floor removed and refaced c. 1900.

74

Terraced two-bay two-storey rendered building, c. 1770, with shopfront to ground floor; second and third floors removed mid-twentieth century. May contain fabric from an earlier building period.

75

DU018-020089 (former site of St. Peter’s Church)

76

Terraced two-bay three-storey rendered building, c. 1760, with modern shop. One of a pair wth no. 77 and may originally have been one fourbay house.

71

128

Terraced two-bay two-storey rendered building c. 1770, with shopfront to ground floor; second and third floors removed in midtwentieth century. May contain fabric from an earlier building period.

72

73

74–75

76

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Aungier Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

77

315

Terraced two-bay four-storey building, c. 1750 with modern twentieth century shopfront to ground floor. May have been joined with 76.

78

316

Terraced two-bay four-storey building, c. 1750 with modern twentieth century shopfront to ground floor.

79

Terraced single-bay four-storey rendered building, c. 1960, with shopfront to ground floor.

80

317

Terraced two-bay four-storey building, c. 1750, with mid-nineteenth century shopfront to ground floor. May contain fabric from an earlier building period.

81

Four-storey red brick building, c. 1900, with modern shopfront to ground floo. May be refronted building (with no. 82). Interior needs to be examined.

82/20 Stephen Street Upr.

Corner site four-storey red brick building, c. 1900, with modern shopfront. Side elevation to Stephen Street Upper. May be a refronted earlier building.

77

Gazetteer of Buildings

78

79

80

81

82


Stephen Street Lower Building 68 - 74 Leitrim House

RPS / SMR 7825

Date, Type, Composition, etc. Terraced seven-bay four-storey over basement building with red brick to the

upper floors with granite blocks finish to ground floor and possibly limestone to

basement level. 6

Formerly terraced four-bay three-storey brick/rendered building, c. 1980, with

shopfront to ground floor.

13

End-of-terrace two-bay two-storey brick house with shopfront on the ground

floor. The shop stretches over the neighbouring No. 14.

14

Terraced single-bay three-storey red brick building, c. 1890, shopfront to ground

floor, built as a pair with 14A.

15

Terraced three-bay four-storey yellow brick building, c. 1890, with shopfront to

ground floor.

16

Terraced single-storey building, painted brick façade.

68–74 130

6

13

14

15

16

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Stephen Street Lower and Upper Building

RPS / SMR

17

Date, Type, Composition, etc. Terraced two-bay four-storey rendered building with modern timber shopfront on

ground floor.

18

Terraced two-bay four-storey red brick building with shopfront to ground floor.

19

7850

Terraced two-bay four-storey red brick house, c. 1850, with shopfront on ground

floor, door on west to accommodation over; roof indicates an older building of c.

1720. 20/82 Aungier Street

Corner-sited six-bay four-storey red brick building, c. 1900, with modern

shopfront to ground floor; single-bay side elevation fronting onto Stephen Street

Upper. (See 81 Aungier Street). 21 - 22 Upper

Stephen Street

Upper

Two-bay three-storey painted brick building, c. 1840, with two timber

7849

17

Gazetteer of Buildings

shop units, c.1860. Third and fourth floors removed.

18

19

20

22

21–22

131


Whitefriar Place and Great Longford Street Building

RPS / SMR

Date, Type, Composition, etc.

1

8560

Terraced two-bay three-storey over basement purpose-built shop and house, c. 1810, with shop at ground floor and separate door to upper floor. One of a group of three matching buildings.

2

8561

Terraced two-bay three-storey over cellar/basement purpose-built house and shop, c. 1810, shopfront at ground floor level and separate door to upper floors, one of a group of three buildings.

3

8562

End-of-terrace corner site two-bay three-storey over basement yellow brick house, c. 1810 with ground floor shop (now vacant). One of a group of three matching buildings

Arch and DU018-020162 derelict site Great Longford Street

1

132

Large vacant site, includes the remains of brick walls from former building to rear of plot. Steel railings bound site on all sides, with access gained via gate on Great Longford Street. Front elevation brick wall including remains of former door currently blocked up, block and start door surround formerly incorporating a fanlight. Site of eighteenthcentury theatre designed by Sir Edward Lovett Pearce, Surveyor General c. 1730.

2

3

Arch and derelict site

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Appendix B: List of Archaeological Investigations in the Study Area and Immediate Environs AUNGIER STREET

1992:045. 32-37 Aungier St., Dublin

Post-medieval

1993:051. 13-14 Aungier St., Dublin

58-67 Stephen St. Upr., Dublin

Urban post-medieval

2002:0542. 46-50 & 52-57 George’s St.

Sth. Great / 58-67 Stephen St. Upr.,

Urban medieval

Dublin Urban medieval

1993:052. 27-30 Aungier St., Dublin

2006:645. Stephen St. Upr. /Longford

Urban

1993:053. 38-39 Aungier St., Dublin

St. / Aungier St., Dublin

Urban medieval

LONGFORD STREET LITTLE

2000:0270. Longford St. Little, DUBLIN

Urban

2000:0271. Longford St. Little, Dublin

Suburban medieval /urban post-

medieval

2001:391. 2–6 Longford St. Little

/Dawson Court, Dublin

Suburban medieval /urban post-

Urban

STEPHEN STREET LOWER

medieval

1993:054. 68-70 Aungier St., Dublin

Sth. Great /58-67 Stephen St. Lwr.,

WHITEFRIAR STREET

Medieval and post-medieval

Medieval urban

2003:0582. Stephen St. Lwr. (Rear of)

PETER ROW

1995:062. Bow Lane East (rear 15-18

Urban medieval/ post medieval

Dublin

Medieval

2003:0583. Stephen St. Lwr., Dublin

No archaeological significance

1994:052. 27-30 Aungier St., Dublin

Possible urban site

Aungier St.), Dublin

2001:363. DIT, Aungier St. /Peter Row,

Dublin

18th-century graveyard

2005:422. 65-67 Aungier St., Dublin

Urban medieval

2006:645. Stephen St. Upr. /Longford

St. /Aungier St., Dublin Urban medieval

2000:0284. 46-50 & 52-57 George’s St.

Dublin

/Digges Lane, Dublin

Urban medieval/ post medieval

BOW LANE EAST

Viking burials /urban medieval /post-

medieval

2006:622. 41-46 George’s St. Sth. Great

/51-53 Stephen St. Lwr., Dublin Urban

Upr., Dublin

Urban medieval graveyard

2001:381. 46-7 George’s St. Sth. Great /

Appendix B

2004:0577. St. Peter’s Churchyard,

Peter Row, Dublin

Dublin

Upr., Dublin

2000:0287. 1-5 Stephen St. Upr., Dublin

18th-century graveyard

Medieval, post-medieval graveyard

LONGFORD STREET GREAT

Urban

2001:363. DIT, Aungier St. /Peter Row,

2003:534. 46-50, 52-57 George’s St.

Sth. Great /56-67 Stephen St. Lwr.,

STEPHEN STREET UPPER

1999:215. Longford St. Gt. /Stephen St.

1996:118. Whitefriar St., Dublin

1995:062. Bow Lane East (rear 15-18

Aungier St.), Dublin

Medieval

1999:221. Mercer St. /Bow Lane East,

Dublin

Urban

1999:215. Longford St. Gt. / Stephen St.

yORK STREET

Urban

Urban, medieval

2007:488. 17-18 Longford St. Gt.,

2007:510. 25-31 york St., Dublin

Dublin

Urban, environs of medieval church

2006:651. 17-31 york St., Dublin

Urban, industrial

133


DIGGES LANE

1991:041. 31-33 Lwr. Stephen St. /1-3

Digges Lane, Dublin

Possible site of medieval hospital 1992:057. Mercer’s Hospital, Digges

2005:442. Golden Lane, Dublin

Early medieval cemetery, Viking Age,

2001:382. 59-64 George’s St. Sth. Great

(rear of), Dublin

urban medieval and post-medieval

Post-medieval church complex

2008:409. Golden Lane, Dublin

2002:0540. George’s Lane, Dublin

Urban, medieval and post-medieval set-

Well

SHIP STREET GREAT

Sth. Great /58-67 Stephen St. Upr.,

Stephen, Mercer’s Hospital, Digges

Urban medieval

Urban medieval

Medieval church and hospital

1997:162. Osmond House, Ship St.

2003:534. 46-50, 52-57 George’s St.

Lane, Dublin

Medieval ecclesiastical foundation 1992:058. Church & Hospital of St.

Lane, Dublin

1994:060. Digges Lane /Mercer St.,

Dublin

Medieval cultivation and post-medieval suburban dumping

1996:085. Digges Lane, Dublin

tlement remains

1997:161. Ship St. Gt., Dublin

Little / Ship St. Great, Dublin Urban medieval

2001:409. Ship St. Great, Dublin

Urban medieval

2002:0542. 46-50, 52-57 George’s St.

Dublin

Sth. Great /56-67 Stephen St. Lwr.,

Dublin

Viking burials /urban medieval /post-

medieval

2006:622. 41-46 George’s St. Sth. Great

Urban medieval

Urban medieval

2002:0576. Ship St. Great, Dublin

/51-53 Stephen St. Lwr., Dublin

2000:0258. Digges Lane, Dublin

2008:445. Ship St. Great, Dublin

2008:407. George’s Lane, Dublin

Urban

Urban post-medieval

Urban, post-medieval

Urban

2001:376. Digges Lane, Dublin

GEORGES STREET SOUTH GREAT

Find Out More:

Dublin

entries on www.excavations.ie

Medieval /post-medieval

2003:0582. Stephen St. Lwr. (Rear of)

/Digges Lane, Dublin

Urban medieval /post medieval 2005:433. Digges Lane, Dublin

Urban medieval and post-medieval GOLDEN LANE

1992:067. 38 George’s St. Sth. Great,

Urban

1999:204. 64-65 George’s St. Sth.

Great, Dublin

Urban

2000:0283. Castle & Wicklow House,

George’s St. Sth. Great, Dublin

1992:048. Bride St. /Golden Lane,

No archaeological significance

Urban

2000:0284. 46-50, 52-57 George’s St.

Dublin

1996:095. Golden Lane/Ship St., Dublin Urban

2004:0546. Golden Lane /Chancery

Lane, Dublin

Medieval; burials 2004:0547. Golden Lane, Dublin

Early medieval, medieval and postmedieval

134

Use the hyperlinks to visit individual

Sth. Great /58-67 Stephen St. Lwr.,

Dublin

Medieval and post-medieval 2000:0285. 59- 64 George’s St. Sth.

Great (rear of), Dublin

Medieval and post-medieval 2001:381. 46-7 George’s St. Sth. Great

& 58-67 Stephen St. Upr., Dublin Urban post-medieval

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood


Appendix C: Acknowledgements and Select Bibliography Aungier Street – Revitalising a Historic Neighbourhood is a project initiated

and led by Dublin City Architects as an

action of the Dublin City Council Public Realm Strategy.

The work has been researched in

Richard McGloughlin, P J McGrath,

Eoin Madden, Damien Maguire, Grace

Maguire, Brid Maher, Siobhan Maher,

MESH Architects, Colm Murray, Franc

Myles, Carl Raftery, Mark Ritchie.

collaboration with Dublin Civic Trust and

Select Bibliography

support from The Heritage Council.

Books

funded by Dublin City Council with

The following authors, editors and key

advisors are acknowledged for their

dedicated work in the preparation of

Burke, B., A genealogical History of the Dormant, Abenant, Forfeited and

Extinct Peerages of the British Empire,

1866

this publication:

Casey, C. (Ed), Dublin, Buildings of

Dublin City Council:

Clarke, H., Irish Historic Towns Atlas No.

Johnson, City Archaeologist; Oiseen

Couglan, T., Medieval Dublin IV, S.Duffy

Ali Grehan, City Architect; Ruth

Kelly, Senior Executive Architect; Nicola Matthews, Conservation Officer; Owen

O’Doherty, Deputy City Architect and

Printed Publications and Reports

City of Edinburgh Council, Renewable Heritage, a Changeworks Initiative,

2009

Council of Europe, Heritage and Beyond, 2009

Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Advice Series Booklets -

Maintenance (2007); Windows (2007); Brick (2009); Ironwork (2009); Roofs (2010); Energy Efficiency (2010); Access (2011)

Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Government Policy on

Architecture 2009 – 2015

Ireland Series, 2005

Dublin City Council, Ship Street

11, Dublin Part I, to 1610, 2002

Dublin City Council, Dublin City

(ed), 2003

Dublin City Council, Lower Rathmines

Craig, M., Dublin 1660-1860, 1952

Dublin Directory 1738

Werburgh Street Framework Plan, 2004

Development Plan 2011 - 2017

Road Conservation & Urban

Regeneration, 2005

Susan Roundtree, Senior Architect

Henning, B., House of Commons, 1660

Dublin City Council, Built To Last: The

Dublin Civic Trust:

Igoe, V., Dublin Burial Grounds and

Dublin City Council, Your City, Your

Officer; Graham Hickey, Conservation

Lennon, C., Irish Historic Towns Atlas

Geraldine Walsh, Chief Executive

Officer; Stephen Coyne, Planning and Policy Officer and Patrick Nolan,

– 1690

Graveyards, 2001

No. 9, Dublin Part II, 1610 to 1756,

2008

Planning Advisor

McCabe, D., St Stephen’s Green, Dublin

The following people are acknowledged

McCullough, N., Dublin – An Urban

project:

Mitchell, F., Vanishing Dublin, 1966

for support and assistance with the

Kevin Blackwood, Laura Caffrey,

Christine Casey, Laoise Casey, Mary

Conway, Tim Coughlin, Cathal

Crimmins, Lorraine Doyle, Dick

Gleeson, Rob Goodbody, Clare

Grennan, Andy Halpin, Stephen Hickey, Ronan Lynch, Tom McGimpsey,

Appendix C

1660-1875, 2011

History, 2007

Ó Maitiú, S., W & R Jacob Celebrating

150 years of Irish biscuit making, 2001

Pearson, P., The Heart of Dublin, 2000

Usher, R., ‘Domestic architecture, the

old city, and the suburban challenge, c.1660-1700’, in The Eighteenth-

Century Dublin Town House, 2010

Sustainable Reuse of Buildings, 2004

Space, Dublin City Public Realm

Strategy, 2012

Dublin City Council, St Luke’s Conservation Plan,

English Heritage, Building in Context:

New Developments in Historic Areas, 2002

Theses and Journals

Burke, N., ‘an Early Modern Dublin Suburb: The Estate of Francis

Aungier, Earl of Longford’, in Irish

Geography, 1972

Gibney, A., ‘Studies in Eighteenth-

Century Building History’, unpublished

PH D thesis, TCD, 1997

Greene, J. & Clark, G., ‘A Calendar

135


of Plays and Entertainments’, in

The Dublin Stage 1720-1745 Maps

Rocque, J., An Exact Survey of the City and Suburbs of Dublin, 1756

Speed, J., Dublin, 1610

Brooking, C., A Map of the City and

Photographs and Drawings

De Gomme, B., The Citty and Suburbs

Dublin Civic Trust collection

Suburbs of Dublin, 1728

of Dublin, 1673

Insurance Maps of Charles E. Goad

Dublin City Council collection

9 and 9A Aungier Street, structural

analysis and photographs, Mesh

Ltd., 2 manuscript volumes of the

Architects

of Dublin, revised until 1961 (Dublin

Other Sources

central, commercial & industrial areas City Council)

Ordnance Survey (Dublin), 1837, 1847, 1864, 1882, 1890, 1910 & 1943

National Archives, 1901 and 1911

Census Returns

editions

136

Aungier Street Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood



Aungier Street: Revitalising an Historic Neighbourhood