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by Kathy Wolfe “To whom much is given, much will be required.” These words of wisdom were taken to heart by many people who were blessed financially and intellectually. Follow along as Tidbits looks at the contributions of these generous philanthropists. • Marie Curie, winner of two Nobel Prizes and famous for her radium research, refused to take out a patent for her process of making radium, believing its benefits belonged to the world. She stated that scientific work “must be done for itself, for the beauty of science” and for the “benefit of humanity.” • Fellow Nobel Prize winner German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen, who discovered X-rays in 1895, also refused to patent his scientific breakthrough, declining any financial gain from his research. Although he did collect Nobel Prize money in 1901 for his achievement, (the very first Nobel Prize in Physics), Roentgen donated all of it to a German university. He died in poverty. • Similarly, English chemist John Walker, who invented the friction match in 1827, never patented his invention, believing that such an important tool should belong to the public. Walker did make his invention known to the public, and sold books of 50 matches for one shilling each at his Stockton, England pharmacy. …turn the page for more
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1. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE: What is a sheet of printed stamps called? 2. GEOGRAPHY: What is the capital of Canada’s Northwest Territories? 3. ANIMAL KINGDOM: What is a baby bat called? 4. MUSIC: How many holes does the musical instrument called a recorder have? 5. LANGUAGE: What is a lazaretto? 6. ARCHITECTURE: What is adobe made of? 7. MYTHOLOGY: Who was the Greek god of medicine? 8. DISCOVERIES: Who is credited with discovering the air brake? 9. BIRTHSTONES: What is February’s traditional birthstone? 10. MATH: What is the Arabic equivalent of the Roman numeral CMXC?
PHILANTHROPISTS (continued): • The name of Rockefeller is synonymous with wealth, dating back to the 19th century when John D. Rockefeller and his brother founded Standard Oil. John began contributing to the needs of others at age 16 and it became a lifelong habit. After graduating from a Cleveland business school, he went to work in a local shipping firm as a low-level clerk. He diligently saved up to start a produce business, and with the advent of the Civil War, when the demand for his goods skyrocketed, he came out with a small fortune. With the success of Standard Oil, he became America’s first billionaire, retiring at age 58 with $1.5 billion. The University of Chicago was founded with Rockefeller’s $80 million endowment, and New York City’s Rockefeller University was also established with his endowment. His donations to medical research led to the eradication of hookworm and yellow fever. The Philippines and China were recipients of his money to open medical universities, and America’s Johns Hopkins University received substantial donations as well. In all, John Rockefeller bestowed close to $550 million of his fortune on churches, medical foundations, universities, and centers for the arts. • Bill Hewlitt and Dave Packard, founders of the giant computer and electronics company, have donated more than $300 million to Stanford University. Packard funded a children’s hospital with another $40 million and the Monterey, California Aquarium with an additional $40 million. Their business got its start in 1939 with an initial investment of $538. Working from Packard’s garage, the pair came up with an audio oscillator, a device for testing and synchronizing sound equipment. One of their first customers was Walt Disney, who bought eight of the devices for use in the production of his animated classic Fantasia. Today, HewlettPackard has gross sales of about $120 billion annually and has over 330,000 employees.
Chocolate Pecan Applesauce Cake How about an ultra-easy (and tasty) cake you can serve for just about any occasion? A piece of this cake should convince everyone that tasty and healthy can be in the same recipe. 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour Sugar substitute to equal 3/4 cup sugar, suitable for baking 1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder 3 tablespoons chopped pecans 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/2 teaspoon table salt 1 cup unsweetened applesauce 1/2 cup water 1 teaspoon canola oil 1 tablespoon white distilled vinegar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1. Preheat oven to 350 F. Spray a 9-by-9-inch cake pan with butter-flavored cooking spray. 2. In a large bowl, combine flour, sugar substitute, cocoa, pecans, baking soda and salt. Add applesauce, water, oil, vinegar and vanilla extract. Mix gently just to combine. Evenly spread batter into prepared cake pan. 3. Bake for 30 to 35 minutes or until cake tests done in center. Place cake pan on a wire rack and let cool for at least 15 minutes. Makes 8 servings. Good warm or cold.
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1. Is the book of Immanuel in the Old or New Testament or neither? 2. From Psalm 139, where did God “knit me together”? Heaven, Mother’s womb, Before time, Mountain 3. In Hebrews 7:2, who was the “king of righteousness”? Neco, Joash, Melchisedec, Zechariah 4. From Exodus 2, who met his future wife at a well in Midian? Moses, Noah, Isaac, Gideon 5. In Deuteronomy 34, who buried Moses? Servant girls, Shepherd boy, Joshua, God 6. Which city was home to the harlot Rahab? Jericho, Perga, Beersheba, Joppa
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PHILANTHROPISTS (continued): • William K. Kellogg wasn’t just about Corn Flakes! When Kellogg founded the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company in 1906, the cereal he had developed was immediately successful. Within ten years, Kellogg had created a foundation to fund charities throughout southern Michigan. He was devoted to improving education and health care, especially for children. He established hospitals in rural areas and organized public health departments, and founded a school that allowed children with disabilities to learn alongside those without disabilities. In the 1940s, he expanded his charity to Latin America. Frequently heard to say, “Dollars do not create character,” Kellogg donated more than $66 million to worthy causes during his lifetime. • In 1637, 29-year-old John Harvard and his new bride emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony from their native England. They settled in Charlestown, where John was an assistant pastor at a local church and described as “a godly gentleman and a lover of learning.” The following year, the young preacher was stricken with tuberculosis and died. In an oral will spoken to his wife, Harvard bequeathed half of his fortune to a nearby college founded two years earlier. Upon receiving the rather substantial money that Harvard had inherited from his father, mother, and brother, along with Harvard’s extensive 320-volume scholar’s library, the college was renamed after its first major benefactor. Harvard University remains the oldest institution of higher education in the United States.
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1. Only two players in majorleague history have had a season of at least 30 home runs and 50 stolen bases. Name them. 2. How many major-league seasons did Julio Franco play, and did he ever appear in a World Series? 3. Who was the first black quarterback to win the Heisman Trophy? 4. Name the last rookie before Portland’s Damian Lillard in the 2012-13 season to lead the NBA in minutes played for a season. 5. In 2013, Cornell’s Mitch Gillam became the third hockey goalie in NCAA history to score off a direct shot. Name either of the other two to do it. 6. When was the last time before 2014 that a South American country hosted the World Cup for men’s soccer? 7. Who was the only world heavyweight boxing champion not to win a title bout?
PHILANTRHOPISTS (continued): • Oprah Winfrey’s passion is education and she has given away hundreds of millions to educational causes. Born in poverty to a single mother, Winfrey has worked her way up in the media world, becoming a billionaire in the early 2000s. She founded Oprah’s Angel Network in 1998, devoted to charitable causes, an organization that has donated more than $80 million around the world. Sixty schools in 13 countries have been established, along with women’s shelters, youth centers, and scholarships. In 2007, she created the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls, a female boarding school in South Africa, a $40 million endeavor to provide education and leadership opportunities for girls in a country where only 14% of the black population graduates from high school. • Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates has joined forces with fellow billionaire Warren Buffet to form a campaign known as The Giving Pledge. Gates, worth about $72 billion, and Buffet at about $64 billion, have publicly pledged to give away at least 50% of their wealth during their lifetime or upon their death. Gates’ foundation that he established with wife Melinda focuses on health and world development and U.S. education. They’ve given about $28 billion to their foundation. • In 1953, at age 33, New Zealand mountaineer Edmund Hillary became the first to reach the summit of Mt. Everest, along with Tibetan climber Tenzing Norgay, and assisted by several Nepalese Sherpa people. As a token of his gratitude to the Sherpas, Hillary founded the Himalayan Trust, an organization that funded schools, hospitals, and transportation hubs in Nepal.
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• It’s barbecue time, and here’s a fun, festive idea for your next backyard shindig: For each guest, stuff a mason jar with a clean bandana (for a napkin) and a set of silverware. Write the name on the jar with a silver paint pen made to stick to glassware. Cute, functional and a keepsake! Here’s more to get your grilling season started. -- JoAnn • “Bring a distinctive towel to a pool party so that you will know where your towel is. You can make an extra-large towel by sewing two smaller towels together, too.” -- U.A. in New York • “For a really fun take on kebabs, use fruit
Strategic Lawn Mowing Q: I’ve always wanted my lawn to have those neat cross-hatch patterns like the pros do. How do I mow to get those patterns? -- A Reader, via email A: Mowing in a specific pattern isn’t the only way, nor the best way, to get those neat checkerboard stripes. A healthy lawn and proper mowing technique also are important. Neat patterns, or stripes, are made noticeable by bending the grass blades in one direction on one stripe, and another direction on an opposing stripe. Here are a few tips: • Raise your mower blades: Cutting the grass too low to the ground damages the plant, makes it grow unevenly, and leaves it vulnerable to weeds, diseases and pests. It also makes patterns difficult or impossible to create, because the shorter blades don’t bend very far. • Never cut more than one-third of the grass height: Depending on the type of lawn you have, the ideal height may vary -- Bermuda, for example, has an ideal height of about 1 inch, fescue or blue grass should be 2 to 3 inches tall, while St. Augustine should be mowed to a height of 3.5 to 4 inches. Let your grass grow at least one-third higher than its ideal height before mowing. • Never cut wet grass: This one’s a no-brainer, but cutting when dew or rain is still heavy on the grass will prevent a clean cut, damage the grass, cause clumping and keep you from seeing that ideal pattern. • Maintain your mower: Sharp blades are essential for a good cut, along with an engine working efficiently. • Change direction: Once you get that nice pattern on the lawn, the best way to keep it is to change up the way you mow. Every other time, mow in a different pattern. • Ideal pattern: There are a number of striping techniques. Scag, which sells professional mower equipment, has a tutorial with instructions on how to create several patterns (www. scag.com/lawnstriping.html). You’ll need a roller attachment to bend the grass to achieve that professional look. • Overlap properly: Each pass should be overlapped by the next by about 3 inches to make sure you don’t miss a strip. • Don’t worry about the corners ... yet: If the lawn has sharp or difficult corners, skip them until you’ve mowed the pattern you want on the rest of the lawn. Then go back and finish off each corner. The same goes for uneven ground: Skip knolls until the end, then raise the mower blades so you don’t scalp the grass and carefully mow the raised areas.
instead of meat. The kids especially love fruit on a stick. If you have some neat cookie cutters, use them to cut watermelon into different shapes.” -M.M. in Michigan • To keep ants from invading your patio, draw a thick line of chalk (sidewalk chalk works great!) as a boundary. Ants don’t like to cross a chalk line and will leave your patio party alone. • “Set out wasp attracters at the far reaches of your yard so that the wasps will be busy out there and not attacking your guests.” -- T.C. in South Carolina • Use a muffin tin on the table to serve condiments. For larger portions (like lettuce, onion slices, maybe pickle spears), set a cup down in the muffin well.
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“The Bone Season” by Samantha Shannon (Bloomsbury USA, $17) Reviewed by Ealish Waddell Under the regime of Scion, having any psychic ability at all is a crime, but having a rare dreamwalking talent like Paige’s means an even bigger target on your back. Paige scratches out a dangerous living reporting on others for her underworld boss, but after she accidentally kills a Scion guard, that precarious protection is shattered. She is captured and taken away -- but instead of the execution she expects, she finds herself in a secret prison at the heart of a centuries-old conspiracy. It turns out there is an even greater power behind Scion, a godlike race called the Rephaim that wants not to
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destroy the voyants’ powers, but to control them for their own dark purposes. The penal colony is a hole of brutality and despair, where beasts lurk beyond the gates and monsters just as frightening hold the keys. Paige tries to look out for her fellow inmates while avoiding the attention of the cruel Rephaites, especially their vicious leader, who wants Paige’s ability for her own, and her inscrutable guardian, whose own motives are dangerously unclear. But Paige is a survivor, which is the power she’ll need most as she tries to get a handle on what exactly she is capable of and how far she is willing to go for her freedom. “The Bone Season” takes place in an alternate timeline that uses a dash of the supernatural to rearrange history into a completely unpredictable future. The story starts weird and just keeps getting weirder, and it requires some patience on the part of the reader to suss out how this world works. The author claims this is the first in a planned seven-book series, so there may be a ways to go before all secrets are revealed. But the questions are intriguing enough to suggest that the answers are worth waiting for.
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INTRODUCING.... Toby Tidbits Hi friends! My name is Toby and I’d like to play a fun game. Through out this paper I’m hiding out in different ads. I can be ANY SIZE and ONLY in ads presented in Tidbits. This image of me DOES NOT COUNT We will play this game every week and the person who submits their entry with the right locations I’m hiding in will win a gift card valued at $25 OR MORE, and that person could be YOU! Am I hiding in 3 places.....or 5??? Submit your email entry by Sunday night to: email@example.com for your chance to win!
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Toby was spotted in Issue 6 at; Cantu’s Steakhouse “D” Best Taper Barber Double A Feeds Western Plains Business Solutions
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Tidbits of Scottsbluff, Morrill, Box Butte & Goshen Counties • (308) 424-1038 FAMOUS CANADIANS:
Pack a Week’s Worth of Salad-In-a-Jar Food is a real and delicious way for people to share themselves and engage with each other and a greater cause, as my neighbor, Emily Torgrimson, has found. She is co-founder and executive director of Eat for Equity, a nonprofit that builds a culture of generosity through sustainable community feasts (eatforequity.org). By inviting people to gather to eat and give what they can, the organization raises thousands of dollars for local and international nonprofit causes. Emily’s creative approach to cooking features flavorful and simple recipes for busy families and her own household, developed by cooking for hundreds of people in home kitchens. No wonder I was eager to join her on a recent Sunday afternoon to prepare a week’s worth of “salad-in-a-jar.” Improvising with the resources at hand, she scanned the refrigerator for the forgotten carrot, leftover black beans and other fresh odds and ends of inspiration. She lined up a row of sparkling pint and quart size canning jars and together, we packed them to the brim. The carrot went into an Asian salad with sesame dressing, tofu, oranges, spring onions and spinach. The beans became a Southwestern salad with roasted poblano dressing, corn, tomatoes, cilantro and greens. The result was a rainbow shelf of grab-and-go meals. Make salad-in-jar with your kids for healthy portable lunches, or use a large quart-size jar for a last-minute complement to an evening meal. Gather the ingredients and get layering. You’ll have salads for the week, with only a meal’s worth of clean-up and dishes. SALAD-IN-A-JAR BASICS For one salad, use a wide-mouth pint-size jar such as a canning jar with tight-fitting lid. Here’s the hands-on fun: 1. Pour 1-2 tablespoons of salad dressing into the bottom of the jar. 2. Layer small handfuls of your favorite raw vegetables such as grated carrots, chopped celery, sweet peppers, scallions and cucumbers on top of the dressing. 3. Add softer ingredients such as cubed tofu, pasta, grains, grated cheese, beans, cooked vegetables, tomatoes, citrus, berries and dried fruit. 4. Pack the remaining space with salad greens or spinach. Screw the lid on and refrigerate upright for up to 5 days. 5. To serve, shake the salad into a bowl. Add croutons and nuts, if you wish. NOTE: If you desire a salad with meat, fish or hardboiled eggs, add it to the jar the same day you eat the salad. ***
Toronto-born Howie Mandel has made his mark in several different media, from comedy to cartoons to drama. Take a look at the areas where this famous Canadian has had an influence. • Surprisingly, the likeable Mandel had few friends as a young person. He had a razor-sharp sense of humor in high school and especially enjoyed playing practical jokes, but others failed to see the humor. In fact, he was expelled for impersonating a member of the school board and signing a contract for an addition to the school. After this infamous prank, Mandel never finished high school. One excellent outcome from these years was meeting his future wife, Terry, to whom he has been married 30 years, with three children. • Out on his own after his expulsion, Mandel became a carpet salesman and was so successful, he owned his own carpet business. In his spare time, he did stand-up comedy at a small Toronto comedy club. • In 1979, Mandel got his big break during a trip to Los Angeles with friends. During amateur night at L.A.’s famous Comedy Store, his pals convinced him to get up on stage. A producer who happened to be in the crowd hired him immediately and before long, Mandel was opening for Diana Ross. In 1982, he landed the role of Dr. Wayne Fiscus on television’s Emmy Award-winning medical drama St. Elsewhere, a six-year-run. • In 1990, Mandel created the children’s animated series Bobby’s World, an Emmy-nominated program that ran for 8 years. The series then went into syndication and now appears in 65 countries six days a week. Mandel tried his hand at hosting a talk show in 1998, but it was cancelled after just one season.
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308-262-1458 esophagus), also might be a cause. The booklet on heartburn explains reflux disease. Readers can obtain a copy by writing: Dr. Roach -- No. 501W, Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475. Enclose a check or money order (no cash) for $4.75 U.S./$6 Canada with the recipient’s printed name and address. Please allow four weeks for delivery. By Paul G. Donohue, M.D. *** DEAR DR. ROACH: I am an 85-year-old woman living in a nursing facility. A little before my arrival here, I began experiencing night sweats. I have seen my doctor regarding this, and he said he cannot help me. I feel weak when I wake in the morning, and I need to constantly DEAR DR. ROACH: I have a strange question to ask change the towels I put under myself. This is a big and hope you can answer it in your newspaper article. concern. -- A.M. Every time I stand up from being in bed, I get hiccups that last about a minute or so (at least a dozen hiccups). I ANSWER: I take night sweats seriously. Tuberculosis is was wondering if there is a medical reason for this, or is it the classic cause of night sweats, which is of immense something that is just a fluke that happens to me? -- N.C. concern in a nursing facility, where most people are tested for TB yearly. But other chronic infections, high ANSWER: It’s not just you; I have heard of several cases, thyroid levels and even blood and marrow diseases like and I suspect it’s not that rare. It’s thought to be brought lymphoma can show up with night sweats. Most of the on by a change in position of the stomach, which causes a time, a chest X-ray and blood tests, along with a careful reflex in the diaphragm. Esophageal irritation, especially exam, can make the diagnosis. Other times, it’s harder to from reflux disease (stomach acid going backward into the find. More often, it goes away as mysteriously as it came.
To Your Good Health Getting Out of Bed Leads to Hiccups
But it is worth another look. *** DEAR DR. ROACH: Several months ago, I developed a hernia on my right side, but with no pain. My doctor said I do not need an operation, because there is no pain. Do you agree? I am 74 and in exceptionally good health. ANSWER: A hernia is a weakness or defect in the abdominal wall, through which abdominal structures can pass. Watchful waiting is a reasonable choice for an asymptomatic hernia -- one that causes no symptoms -since only a minority of people with a diagnosed hernia will need surgery due to development of symptoms. The biggest risk is part of the intestine coming through the hernia and becoming stuck, which is called a strangulated hernia, and is a surgical emergency. Since most people do very well with surgical repair, many surgeons recommend surgery even on hernias with no symptoms in order to prevent this complication. How YOU feel about it is the critical issue. If you feel more comfortable getting it fixed now to prevent the chance of future problems, tell him so, and ask to see a surgeon.
Tidbits of Scottsbluff, Morrill, Box Butte & Goshen Counties • (308) 424-1038 •
• On June 7, 1692, a massive earthquake devastates the infamous town of Port Royal in Jamaica, killing thousands. A large tsunami hit soon after, putting half of Port Royal under 40 feet of water. In the 17th century, Port Royal was known throughout the New World as a headquarters for piracy and smuggling. • On June 4, 1754, 22-year-old Lt. Colonel George Washington begins construction of a makeshift Fort Necessity, near present-day Pittsburgh. The fort was built to defend his forces from French soldiers enraged by the murder of Ensign Joseph Coulon de Jumonville while in Washington’s custody. • On June 3, 1800, President John Adams becomes the first acting president to take up residence in Washington, D.C. Unfortunately, the White House was not yet finished, so Adams moved into temporary digs at Tunnicliffe’s City Hotel near the also half-finished Capitol building.
• On June 5, 1922, George Carmack, the first person to discover gold along the Klondike River, dies in Vancouver, British Columbia. In 1896, near the confluence of the Yukon and Klondike River, Carmack stumbled across a deposit of gold so rich that he needed no pan to see it: Thumb-sized pieces of gold lay scattered about the creek bed. • On June 2, 1935, Babe Ruth, one of the greatest players in the history of baseball, ends his Major League playing career after 22 seasons, 10 World Series and 714 home runs. The following year, Ruth was one of the first five players inducted into the sport’s hall of fame • On June 8, 1945, President Harry Truman issues Executive Order 9568, permitting the release of scientific information from previously top-secret World War II documents. Executive Order 9568 was a stepping stone to future transparency-oriented legislation, including the Freedom of Information Act, passed in 1966.
HOWIE MANDEL (continued): Just as Mandel was contemplating quitting show business in 2003, he was offered the job of hosting the game show Deal or No Deal. At his wife’s urging, he took the job, as well as the Canadian version of the program. His job was made especially difficult by his struggles with Obsessive Compulsive disorder and mysophobia, an irrational fear of germs. Mandel did not shake hands with any of the contestants unless he was wearing latex gloves, preferring to do a “fist bump” instead. He has written about his anxiety disorder in his autobiography, Here’s the Deal: Don’t Touch Me, a New York Times bestseller, in which he says at times that his anxiety is “paralyzing.” Mandel admits, “Handrails are my enemy. I never go near a handrail.” He also won’t touch money until it’s been washed, and refuses to wear shoes with laces because of his fear of the germs the laces pick up when they touch the ground. America’s Got Talent found a new judge in Mandel in 2010, when he replaced David Hasselhof on the popular series. He has received an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Reality Competition Host to add to his Deal or No Deal and Bobby’s World nominations. In addition, he does 200 standup performances every year throughout the U.S. and Canada. Mandel has been honored with a star on both the Hollywood Walk of Fame and Canada’s Walk of Fame in Toronto. The famous Israeli-American violinist Itzhak Perlman is a distant cousin of Mandel.
• It was beloved “Peanuts” cartoonist Charles Schulz who made the following sage observation: “Life is like a 10-speed bike. Most of us have gears we never use.” • If you’re like the average American, you will consume 22 pounds of lettuce this year. • You might be surprised to learn that some fish can hibernate. During the long, dark winters, the Antarctic cod will burrow under the seabed and stay there for days at a time, cutting its metabolism by two-thirds. • The name of the state of Wyoming comes from the Algonquian word chwewamink, which translates as “at the big river flat.” • If you pay attention to politics at all, you’ve almost certainly heard the term “gerrymander” used to describe the practice of carving up electoral districts in such a way that one party has an advantage. You probably don’t know, though, how that term entered the lexicon. In 1812, a new district in Essex County, Massachusetts, was created, and a journalist thought the twisting boundaries caused the district to resemble a salamander. A cartoon highlighting the resemblance was created, and because the party that did the redistricting was led by Gov. Elbridge Gerry, the practice was dubbed “gerrymandering.” • Even the world’s best high jumper is unable to stay in the air for more than a single second. • Before he became a comedian and actor, Bob Newhart worked as an accountant at the Illinois State Unemployment Office. • Those who keep track of such things say that Elvis Presley had 18 TVs at Graceland. One of them was installed in the ceiling over his bed.
• On June 6, 1971, after more than two decades of weekly productions, “The Ed Sullivan Show” airs for the final time. The show is now remembered most for providing so many iconic moments in the history of televised rock and roll.
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1. Eric Davis (1987) and Barry Bonds (1990). 2. He played in 23 major-league seasons, with no World Series appearances. 3. Houston’s Andre Ware, in 1989. 4. San Diego’s Elvin Hayes, in the 1968-69 season. 5. Chad Alban of Michigan State (1998) and Mike Mantua of Western Michigan (2002). 6. Argentina hosted it -- and won it -- in 1978. 7. Ken Norton was awarded the WBC title in 1978, then lost it to Larry Holmes later that year.
1. A pane 2. Yellowknife 3. A pup 4. Seven in the front and a thumbhole in the back 5. A place to quarantine people with infectious disease, such as leprosy 6. The building material is made of dried earth and straw. 7. Asclepius 8. George Westinghouse 9. Amethyst 10. 990 1) Neither; 2) Mother’s womb; 3) Melchisedec; 4) Moses; 5) God, 6) Jericho
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Everybody loves a clown! Do you remember your favorite? Here are a few interesting tidbits about these comical performers. • It’s believed that the word “clown” has its origins in the Scandinavian word for “clod,” a clumsy oaf or lout. Even those in the Middle Ages had clowns in the form of court jesters, who were musicians, mimics, dancers, acrobats, and witty jokers. They frequently wore a hood with donkey ears and even a tail on the costume, meant to show they were not to be taken seriously. This hood and tail eventually became a three-cornered hat with bells at the ends. The early French clown was a happy, white-faced dancing clown called the Pierrot. • Clowns are characterized by their makeup and garb. The “whiteface” has a face completely covered in white makeup, with the eyebrows, nose, and mouth painted in red and black. He is usually the one in command of any situation… he’s the bossy one! The Auguste clown’s face makeup is pink, red, or tan, and facial features are exaggerated in size. The mouth and eyes often have a thick outline of white. His clothes are either too big or too small and he usually wears suspenders. The Tramp or Hobo is the “low man on the totem pole,” the one consigned to cleaning up after the other clowns. He usually WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a Paper in Your Area If You Can Provide: Sales Experience · A Computer · Desktop Publishing Software · A Reasonable Financial Investment
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has a sad pink or tan face with a makeup beard, and wears a tattered and patched sloppy suit. A character clown is one who dresses like a specific occupation – a doctor, policeman, sailor, pirate, rodeo cowboy, what have you. • One of the many characters created by comedian Red Skelton on his 1960s weekly television variety show was the tramp clown Freddie the Freeloader. Freddie lived at the city dump and slept on the local park bench. At age 16, Skelton was a performer with a circus where his father had been a clown, and copied his father’s makeup for the TV program. • One of the world’s best known clowns was Emmett Kelly, who got his start in 1920 as a circus trapeze performer. In the 1940s, he was best known as a sad hobo named Weary Willie, with the Ringling Brothers Barnum & Bailey Circus. He was performing an afternoon show in Hartford, Connecticut in 1944 when a deadly fire broke out that killed 168 and injured over 700 others. This tragedy became known as “The Day the Clowns Cried,” and Kelly’s picture was featured in newspapers in his tramp costume, carrying a bucket of water. Kelly left Ringling after 14 years and later became the mascot of the Brooklyn Dodgers. • Bozo the Clown was created during the 1940s for a children’s book and accompanying record. He first appeared on television in 1949, which at its peak in the 1960s, was seen in 50 million
U.S. homes every week. His popularity spread worldwide and there were Bozo TV shows in many countries including Mexico, Thailand, Australia, Greece, and Brazil. It’s estimated that more than 200 different actors have played this clown with the white face and red hair and nose. • The McDonald’s restaurant chain introduced Ronald McDonald in 1963. Willard Scott was a Washington, D.C. radio personality who also played Bozo the Clown on a local TV station. He became the first Ronald in the initial TV spots. Scott went on to serve as the Today Show’s weatherman for many years. Surveys indicate that 95% of American school children recognize Ronald McDonald, second only to Santa Claus. • Not everyone loves clowns – some have a terrifying fear of them. Those suffering from this are said to have coulrophobia.