PRATHAMAê PRAK ÄçAê firs t i l l umi nat i on
text 1 ßr^ r¨pa våk sudhå-svådi cakorebhyo namo namaè ye£åì kùpå lavair vak£ye råga vartmani candrikåm
ith great humility and veneration, I offer praòåma again and again to those devotees who, like cakora birds, are always relishing the nectar of the words of çr^ R¨pa Gosvåm^. On the strength of just a slight merciful glance from them, I am beginning this book, which is like a moonbeam illuminating the path of spontaneous devotion.
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora-Vùtti namaè oì vi£òu-pådåya kù£òa-pre£éhåya bh¨tale ßr^-ßr^mad-bhakti prajñåna keßava iti nåmine atimartya-caritråya sva-ßritånåñ ca-påline j^va-duèkhe sadårttåya ßr^-nåma-prema-dåyine gauråßraya-vigrahåya kù£òa-kåmaika-cåriòe r¨pånuga-pravaråya vinodeti-svar¨piòe
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“I offer praòåmas unto my most worshipable holy master jagad-guru oì vi£òupåda a£éottara-ßata çr^ çr^mad Bhakti Prajñåna Keßava Gosvåm^ Mahåråja, who is very dear to çr^ Kù£òa, who like a parental guardian nurtures with extreme divine affection those who take shelter of him, whose heart is always melting with compassion to see the suffering of the j^vas who have turned away from çr^ Kù£òa, who is bestowing upon them ßr^ nåma along with prema, who is the manifestation of the receptacle of Mahåprabhu’s prema, who is the topmost preacher of prema-bhakti in the line of çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^, and whose name is Vinoda because he is very skillful in giving pleasure (vinoda) to Vinodin^ Rådhikå and to Mahåprabhu.” ßr^ caitanya mano ’bh^£éaì sthåpitaì yena bh¨tale svayaì r¨paè kadå mahyaì dadåti sva-padåntikam
“When will çr^ R¨pa Gosvåm^, the dear associate of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu, bestow upon me the shelter of his lotus feet? He has established in this world the method for obtaining love of Kù£òa, according to the innermost heart’s desire of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu.” vairågya-yug bhakti-rasaì prayatnair apåyayan måm anabh^psum andham kùpåmbudhir yaè para-duèkha-duèkh^ sanåtanaì taì prabhum åßrayåmi
“Blinded by ignorance, I was unwilling to drink the nectar of bhakti-rasa laced with renunciation, but çr^la Sanåtana Gosvåm^, being an ocean of mercy who cannot bear seeing the sufferings of others, induced me to drink it. Therefore, I take shelter of çr^la Sanåtana Gosvåm^ as my ßik£å-guru.”
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våñchå-kalpa-tarubhyas ca kùpå-sindhubhya eva ca patitånåì påvanebhyo vai£òavebhyo namo namaè
“I offer praòåmas again and again unto the Vai£òavas, who are just like desire trees, who are an ocean of mercy, and who deliver the fallen, conditioned souls.” namo mahå-vadånyåya kù£òa-prema-pradåya te kù£òåya kù£òa-caitanya-nåmne gaura-tvi£e namaè
“I offer praòåma unto çr^ Kù£òa Caitanya, who is çr^ Kù£òa Himself. Having assumed the golden hue of çr^mat^ Rådhikå, He is muniﬁcently bestowing that rare gift of kù£òa-prema.” First of all, this insigniﬁcant and destitute person offers praòåmas over and over again at the lotus feet of his supremely worshipable Gurudeva, nitya-l^lå pravi£éa oì vi£òupåda a£éottara-ßata çr^ çr^mad Bhakti Prajñåna Keßava Gosvåm^ Mahåråja; to the crown-jewel of rasikas in the illustrious r¨pånuga line, çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura; to those who have fulﬁlled the cherished innermost desire of çr^man Mahåprabhu by establishing in this world the path to awaken kù£òa-prema; to çr^ Kù£òa Caitanya Mahåprabhu, resplendent with the mood and luster of çr^mat^ Rådhikå and accompanied by all His associates; and to Gåndharvå-Giridhår^ çr^ çr^ Rådhå-Vinoda Bihår^. I offer praòåmas to all of Them again and again to obtain Their causeless mercy and blessings before commencing this çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti 1 on Råga Vartma 1. The cakora bird sustains its life solely by receiving nourishment from candrikå, the rays of the moon. Therefore, this commentary is entitled çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti, “The commentary for those practicing devotees whose only source of sustenance, like the cakora, is this Råga Vartma Candrikå.”
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Candrikå, composed by the topmost r¨pånuga and highly eminent preceptor, çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura. The world-renowned çr^ çr^mad Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is an eternal associate of çr^ Kù£òa Caitanya Mahåprabhu, who is directly Svayaì Bhagavån, the Supreme Lord. çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ established, preached, and distributed vraja-rasa according to the innermost desire of çr^man Mahåprabhu. çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is one of the prominent r¨pånuga åcåryas of the subsequent era. He has written wonderful commentaries, saturated with siddhånta (philosophical conclusions) and rasa (transcendental mellows), on çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^’s çr^ Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu and çr^ Ujjvala-N^lamaòi, çr^ Bhågavatåmùta, and other literatures. For the distinct beneﬁt of the rågånuga-bhaktas and particularly for sådhakas who have received little ß^k£å, he has composed the three very brief yet invaluable encapsulations, çr^ Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu-Bindu, çr^ Ujjvala-N^lamaòiKiraòa, and çr^ Bhågavatåmùta-Kaòå. To further corroborate the thought of çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^, he has referred to vißuddha parak^yå-bhåva, the divine, spotlessly pure paramour love, throughout all his commentaries, books and prayers. Examination of his transcendental writings conﬁrms that he is one of the prominent r¨pånuga Vai£òavas. His life’s noble purpose was to follow, preach and diffuse the internal mood of çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^. Therefore, in the beginning of this text, he expresses his distinctive internal conviction in çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^, whose rasa-ﬁlled, nectarean words are tasted by the cakora-like devotees to whom Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ offers praòåmas time and again. This book has been named Råga Vartma Candrikå. Why? The deep purport of the title is that generally faithful
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people worship Bhagavån by following vaidh^-bhakti, whereas the anuråga-may^ worship (ﬁlled with ever-fresh sentiments of intense attachment) of Vrajendra-nandana çyåmasundara is extremely uncommon, even for great demigods and high-class sådhakas. Prem^-bhaktas like the grandsire of the universe, çr^ Brahmå, as well as çr^ Uddhava and çr^ Nårada yearn for this. However, this path based on anuråga is practically impossible to discover. Only a few fortunate people even realize that such a course exists, let alone follow it. For those glorious persons in whom greed has awakened to proceed in this way, this book is a candrikå, a ray of moonlight. By means of this soothing ray, they can easily detect and advance along this rarely obtained path.
text 2 ßr^mad bhakti sudhåmbhoder bindur yaè p¨rva darßitaè tatra rågånugå bhaktiè saík£iptåtra vitanyate
In the previously published çr^ Bhakti-Rasåmùta-SindhuBindu, rågånugå-bhakti was described in brief. An elaborate explanation of it is given in this text.
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora-Vùtti Here it is necessary to know the meanings of råga, rågånuga and rågåtmika. Regarding this subject, çr^la Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura says that the excessive attachment for many forms of sense enjoyment, which the materialist feels through natural contact with the sense objects, is called råga. Just as the eyes become agitated on seeing something beautiful, in the
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same way all the senses are always eager to taste pleasure, and thus the heart develops attachment (råga) for the sense objects. When Kù£òa is the exclusive object of this råga, it is called råga-bhakti. çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ has deﬁned this råga as i£ée svårasik^ råga paramåvi£éatå (BRS 1.2.272). “The strong, natural and complete absorption in the cherished object of one’s devotion arising from an unquenchable loveﬁlled thirst is called råga.” When one is engrossed in kù£òabhakti at this level, it is called rågåtmikå-bhakti. This bhakti is especially found in the Vrajavås^s, the eternal residents of Vraja. In brief, it can be said that rågåtmikå-bhakti is the thirst to love Kù£òa. And that bhakti which follows the moods of the rågåtmikås is called rågånugå. In other words, when, by the mercy of çr^ Kù£òa and His devotees, one cultivates bhakti impelled by the greed to obtain the same mood as Kù£òa’s beloved associates, it is called rågånugåbhakti. This rågånugå-bhakti is of two types: sambandhaanugå and kåmånugå.
text 3 vaidh^ bhaktir bhavet ßåstraì bhaktau cet syåt pravarttakam rågånugå syåc ced bhaktau lobha eva pravarttakaè
Devotion impelled by injunctions of ßåstra is called vaidh^bhakti, and when incited by spiritual greed, it is called rågånugå-bhakti.
text 4 bhaktau pravùttir atra syåt tac cik^r£å sunißcayå ßåstrål lobhåt tac cik^r£¨ syåtåì tad adhikåriòau
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To advance in bhakti means to nurture the single-minded desire to engage exclusively in the limbs of bhakti. One can progress in bhakti in two different ways – through fear of injunctions of ßåstra and through intense spiritual greed (lobha). Hence, according to adhikåra, or qualiﬁcation, there are two types of practitioners of bhakti-sådhana.
text 5 tatra lobho lak£itaè svayaì ßr^ r¨pa gosvåmi caraòair eva tat tad bhåvådi mådhuryye ßrute dh^r yad apek£ate nåtra ßåstraì na yuktiñ ca tal lobhotpatti lak£aòam (BRS 1.2.292)
vraja-l^lå-parikara-stha ßùígårådi-bhåva-mådhuryye ßrute dh^r idaì mama bh¨yåt iti lobhotpatti-kåle ßåstra-yuktyapek£å na syåt, satyåñ ca tasyåì lobhatvasyaivåsiddheè. nahi kenicit ßåstra-dù£éyå lobhaè kriyate nåpi lobhan^yavastu pråptau svasya yogyåyogyatva-vicåraè ko ‘py udbhavati. kintu lobhan^ya-vastuni ßrute dù£ée vå svata eva lobha utpadyate. çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^, in çr^ Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu, has described the symptoms of greed as follows: “If, by hearing about the sweetness of the intimate loving moods exchanged between çr^ Kù£òa and His cherished companions, one experiences in the heart the natural expectation of attaining a bhåva similar to Kù£òa’s dear ones, without being motivated by ßåstra or logical arguments, it is to be considered the symptom of the appearance of greed.”
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After hearing about the delight of ßùígåra-bhåva (the amorous love between Kù£òa and the gop^s) and the other moods of Kù£òa’s associates in vraja-l^lå, one may yearn, “Such a mood should arise in my heart.” At that time one need no longer rely on ßåstra or logical arguments. If such an impetus remains, then one’s sentiments cannot be identiﬁed as greed. No one ever develops greed on the basis of ßåstra, nor is there any consideration of qualiﬁcation or lack thereof for obtaining the coveted goal. Rather, greed arises spontaneously simply on hearing about or seeing the object of one’s greed.
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti In Jaiva Dharma, çr^la Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura conﬁrms that, after one has heard about the supremely sweet moods of the Vrajavås^s, the consequent disposition of hankering to enter into these moods signiﬁes the symptom of the appearance of greed. A person with the propensity for vaidh^bhakti will, upon hearing kù£òa-kathå, scrutinize it with his intelligence, ßåstra, and reasoning. When these three are consistent with the kù£òa-kathå, only then does he go forward. But råga-mårga does not work like this. On this path there is no place for the intelligence, for ßåstra, and for reasoning. Only one single desire exists – greed for the bhåvas of the Vrajavås^s. What sweet feelings do the Vrajavås^s have for Kù£òa? Can I ever have such sentiments? How can they be attained? Constantly ﬂoundering like a ﬁsh out of water, one becomes desperate for these moods. Such anxiety and intense thirst is the prime symptom of this greed. In the absence of these symptoms, one should understand that passion for rågånugå-bhakti has not yet arisen.
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text 6 sa ca bhagavat kùpå hetuko’nuråg^ bhakta kùpå hetukaß ceti dvi vidhaè. tatra bhakta kùpå hetuko dvi vidhaè, pråktana ådhunikaß ca. pråktanaè paurva bhavika tådùßa bhakta kùpotthaè, ådhunikaè etaj janmåvadhi tådùßa bhakta kùpottaè. ådye sati lobhånantaraì tådùßa guru caraòåßrayaòam. dvit^ye guru caraòåßrayånantaraì lobha pravùttir bhavati. yad uktam: kù£òa tad bhakta kåruòya måtra lobhaika hetukå pu£éi mårgatayå kaißcid iyaì rågånugocyate
There are two sources of this greed (lobha): the mercy of Bhagavån (bhagavad-prasådaja) and the mercy bestowed by anuråg^ devotees (bhakta-prasådaja). There are again two types of greed arising from the mercy of the bhakta – pråktana (also called pråc^na), old, and ådhunika, recent. The lobha arising from the mercy received in previous lives from Kù£òa’s ånuråg^-bhaktas who are endowed with bhåva-mådhurya (the sweet sentiments of çr^ çyåmasundara’s Vraja parikaras) is called pråktana. And the lobha arising from the mercy of such ånuråg^-bhaktas in the present life is called ådhunika. Those whose hunger has already been awakened in a previous life will immediately take shelter at the lotus feet of a rågånuga-rasika-guru upon the manifestation of such greed in this life. However, sådhakas whose lobha is ådhunika (recent) develop that intense thirst only upon taking shelter of the lotus feet of guru. BhaktiRasåmùta-Sindhu conﬁrms that engagement in bhakti due to greed, which arises only out of the mercy of çr^ Kù£òa and His devotees, is rågånugå-bhakti. Some also call it pu£éi-mårga.
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çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti In the çr^ Vallabha Sampradåya, rågånugå-bhakti is known as pu£éi-mårga and vaidh^-bhakti as maryåda-mårga. At the time of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu, çr^ Vallabhåcårya established pu£éi-mårga. He met Mahåprabhu twice. The ﬁrst time was when Mahåprabhu, returning from Vùndåvana Dhåma, stayed in Prayåga for a few days to instruct çr^ R¨pa Gosvåm^. At that time, the aged Vallabhåcårya took Mahåprabhu to his residence in the village of Adhail on the other side of the Yamunå. The second meeting was in Pur^ Dhåma when Mahåprabhu was sitting and discussing yugala-rasa (the mellows of the love of the Divine Couple) with His associates, çr^ Nityånanda Prabhu, çr^ Advaita Äcårya, çr^ Gadådhara Paòàita, çr^ Svar¨pa Dåmodara, and çr^ Råya Råmånanda. At that time, çr^ Vallabhåcårya was recognized as a dig-vijay^ (undefeated) Vai£òava åcårya, who had authored a wellknown commentary on çr^mad-Bhågavatam called Subodhin^. This sampradåya is noted for the service to Båla Gopåla in våtsalya-bhåva, and now His Nåthadvårå Dhåma has become very famous.
text 7 tataß ca tådùßa lobhavato bhaktasya lobhan^ya tad bhåva pråptyupåya-jijñåsåyåì satyåì ßåstra yukty-apek£å syåt. ßåstra-vidhinaiva ßåstra-pratipådita yuktyaiva ca tat pradarßanåt, nånyathå. yathå dugdhådi£u lobhe sati kathaì me dugdhådikaì bhaved iti tad upåya jijñåsåyåì tad abhijñåpta jana kùtopadeßa våkyåpek£å syåt. tataß ca gåè kr^òåtu bhavån ity ådi tad upadeßa våkyåd eva gavån ayana tad ghåsa pradåna tad dohana prakaraòådikaì tata
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eva ßik£en na tu svataè. yad uktam a£éama skandhe “yathågnim edhasya tañ ca go£u bhuvy annam amb¨dyamane ca vùttim. yogair manu£yå adhiyanti hi tvåì guòe£u buddhyå kavayo vidanti.”
When both of the previously mentioned types of devotees, who have either pråktana or ådhunika-lobha, become fervently curious about the means for achieving the bhåva of çr^ Kù£òa’s eternal associates, then they depend on ßåstra and the favorable systems prescribed therein. It is only through the reasoning established by the ßåstras that this bhåva can be achieved. There is no other way. For example, if a person desires to drink milk, how can he get it? At that point he needs to learn through the guidance of a knowledgeable person how and where he can easily obtain milk. Since this person is hankering for milk, he will accept instructions on how to purchase a cow and maintain it. After the cow gives birth to a calf, only then will he be able to milk the cow and drink this milk. In this way, the person greedy for milk has to accept different directives from a trusted source on buying, milking, feeding the cow and so on. In the same manner, a sådhaka ﬁlled with greed also has to proﬁt from relevant instructions. One cannot gain knowledge on one’s own; one must accept proper direction. In çr^mad-Bhågavatam (8.6.12), Brahmåj^ explains, “Just as a human being traditionally derives ﬁre from wood, milk from a cow, grains and water from the earth, and money from enterprise and thereby maintains his life, in the same way, O Vi£òu, the experts in bhakti say that we can attain You by applying our intelligence to take proper association. By this, we will overcome the three modes of nature, and thus progress gradually in bhakti.”
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text 8 sa ca lobho råga vartma varttinåì bhaktånåì guru-pådåßrayalak£aòam årabhya svåbh^£éa vastu såk£åt pråpti samayam abhivyåpya “yathå yathåtmå parimùjyate’sau, mat puòya gåthå ßravaòåbhidhånaiè. tathå tathå paßyati vastu s¨k£maì, cak£ur yathaivåñjana saìprayuktam.” iti bhagavad ukter bhakti hetukåntaè karaòa ßuddhi tåratamyåt pratidinam adhikådhiko bhavati.
Upon the rise of this greed, the sådhaka who is following råga-mårga must perform ßravaòa and k^rtana of transcendental topics beginning from the initial stage of his sådhana – taking shelter at the lotus feet of guru – until he achieves his cherished desire of receiving direct darßana of his i£éadeva. In this manner, the innermost recesses of his heart gradually become puriﬁed, and one achieves the desired goal according to one’s degree of puriﬁcation. çr^ Bhagavån said to Uddhavaj^, “When a medicinal ointment (añjana) is applied to a diseased eye, its weakness is overcome, and its power to discern very subtle objects is restored. In the same way, to the extent that the heart is puriﬁed by repeatedly hearing about and glorifying My supremely sacred pastimes, one can receive a glimpse of My subtle, divine form” (SB 11.14.26).
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti In a heart signiﬁcantly puriﬁed by bhakti, Bhagavån’s svar¨pa manifests of its own accord. For example, çr^ Nåradaj^ took birth as the son of a maidservant. By good
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fortune, at the age of ﬁve he received the association of great saints and had the auspicious opportunity to extensively hear their hari-kathå during cåturmåsya, the four months of the rainy season. He was also privileged to honor their remnants, as well as to drink the pure water that had washed their sacred lotus feet. By the end of cåturmåsya, the young Nårada had developed the burning desire to attain Bhagavån. On observing this intense hankering in the young boy, the bhakta-ù£is bestowed upon him the bhagavan-mantra and instructions for practicing bhajana. After the ù£is departed from that place, by the will of Providence, Nårada’s mother left her body. In a fearsome and deserted forest, the ﬁve-year-old boy absorbed himself in the worship of Bhagavån through the mantras given to him by the ù£is. Gradually, as his heart was puriﬁed, he received a glimpse of Bhagavån, who is an ocean of mercy. çr^ Bhagavån instructed him to continue his sådhana-bhajana and to glorify His pastimes throughout the universe. Nårada followed these instructions, and upon attaining perfection, unseen by others, he gave up his material body made of the ﬁve elements and received the form of an eternal associate of Bhagavån.
text 9 udbh¨te tådùße lobhe ßåstra darßite£u tat tad bhåva pråpty upåye£u, “åcåryya caitya vapu£å svagatiì vyanakti” ity uddhavokteè, ke£ucid guru-mukhåt ke£ucid abhijña mahodayånurågi bhakta mukhåt abhijñåte£u ke£ucid bhakti mù£ta citta-vùtti£u svata eva sphurite£u, sollåsam evåtißayena pravùttiè syåt. yathå kåmårthinåì kåmopåye£u.
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When the sådhaka attains greed, “çr^ Bhagavån inspires him by manifesting Himself in two svar¨pas: externally He gives instructions in the form of çr^ Gurudeva, and internally, as Antaryåm^, He inspires a person from within the heart about the means to achieve the desired object” (SB 11.29.6). According to this statement of çr^ Uddhavaj^, in order to follow the method illuminated in ßåstra to obtain one’s bhåva, some sådhakas with inborn greed gain complete knowledge by hearing the instructions from the mouth of çr^ Gurudeva, and others by hearing from the lotus mouths of rågånuga-anuråg^bhaktas who are highly enlightened in such bhåva. In a few others, this knowledge self-manifests in their immaculate hearts through the nectar of bhakti. Profuse enthusiastic endeavors to attain those moods are witnessed in all of these sådhakas, just as a person who desires material happiness strives with great intensity for his own sense enjoyment.
text 10 tac ca ßåstraì sarvvopani£at sårabh¨taì ye£åm ahaì priya åtmå sutaß ca sakhå guruè suhùdo daivam i£éam’ ity ådi våkya nicayåkara ßr^ bhågavata mahå puråòam eva. tathå tatpratipådita bhakti vivaraòa cañcu ßr^ bhakti rasåmùtåròavådikam api. tatratyaì våkya-trayaì yathå – “kù£òaì smaran janañ cåsya pre£éhaì nija sam^hitam / tat-tat-kathå rataß cåsau kuryåd våsaì vraje sadå.” iti “sevå sådhaka r¨peòa siddha r¨peòa cåtra hi / tad bhåva lipsunå kåryå vraja-lokånusårataè.” iti “ßravaòotk^rtanåd^ni vaidh^-bhakty uditåni tu / yåny aígåni ca tåny atra vijñeyåni man^£ibhiè.” iti trikam atra kåmånugå pak£e eva vyåkhyåyate.
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In çr^mad-Bhågavatam, which is the essence of the ßåstras and all the Upani£ads, çr^ Bhagavån (Lord Kapila-deva) has said (3.25.38), “For My devotees I am their beloved, their very soul, their son, friend, divine master, wellwisher, benefactor, and worshipable Lord.” çr^madBhågavatam is a treasury of statements clarifying these relationships. Hence, here it is to be understood that the word ßåstra indicates çr^mad-Bhågavatam. In addition, the word ßåstra should also be accepted for çr^ Bhakti-RasåmùtaSindhu and other literatures which explain in detail the same bhakti propounded in çr^mad-Bhågavatam. The sacred text çr^ Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu explains how rågånugå-bhakti can be achieved. For this, three ßlokas have been cited: (1) kù£òaì smaran janañ cåsya pre£éhaì nija sam^hitam tat-tat-kathå rataß cåsau kuryåd våsaì vraje sadå (2) sevå sådhaka-r¨peòa siddha-r¨peòa cåtra hi tad-bhåva lipsunå kåryå vraja-lokånusårataè (3) ßravaòotk^rtanåd^ni vaidh^-bhakty uditåni tu yåny aígåni ca tånyatra vijñeyåni man^£ibhiè
The purport of the ﬁrst ßloka is that, while remembering çr^ Kù£òa and His beloved associates, whom we desire to follow, and being fully absorbed in narrations of their pastimes, one should always reside in Vraja. If this is not physically possible, then one should reside there by mind. The meaning of the second ßloka is that on this path of rågånugå-bhakti, the sådhaka, being enchanted by the bhåva, or speciﬁc rati (intense loving sentiments for çr^ Kù£òa), of any of çr^ Kù£òa’s beloved associates of Vraja,
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should serve çr^ Kù£òa in two ways: in the sådhaka-r¨pa (the present physical body), he should follow the sådhana executed by the rågånuga-bhaktas (our Gosvåm^s and åcåryas); and in the siddha-r¨pa (the internally-conceived spiritual body suitable for directly carrying out the longedfor prema-sevå to çr^ Kù£òa), he should emulate the moods of Kù£òa’s dearmost rågåtmika associates (like Lalitå, Vißåkhå, R¨pa Mañjar^, Rati Mañjar^, and so on). The meaning of the third ßloka is that scholars who are wellversed in the principles of bhakti advise that the limbs of bhakti, such as ßravana, k^rtana, and so on, which are practiced in vaidh^-bhakti according to one’s qualiﬁcation, should also be observed in rågånugå-bhakti in keeping with one’s ability. These three ßlokas from Bhakti-RasåmùtaSindhu are written with the aim of delineating the requisites for practicing rågånugå-bhakti. Herein they will be explained in terms of kåmånugå-bhakti.
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti The bhakti naturally present in the associates of Vraja is known as rågåtmikå-bhakti, and this is of two types: sambandha-r¨på and kåma-r¨på. çr^dåma, Subala, Arjuna, Madhumaígala and other sakhås, as well as Nanda, Yaßodå and other elders of the community have sambandha-r¨påbhakti, since Kù£òa is related to them as a friend, son and so on. The beautiful damsels of Vraja also have a relationship with Kù£òa, but they are endowed with a special mood, kåma-r¨på, which is not found in the associates in dåsya, sakhya, or våtsalya-rasa. Here the word kåma indicates the thirst for amorous union, which, when transformed into rågåtmikå-bhakti,
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gives rise to causeless, natural affection that is ﬁlled with the desire to give enjoyment to Kù£òa. In other words, all efforts are directed for the pleasure and satisfaction of Kù£òa, never for oneself. Even if any gop^ apparently strives for her own gratiﬁcation, ultimately that endeavor is accepted for the enhancement of Kù£òa’s delight. This unparalleled love is present only in Kù£òa’s beloved gop^s. The prema of the milk-maids of Vraja, on reaching an exceedingly astonishing sweetness, generates playful loving pastimes. Therefore, paòàitas call this unique principle of love ‘kåma’. In reality, the kåma of the vraja-sundar^s is transcendental and completely untainted, whereas the kåma, or lust, of the conditioned soul is corrupt and worthless. The kåma, or love, of the vraja-gop^s is so pure and so highly attractive to all that even Bhagavån’s very dear devotees, such as Uddhava, yearn for this type of love. There is nothing that compares to the matchless love of the vraja-gop^s. This kåma-r¨på-rågåtmikå-bhakti is not found anywhere except in Vraja. The kåma of the Mathuråvås^s for Kù£òa is, in reality, not kåma but only rati. The kåma described here has nothing to do with the kåma of Kubjå. Kåma-r¨på-bhakti is of two types – sambhoga-icchåmay^ and tat-tad-bhåva-icchåmay^. Sambhoga-icchåmay^ consists of kel^, meaning kr^àå or vilåsa, playful amorous pastimes. The apråkùta kr^àå which çr^ Kù£òa performs with the vraja-dev^s is called sambhoga. And that bhakti which is ﬁlled with the sole desire to promote the amorous union of Kù£òa with one’s yutheßvar^, such as Rådhå or Candråval^ or any other, and in which one feels great satisfaction in assisting and fulﬁlling the exchange of a special bhåva between the nåyaka and nåyikå, is called tat-tad-bhåva-icchåmay^.
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The thirst to follow kåma-r¨på-bhakti is called kåmaan¨gå-bhakti. This kåmån¨gå-bhakti is of two types – the one following sambhoga-icchåmay^ kåma-r¨på is called sambhoga-icchåmay^ kåmån¨gå-bhakti (also known as mukhya kåmån¨gå), and the second following tat-tadbhåva-icchåmay^ kåma-r¨på (commonly known as mañjar^-bhåva) is called tat-tad-bhåva-icchåmay^ kåmaan¨gå-bhakti. The sthåy^-bhåva of the mañjar^s, called ullåsa-rati, is present in çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^, Rati Mañjar^, Lavaíga Mañjar^, and other mañjar^s. They are averse to çr^ Kù£òa’s proposals to taste rati with Him, but rather ﬁnd their fulﬁllment in relishing the rasa of Kù£òa’s meeting with their svåmin^. çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu descended to bestow upon sådhaka-j^vas the beauty (sva-bhaktißr^yam) of anarpita-car^m ciråt unnatojjvala-rasa, that is, mañjar^-bhåva, and to taste the unlimitedly deep mood of mahåbhåva-svar¨piò^ çr^ Rådhå.
text 11 prathamataè kù£òaì smaran iti smaraòasyåtra rågånugåyåì mukhyatvaì rågasya mano-dharmmatvåt. pre£éhaì nija bhåvocita l^lå vilåsinaì kù£òaì vùndåvanådh^ßvaram. asya kù£òasya janañ ca k^dùßaì nija sam^hitaì svåbhila£an^yaì ßr^ vùndåvaneßvar^ lalitå vißåkhå ßr^ r¨pa mañjaryy ådikam. kù£òasyåpi nija sam^hitatve‘pi taj janasya ujjvala bhåvaika ni£éhatvåt nijasam^hitatvådhikyam. vraje våsam iti asåmarthye manasåpi. sådhaka ßar^reòa våsas tu uttara ßlokårthataè pråpta eva. sådhaka-r¨peòa yathåvasthita dehena. siddha r¨peòåntaß cintitåbh^£éa tat såk£åtsevopayogi dehena. tad bhåva lipsunå – tad bhåvaè sva pre£éha kù£òa vi£ayakaè sva sam^hita kù£òa janåßrayakaß ca yo bhåva ujjvalåkhyås taì labdhum icchatå. sevå manasaivopasthåpitaiè
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såk£åd apy upasthåpitaiß ca samucita dravyådibhiè paricaryyå kåryyå. tatra prakåram åha, vraja-lokånusårataè sådhaka r¨peòånugamyamånå ye vrajalokåè ßr^ r¨pa gosvåmy ådayaè ye ca siddha r¨peòånugamyamånåè vraja-lokåè ßr^ r¨pa mañjaryyådayas tad anusårataè. tathaiva sådhaka r¨peòånugamyamånå vrajalokåè pråpta kù£òa-sambandhino janåß candrakåntyådyaè daòàakåraòya-våsi munayaß ca bùhad-våmana prasiddhåè ßrutayaß ca yathå-sambhavaì jñeyåè. tad anusåratas tat tad åcåra dù£éyety arthaè. tad evaì våkya-dvayena smaraòaì vraja-våsañ ca uktvå ßravaòåd^n apy åha-ßravaòotk^rtanåd^n^ti. gurupådåßrayaòåd^ni tvåk£epa labdhåni. tåni vinå vraja-lokånugatyådikaì kim api na sidhyed ity ato man^£ibhir iti man^£ayå vimùßyaiva sv^ya-bhåva samucitåny eva tåni kåryyåòi na tu tad viruddhåni.
The ﬁrst phrase of this verse, kù£òaì smaran, remembering çr^ Kù£òa, indicates that the aíga of smaraòam is prominent in rågånuga-mårga, as råga is månasika-dharma, a function of the mind. Pre£éhaì, meaning “most beloved,” indicates that beloved çr^ Kù£òa, the Lord of Vùndåvana, who enjoys pastimes in a form corresponding to one’s desire (that is, appearing as Rådhå-Ramaòa, Govinda, Gop^nåtha, etc.). The words janañ cåsya refer to çr^ Kù£òa’s nearest and dearest. Who are they? To answer this question, the adjective nija-sam^hitam is used, indicating those associates who possess the mood for which one is aspiring, like Vùndåvaneßvar^ çr^mat^ Rådhikå, çr^ Lalitå, çr^ Vißåkhå, çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^ and so on. The practicing devotees who are eagerly hankering for ujjvala-bhåva (the brilliantly lustrous, pure mood of sweet paramour love) possess an extraordinarily profound ni£éhå (determination) for the ujjvala-bhåva of çr^ Kù£òa’s associates, namely, çr^
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Rådhå and the other vraja-sundar^s, which is greater than their ni£éhå for the desired object, çr^ Kù£òa Himself. Hence, such devotees deeply hanker for this mood of His associates. Kuryåd våsaì vraje sadå means that one should always reside in Vraja. The implication is that if this is physically impossible, one should dwell there by mind. However, the next ßloka clearly explains that the sådhaka should take up residence in Vraja physically. Sådhaka-r¨peòa indicates the present gross body of the practicing devotee, and siddha-r¨peòa refers to the internally-conceived cherished body suitable for the direct service of çr^ Kù£òa. Tad bhåva lipsunå means that, being eager to attain the ujjvala-bhåva which is enjoyed by the beloved çr^ Kù£òa and which is ever present in one’s favorite Vrajavås^s, namely, çr^ Kù£òa’s darling çr^mat^ Rådhikå and other gop^s, one should earnestly serve them with love. How is this sevå to be performed? By collecting all the paraphernalia by mind or by body, one should engage in Their loving service. Again, in what mood is this sevå to be executed? The answer to this is vraja-lokånusårataè: by emulating the service attitude of the Vrajavås^s. That is, the practicing devotee in his physical body should follow the example of çr^ R¨pa Gosvåm^ and other like-minded Vrajavås^s, and in his siddha-deha should perform sevå adopting the method of çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^ and the other maidservants of Vraja. Here another deﬁnition of vraja-lokånusårataè is given. One should understand this phrase to mean those who have established their relationship with Vrajendra-nandana çr^ Kù£òa by doing sådhana in their previous lives, like Candrakånti and other sakh^s, the famous munis of
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Daòàakåraòya as described in Padma Puråòa, and the ßrutis as mentioned in Bùhad Våmana Puråòa. One should follow these Vrajavås^s; that is, by observing their practices, one should render service as they did. In this way, the ﬁrst two ßlokas describe the subject matters of smaraòa, remembrance, and vraja-våsa, residence in Vraja. And the third ßloka discusses ßravaòa, hearing, and other limbs of sådhana. çravaòotk^rtanåd^ni: one should follow ßravaòa, k^rtana and the other limbs of bhakti, meaning all the sixty-four limbs, beginning with accepting shelter at the lotus feet of çr^ Gurudeva. Apart from this practice of ßravaòa, k^rtana, and so on, which is aimed at emulating the mood of the Vrajavås^s, no other sådhana is capable of bestowing the desired fruit. To emphasize this point, the word man^£ibhiè is used here. It means that intelligent persons will use their power of discrimination to follow the limbs of bhakti which are favorable to their mood. It is essential to avoid following anything unfavorable which can hinder the appearance of bhåva.
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti The author has quoted the above three ßlokas from çr^ Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu in regard to rågånugå-sådhanabhakti. These three ßlokas are often cited in general terms for the sådhakas who have greed in dåsya, sakhya, våtsalya and madhura-rasa. However, one should understand that in this book çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura has explained the meaning of these ßlokas for kåmånuga-sådhakas, especially for those following tat-tad-bhåva-icchåmay^. Even though çr^ Kù£òa is the object of our desires, the underlying idea is that we recognize Him as çr^mat^ Rådhikå’s
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pråòa-bandhu, Her sweetheart çr^ Rådhå-Kånta, not that we should independently consider Him our nåyaka, our own lover. The reason is that the mañjar^-sakh^s are surrendered totally to çr^mat^ Rådhikå and regard Kù£òa as the pråòanåtha, the very life air, of their ^ßvar^, çr^mat^j^. çr^lå Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^, one of the topmost r¨pånugas, declares in his Manaè çik£å (ßloka 9): mad-^ßå-nåthatve vraja-vipinacandraì. “Always remember Vùndåvana-candra çr^ Kù£òa as the life and soul of my svåmin^ çr^ Rådhikå.” Although the words janañ cåsya in the above-mentioned ßloka indicate Vùndåvaneßvar^ çr^mat^ Rådhikå and others, we should understand that they speciﬁcally refer to çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^, Rati Mañjar^, and other mañjar^-sakh^s. çr^lå Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ has written in Vilåpa Kusumåñjali (ßloka 16): pådåbjayos tava vinå vara-dåsyam eva nånyat kadåpi samaye kila devi yåce sakhyåya te mama namo’stu namo’stu nityaì dåsyåya te mama raso’stu raso’stu satyam
“O Dev^! Except for rendering the most sublime service to Your lotus feet as Your dås^, I have no other desire, not even to be Your sakh^. I offer praòåma again and again to Your friendship, or the position of being Your sakh^, but let my strong attachment to Your servitorship always prevail. This is my avowed declaration.” Furthermore, in Vraja-Vilåsa-Stava (ßloka 38), he says: tamb¨lårpaòa-påda-mardana-payo-dånåbhisårådibhir vùndåraòya-maheßvar^ priyatayå yås to£ayanti priyåè pråòa-pre£éha-sakh^-kulåd api kilåsaíkoc^tå bh¨mikåè keli-bh¨mi£u r¨pa-mañjar^-mukhås tå dåsikåè saìßraye
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“By offering Her betel nuts, massaging Her feet, bringing Her water, arranging for Her secret meetings with çr^ Kù£òa, and performing varieties of other loving services, many gop^ attendants constantly please çr^mat^ Rådhikå, the queen of Vùndå’s forest. In their prema-sevå to the Divine Couple, they are free from any of the hesitation or shyness which is found in the pråòa-pre£éha-sakh^s (for whom çr^ Rådhå is more dear than life). I take shelter of these personal maidservants of çr^mat^ Rådhikåj^, headed by çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^.” The sum and substance is that it is far more desirable to have the mood of the tat-tad-bhåva-icchåmay^sakh^s than to have the mood of sambhoga-icchå may^. The meaning of “one should reside in Vraja” is that rågånuga-sådhakas should engage in devotional practices in the places which stimulate their cherished moods. Such places, where the secret pastimes of çr^ çr^ RådhåKù£òa Yugala were performed, include çr^ Rådhå Kuòàa, Suryå Kuòàa, çr^ Govardhana, Vùndåvana (including Sevå Kuñja, Nidhuvan, and Vaìß^ Vaéa), and Nandagåon (especially Påvana Sarovara, Ter Kadamba, çr^ Uddhava Kyåri, Saíketa, and Yåvaéa). çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ in his purport to this ßloka has written: atha rågånugåyåè paripåé^måha-kù£òamityådinå såmarthye sati vraje ßr^man nanda-vrajåvåsasthåne ßr^ vùndåvanådau ßar^reòa våsaì kuryyåt, tad bhåve manasap^tyarthaè. “If possible, a rågaanuga-sådhaka should reside physically in Vraja, that is, in places near the home of Nanda Mahåråja in Vùndåvana and in other pastime places. If this is not possible, then one should dwell there by mind.” These l^lå-sthal^s, pastime places, are transcendental siddha-p^éhas, holy places that quickly deliver perfection in one’s devotional practices. By their causeless mercy,
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the ﬂow of pastimes pertaining to each place easily begins to reﬂect in the heart of a sincere, honest sådhaka without any effort on his part. In Brahmåòda Puråòa, it is said, parånandamay^ siddhir mathurå-sparßamåtrataè. “Just by the mere touch of Mathurå (Vrajabh¨mi), one attains the perfection of supreme bliss.” One cannot expect to understand the inconceivable, supernatural potency of these places with one’s material intelligence. çr^la Sanåtana Gosvåm^ in çr^ Bùhad-Bhågavatåmùtam has explained that the topmost devotee çr^ Nårada prayed to rasika-ßiromaò^ çr^ Kù£òa, the crown-jewel of enjoyers, in the same manner. The dhåma deﬁnitely showers its mercy when one takes exclusive shelter there because it is Kù£òa’s svar¨pa: tad vai tasya priya kr^àå-vana-bh¨mau sadå rahaè nivasaìs tanuyåd evaì sampadyet åciråd dhruvam (Bù. Bhåg. 2.5.220)
“O Gopa Kumåra! If you aspire for the servitorship of the vraja-gopas and gop^s, you should always live in Kù£òa’s kr^àå-bh¨mi, His beloved playground, and perform sådhana-bhakti there to achieve prema. In this manner, without a doubt you will very quickly obtain the perfection of that extraordinarily rare prema.” In the eighth ßloka of çr^ Upadeßåmùta, çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ summarizes the essence of all teachings regarding living in Vraja with ni£éhå, staunch determination: tan-nåma-r¨pa-caritådi-suk^rtanånusmùtyoè krameòa rasanå-manas^ niyojya
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ti£éhan vraje tad-anuråg^-janånugåm^ kålaì nayed akhilam ity upadeßa-såram
“By withdrawing the tongue and mind from all sense objects that have no connection with Kù£òa, one should, while living in çr^ Vraja-maòàala, utilize one’s full time by sequentially engaging them in meticulously chanting and remembering çr^ Kù£òa’s names, form, qualities and pastimes following the moods of çr^ Kù£òa’s eternal companions who possess inherent, spontaneous love for Him. This is the essence of all instructions.” çr^la Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ exhibits the utmost unwavering determination and heartfelt attachment for living in Vraja: ßr^ r¨pa-rati mañjaryyor aíghri-sevaika-gùhnunå asaòkhyenåpi janu£å vraje våso ’stu me ’nißåm (çr^ Prårthanåmùtam 1)
“With the sole aspiration alive in my heart to attain the sevå of the lotus feet of çr^ R¨pa and çr^ Rati Mañjar^s, in however many births I may take, may my vow to live in Vraja forever be fulﬁlled.” vasato girivara-kuñje lapataè ßr^ rådhike ‘nu kù£òeti dhayato vraja-dadhitakraì nåtha sadå me dinåni gacchantu (çr^ Prårthanåßraya 14)
“He Nåtha! O my Lord! Let me spend the rest of my days as a permanent resident in the kuñjas of Govardhana, calling out, ‘Hå Rådhe! Hå Kù£òa!’ and drinking the yogurt and buttermilk of Vraja.”
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In the following ßloka, çr^påda Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^, displaying his deep faith and affection for Vùndåvana Dhåma, makes a steadfast vow to live in Vraja: na cånyatra-k£etre haritanu-sanåthe ‘pi sujanåd rasåsvådaì premòå dadhad api vasåmi k£aòam api samaì tv etad gråmyå valibhir abhitanvann api kathåì vidhåsye saìvåsa-vraja-bhuvana eva pratibhavam (Svaniyama Daßakam 2)
“Even if the Deity of çr^ Kù£òa is present in any other dhåma and there is the fortunate opportunity to relish the rasa of kù£òa-kathå ﬂowing sweetly from the mouth of a loving mahå-puru£a, still I would not want to stay there, not even for a fraction of a moment. I would rather live in Vraja birth after birth in the association of the villagers speaking gråmya-kathå, topics having nothing to do with Bhagavån.” For whatever reason, if it is not possible for a sådhaka to actually take up residence in Vraja, then he should dwell there by mind. In the original (m¨la) ßloka, çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ himself has given the order to make one’s abode in Vraja and perform sådhana – kuryåd våsaì vraje sadå. Here sådhaka-r¨peòa means one should perform sådhana in the present physical body just as çr^ R¨pa, çr^ Sanåtana, çr^ Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ and others carried out their bhajana. In çr^ Caitanya-Caritåmùta (Madhya 19.127-131), the Gosvåm^s’ process of bhajana has been described in this way: aniketa duíhe vane yata vùk£a-gaòa eka eka vùk£era tale eka eka råtri ßayana
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vipra-gùhe sth¨la-bh^k£å, kåíhå mådhukar^ ßu£ka r¨t^ cånå civåya bhoga parihari karoíyå-måtra håte, kåíthå, chiíàå-bahirvåsa kù£òa-kathå, kù£òa-nåma, nartana-ullåsa a£éå-prahara kù£òa-bhajana, cåri daòàa ßayane nåma-saík^rtana-preme, seha nahe kona dine kabhu bhakti-rasa-ßåstra karaye likhana caitanya-kathå ßune, kore caitanya-cintana
“Mahåprabhu’s associates would inquire about the welfare of çr^ R¨pa and Sanåtana Gosvåm^s from any devotee returning from darßana of çr^ Vùndåvana, who would reply, ‘They have not even bothered to make a bhajana-kuéira and pass each night under a different tree of Vraja. They are always engaged in bhajana, performing severe renunciation and deeply immersed in bhåva. Somehow or other they sustain their lives by going to the bråhmaòas’ houses for sth¨la-bhik£å (accepting a full meal from one house) and sometimes doing mådhukar^ (begging small amounts door-to-door), sometimes chewing dry roé^ (bread) or chickpeas, and sometimes fasting. They carry clay pots for drinking water and wear tattered cloth and torn quilts. They engage almost twenty-four hours daily in hearing kù£òa-kathå and chanting, performing harinåma-saík^rtana, and dancing in great jubilation, being fully immersed in bhåva. They sleep for only four daòàas 2 at night, and sometimes, being engrossed in bhajana, they do not sleep at all. Sometimes they compose sacred texts illuminating bhakti, and sometimes they hear about the pastimes of çr^ Caitanya 2. 1 daòàa equals 24 minutes.
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Mahåprabhu and drown in thinking about Him.’ Hearing this, all the devotees began to cry.” çr^nivåsa Äcårya Prabhu in his öaà Gosvåm^ A£éakam (ßloka 6) has described their ﬁrm resolve (ni£éhå) in executing sådhana-bhajana: saíkhyå-p¨rvaka-nåma-gåna-natibhiè kålåvasån^-kùtau nidråhåra-vihårakådi-vijitau cåtyanta-d^nau ca yau rådhå-kù£òa-guòa-smùter madhurimånandena sammohitau vande r¨pa-sanåtanau raghu-yugau ßr^-j^va-gopålakau
“I offer my prayers to the Six Gosvåm^s, who passed all their time in chanting the holy names, performing nåmasaík^rtana, and offering daòàavat-praòåmas, thereby humbly fulﬁlling their vow to complete a ﬁxed number daily. In this way, they utilized their valuable lives and conquered over eating, sleeping and other such pleasures. Always seeing themselves as completely worthless, they became enchanted in divine rapture by remembering çr^ RådhåKù£òa’s sweet qualities.” Siddha-r¨peòa means that one should perform månas^sevå (love-laden service performed by mind) in one’s cherished, internally-conceived spiritual form which is suitable for directly serving Rådhå-Kù£òa Yugala. This is a crucial matter. Without the mercy of çri Gurudeva or pure rasika devotees, a sådhaka cannot conceive of his nityasiddha-deha. By the merciful guidance of çr^la Gurudeva, the conception of one’s nitya-siddha-deha arises automatically. By remembering and internally serving the a£éakål^ya-l^lå in one’s siddha-deha, one gradually attains svar¨pa-siddhi (realization of one’s svar¨pa while still a sådhaka) and ﬁnally vastu-siddhi (one’s actual spiritual body suitable for experiencing prema in prakaéa-l^lå).
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However, one must know that not everyone has the qualiﬁcation to engage in remembering apråkùta yugalasevå, the transcendental daily service to the Divine Couple. It is imperative to keep this path carefully veiled. One should not speak about these pastimes to unqualiﬁed persons. It is proper to keep the subject matter concealed so long as conditioned souls have not experienced the awakening of genuine greed in their hearts to enter into rågamårga. Bhagavån’s nåma, r¨pa, guòa and l^lå pertain to transcendence (apråkùta-tattva), all are supremely pure and sentient (cinmaya) in nature. Unless and until this bhåva arises in the heart, one is not qualiﬁed to hear about çr^ Yugala’s conﬁdential, nectar-ﬁlled (rasamay^) pastimes. Reading or hearing about these pastimes, unqualiﬁed persons will meditate on the illusory, mundane association between men and women. Thus, they are bound to fall down and become deeply submerged in the vileness of immoral behavior. Therefore, like Devar£i Nårada, intelligent readers should enter into these pastimes carefully after ﬁrst acquiring saìskåras (impressions in the heart) for transcendental ßùígåra-rasa. The prime concern is that a sådhaka should practice rågånugå-bhakti only upon obtaining the appropriate qualiﬁcation. Without the rise of genuine greed and while the sådhaka is still plagued by anarthas, practicing this system of sådhana will give unfavorable results. As one’s factual greed for vraja-bhajana develops, one must ﬁrst of all take shelter of an intimate associate of çr^ Gaurasundara, who is Himself non-different from çr^ Vrajendra-nandana. That gaura-priya-jana will give us personal instructions on rågånuga-sådhana according to our ability. Otherwise, by taking bad association and following their misleading
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advice, one will end up imitating the bhajana of high-class devotees and only reap ill results. Some people wrongly interpret the phrase “One should do bhajana in the wake of the residents of Vraja (vraja-lokånusårataè).” Presuming themselves to be Lalitå and Vißåkhå, they dress their male bodies in female garb and do bhajana as a sakh^. In this way, they cause not only their own destruction but others’ as well. “I am Lalitå, I am Vißakhå” – this becomes the ahaígrahopåsanå (considering oneself as non-different from the object of worship) of the Måyåvåd^s. By committing offenses at the lotus feet of Lalitå and Vißakhå, they attain a terrifying hell. No one is qualiﬁed to enter the intimate service of Yugala Kißora without following the mood of the vrajagop^s. It is çr^man Mahåprabhu’s inner desire for the sådhaka to do bhajana by following the mañjar^-sakh^s, who are themselves under the direction of the vraja-gop^s. This is also approved by çr^mad-Bhågavatam and the literatures written by our Gosvåm^s. To achieve the mood of the mañjar^s, it is essential to accept the anugatya (guidance) of R¨pa-Sanåtana in ßr^ gaura-parivåra, the family of çr^ Gauråíga Mahåprabhu. In the following stanza from his song, çr^la Narottama dåsa ëhåkura expresses his heartfelt burning desire for mañjar^ bhåva: ßr^ r¨pa-mañjar^-pada, sei mora sampada, sei mora bhajana-p¨jana sei mora pråòa-dhana, sei mora åbharaòa, sei mora j^vanera j^vana
“The lotus feet of çr^ R¨pa Manjar^ are my dearmost treasure. Remembering and serving them are my topmost worship and inner devotional practice. Her lotus feet are my
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most cherished wealth, more dear than my own life. They are the beautiful ornament of my life, and, indeed, they are the very essence of my existence.” ßuniyåchi sådhu-mukhe bole sarva-jana ßr^ r¨pa-kùpåya mile yugala-caraòa hå! hå! prabhu sanåtana gaura-paribåra sabe mili’ våñchå-p¨ròa koroho åmåra ßr^ r¨pera kùpå jena åmå prati haya se pada åßraya jåra, sei mahåßaya prabhu lokanåtha kabe saíge laiñå jåbe ßr^ r¨pera påda-padme more samarpibe
Narottama dåsa also says that he has heard from the mouths of Vai£òava sådhus that one can attain the lotus feet of çr^ Yugala Kißora only by the mercy of çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^. He cries out, “O Sanåtana Prabhu! O most merciful Vai£òavas in Gaura’s family! All of you together, please fulﬁll my earnest desire. I pray again and again that çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ may always shower his mercy upon me. Aho! Those who have received the shelter of çr^ R¨pa’s lotus feet are very fortunate. When will my Gurudeva, çr^ Lokanåtha Gosvåm^, take me with him to çr^ R¨pa Gosvåm^ and offer me at his lotus feet?” To attain his siddha-deha, çr^ Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura prays at the lotus feet of çr^ Rådhå-Kù£òa: siddha deha diyå, vùndåvana måjhe sevåmùta-koro dåna piyåiyå prema, matta kori more suna nija guòa-gåna yugala sevåya, ßr^ råsa-maòàale niyukta koro’ åmåya
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lalitå sakh^ra, ayogyå kiñkar^ vinoda dhariche påya
“Please bestow upon me my siddha-deha. Place me in the midst of Vùndåvana, and shower upon me the nectar of Your devotional service. Allow me to drink the nectar of Your prema and let me be fully absorbed in it, so much so that I become totally maddened. Then You will be able to hear me sing about Your astonishing attributes. Bhaktivinoda, the unworthy servant of Lalitå Sakh^, holding Your lotus feet close to his heart, begs to be engaged in Your conﬁdential sevå in the ßr^ råsa-maòàala. Please hear my supplication and appoint me as Your maidservant.” çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ in his Kårpaòya Pañjikå Stotra, Utkalikå Vallar^, çr^ Gåndharvå Samprårthanå£éakam, and other works has to some extent shed light on the service to Yugala Kißora in the siddha-deha, as has çr^ Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ in his Vilåpa Kusumåñjali, Prema P¨råbhigha Stotram, Utkaòéhå Daßakam, Sva Saíkalpa Prakåßa Stotram, çr^ Prårthanåmùta Stotram, Abh^£éa Prårthanå£éakam, and other stavas and stutis. Our author, çr^la Cakravart^ ëhåkura, has also described similar moods in his Saíkalpa Kalpadruma. For the sådhakas of rågånugåbhakti, all these conﬁdential moods are the topmost treasure, like a cintåmaòi gem that fulﬁlls all desires. çr^ Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ has expressed his innermost moods in Vilåpa-Kusumåñjali (ßloka 72): ßr^ r¨pa mañjar^ karårcita pådapadma go£éhendra-nandana bhujårpita mastakåyåè hå modataè kanaka-gauri padåravinda samvåhanåni ßanakais tava kiì kari£ye
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“After enjoying some amorous pastime, the happily exhausted çr^mat^ Rådhikå puts Her head in the lap of çr^ Kù£òa, who runs His soft, fragrant lotus ﬁngers slowly and gently through Her hair, thus untangling Her disheveled curls. At that time çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^ takes her ^ßvar^’s extremely soft lotus feet in her lap and lovingly massages them. When will the day come when R¨pa Mañjar^ will beckon me with a gesture and grant me this service?” Then he mourns, “Alas! When will I get the opportunity to perform this service to Her supremely precious and so rarely attained lotus feet?” Someone may argue that the phrase vraja-loka refers only to çr^ Rådhå, Lalitå and so on. This would mean that a sådhaka should perform service with his physical body according to the mood of these Vraja maidens. If that is the case, since ßåstra has not mentioned anywhere that çr^ Rådhå, Lalitå and the others have ever taken shelter of Gurudeva, observed fasting for Ekådaß^, performed çålagråma or Tulas^ sevå, and so on, it would follow that it would not be important for practitioners following these eternal associates to execute these limbs of bhakti. However, the true meaning of the phrase vraja-loka refutes all such apasiddhånta (misconceptions) put forward by the present-day skeptical, opposing theorists. çr^la J^va Gosvåm^påda, in his commentary on this ßloka from BhaktiRasåmùta-Sindhu, explains that the phrase vraja-loka refers to çr^ Kù£òa’s dearmost associates and their intimate followers, like çr^ R¨pa Gosvåm^ and so on. Thus, one should perform månas^-sevå in the siddha-deha by following çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^ and other Vrajavås^s, and physical sevå in the sådhaka-deha by emulating çr^ R¨pa and our other Gosvåm^s.
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Municar^ Gop^s According to the Padma Puråòa, some munis residing in Daòàakåraòya worshiped Gopåla-deva, but in spite of praying to Him for a long time, they were unable to attain their cherished desires. Fortunately, çr^ Råmacandra arrived in the forest. After the munis saw His charming beauty, rati (deep amorous attraction) for Kù£òa arose in their hearts. Feeling restless because of their intense hankering, within their minds they prayed at the lotus feet of çr^ Råmacandra for fulﬁllment of their wishes. He understood their hearts and granted them a boon to satisfy their desire. Afterwards, by çr^ Råmacandra’s mercy, they intently engaged in the appropriate bhajana, and upon attaining bhåva, they entered the wombs of gop^s and took birth as cowherd damsels by the arrangement of Yogamåyå. Some of them received the association of nitya-siddha-gop^s and easily participated in the råsa dance. The others, who did not receive that association, were enjoyed by their husbands and bore children. At the time of the råsa-l^lå, their husbands held them back and prevented them from participating in the råsa. As a result, these gop^s, being deeply agitated in kù£òa-viraha (separation from Kù£òa), burned up all aßubha (impiety) in the ﬁre of that separation. By meditating on çr^ Kù£òa and embracing Him in their hearts, they received the bliss of union, which washed away their ßubha (mundane pious merits), allowing them to directly meet with çr^ Kù£òa in the råsa-sthal^.
Upani£adcar^ and çruticar^ Gop^s Some of the prominent çrutis (Upani£ads), who were thoroughly versed in subtle and profound philosophical
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considerations, were completely astonished to see the unparalleled fortune of the gop^s. To attain the same fortune as the Vraja maidens, they began to worship with intense desire. After a long time, çr^ Kù£òa was pleased with their worship and appeared before their eyes. Seeing Him, they offered their internal desire at His lotus feet. “O Kù£òa! After gazing at Your full beauty which defeats millions of Kåmadevas, we are submerged in amorous emotions and, like the gop^s, we are bewitched by kåma. Just as the vraja-dev^s of Gokula, enamoured by Your sweetness, served You with the intent of engaging in romantic pleasure, we fervently yearn to be related with You in the same manner. Please fulﬁll our hearts’ desire.” çr^ Kù£òa was pleased with their prayers and replied, “O çrutis, your desire is so high. It is extremely rare and most difﬁcult to attain the mood of the gop^s. Nevertheless, by My mercy your desires will be fulﬁlled in your next life when you will take birth as young cowherd maidens from the wombs of gop^s in Vraja.” In this way, it has been recommended to engage in sådhana-bhajana by following the procedure adopted by those sådhakas who achieved a gop^ form in prakaéa Vraja after executing severe austerities for many, many births. However, just as ﬁnal instructions are more authoritative, one will reap greater beneﬁt and quicker results by following çr^man Mahåprabu’s special associates, çr^ R¨paRaghunåtha and the other Gosvåm^s.
text 12 tåni cårccana bhaktåv ahaígrahopåsanå mudrå nyåsa dvårakådhyåna rukmiòy ådi-p¨jåd^ny ågama ßåstra vihitåny api naiva
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kåryyåòi. bhakti-mårge ‘smin kiñcit kiñcit aíga vaikalye ‘pi do£åbhåva ßravaòåt. yad uktam – “yån åsthåya naro råjan na pramådyeta karhicit. dhåvan nim^lya vå netre na skhalen na pated iha.” iti “na hy aígopakrame dhvaìso mad bhakter uddhavåòv api.” iti ca “aígi vaikalye tv asty eva do£aè. yån ßravaòotk^rtanåd^n bhagavad dharmånåßritya ity ukteè.” ”ßr¨ti smùti puråòådi pañcaråtra vidhiì vinå aikåntik^ harer bhaktir utpåtåyaiva kalpate.” ity ukteß ca. lobhasya pravarttakatve ’pi nija bhåva prati k¨låny uktåni sarvvåòi ßåstra-vihitånåì tyågånaucityam iti buddhyå yadi karoti tadå dvårakå-pure mahi£^ jana parijanatvaì pråpnoti. yad uktam – “riraìsåì su£éhu kurvvan yo vidhi-mårgeòa sevate. kevalenaiva sa tadå mahi£^tvam iyåt pure.” kevalenaiva kùtsnenaiva na tu nija bhåva-pratik¨lån mahi£^ p¨jådin kåìßcit kåìßid aìßån parityajyetyarthaè. “nirò^te kevalam iti triliígan tv eka kùtsnayoè” ity amaraè. kevalena vidhimårgeòa pure mahi£^tvaì mißreòa mathuråyåm iti vyåkhyå nopapadyate. pure yathå mahi£^tvaì tathå mathuråyåì kiì r¨patvam? kubjå parikaratvam iti cet kevala vaidh^ bhakti phalåd api mißra vaidh^ bhakti phalasya apakar£aè khalu anyåya eva. “råmåniruddha pradyumna rukmiòyå sahito vibhuè.” iti gopåla tåpan^ ßruti dù£éyå rukmiò^ pariòayo mathuråyåm ity ato rukmiò^ parikaratvam iti vyåkhyå tu na sårva laukik^. rådhå-kù£òopåsakaè kathaì kubjåì vå rukmiò^ì vå pråpnoti iti dvit^yaß cånyåyaè. vastutas tu lobha pravarttitaì vidhi-mårgeòa sevanam eva rågamårga ucyate vidhi-pravarttitaì vidhi-mårgeòa sevanañ ca vidhimårga iti. vidhi-vinåbh¨taì sevanan tu ßruti smùtyådi våkyåd utpåta pråpakam eva.
Rågånuga-sådhakas are advised not to practice ahaígrahopåsanå (considering oneself as non-different from the object of worship), nyåsa (various elaborate practices for chanting mantras and doing arcana), meditation on the
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moods of Dvårakå, and worship of Rukmiò^ and other queens, even though these are included in the limb of arcana and are mentioned in Tantra çåstra. It is understood from ßåstra that on the path of rågånugå-sådhana-bhakti, there is no fault if some of the limbs of sådhana are not followed completely. In the conversation between Nimi and the Nava Yogendras in çr^mad-Bhågavatam (11.2.35), it is said: yån åsthåya naro råjan na pramådyeta karhicit dhåvan nim^lya vå netre na skhalen na pated iha
“O King, the followers of this bhakti path, having accepted the shelter of bhagavad-dharma, are never afﬂicted by misfortune. Even if one runs along with eyes closed, one will never slip or fall from the path.” na hy aígopakrame dhvaìso mad-bhakter¨ddhavåòv api (Bhåg. 11.29.20)
Bhagavån çr^ Kù£òa also told Uddhava, “O Uddhava, shortcomings in one’s performance of certain limbs of bhakti do not prove detrimental in this devotional path for one who has just begun practicing.” The word yån refers to taking shelter of the principal limbs of bhakti (ßravaòa, k^rtana and so on), whereupon it is not considered a fault to overlook any other limb. In addition, Dhùta-Brahma-Yåmala declares: ßr¨ti-smùti-puråòådi-pañcaråtra vidhiì vinå aikåntik^ harer bhaktir utpåtåyaiva kalpate (quoted in Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu 1.2.101)
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“Even though one may be engaged in exclusive devotion toward çr^ Hari, if one transgresses the regulations of the ßastras like the ßruti, smùti, puråòas or the pañcaråtra, his bhakti will simply be the cause of disturbance.” When a sådhaka is overcome by devotional greed, he is no longer controlled by the regulations of ßåstra. However, if in his bhajana he continues to follow those instructions of ßåstra which are unfavorable to his own moods, such as meditation on Dvårakå and so on, considering them to be compulsory, he will become an associate of the mahi£^s (queens) of Dvårakå upon attaining perfection. The ßåstras provide proof for this. riraìsåì su£éhu kurvvan yo vidhi-mårgena sevate kevalenaiva sa tadå mahi£itvam iyåt pure (BRS 1.2.303)
“Even if one has a strong desire to enter into the closest amour with the Divine Beloved but performs service in vidhi-mårga only, one will become an associate of the mahi£^s of Dvårakåpur^.” In this ßloka, the word kevala, meaning kùtsnenaiva, indicates that if one is exclusively dedicated to following vidhi-mårga without foregoing worship of the mahi£^s or any other limb which is unfavorable to one’s moods, one will attain the position of a parikara of the Dvårakå mahi£^s. The Amara-ko£a Sanskrit dictionary conﬁrms the deﬁnition of the word kevala as ‘only’. Some propose that by engaging in sådhana in vidhimårga only, one attains the servitorship of the mahi£^s of Dvårakå Dhåma. And if one performs sådhana in which vidhi-mårga is mixed with råga-mårga, one becomes a
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maidservant of the mahi£^s of Mathurå Dhåma. However, such an explanation gives rise to many questions as it has no logical reasoning behind it. The ﬁrst question is this: if becoming a mahi£^ of Dvårakåpur^ means to become an associate of Rukmiò^, Satyabhåmå and other queens, then what does it mean to become an associate of the Mathurå mahi£^s? It is inconsistent to reply that it means to become a parikara of Kubjå-dev^. From the viewpoint of rasa as described in the rasa-ßåstras, the position of Kubjå is inferior to that of Rukmiò^ and the other queens. Thus, the conclusion would be that mixed råga-vaidh^-mårga gives a result inferior to vaidh^-mårga alone. There is not a shadow of a doubt that this would be highly unjustiﬁed. One may present the statement from Gopåla-Tåpan^ Upani£ad, “The omnipotent çr^ Kù£òa resides eternally in Mathurå Dhåma with çr^ Baladevacandra, çr^ Anir¨ddha, çr^ Pradyumna and çr^ Rukmiò^-dev^.” This would mean that Rukmiò^ was married in Mathurå, and that çr^ Kù£òa also resides there with Her and His other associates. Hence, attaining the position of the Mathurå mahi£^s, which is the fruit of råga-mißrita (mixed) vaidh^-bhakti, means becoming an associate of Rukmiò^ in Mathurå. This explanation is also illogical, because not everyone accepts that Rukmiò^ was married in Mathurå. Why should a sådhaka become the parikara of Kubjå or Rukmiò^-dev^ by worshiping Rådhå and Kù£òa? This is a second inconsistency. In råga-mårga, one is inspired by genuine greed and serves according to vidhi, the regulated path, whereas in vidhi-mårga one serves being prompted by ßåstra. According to the evidence ßruti-smùtipuråòådi presented in the Nårada-Pañcaråtra, serving çr^ Kù£òa without following regulations causes disturbance only.
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çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti The rules and regulations meant for ahaígrahopåsanå, mudra, nyåsa, meditation on the moods of Dvårakå, and worship of Rukmiò^ and the other queens, although mentioned in Tantra çåstra, need not be followed by rågånugasådhakas. Here ahaígrahopåsanå means the worship by which one thinks, “I am brahma.” The rågånuga-sådhaka should execute sådhana-bhajana by remembering and following the moods of his cherished Vrajavås^s for whom he has greed, such as Subala, çr^dåma and other sakhås, or Nanda Båbå and Yaßodå Maiyå, or Lalitå, Vißåkhå, R¨pa Mañjar^ and other vraja-ramaò^s. He should not imagine himself to be çr^dåma, Subala Sakhå, Yaßodå or Lalitå. This type of worship, called ahaígrahopåsanå, is prohibited here. Some neophyte, so-called sådhakas, considering themselves to be Lalitå, Vißåkhå or Nanda-Yaßodå, decorate their male bodies with ornaments meant for a woman and call themselves “Lalitå Sakh^.” But this improper behavior is forbidden by established rules of conduct. Such people bring disgrace to the name of the Gauà^ya Vai£òavas. In ßåstra we ﬁnd descriptions of different types of nyåsa: £aà-aòga-nyåsa, p^éha-nyåsa, aíga-nyåsa, kara-nyåsa, and many others. These are various elaborate procedures prescribed for chanting mantras and doing arcana. As they are unfavorable to the mood of rågånugå-bhakti, they too have been forbidden. Meditation on Dvårakåpur^ and worship of the mahi£^s are predominated by aißvarya-bhåva. çr^ Kù£òa, decorated like the emperor of emperors, sometimes resides there in His four-handed form, holding the conch, disk, club and
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lotus ﬂower. He and His associates identify themselves as k£atriyas, and the royal queens, being k£atriyåò^s, are also endowed with a high degree of aißvarya. They are the wives of Kù£òa, married according to Vedic injunctions. Their love, or pr^ti, is classiﬁed as samañjaså, or inhibited. However, Kù£òa in Vraja is nava-kißora naéavara gopa-veßa veòukara 3, and His internal associates are the gopas and gop^s of Vraja. The gopa-ramaò^s have samarthå-rati (love capable of controlling Kù£òa), which is superior to samañjasårati. Therefore, a rågånuga-sådhaka need not follow the rules and regulations of ßåstra related to meditation on Dvårakå and worship of the mahi£^s. In rågånugå-bhakti, if a person takes shelter of those essential practices, such as ßravaòa, k^rtana and so on, which are considered to be the aíg^ (the very body) of bhagavad-dharma, there is no fault if he fails to observe a few of the other limbs. One important point to be noted here is that the nine kinds of bhakti (ßravaòa, k^rtana and so on), or the ﬁve limbs (sådhu-saíga, nåma-k^rtana, bhågavat-ßravaòa, vraja-våsa, ßr^ vigraha-sevå), or three limbs (ßravaòa, k^rtana, smaraòa) are not only the main aígas or limbs of bhakti, but are actually aíg^, the origin of all aígas. That is, besides being the primary sådhana, they are also the sådhya, or goal. However, the abovementioned processes of nyåsa, mudrå, meditation on Dvårakå, and so on do not constitute that sådhana which has the nature of aíg^; they are merely limbs of the prime aíga of arcana. Therefore, as they are unfavorable to the cultivation of the moods of rågånugå-bhakti, exclusion 3. eternally youthful, expert in dancing, dressed as a cowherd boy, and carrying a ﬂute
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of these limbs is not harmful. However, any neglect of the prime limbs, which are in fact aíg^, would prove harmful. Especially when one is absorbed in the principal aígas of ßravaòa, k^rtana, smaraòa and so on, any laxity in observing other limbs is not considered to be a fault. Some people have the mistaken belief that it is not necessary to follow the rules and regulations delineated in the Vedic ßåstras or to accept çr^mad-Bhågavatam, the crownjewel of all evidence. They think that one can become a rasika-bhakta by practicing intense, single-pointed bhakti according to one’s own whim. Due to their ﬁrm conviction in this misconception, they fail to follow the indispensible practices of observing Ekådaß^ and Kårtika vratas (vows), taking shelter of guru, and understanding the sentiments described in çr^mad-Bhågavatam. They impudently advertise themselves as being rasika and take pride in being råga-mårga devotees. To emphasize this point, the verse ßr¨ti-smùti-puråòåd^ from Bhakti-RasåmùtaSindhu has been cited here.
text 13 atha rågånugåyå aígåny anyåni bhajanåni kåni k^dùßåni kiì svar¨påòi kathaì karttavyåni akarttavyåni vety apek£åyåm ucyate. svåbh^£éa-bhåvamayåni, svåbh^£éa bhåva-sambandh^ni, svåbh^£éa bhåvånuk¨låni, svåbh^£éa bhåvåviruddhåni, svåbh^£éa bhåva-viruddhåni, iti pañca vidhåni bhajanåni ßåstre dùßyante. tatra kånicit sådhya sådhana r¨påòi, kånicit sådhyaì premåòaì prati upådåna- kåraòåni, kånicit nimitta kåraòåni, kånicit bhajana cihnåni, kånicid upakårakåòi, kånicit apakårakåòi, kånicit taéasthåni, iti. etåni vibhåjya darßyante.
f i r s t i l l u m i nat i o n
Which limbs are to be practiced in rågånugå-bhakti? How many types are there? What are their characteristics? Which are essential, and which are to be disregarded? To answer these questions, ßåstra sets down ﬁve types of devotional practices: svåbh^£éa-bhåva-maya – saturated with one’s cherished mood svåbh^£éa-bhåva-sambandh^ – related to one’s cherished mood svåbh^£éa-bhåva-anuk¨la – favorable to one’s cherished mood svåbh^£éa-bhåva-aviruddha – neutral, or not opposed, . to one’s cherished mood svåbh^£éa-bhåva-viruddha – detrimental to one’s cherished mood. Here, svåbh^£éa means the mood that a sådhaka aspires to attain. Some of these ﬁve categories are both the sådhana and sådhya. (That is, the nature of the practices never changes; the only difference is that in the stage of sådhana they are in an unripe state, while in the stage of sådhya they are ripe.) To achieve the goal of prema, some are direct, or ingredient, causes (upådåna-kåraòa) and others are indirect, or instrumental, causes (nimitta-kåraòa); some are signs of bhajana (such as tilaka, Tulas^ målå, dress meant for the different åßramas, and so on); some are helpful; some are neutral; and some are harmful. All of these classiﬁcations will be explained.
text 14 tatra dåsya-sakhyåd^ni svåbh^£éa bhåva mayåni, sådhya sådhana r¨påòi. guru-pådaßrayato mantra japa dhyånåd^ni sådhya
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pratyupådåna-kåraòatvåd bhåva sambandh^ni “japen nityam ananya-dh^è” ity ådy-ukte nitya kùtyåni, “japyaè svåbh^£éa saìsarg^ kù£òa-nåma mahå manuè” iti gaòoddeßa d^pikokteè, siddha r¨peòånugamyamånånåm api mantra-japa darßanåt upådåna kåraòatvena bhåva sambandh^ni “gåè sarvvendriyåòi vindan eva san mama gopa-str^-jana-vallabho bhavaty abh^£éa saìsargi kù£òa nåma eva mahå manuè sarvva mantra ßre£éha ity a£éådaßåk£aro daßåk£araß ca mantra eva arthåd ukto bhavat^ti gaòoddeßa d^pikå våkyårtho jñeyaè. sviya bhåvocita nåma r¨pa guòa l^lådi smaraòa ßravaòåd^ni upådåna kåraòatvåt bhåva sambandh^ni. tathå hi – “gitan^ nåmåni tad arthakåni gåyan vilajjo vicared asaíga” iti. “ßùívanti gåyanti gùòanty abh^k£òaßaè, smaranti nandanti tavehitaì janå” ity ådy ukter abh^k£na kùtyåni. atra rågånugåyåì yan mukhyasya tasyåpi smaraòasya k^rttanådh^natvam avaßayaì vaktavyam eva k^rttanasyaiva etad yugådhikåratvåt sarva bhakti-mårge£u sarva ßåstrais tasyaiva sarvotkar£a prati pådanåc ca. “tapåìsi ßraddhayå kùtvå premåàhyå jajñire vraje” ity ujjvala n^lamaòy ukter anugamyamånånåì ßrut^nåì premåòaì prati tapasåì kåraòatvåvagamåt kalåv asmin tapo‘ntarasya vig^tatvåt “mad arthaì yad vrataì tapaè” iti bhagavad ukter ekådaß^ – janmå£éamy-ådi vratåni tapo r¨påòi iti nimitta kåraòåni naimittika kùtyåni akaraòe pratyavåya ßravaòån nityåni. tatraivaikådaß^ vratasyånvaye “govinda smaraòaì nùòåì yad ekådaßy-upo£aòam” iti smùter ¨pådåna kåraòa smaraòasya låbhåd aìßena bhåva sambandhitvam api, vyatireke tu “måtù-hå pitùhå caiva bhråtù-hå guru-hå tathå” ity ådi skåndådi vacanebhyo guru-hantùtvådi ßravaòån nåmåparådha låbhaè “brahmaghnasya suråpasya steyino guru-talpinaè” iti vi£òu-dharmmottarokter anapåyi påpa viße£a låbhaß ca, iti nindåßravaòåd atyåvaßyaka kùtyatvam. kiì bahunå, “paramåpadam åpanne har£e vå samupasthite. naikådaß^ì tyajed yas tu tasya d^k£åsti
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vai£òava. vi£òavårpitåkhilåcåraè sa hi vai£òava ucyate.” iti skånda våkyåbhyåm ekådaß^ vratasya vai£òava lak£aòatvam eva nirddi£éam. kiñ ca vai£òavånåì bhagavad anivedita bhojana ni£edhåè, “vai£òavo yadi bhuñj^ta ekådaßyåì pramådataè” ity atra bhagavan niveditånnasyaiva bhojana ni£edho ‘vagamyate. kårttika vratasya ca tapo ‘ìßena nimitta tvaì ßravaòa k^rttanådy aìßena upådånatvam api. ßr^ r¨pa gosvåmi caraòånåm asakùd uktau kårttika devateti kårttika dev^ty ¨rjjadev^ti ¨rjjeßvar^ti ßravaòåd viße£ataè ßr^ vùndåvaneßvar^ pråpakatvam avagamyate. “ambar^£a ßuka-proktaì nityaì bhågavataì ßròu” iti smùteè krameòa ßr^ bhågavata ßravaòåder nityakùtyatvam uktam. “kathå imås te kathitå mah^yasåm” ity anantaraì “yas t¨ttama-ßloka-guòånuvådaè prast¨yate nityam amaígala ghnaè tam eva nityaì ßùòuyåd abh^k£òaì kù£òe ‘malåì bhaktim abh^psamånaè.” iti dvådaßokter daßama skandha sambandhi sva pre£éha ßr^ kù£òa carita ßravaòåder yathåyogyaì nitya-kùtyatvam abh^k£òa kùtyatvaì bhåva sambandhitvañ ca. nirmmålya tulas^ gandha candana målå vasanådi dhåraòåni bhåva sambandh^ni. tulas^ kå£éha-målå gop^candanådi tilaka nåma mudrå caraòa cihnådi dhåraòåni vai£òava cihòåny anuk¨låni. tulas^ sevana parikramaòa praòåmåd^ny apyanu k¨låni. gavåßvattha dhåtr^ bråhmaòådi sammånåni tad bhåvåviruddhåni upakårakåòi. vai£òava-sevå t¨kta samasta lak£aòavat^ jñeyå. uktåny etåni sarvåòi karttavyåni. yathaiva po£yåt kù£òåd api sakåßåt tat po£ake£v åvarttita dugdha-dadhi navan^tådi£u vrajeßvaryyå adhikaivåpek£å, ßr^ kù£òaì sva stanya payaè pibantaì bubhuk£um apyapahåya tad^ya dugdhottåraòårthaì gatatvåt. tathaiva råga vartmånugamana rasåbhijña bhaktånåì po£yebhyaè ßravaòa k^rtanådibhyo’pi tat po£ake£v ete£u sarve£u paramaivåpek£aòaì naivånucitam. ahaígrahopåsana nyåsa mudrå dvårakå-dhyåna mahi£y-arcanåd^ny apakårakåòi na karttavyåni. puråòåntara
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kathå ßravaòåd^ni taéa-sthåni. atra bhakteè saccidånanda r¨patvån nirvikåratve’pi yad upådånatvådikaì tat khalu durvitarkyatvåd eva bhakti ßåstre£u “tatra prema vilåsåè syur bhåvåè snehådayas tu £aé” ity ådi£u vilåsa ßabdena vyañjitaì, yathå rasa-ßåstre vibhåvådi ßabdena, atra khalu sukha bodhårtham eva upådånådi ßabda eva prayukta iti k£antavyaì sadbhiè.
Dåsya, sakhya, våtsalya and mådhurya are called svåbh^£éa bhåva maya (saturated with one’s cherished mood). Hearing about, glorifying and performing other limbs of bhajana in these moods nourish the sådhaka’s creeper of prema. Thus, these activities are called bhåva-maya-sådhana. Upon the manifestation of prema, such ßravaòa, k^rtana and so on is called bhåva-maya-sådhya. Hence, these practices of bhajana are both the means and the goal. The practices of bhajana, beginning with taking shelter of çr^ Guru and including mantra-japa, meditation and so on, are upådåna-kåraòa, the ingredient, or material, cause for attaining the goal of prema, and are called bhåvasambandh^ (related to one’s desired feeling or mood). çåstra enjoins a perpetual duty in the phrase japen nityam ananya-dh^è: “One must do japa every day with onepointed attention.” Gaòoddeßa D^pikå states that it is one’s duty to chant the kù£òa-nåma mahå-mantra which is associated with one’s desired relationship with Kù£òa (japyaè svåbh^£éa saìsarg^ kù£òa-nåma-mahåmanuè). The japa or k^rtana of ßr^ kù£òa-nåma that speciﬁcally alludes to those whom one follows in siddha-r¨pa should be understood to be bhåva-sambandh^, because it is upådånakåraòa, the ingredient cause of bhåva. Which is the kù£òa-nåma-mahå-mantra associated with one’s desired relationship? In reply to this question,
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Gaòoddeßa D^pikå presents the following explanation: In the word Govinda, the syllable go means ‘having pervaded all my senses’. Thus, Govinda means ‘the beloved of the gop^s, Gop^-janavallabha, having pervaded all my senses, splendidly resides there.’ Therefore, the term mahåmantra refers only to that kù£òa-nåma which is associated with one’s own desired relationship with Him. Because of this explanation, the eighteen-syllable gopåla-mantra has been called sarva-mantra-ßre£éha, the best of all mantras. In conclusion, the sådhana comprised of ßravaòa-k^rtana of çr^ Kù£òa’s name, form, qualities and pastimes as appropriately related to one’s own mood is known as bhåvasambandh^ (due to its being the upådåna-kåraòa, or ingredient cause of bhåva). In these two ßlokas, çr^mad-Bhågavatam advises: gitan^ nåmåni tad arthakåni gåyan vilajjo vicared asaígaè
“Completely giving up material attachments, one should wander freely unembarrassed while singing about the sweetness of çr^ Kù£òa’s name and beauty” (11.2.39). ßùòvanti gåyanti gùòanty abh^k£òaßaè smaranti nandanti tavehitaì janåè
“The devotees achieve supreme bliss by incessantly hearing about, glorifying and remembering Your pastimes” (1.8.36). These proofs from ßåstra conﬁrm that continuous engagement in bhåva-sambandh^-sådhana is obligatory. It has been mentioned earlier that smaraòa is the primary limb of rågånugå-bhakti. But one should understand that smaraòa is dependent on k^rtana. In the present age of Kali, it is the practice of k^rtana that grants the eligibility
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to enter into bhajana, because as all the ßåstras proclaim, k^rtana has monarchy over all the other limbs of bhakti and bestows the highest result. In çr^ Ujjvala-N^lamaòi, it is said that the çrutis, following the mood of the gop^s, performed austerities with ßraddhå and, upon attaining full prema, took birth in Vraja. This proves that performance of penances is one cause for attaining gop^-prema. Here tapasyå means fasts for Ekådaß^, Janmå£éam^ and so on, because in the present Kali Yuga other types of austerities are condemned. Bhagavån has personally said, “Vows performed for My sake are called tapasyå.” Thus, fasts for Ekådaß^ and Janmå£éam^ and other such austerities are nimitta-kåraòa, instrumental causes for enhancing one’s bhåva. Failure to perform these occasional duties is harmful, and thus they are to be accepted as perpetual obligations. In this vein, the smùtißåstras further explain that to fast on Ekådaß^ is accepted as govinda-smaraòa, remembrance of Govinda. On the basis of this evidence, we can see that observing Ekådaß^, Janmå£éam^ and other vratas leads to attaining smaraòa, which is upådåna-kåraòa. Therefore, such vratas are considered partially bhåva-sambandh^. From the perspective of prohibitions, Skanda Puråòa declares that people who fail to observe Ekådaß^ take on sin equal to killing one’s mother, father, brother, and guru. Disregarding Ekådaß^ and other fasts is regarded as an offense to the holy name. It is also written in Vi£òu Dharmottara that, while ßåstra offers various means of atonement for crimes such as killing a bråhmaòa, drinking liquor, kidnapping, and harboring lusty desires for the wife of one’s guru, there are no penances that can eradicate the sin incurred by taking grains on Ekådaß^.
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Therefore, regular observance of Ekådaß^ vrata is accepted as obligatory and should be followed without question. In Skanda Puråòa, it is said, “People who do not abandon their Ekådaß^ fast, even in the presence of dreadful calamities or untold happiness, have attained Vai£òava d^k£å in the true sense,” and “Those who dedicate all their activities at the lotus feet of Vi£òu are genuine Vai£òavas.” These two statements from Skanda Puråòa conﬁrm that it is incumbent upon Vai£òavas to observe Ekådaß^. Vai£òavas are always forbidden to accept anything not offered to Bhagavån, but on Ekådaß^, Vai£òavas are prohibited from accepting grains, even if it is mahå-prasåda and taken out of inattentiveness. Kårttika vrata as an aspect of austerity is nimitta-kåraòa, and as hearing and glorifying is upådåna-kåraòa. In many places, çr^ R¨pa Gosvåm^ has mentioned that çr^ Rådhikå, as the presiding deity of Kårttika, is called Kårttika-dev^, Urjå-dev^, Urjeßvar^ and so on. Observing Kårttika vrata presents a special opportunity for the sådhaka to attain Vùndåvaneßvar^ çr^mat^ Rådhikå. Hence, Kårttika vrata is compulsory. ”He Ambar^ßa! Bhågavat, spoken by çuka, should be heard every day.” This statement from the smùti declares that hearing çr^mad-Bhågavatam is a perpetual duty. “I have gloriﬁed the lives of great personalities to you. Those who are aspiring for vißuddha-bhakti at the lotus feet of çr^ Kù£òa should regularly hear the attributes of Uttamaßloka Bhagavån, the destroyer of all inauspiciousness.” This statement from the Twelfth Canto (SB 12.3.15) establishes that hearing about the character of one’s beloved çr^ Kù£òa as related in the Tenth Canto is a continual duty in the category of bhåva-sambandh^.
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Accepting tulas^, sandalpaste, perfume, garlands and garments which have been offered to Bhagavån is bhåvasambandh^. Wearing a tulas^-wood målå and adorning the body with Vai£òava signs such as tilaka, stamps of the holy name and of the Lord’s footprints marked in gop^-candana, and so on are bhåva-anuk¨la, or favorable to the development of one’s desired mood. Serving Tulas^, doing parikramå and offering praòåma are also bhåva-anuk¨la. Since it is helpful to honor the cow, the aßvattha (banyan or p^pala) tree, the myrobalan tree, the bråhmaòas and so on, such aígas are called bhåva-avir¨ddha, neutral to the development of the desired sentiments. Vai£òava sevå includes all the special qualities of the four practices of bhajana already described and must be performed along with them. All of the practices mentioned above are to be accepted as regular duties. For example, it is seen that Yaßodå Maiyå gives more importance to diligently looking after the boiled milk, curd, and butter with which she will nourish çr^ Kù£òa than to Kù£òa Himself. In the middle of feeding her son breast-milk, she put Him down in order to rescue the boiling milk, although He was not yet satisﬁed. Similarly, it is also not improper for rågånuga-bhaktas conversant with rasa to pay more attention to the aforementioned aígas, which directly nourish ßravaòa, k^rtana and so on. Since ahaígrahopåsanå, nyåsa, mudrås, meditation on Dvårakå and worship of the mahi£^s are a hindrance to råga-mårga-sådhana, they are prohibited. Hearing discourses on Puråòas other than çr^mad-Bhågavatam is neutral, that is, neither favorable nor unfavorable. Although bhakti is sac-cid-ånanda-svar¨på and is not subject to transformation, still we have used the terms
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upådåna-r¨på, and so on, just to help us understand this difﬁcult subject matter more easily. In rasa-ßåstra, the words vibhåva, anubhåva, and so on have been used to describe rasa; similarly, upådåna and other words have been used here to make this subject easy to comprehend. May the saintly devotees forgive me for this.
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora Vùtti In Bhakti Sandarbha (Anuccheda 273), çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ says: ataeva yady anyåpi bhaktiè kalau karttavyå tadå tat saìyoge naivety uktam
“In Kali Yuga, if one is practicing other limbs of bhakti, it is obligatory to perform them along with harinåmasaík^rtana.” çr^la Sanåtana Gosvåm^j^ has also said that harinåma-saík^rtana is the topmost out of all the aígas of bhakti, including smaraòa and other limbs: manyåmahe k^rttanam eva sattamaì lolåtmakaika sva-hùdi sphuratsmùteè våci sva-yukte manasi ßrutau tathå d^vyat parån apy upakurvad åtmavat (Bù. Bhåg. 2.3.148)
“We consider that k^rtana is superior to smaraòa because smaraòa appears in the heart only, and the heart is ﬂickering and unsteady by nature. K^rtana, however, directly manifests on the organ of speech and automatically paints the mind with its own hue. The sound of k^rtana, ultimately, not only satisﬁes one’s own ears, but just as it attracts
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our own åtmå, it satisﬁes the other sevakas who are also listening to the k^rtana.” Smaraòa does not have this power. Therefore, only k^rtana is capable of subduing the mind, which is more restless than the wind. Moreover, without k^rtana the mind is incapable of performing smaraòa. The mind cannot be made steady by any means other than k^rtana. This is the deep meaning of the above ßloka by çr^la Sanåtana Gosvåm^. kù£òasya nånå-vidha-k^rttane£u tan-nåma-saík^rttanam eva mukhyam tat-prema sampaj-janane svayaì dråk ßaktaì tataè ßre£éhatamaì mataì tat (Br. Bhåg. 2.3.158)
“Among the many types of ßr^-kù£òa-k^rtana, the k^rtana of His name is topmost and supremely worshipable. Through ßr^ nåma-saík^rtana, the supreme wealth of kù£òa-prema manifests in the sådhaka’s heart very quickly. This ßr^ nåma-saík^rtana is independently capable of bestowing pure love for Kù£òa, and therefore, compared to smaraòa and other limbs of bhakti, it is considered the foremost.” Furthermore, ßr^ nåma-saík^rtana is both sådhana and sådhya. This is the conclusion of çr^la Sanåtana Gosvåm^ and other prem^ Vai£òava åcåryas.
thus ends the first illumination
fter quitting the sådhaka-deha, the prem^-bhaktas, who for a long time have enthusiastically aspired for the direct service of Bhagavån, mercifully receive darßana of çr^ Kù£òa along with His associates. Kù£òa grants them their desired service one time, and bestows upon them their transcendentally blissful gop^ form. That very gop^ form, by the sway of Yogamåyå, emerges from the womb of a gop^ in prakaéa Vùndåvana, where Kù£òa descends with His eternal associates. Therefore, O greatly eager anuråg^ devotees, do not fear. Rest assured. All is auspicious for you.
DVITîYAê PRAKÄçAê second illumination
anu “na håniì na glåniì na nija-gùha-kùtyaì vyasanitåì na ghoraì nodagh¨ròåì na kila kadanaì vetti kimapi. varåíg^bhiè svåíg^kùta-suhùd anaígåbhi rabhito, harir vùndåraòye parama-nißam uccair viharati.” ity ådibhya eva ßr^ vùndåvaneßvaryådi-prema-vilåsa-mugdhasya ßr^ vrajendra-s¨nor na kvåpi anyatråvadhåna-sambhava ity avas^yate. tathå sati nånå dig deßa vartibhir ananta rågånug^ya bhaktaiè kriyamåòaì paricaryådika kena sv^kartavyaì? vijñaptis tava påéhådikañ ca kena ßrotavyam? tad aìßena paramåtmanaivåìßåìßinor aikyåd iti cet samådhir ayaì samyag ådhir eva tådùßa-kù£òånurågi-bhaktånåm. tarhi kå gatiè? såk£åt ßr^mad-uddhavoktir eva. så ca yathå – “mantre£u måì vå upah¨ya yat tvam akuòéhitåkhaòàa sad åtma bodhaè. pùccheè prabho mugdha ivåpramattas tan me mano mohayat^va deva.” asyårthaè – “mantre£u jaråsandha-vadha råjas¨yådy artha gamana vicårådi£u prastute£u måì vai nißcitam upah¨ya yat pùccheè uddhava tvam atra kiì karttavyaì tad br¨hi iti pùccheè apùcchaè akuòéhitaè kålådinå akhaòàaè parip¨ròaè sadå sårvadika eva åtmano bodhaè samvic chaktir yasya sa mugdha iva yathå anyo mugdho janaè pùcchati tathety arthaè tat tava yugapad eva maugdhyaì sårvajñyañ
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ca mohayat^va mohayaty eva. atra mugdha iva tvaì na tu mugdhaè iti. mohayat^va na tu mohayati iti vyåkhyåyåì saígaty abhåvåt. asaígate£u karmåòy an^hasya bhavo’bhavasyety ådi-våkye£u madhye etad våkyasyopanyåso vyarthaè syåd ity atas tathå na vyåkhyeyam. tataß ca dvårakå-l^låyåì saty api sårvajñye yathå maugdhyaì tathaiva vùndåvana-l^låyåm api saty api maugdhye sårvajñyaì tasyåcintya-ßakti-siddham eva mantavyam. ataeva varòitaì ßr^-l^låßuka-caraòaiè “sarvajñatve ca maugdhe ca sårvabhaumam idaì maha iti.”
çr^ Kù£òa is the embodiment of rasa and is always immersed in amorous pastimes (rasa-vilåsa). na håniì na glåniì na nija-gùha-kùtyaì vyasanitåì na ghoraì nodagh¨ròåì na kila kadanaì vetti kimapi varåíg^bhiè svåíg^kùta-suhùd anaígåbhirabhito harir vùndåraòye parama-nißam uccair viharati
“Surrounded by the beautiful Vraja maidens, çr^ çyåmasundara, having accepted apråkùta-kåma (kandarpa, transcendental lust) as His heart’s nearest and dearest friend, is always so absorbed in romantic intrigues in çr^ Vùndåvana that He remains completely unaware of anything else – any kind of loss, lamentation, household duties, calamity, fear, anxiety, or defeat at the hands of His enemies or anyone else.” This evidence from ßåstra reveals that Vrajendra-nandana çyåmasundara is so captivated in His loving affairs with çr^mat^ Rådhikå and the other young wives of Vraja that He has no chance even to think about anything else. This being the case, who then accepts the service rendered by countless rågånuga devotees situated in so many countries in all the directions? Who listens to the various kinds of
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prayers and praises (stava-stuti) that they offer to Him? One may resolve this uncertainty by saying that çr^ Vrajendra-nandana’s aìßa or portion, Paramåtmå, resides in every living entity. Since there is no difference between the portion and the origin, it is Paramåtmå who accepts the service and hears the prayers and hymns of the rågaanuga devotees – this itself is çr^ Vrajendra-nandana’s accepting and listening. However, for a rågånuga-bhakta of Kù£òa, such a proposition is as painful as a crippling disease. What then is the solution? çr^ Uddhavaj^ provides the answer with these words: mantre£u måì vå upah¨ya yat tvam akuòéhitåkhaòàa-sadåtma-bodhaè pùccheè prabho mugdha ivåpramattas tan no mano mohayat^va deva (Bhåg. 3.4.17)
“He Prabhu! O my Lord! While pondering, ‘Is it proper or not for Me to go there to kill Jaråsandha, attend the råjas¨ya-yajñå and perform other duties?’ You called me over and, just like an ordinary, simple-minded person, asked me, ‘O Uddhava, what is My duty in this situation?’ Although You are full of unlimited, eternal knowledge which is undivided and unimpeded by time and space, still You questioned me, just as an innocent person approaches someone wise for advice about some weighty matter. By simultaneously displaying childlike unawareness (mugdhatå) and omniscience (sarva-jñatå), You are bewildering me.” Uddhava is saying, “Some people explain that in reality You are not perplexed but are only acting so, and that
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You appear to be bewildering me but I am not really bewildered.” However, their explanation is inconsistent. One may try to justify such an interpretation by inappropriately citing seemingly comparable scriptural statements such as karmåòy an^hasya (“You perform karma without any endeavor”) and bhavo ‘bhavasya (“You are unborn, yet You take birth”). However, since this situation is different, such an explanation is wrong. Just as we must accept mugdhatå in Dvårakå l^lå despite the presence of sarva-jñatå, similarly, in Vùndåvana l^lå we are obliged to acknowledge çr^ Kù£òa’s omniscience brought about by His inconceivable potency, despite the presence of mugdhatå. L^låßuka Bilvamaígala ëhåkura has given an identical explanation in Kù£òa-Karnåmùta (verse 83): “We see that sarva-jñatå and mugdhatå co-exist in each and every one of Bhagavån’s pastimes. Therefore, we must accept this as being accomplished by His inconceivable potency.”
text 2 atra sarva-jñatvaì mahaißvaryyam eva na tu mådhuryaì, mådhuryyaì khalu tad eva yad aißvaryya vinåbh¨ta kevala naral^låtvena maugdhyam iti sth¨la dhiyo bruvate.
Someone may propose: “One should understand that sarvajñatå (omniscience) here indicates an abundance of mahåaißvarya (great opulence) devoid of mådhurya (sweetness), while mådhurya is simply the mugdhatå (bewilderment) that results from completely setting aside aißvarya and imitating nara-l^lå, human-like behavior,” but only dullheaded people will speak like this.
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text 3 mådhuryyådikaì nir¨pyate. mahaißvaryasya dyotane vådyotane ca nara-l^latvånatikramo mådhuryam. yathå p¨tanå pråòahåritve’pi stana c¨£aòa lak£aòa nara-båla-l^låtvam eva. mahå kaéhora ßakaéa sphoéane’py ati sukumåra caraòa traimåsikyottåna-ßåyi bålal^latvam. mahå d^rgha dåmåßakya bandhatve’pi måtù bh^ti vaiklavyam. brahma baladevådi mohane’pi sarvajñatve’pi vatsacåraòa l^latvam. tathå aißvaryya sattva eva tasyådyotane dadhi payaß cauryaì gopa-str^ låmpaéyådikam. aißvarya rahita kevala naral^latvena maugdhyam eva mådhuryyam ity ukteè kr^àå capala pråkùta nara-bålake£v api maugdhyaì, mådhuryyam iti tathå na nirvåcyam.
Therefore, the conclusion regarding mådhurya and related topics is that whether mahå-aißvarya is exhibited or not, if the mood of human-like pastimes is not transgressed even slightly, then it is called mådhurya. For example, when çr^ Kù£òa killed the demoness P¨tanå, He enacted the pastime of sucking her breast, behaving just like an ordinary human child. While breaking the terrifying and hard-hearted cart demon (çakaéasura) with His extremely tender lotus feet, çr^ Kù£òa maintained His human-like behavior as a small baby of only three months, lying ﬂat on His back. Even when Mother Yaßodå could not bind Him with the longest rope, Kù£òa appeared completely perturbed out of fear of her. In Brahma-vimohana-l^lå, having bafﬂed Brahmå, Baladeva and everyone else, Kù£òa was seen tending the cows and calves just like an ordinary human boy, even while personally remaining omniscient. Moreover, even though aißvarya is present when Kù£òa is seen performing the pastimes of stealing milk and yogurt
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and acting lustily towards the gopa-ramaò^s (the enchanting young cowherd maidens), that aißvarya is not apparent. If mugdhatå were to be called mådhurya simply because without displaying any aißvarya, it corresponds to human activities, then the mugdhatå shown by a restless and playful mundane child would also have to be called mådhurya. Therefore, it is completely wrong to explain mådhurya in this way.
text 4 aißvaryaì tu nara-l^latvasyånapek£itatve sati ^ßvaratvåvi£kåraè. yathå måtù-pitarau prati aißvaryaì darßayitvå – etad våì darßitaì r¨paì pråg janma smaraòåya me. nånyathå mad bhavaì jñånaì marttya liígena jåyate. ityuktam. yathå arjjunaì prati “paßya me r¨pam aißvaram” ity uktvå aißvaryyaì darßitam. vraje’pi brahmåòaì prati mañju mahima darßane paraè sahasra catur bhujatvådikam ap^ti.
To exclusively manifest ^ßvara-bhåva, the sentiment of being the supreme controller of existence, while disregarding the human-like mood of nara-l^lå, is called aißvarya. When revealing His magniﬁcence, Kù£òa said to His parents çr^ Vasudeva and Devak^, “O Father! O Mother! I have shown you My four-handed form just to remind you of your previous birth; otherwise, you would not have understood Me properly through My human-like characteristics” (Bhåg. 10.3.44). In the same way, He told Arjuna (G^tå 9.5), “Behold My magniﬁcent form!” and revealed His aißvarya. In çr^ Vùndåvana, too, even while displaying the glories of His sweetness, He showed Brahmå thousands and thousands of His four-handed forms.
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text 5 atha bhakta ni£éham aißvaryya-jñånam (1). ataeva “yuvåì na naè sutau såk£åt pradhåna pur¨£eßvarau” ity ådi vasudevokteè “sakheti matvå prasabhaì yad uktam” ity arjunokteß ca ^ßvaro’yam ity anusandhåne’pi hùt-kampa-janaka sambhrama gandhasya anudgamåt sv^ya bhåvasyåti sthairyam eva yad utpådayati tan mådhuryya-jñånam. yathå – “vandinas tam upadeva gaòå ye, g^tavådya-valibhiè paribabruè.” iti “vandyamåna caraòaè pathi vùddhaiè.” iti ca yugala g^tokteè go£éhaì prati gavånayana samaye brahmendra nåradådibhiè kùtasya kù£òa stuti g^ta vådyaì p¨jopahåra pradåna p¨rvaka caraòa-vandanasya dù£éatve’pi ßr^dåma subalåd^nåì sakhya-bhåvasyåßaithilyam. tasya tasya ßrutatve’pi vrajåbalånåì madhura-bhåvasyåßaithilyam. tathaiva vraja-råja kùta tad å£våsana våkyair vrajeßvaryå api nåsti våtsalyaßaithilya gandho’pi praty uta dhanyaivåhaì yasyåyaì mama putraè parameßvara iti manasy abhinandane putra-bhåvasya dåràhyam eva. yathå pråkùtyå api måtuè putrasya pùthv^ßvaratve sati tat putra prabhåvaè sph^ta evåvabhåti. evaì dhanyå eva vayaì ye£åì sakhå ca parameßvara iti yåsåì preyån parameßvara iti sakhånåì preyas^nåì ca sva sva-bhåva dåràhyam eva jñeyam. kiì ca saìyoge sati aißvaryya-jñånaì na samyag avabhåsate, saìyogasya ßaityåt candråtapa-tulyatvåt virahe tvaißvaryyajñånaì saìyag avabhåsate virahasyau£òayå s¨ryåtapa-tulyatvåt. tad api hùt-kampa sambhramådaråy-abhåvån naißvaryya-jñånam. yad uktam–“mùgayur iva kap^ndraì vivyadhe lubdha dharmå striyam akùta vir¨påì str^-jitaè kåmayånåm. balim api balimatvåve£éayad dhvåík£avad yas tad alam asita sakhyair dustyajas tat kathårtha” iti. atra vrajaukasåì govardhana-dhåraòåt p¨rvaì kù£òa ^ßvara iti jñånaì nås^t. govardhana-dhåraòa varuòaloka gamanånantaraì tu kù£òo’yam ^ßvara eveti jñåne’py ukta prakåreòa ßuddhaì mådhuryya-jñånam eva p¨ròam. varuòa
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vakyenoddhava våkyena ca såk£åd ^ßvara-jñåne’pi “yuvåì na naè sutåv iti” vasudeva våkyavat vrajeßvarasya “na me putraè kù£òa” iti manasy api manåg api noktiè ßruyate iti tasmåd vrajasthånåì sarvathaiva ßuddham eva mådhuryya-jñånaì p¨ròaì purasthånåì tu aißvaryya-jñåna mißraì mådhuryya-jñånaì p¨ròam.
Now the description of devotees who are steadfast in the conception of aißvarya will be presented. çr^ Vasudeva told çr^ Kù£òa and çr^ Baladeva, “You are not my sons. You are directly the Supreme Personalities of Godhead.” Arjuna also, after seeing Kù£òa’s universal form, said, “O Kù£òa! Please forgive me for whatever I may have said earlier out of carelessness or affection, not realizing Your glories” (G^tå 11.41). The statements of these devotees reveal that their våtsalya and sakhya-bhåva diminished upon seeing çr^ Kù£òa’s opulence. This is called aißvarya-jñåna. But in mådhurya-jñåna, even knowing full well that Kù£òa is îßvara, one will not register even the slightest scent of that awe which causes the heart to shudder because feelings of natural intimacy are already ﬁrmly established there. According to Yugala-G^ta (Bhåg. 10.35), “Gandharvas and other demigods devoted to the ßrutis surrounded çr^ Kù£òa on all four sides and worshiped Him with hymns, ﬂowers, and other paraphernalia,” and “Grandsire Brahmå and others offered obeisances at His lotus feet as He herded the cows along the path.” These statements from YugalaG^ta explain that çr^dåma, Subala and other cowherd boys saw Brahmå, Indra, Nårada and other demigods offer stutis with songs and musical instruments, worship with all paraphernalia, and obeisances at Kù£òa’s lotus feet as He returned from the forest. Nevertheless, their mood of natural friendship with Kù£òa was not even slightly inhibited.
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After hearing all these prayers, the vraja-sundar^s were also seen to exhibit an unshakable staunchness in their madhura-bhåva. And in the same way, there was not the slightest breach in the maternal mood of Vrajeßvar^ çr^mat^ Yaßodå, when she heard the words Vrajaråja Nanda Båbå spoke to pacify the Vrajavås^s. Rather, her love for çr^ Kù£òa was nourished and increased, and she said, “I am blessed that my son is directly Parameßvara, the Supreme Controller.” This declaration indicates that the surge of maternal pride in the heart of Yaßodå strengthens her våtsalyabhåva. In the same way, an ordinary mother whose son becomes the ruler of the world at once demonstrates even more motherly love for him. The sakhås say, “We too are blessed that our friend is Parameßvara,” and the vraja-gop^s conﬁrm, “We are blessed that the Supreme Lord is our beloved.” From these assertions we can understand that the moods of the Vrajavås^s are strengthened by the awareness that çr^ Kù£òa is îßvara. At the time of saìyoga (meeting), aißvarya-jñåna is not apparent. Meeting is like the cool rays of the moon, but separation burns like the scorching rays of the sun. Therefore, in separation, aißvarya-jñåna manifests openly. Still, when reverential sentiments momentarily appear, if the heart does not palpitate, and if feelings of awe are not aroused, this cannot really be accepted as aißvarya-jñåna. For example, in Bhramara-G^ta, the gop^s say, “In His Råma Ävatåra, from a hidden place like a hunter, He pierced Vånara Råja (the monkey king) Båli with arrows. Generally, a hunter kills animals out of excessive greed for ﬂesh, but çr^ Råma killed Båli without reason. Thus, He is even more cruel than a hunter. Furthermore, being
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subjugated by a woman (His wife S^tå), He cut off the lusty ç¨rpaòakhå’s nose and ears. In His Våmana Ävatåra, like a crow He accepted the worship of Mahåråja Bali and bound him with the noose of Varuòa-deva. Therefore, we do not want any kind of friendship with that black-complexioned person. Still, we continue to talk about Him as it is extremely difﬁcult for us to give this up.” This ßloka from Bhramara-G^ta (Bhåg. 10.47.17) reﬂects the distinct moods of the vraja-sundar^s, who did not nurture any special reverence for çr^ Kù£òa even after knowing about His majestic aspect. Before çr^ Kù£òa lifted Govardhana Hill, the Vrajavås^s had no aißvaryabhåva for Him. After Kù£òa lifted Govardhana and also when He returned from Varuòa-loka, even though they had become aware that Kù£òa is the Supreme Lord, the Vrajavås^s’ hearts were ﬁlled with feelings of mådhuryajñåna just as before. çr^ Vasudevaj^, referring to Kù£òa and Baladeva, said, “Neither of You are my sons.” Similarly, after hearing from Varuòa-deva and Uddhava that Kù£òa is Bhagavån, çr^ Nanda Mahåråja experienced some aißvaryajñåna for Kù£òa arise in his heart, but he never felt that “Kù£òa is not our son.” Nor is it mentioned anywhere that he ever spoke in this way to anyone. Thus, the Vrajavås^s were always full of spotlessly pure mådhurya-jñåna. The mådhurya-jñåna of the associates of Dvårakå-pur^, however, was mixed with aißvarya.
text 6 nanu pure vasudeva-nandanaè kù£òo’yam aham ^ßvara eva iti nara-l^latve’pi jånåty eva yathå tathaiva nanda-nandanaè kù£òaì
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svam ^ßvaratvena vraje jånåti na vå? yadi jånåti tadå dåmabandhanådi l^låyåì måtù bh^ti hetukåßru-påtådikaì na ghaéate. tadådikam anukaraòam eveti vyåkhyå tu manda-mat^nåm eva na tv abhijña bhaktånåm. tathåvyåkhyån asyåbhijña sammatatve “gopy ådade tvayi kùtågasi dåma yåvad yå te daßåßru kalilåñjana sambhramåk£am. vaktraì nil^ya bhaya bhåvanayå sthitasya sa måì vimohayati bh^r api yad vibheti.” ity uktavatyåì kuntyåì moho naiva varòyeta. tathå hi bh^r api yad vibheti ity uktyaiva kuntyå atraißvarya jñånaì vyakt^-bh¨taì bhaya bhåvanayå sthitasya ity antarbhayasya ca tayå satyatvam evåbhimatam. anukaraòa måtratve jñåte tasyå moho na sambhaved iti jñeyam. yadi ca svam^ßvaratvena na jånåti tadå tasya nitya jñånånanda ghanasya nitya jñånåvaraòaì kena kùtam iti? – atrocyate. yathå saìsåra-bandhe nipåtya duèkham evånubhåvayituì måyåvùttir avidyå j^vånåì jñånam åvùòoti, yathå ca mahå madhura ßr^ kù£òa l^lå sukham anubhåvayituì guòåt^tånåì ßr^ kù£òa parivåråòåì vrajeßvaryyåd^nåì jñånaì cic chakti-vùttir yoga-måyaivåvùòoti, tathaiva ßr^ kù£òam ånanda svar¨pam apy ånandåtißayam anubhåvayituì cic chakti såra vùttiè premaiva tasya jñånam åvùòoti. premòas tu tat svar¨pa-ßaktitvåt tena tasya vyåpter na do£aè. yathå hy avidyå sva vùttyå mamatayå j^vaì duèkhayitum eva badhnåti, yathå daòàan^ya janasya gåtra-bandhanaì rajju nigaàådinå månan^ya janasyåpi gåtra-bandhanam anargha sugandha s¨k£ma kañcuko£ò^£ådinå, iti avidyådh^no j^vo duèkh^, premådh^naè kù£òo’ti sukh^. kù£òasya premåvaraòa svar¨paè sukha viße£a bhoga eva mantavyaè, yathå bhùígasya kamalako£åvaraòa r¨paè. ataevoktaì ‘nåpai£i nåtha hùdayåmburuhåt svapuìsåm iti praòaya rasanayå dhùtåíghri-padme iti ca. kiñ ca yathaivåvidyayå svatåratamye jñånåvaraòa tåratamyåt j^vasya pañca-vidha kleßa tåratamyaì vidh^yate, tathaiva premòåpi sva-tåratamyena jñånaißvaryyådy-åvaraòa tåratamyåt sva vi£ayåßrayayor ananta prakåraì sukha tåratamyaì vidh^yate iti.
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tatra kevala premå ßr^ yaßodådi niåéhaè sva vi£ayåßrayau mamatå rasanayå nibadhya paraspara vaß^bh¨tau vidhåya jñånaißvaryyådikam åvùtya yathådhikaì sukhayati na tathå devakyådi ni£ého jñånaißvaryya mißra iti. tasmåt tåsåì vrajeßvaryyåd^nåì sannidhau tad våtsalyådi prema mugdhaè ßr^ kù£òaè svam ^ßvaratvena naiva jånåti. yat tu nånå dånava dåvånalådy-utpåtågama kåle tasya sårvajñåì dù£taì tat khalu tat tat prem^ parijana pålana prayojanikayå l^lå-ßaktyaiva sph¨ritaì jñeyam. kiñ ca maugdhya samaye’pi tasya sådhaka bhakta paricaryyådi grahaòe sårvajñyam acintya ßakti siddham iti pråk pratipåditam. tad evaì vidhi-mårga rågamårgayor viveka aißvaryya mådhuryyayor viveka aißvaryya-jñåna mådhuryya-jñånayor vivekaß ca darßitaè. svak^yå parak^yåtvayor vivekas tu ujjvala-n^lamaòi vyåkhyåyåì vistårita eva. tatra vidhi-mårgeòa rådhå-kù£òayor bhajane mahå vaikuòéhastha goloke khalv avivikta svak^yå parak^yå-bhåvam aißvaryyajñånaì pråpnoti. madhura bhåva lobhitve sati vidhi-mårgeòa bhajane dvårakåyåì ßr^ rådhå satyabhåmayor aikyåt satyabhåmå parikaratvena svak^yå-bhåvam aißvaryya jñåna mißra mådhuryyajñånaì pråpnoti. råga-mårgeòa bhajane vraja-bh¨mau ßr^ rådhå parikaratvena parak^yå-bhåvaì ßuddha mådhuryya-jñånaì pråpnoti. yadyapi ßr^ rådhikå ßr^ kù£òasya svar¨pa-bh¨tå hlådin^ ßaktiè, tasyå api ßr^ kù£òaè eva tad api tayor l^lå sahitayor evopåsyatvaì na tu l^lå rahitayoè, l^låyåì tu tayor vraja-bh¨mau kvåpy år£a-ßåstre dåmpatyaì na pratipåditam iti ßr^ rådhå hi prakaéåprakaéa prakåßayoè parak^yaiva iti sarvårtha ni£kar£a saík£epaè.
Here a question may be raised: Just as Vasudeva-nandana çr^ Kù£òa performed human-like pastimes in Dvårakå with the awareness that “I am the Supreme Lord,” did Nanda-nandana çr^ Kù£òa have this same perception in Vùndåvana l^lå or not? If one says, “Yes, He knew it,”
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then at the time of being bound by Mother Yaßodå in dåma-bandhana-l^lå, tears would not have ﬂowed from His eyes out of fear of Her. It is not ﬁtting for learned devotees to suggest that His fear and tears of fright were simply a show. Only less intelligent people will say this. If the learned devotees would accede to this explanation, then Kunt^-dev^ would not have said, “O Kù£òa! Yaßodå Maiyå decided to punish You when You broke the yogurt pot so that You would not create such mischief again in the future. When, out of anger, she started to bind You with a rope, both of Your eyes became agitated out of fear; tears mixed with kajjala ﬂowed down Your cheeks and drenched Your chest. At that time, frightened of Your mother, although fear personiﬁed is himself afraid of You, You lowered Your head and hid Your face behind her. The remembrance of You in such a condition leaves me feeling bewildered” (Bhåg. 1.8.31). There is no indication from this statement that Kunt^dev^ is actually confused. However, her speech reveals that bewilderment and aißvarya-jñåna are both present in her. The phrase “fear personiﬁed is himself afraid of You” indicates Kunt^-dev^’s aißvarya-jñåna. Her words “frightened of Your mother” signify that the fear in the heart of Kù£òa was not artiﬁcial; it was genuinely felt by Him. This is the conclusive opinion of Kunt^-dev^. If she had thought that Kù£òa was pretending to be afraid, she would not have been puzzled. But if we say that He did not know He is Bhagavån, then the question arises as to what covers the eternal knowledge of Kù£òa, who is the personiﬁcation of unending bliss and knowledge. We see that ignorance (avidyå), as the function of måyå, throws all the living entities into the bondage of
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the material world and veils the knowledge of their constitutional position to make them experience only suffering. In the same way, the embodiment of the function of cit-sakti, that is, l^lå-ßakti Yogamåyå, covers the knowledge of çr^ Kù£òa’s associates, Vrajeßvar^ Yaßodå Må and others, who are beyond the three modes of nature. This enables them to taste the mellows of the happiness of çr^ Kù£òa’s supremely sweet pastimes. Similarly, the essence of cit-ßakti, namely prema, also covers çr^ Kù£òa’s knowledge of His own nature – that He is the very personiﬁcation of divine pleasure itself (ånanda-svar¨pa) – to enable Him to relish a greater abundance of ecstasy. Prema is also Kù£òa’s svar¨pa-ßakti, His internal, intrinsic potency. Therefore, there is no fault in its covering His svar¨pa, or identity. Ignorance binds the living entities by its tendency to create attachment, and thereby inﬂicts agony upon them, just as criminals are bound by ropes and chains, causing them to experience suffering. Conversely, respectable people ﬁnd great satisfaction in adorning themselves with pleasing, costly, fragrant, ﬁne, and soft clothes, like kurtås and turbans, although this also constitutes bondage. Similarly, the conditioned souls, bound by ignorance, experience only misery in the state of bondage, whereas Kù£òa becomes happy under the control of prema. Kù£òa savors great joy in being bound by prema, just as the bumblebee feels happy in being enclosed in the whorl of a lotus ﬂower. Therefore it is said, “He Nåtha! O Lord! You do not leave the lotus-like hearts of Your devotees,” and “Devotees have bound Your lotus feet with ropes of love.” The extent to which one’s knowledge is covered depends on the degree of his ignorance, and accordingly, he
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will experience ﬁve kinds of kleßa 1 (misery). Similarly, various degrees of prema suppress the knowledge and opulence of both the vi£aya (object) and åßraya (receptacle) of prema, enabling them to taste the happiness of unlimited varieties of rasa according to the level of their love. Thus, the prema of Yaßodå Maiyå and other Vrajavås^s (åßraya of prema) binds their vi£aya Kù£òa with the ropes of mamatå (possessiveness), and vice versa. By their prema, both vi£aya and åßraya bring one another under control, thus showering an excess of joy upon both. On the other hand, the prema mixed with aißvarya-jñåna found in Vasudeva, Devak^, and other Mathuråvås^s and Dvårakåvås^s is not capable of bestowing such happiness upon çr^ Kù£òa and His devotees. çr^ Kù£òa is so captivated by the våtsalya-prema of Vrajeßvar^ Yaßodå and the other older gop^s that He is not even aware that He is îßvara. When disturbances from demons and forest ﬁres occur, whatever sarva-jñatå is seen in çr^ Kù£òa is only to protect His dearmost devotees. One should understand that His l^lå-ßakti causes Him to momentarily display His omniscience. Furthermore, whatever sarva-jñatå is present at the time of mugdhatå is simply to allow Kù£òa to accept the service rendered by sådhakas. This sarva-jñatå also is instilled in Him by His inconceivable potency, as previously established. In this way I have expounded a philosophical deliberation on vidhi-mårga and råga-mårga, aißvarya and mådhurya, and aißvarya-jñåna and mådhurya-jñåna. I have also presented an elaborate analysis of the distinctions 1. avidyå – ignorance, asmitå – false ego, råga – attachment, dveßa – hatred, and abhiniveßa – perseverance in bodily enjoyments
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between svak^yå and parak^yå in Änanda-Candrikå, my commentary on Ujjvala-N^lamaòi (a summary of which is given at the end of this section of the book). By performing bhajana of Rådhå and Kù£òa in vaidh^mårga, one attains aißvarya-jñåna, which does not differentiate between svak^yå and parak^yå-bhåva in Goloka, within the realm of Mahå-Vaikuòéha. By having greed for madhura-bhåva and performing bhajana in vaidh^-mårga with the knowledge that çr^ Rådhå and Satyabhåmå are one, the sådhaka becomes an associate of Satyabhåmå in Dvårakå in svak^yå-bhåva, attaining mådhurya-jñåna mixed with aißvarya-jñåna. By having greed for madhurabhåva and performing bhajana in råga-mårga, one becomes an associate of çr^mat^ Rådhikå in Vrajabh¨mi in parak^yå-bhåva and attains ßuddha-mådhurya-jñåna. Although çr^mat^ Rådhikå is çr^ Kù£òa’s own pleasure potency, and çr^ Kù£òa is çr^mat^ Rådhikå’s svak^yå consort, it is nonetheless one’s perpetual duty to serve the Divine Couple, Rådhå-Kù£òa Yugala, along with Their pastimes, and not Kù£òa alone without His pastimes. None of the ßåstras written by the sages has determined that Rådhå and Kù£òa of Vraja are married. Therefore, çr^mat^ Rådhikå, in both prakaéa and aprakaéa manifestations, is attributed with parak^yå-bhåva, not svak^yå. In this way, the essence of all topics has been brieﬂy presented.
text 7 atha rågånugå bhakti majjanasyånartha nivùtti ni£éhå-rucy åsaktyantaraì prema-bh¨mikår¨àhasya såk£åt svåbh^£éa-pråptiprakåraè pradarßyate. yathojjvala n^la-maòau “tad bhåva baddha rågå ye janås te sådhane ratåè. tad yogyam anurågaughaì pråpyot-
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kaòéhånusårataè. ta ekaßo’thavå dvi-tråè kåle kåle vraje’bhavan” iti. anurågaughaì rågånugå bhajanautkaòéhyaì na tv anuråga sthåyinaì sådhaka-dehe’nurågotpatty asambhavåt. vraje’bhavann iti avatåra samaye nitya priyådyå yathå åvirbhavanti tathaiva gopikå-garbhe sådhana-siddhå api åvirbhavanti. tataß ca nityasiddhådi gop^nåì mahå-bhåva-vat^nåì saíga mahimnå darßana ßravaòa k^rtanådibhiè sneha måna praòaya rågånuråga mahåbhåvå api tatra gopikå-dehe utpadyante. p¨rva janmani sådhaka-dehe te£åm utpattya-sambhavåt. ataeva vraje kù£òa preyas^nåm asådhåraòåni lak£aòåni. yad uktam – “gop^nåì paramånanda ås^d govinda darßane. k£aòaì yuga-ßatam iva yåsåì yena vinå bhaved” iti. “truéir yugåyate tvåm apaßyatåm” ityådi ca. k£anasya yuga ßatåyamånatvaì mahåbhåva lak£aòam. nanu prema-bh¨mikår¨àhasya sådhakasya deha-bhaíge saty evåprakaéa prakåße gop^-garbhåj janmanå vinå eva gopikå-deha pråptau satyåì tatraiva nitya-siddha gopikå saígodbh¨tånåì snehåd^nåì bhåvånåì pråptiè syåd ity evaì kiì na br¨£e? maivam. gop^garbhåj janmanå vinå iyaì sakh^ kasyåè putr^ kasya vadh¨è kasya str^ ity ådi nara-l^latå vyavahåro na sidhyet. tarhy aprakaéa prakåßa eva janmåst^ti cen naivaì, prapañcågocarasya vùndåvan^ya prakåßasya sådhakånåì pråpañcika lokånåñ ca praveßådarßanena siddhånåm eva praveßa darßanena jñåpitåt kevala siddha bh¨mitvåt snehådayo bhåvås tatra sva sva sådhanair api t¨ròaì na phalanti, ato yogamåyayå jåta premåòo bhaktås te prapañca gocare vùndåvana prakåße eva ßr^ kù£òåvatåra samaye n^yante tatrotpatty-anantaraì ßr^ kù£òåíga-saígåt p¨rvam eva tat tat bhåva siddy-artham. tatra sådhaka bhaktånåì karm^ prabhùtinåì siddha bhaktånåñ ca praveßa darßanenaivånubh¨yate sådhaka bh¨mitvaì siddha bh¨mitvaì ca. nanu tarhy etåv antaì kålaì taiè paramotkaòéhair bhaktaiè kva sthåtavyam? tatrocyate. sådhaka-deha-bhaíga-samaye eva tasmai premavate bhaktåya cira samaya vidhùta såk£åt sevåbhilå£a
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mahotkaòéhåya bhagavatå kùpayaiva sa-parikarasya svasya darßanaì tad abhila£aò^ya sevådikaì cålabdha snehådi premabhedåyåpi sakùd d^yate eva yathå nåradåyaiva. cid-ånandamay^ gopikå tanuß ca d^yate. saiva tanur yogamåyayå vùndåvan^ya prakaéa prakåße kù£òa parivåra prådurbhåva-samaye gop^-garbhåd udbhåvyate. nåtra kåla-vilamba gandho’pi. prakaéa l^låyå api vicchedåbhåvåt. yasminn eva brahmåòàe tadån^ì vùndåvan^ya l^lånåì pråkaéya tatraivåsyåm eva vraja-bh¨mau, ataè sådhaka premi-bhakta-deha-bhaíga-sama-kale’pi sa-parikara ßr^ kù£òa prådurbhåvaè sadaivåsti, iti bho bho mahånurågi sotkaòéha bhaktå må bhai£éa susthiras ti£éhata svasty evåsti bhavadbhya iti.
How a rågånuga devotee directly attains the desired goal by gradually advancing through the stages of anartha-nivùitti, ni£éhå, ruci, åsakti and ﬁnally ascending to the realm of prema will now be described. Ujjvala-N^lamaòi states: tad bhåva baddha-rågå ye janås te sådhane ratåè tad-yogyam anurågaughaì pråpyotkaòéhånusårataè tå ekaßo ‘thavå dvi-tråè kåle kåle vraje ‘bhavan
“Those who were especially attracted to the moods of the Vrajavås^s performed sådhana-bhajana in råga-mårga. Eventually, they attained a wealth of suitable fervor required for rågånuga-bhajana and in due time, according to their eagerness, took birth in Vraja-bh¨mi, either alone or in groups of two or three.” Here the word anurågaugha in the original ßloka indicates appropriate eagerness for performing rågånuga-bhajana. It does not refer to the anuråga of sthåy^-bhåva, because there is no likelihood of this sthåy^-bhåva-anuråga manifesting in the sådhaka-deha. The phrase “took birth in Vraja” means that the perfected sådhakas took birth from the wombs of gop^s, just
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as the nitya-siddha-gop^s appeared at the time of Kù£òa’s descent. After that, the sådhana-siddha-gop^s gradually developed sneha, måna, praòaya, råga, anuråga, bhåva and mahåbhåva by the inﬂuence of associating with – seeing, hearing about and glorifying – the nitya-siddha-gop^s who are endowed with mahåbhåva. These moods could not possibly have arisen in the sådhaka’s previous material body. Therefore, çr^mad-Bhågavatam (10.31.15) describes the extraordinary characteristics of çr^ Kù£òa’s beloved damsels of Vraja in this way: The gop^s attained supreme pleasure by seeing çr^ Govinda and experienced just a moment’s separation from Him to be like the passing of hundreds of yugas. The vraja-sundar^s have stated, “We consider even the blink of an eye to pass like one yuga.” The gop^s’ experience of a moment lasting for aeons is a symptom of mahåbhåva. Here one may ask, “Why is it not said that, upon leaving his present body, a sådhaka who has attained prema directly receives the form of a gop^ in aprakaéa Vraja without taking birth from the womb of a gop^, and then, through the association of the nitya-siddha-gop^s, she would attain the different moods of sneha and so on?” The answer is, “No, we cannot say this because it cannot be reconciled with the human-like relationships that exist there. Without taking birth from the womb of a gop^, one cannot answer questions like, ‘Whose daughter is this sakh^?’ ‘Whose daughter-in-law and whose wife is she?’ ” A further question arises, “What is the harm if one says that they directly take birth in aprakaéa-prakåßa?” The answer is, “No, it cannot happen like this.” The sådhakas or conditioned souls cannot enter into the special transcendental manifestation of Vùndåvana, which is wholly
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beyond the material realm. Only siddhas, perfected souls, can enter there. Since it is siddha-bh¨mi, the fruit of attaining the bhåvas of sneha and so on through sådhana will not come easily. Therefore, before directly associating with Kù£òa, Yogamåyå takes the devotee who has attained prema to this Vùndåvana, which is perceived in the material universe. One takes birth there at the time of çr^ Kù£òa’s appearance so that these bhåvas (sneha and so on) can be perfected. It is seen that sådhaka-bhaktas, karm^s, and siddha -bhaktas all enter into the materially-perceived manifestation of Vùndåvana. Therefore, this Vùndåvana Dhåma is experienced both as sådhana-bh¨mi and siddhabh¨mi. Having attained prema, where do these most fervent devotees stay after leaving their sådhaka body and before attaining gop^-deha? The answer is that after quitting the sådhaka-deha, the prem^-bhaktas, who for a long time have enthusiastically aspired for the direct service of Bhagavån, mercifully receive darßana of çr^ Kù£òa along with His associates. This occurs even before they attain sneha and all the other moods savored in prema-vilåsa. Kù£òa grants them their desired service one time (just as He directly appeared before Nårada in his previous birth), and bestows upon them their transcendentally blissful gop^ form. That very gop^ form, by the sway of Yogamåyå, emerges from the womb of a gop^ in prakaéa Vùndåvana, where Kù£òa descends with His eternal associates. There will not be the slightest delay in this because prakaéa-l^lå, the manifested pastimes, continue to take place without any interruption in any of the innumerable brahmåòàas. Thus, the prem^-bhaktas take birth from the womb of a gop^ in that brahmåòàa in which Vùndåvana l^lå is being enacted.
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Kù£òa always appears with His associates when the sådhaka devotee who has attained prema leaves his body. Therefore, O greatly eager anuråg^ devotees, do not fear. Rest assured. All is auspicious for you.
çr^ Candrikå-Cakora-Vùtti After receiving prema in svar¨pa-siddhi, one cannot attain the perfection of one’s identity without taking birth from the womb of a gop^ in prakaéa Vraja. The Puråòas relate that once Mahådeva, lord of the demigods, nurtured an intense yearning to have darßana of the råsa-l^lå. He reached çr^dhåma Vùndåvana, but the gop^s stopped him on the border of Vraja, telling him that no one can enter without the order of Yogamåyå Pauròamås^. After hearing this from the gop^s, Mahådeva began to perform severe austerities (worship) to please çr^ Pauròamås^. Being satisﬁed with his worship, Yogamåyå appeared and asked him what boon he wanted. He expressed his wish to witness the råsa-l^lå. Holding his hand, Yogamåyå dipped him in Brahma Kuòàa. çaíkaraj^ immediately received the form of an extremely beautiful cowherd girl. Pauròamås^j^ instructed the new kißor^-gop^ to watch the råsa-l^lå from one of the kuñjas situated in the northeast corner of the råsa-sthal^. When råsa-l^lå began that night, this new gop^ watched the festivity from the appointed place. However, çr^ Kù£òa and the gop^s did not experience their special joy in that night’s l^lå and wondered why they were not feeling elated. They then suspected that an unqualiﬁed person must have somehow entered the arena. After searching in all directions, they came to suspect the new gop^ whom they found hiding inside the kuñja.
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The other gop^s asked her, “Today we are seeing you for the ﬁrst time. Whose daughter are you? What is your husband’s name? From which village do you come?” But the new gop^, unable to answer these questions, simply stared at them. The Vraja maidens were certain that she was an unqualiﬁed outsider, although afterwards, upon the request of Pauròamås^, çr^ Kù£òa and the gop^s allowed her to take darßana of råsa-l^lå from a distance. As Mahådevaj^ did not take birth from the womb of a gop^, he was unable to perfect his mood as a vraja-kißor^. Therefore, it is imperative to take birth as cowherd maiden from the womb of one of the gop^s of Vraja and marry a cowherd boy to perfect one’s identity. This activity takes place through the assistance of Yogamåyå. After this, by the association of nitya-siddhas, on attaining complete perfection, one receives the service of çr^ Kù£òa in aprakaéa-vraja.
text 8 “l^lå-vilåsine bhakti mañjar^ lolupåline. maugdhya sarvajñya nidhaye gokulånanda te namaè. dadåmi buddhi-yogaì taì yena måm upayånti te. ity ovocaè prabho tasmåd evåham arthaye. gop^kucålaíkùtasya tava gopendra-nandana. dåsyaì yathå bhaved evaì buddhi yogaì prayaccha me. ye tu rågånugå bhaktiè sarvåthaiva sarvadaiva ßåstra-vidhim atikråntå eva iti bruvate “ye ßåstra vidhim utsùjya yajante ßraddhayånvitaè” iti “vidhih^ nam asù£tånnam” ity ådi g^tokter garhåm arhanto muhur utpåtam anubh¨tavanto’nubhavanto’nubhavi£yanti cety alam ativistårena. hanta rågånugå vartma durddarßaì vibudhair api. paricinvas tu sudhiyo bhaktåß candrikayånayå.
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iti mahå mahopadhyåya ßr^mad vißvanåtha cakravarti mahåßaya viracitå råga-vartma candrikå samåptå.
O Gokulånanda! O L^lå-vilås^, O Enjoyer of amorous pastimes! You are like a honeybee attracted by and always relishing the beautiful, fragrant mañjar^s of bhakti, the budding ﬂowers of devotion, wherever they are found (in any devotee, and especially in çr^mat^ Rådhikå). You are the deep mine of mugdhatå and sarva-jñatå personiﬁed. I offer my praòåma to You. He Prabhu! You have personally conﬁrmed, “I give My devotees the intelligence by which they can attain Me.” Thus, I pray to You, O Vrajendra-nandana, please bestow upon me that intelligence by which I can attain sevå to You when You are decorated by the breasts of the gop^s. Three groups of persons are reprehensible: those who say that rågånugå-bhakti is always beyond all the different rules and regulations of ßåstra; “those who perform arcana with ßraddhå but abandon all rules”(G^tå 17.1: ye ßåstravidhim utsùjya); and “those who execute yajña disregarding the injunctions of ßåstra” (G^tå 17.13: vidhi-h^nam asù£éånnam). Because they disregard ßåstra, such persons have repeatedly experienced, are experiencing, and in the future will experience many disturbances. It is pointless to discuss this any further. Aho! This rågånuga-mårga is very difﬁcult to detect, even for the demigods. May deeply intelligent devotees come to know of it through this moonbeam, this Candrikå.
thus ends the second illumination
usbandhood and paramourship, beyond all piety and impiety (dharmådharma), brilliantly shine forth in çr^ Govinda, the hero of Goloka, in their pristine splendor. çr^la Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura
in connection with
SVAKîYÄ-PARAKîYÄ The Thoughts of çr^ J^va Gosvåm^ and çr^ Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura
e are presenting herein the essence of çr^la J^va Gosvåm^’s and çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura’s views on svak^yå (marital love) and parak^yå (extramarital love) imparted in both their commentaries on ßloka 2.21 of çr^ Ujjvala-N^lamaòi. Both mahåjanas have very skillfully given their respective visions of the same ultimate Absolute Truth from the point of view of tattva and l^lå, based on logic and proof from ßåstra.
The Opinion of çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ (1) According to the standards of mundane society, the characteristics which are attributed to an ordinary paramour (upapati) are in no way applicable to çr^ Kù£òa. There is no parak^yå-bhåva in nitya-l^lå. However, through måyå, for the nourishment of some special rasa, there is only a belief in paramour love (aupapatya) in prakaéa-l^lå. A similar illusion is also demonstrated in the Brahma-mohana-l^lå, the pastime in which Brahmå was bewildered.
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(2) In ßùígåra-rasa (amorous mellow), aupapatya, the love of a paramour, gives rise to rasåbhåsa. çùígåra-rasa has been described as very pure: ßùígo hi manmathod bhedas tad-ågamana-hetukaè uttama-prakùti-pråyo råsaè ßùígåra ^ßyate (Såhitya-Darpaòa 3.188)
In his explanation of the phrase uttama-prakùti-pråyaè, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ has quoted the words ßùígåraè ßucir ujjavalaè from the prominent Sanskrit dictionary, Amara-ko£a, which states that the three words ßùígåra, ßuci, and ujjvala are all synonyms. Therefore, the use of the word ßuci (pure) signiﬁes that there is never any possibility of the adharma of paramour love in the sacred and pure ujjvala-rasa. In another Sanskrit dictionary, Trikåòàaße£a, the word jåra is deﬁned as an illicit lover whose activities are considered abominable in the mundane realm. (3) The Nåéya-Alaíkåra ßåstra also describes a paramour as despicable. The Såhitya-Darpaòa states: upanåyaka-saìsthåyåì muni-guru patn^ gatåyåñ ca bahu-nåyaka-vi£ayåyåì ratau ca tathå ‘nubhava-ni£éhåyåì
“That rati (amorous desire) which a woman has for her paramour or for many lovers (nåyakas), a man has for the wife of a sage or guru, or which exists between a man and woman (nåyaka-nåyikå) who are not faithful to each other is considered improper in ßùígåra-rasa.” (4) çr^ Kù£òa personally pointed out the fault of extramarital love:
s vak î y Ä p a r ak î y Ä
asvargyam ayaßasyañ ca phalgu kùcchraì bhayåvaham jugupsitañ ca sarvatra hy aupapatyaì kula-striyåè (Bhåg. 10.29.26)
“For a woman from a respectable family, adulterous service to a paramour is always condemned. Such behavior spoils her passage to the other world, bars her from entering Svarga, and brings her disgrace in this world as well. Such sinful conduct is not only extremely low-class and ﬂeeting in nature but, even in the present, is also only a source of suffering, leading directly to a hellish existence.” (5) Par^k£itj^ also said: åpta-kåmo yadu-patiè kùtavån vai jugupsitam (Bhåg. 10.33.28). “With what motive did the self-satisﬁed yadu-pati çr^ Kù£òa, whose every desire is fulﬁlled, perform this reprehensible activity?” (6) These statements which describe the fault of an adulterer must be understood for nåyakas other than Kù£òa. It is not possible for Kù£òa to possess these ﬂaws as He has descended for the purpose of tasting madhura-rasa. (7) Kù£òa has a special, eternal marital relationship with the gop^s. In ßloka 37 of Brahma-Saìhitå, ånanda-cinmayarasa-pratibhåvitåbhis tåbhir ya eva nija-r¨patayå kalåbhiè, the word nija-r¨patayå means: sva-dåratvenaiva na tu prakaéa-l^låvat para-dåratva-vyavahåreòety arthaè. “In nitya-l^lå, the gop^s, who are permeated by transcendental blissful rasa, do not nourish the pastimes in the parak^yå mood in the same way that they do in prakaéa-l^lå.” In nitya-l^lå the gop^s, as the foremost of Lak£m^s, have no bhåva other than that of being Kù£òa’s eternally wedded wives. Therefore, in prakaéa-l^lå in the material world, the paradåratva of the gop^s, the mood of being the wives of men other than Kù£òa, is only manifested by måyå.
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(8) çåstra states that Kù£òa is the husband of the gop^s. Gautam^ya-Tantra (2.23) describes that Nanda-nandana çr^ Kù£òa is the husband of the gop^s who achieved perfection after many births: aneka janma siddhånåì gop^nåì patir eva vå nanda-nandana ity uktas trailokyå nanda-varddhanaè
çr^mad-Bhågavatam (10.33.35) also afﬁrms that çr^ Kù£òa is the husband of the gop^s, of the gop^s’ husbands, and of all embodied beings: gop^nåì tat-pat^nåñ ca sarve£åñ caiva dehinåm yo ‘ntaß carati so ‘dhyak£a eva kr^àana deha-bhåk
(9) Gopåla Tåpan^ Upani£ad (verse 23) conﬁrms that çr^ Kù£òa is svåm^, the husband of the gop^s – sa vo hi svåm^ bhavati. (10) Parak^yå bhåva is not possible for the Lak£m^s. çr^ Kù£òa’s vallabhås, His intimate beloveds, are Lak£m^s. They are regarded as Lak£m^s in Brahma-Saìhitå (verse 29) – lak£m^-sahasra-ßata-saìbhrama-sevyamånaì: “In Goloka Vùndåvana, Govinda is served by millions of Lak£m^s in the form of gop^s.” çr^ Kù£òa has also addressed çr^mat^ Rådhikå as akhila-loka-lak£m^, the Lak£m^ of all the worlds. Kù£òa is described as upapati only because He appears to be like a paramour in prakaéa-l^lå. (11) Rasa-ßåstra considers the following aspects of rati to be superexcellent: i) bahu-våraòatå – repeatedly forbidding the advances of your lover (thereby intensifying his desire); ii) pracchanna-kåmukatå – keeping your amorous desires hidden; and iii) durlabhatå – facing impediments in meeting with your beloved. This is applicable only in relation to mundane rasa-ßåstra.
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(12) Although the above-mentioned three aspects are not present in samarthå-rati (the love of the gop^s, which is capable of controlling Kù£òa), still ßùígåra-rasa is sufﬁciently nourished, so much so that even mådanåkhyamahåbhåva is observed in its highest degree. Therefore, there is no necessity whatsoever of upapati-bhåva. Even though it seems that upapati-bhåva exists in prakaéa-l^lå, it is simply an invention of måyå. In conclusion, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ has written: svecchayå likhitaì kiñcit kiñcid atra parecchayå yat p¨rvåpara-sambandhaì tat-p¨rvam aparaì paraì
“On this subject I have composed some parts according to my own desire and some parts according to the desire of others. Those parts [referring to parak^yå] which are related to the previous and following sections have been written out of my wish, and whatever is not consistent with these portions has been written out of the desire of others. It should be understood in this way.”
The Line of Thought of çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura çr^la Cakravart^påda maintains that çr^la J^va Gosvåm^påda is one of the prominent r¨pånuga Vai£òavas. It is not possible for him to give an explanation in favor of svak^yå, or marital love. Whatever he has explained supporting svak^yå, he has done simply to satisfy others. Therefore, concluding his explanation, he himself has agreed likhitaì kiñcid atra parecchayå (“I have written this to satisfy the desires of others”). To allow unqualiﬁed persons of different inclinations to understand that this inconceivable l^lå
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is completely immaculate, he has presented his commentary in support of svak^yå so that they too can come forward to meditate on this l^lå with unwavering faith. For the surrendered, intimate devotees of çr^man Mahåprabhu, however, this explanation can never be acceptable, because it is not fully consistent with some of the topics found elsewhere throughout çr^la J^va Gosvåm^’s commentary. (1) Aupapatya, that is, upapati-bhåva, is opposed to dharma and leads to hellish life. This statement refers only to worldly nåyakas. But how can there be even the slightest doubt regarding çr^ Kù£òa, the crown-jewel ruler of dharma and adharma? The meeting of mundane partners entails a touch of immorality, but l^lå-puru£ottama çr^ Kù£òa, who creates and destroys all the innumerable universes simply by a movement of His eyebrow, and the gop^s, who as the embodiments of hlådin^-ßakti are the most prominent among all His immeasurable potencies, can never be touched by this fault. Thus, çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ has written in NåéakaCandrikå: “It should be understood that whatever scholars have described as inferior about paroàhå-aupapatya (extramarital affairs between a married woman and her paramour) applies only to mundane lovers, and not to çr^ Kù£òa and the gop^s.” This is also the opinion of çr^ Kavi Karòap¨ra in his Alaíkåra-Kaustubha. This upapati-bhåva for the transcendentally perfect çr^ Kù£òa and parak^yå-bhåva for the gop^s are not defects (d¨£aòa); rather, they are their ornaments (bh¨£aòa). (2) çr^ Kù£òa’s prakaéa-l^lå is not illusory. In reality, there is no distinction between prakaéa and aprakaéa-l^lå. çr^la J^va Gosvåm^’s thought in regard to ßloka 43 of Brahma Saìhitå is worth considering and following. When çr^
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Kù£òa, to show mercy to the j^vas, manifests His l^låmådhurya in the material world, it is called prakaéa-l^lå. When this l^lå disappears from the eyes of the living entities in the material realm, it is called aprakaéa-l^lå. In LaghuBhågavatåmùta (1.244), çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ states: anådim eva janmådi l^låm eva tathådbhutåm / hetunå kenacit kù£òaè prådu£kuryåt kadåcana. “Even though Kù£òa is unborn, His birth and other pastimes are supremely wonderful. For various reasons, He manifests such greatly astonishing, transcendental l^lås in the material world.” (3) It is illogical to think that there is an eternal husband-wife relationship in aprakaéa-l^lå and an illusory paroàhå-upapati-bhåva in prakaéå-l^lå, because paroàhåupapati-bhåva is splendidly manifest throughout råsa-l^lå, the crown-jewel of all Kù£òa’s pastimes, from beginning to end. It is totally inappropriate to consider this pastime as måyika, or illusory. In each and every chapter of RåsaPañcådhyåy^ 1, there are many proofs supporting extramarital love and paramourship. çr^ çukadeva Gosvåm^ has clearly established paroàhå and upapati-bhåvas by quoting the following verses spoken directly by çr^ Kù£òa and by the gop^s: tå våryamåòåè patibhiè (10.29.8), bhråtaraè patayaß ca vaè (10.29.20), evaì yat-patyapatya suhùdåm anuvùttir aòga (10.29.32), tad-guòån eva gåyantyo nåtmågåråòi sasmaruè (10.30.44), pati-sutånvaya-bhåtù-båndhavån (10.31.13), evaì mad-arthojjhita-loka-veda-svånåì (10.32.21), kùtvå tåvantam åtmånaì yåvat^r gopa-yo£itaè (10.33.19), månyamånåè sva-pårßva-sthån svån dårån vrajaukasaè (10.33.37), and so on. 1. The ﬁve chapters in the 10th Canto (29-33) of çr^mad-Bhågavatam describing råsa-l^lå
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(4) If råsa-l^lå were illusory, a product of måyå, then how would we be able to prove the superiority of the gop^s over the Lak£m^s? On the basis of råsa-l^lå, çr^madBhågavatam (10.47.60) afﬁrms that the gop^s are greater than the Lak£m^s: nåyaì ßriyo ‘òga u nitånta-rateè prasådaè. “The gop^s received that supremely rare mercy of çr^ Kù£òa which even Lak£m^ could never attain.” If råsal^lå were illusory, then the greatness of the gop^s would be unfounded and false. (5) Råsa-l^lå has not been described by anyone anywhere as an affair between married couples. (6) If we reject those sections of the Tenth Canto which validate upapati-bhåva, considering them erroneous, then we cannot derive any beneﬁt from råsa-l^lå. In this context, çr^ Kù£òa has personally said: na påraye ‘haì niravadhya-saìyujåì (SB 10.32.22). “Your meeting with Me is most pure and faultless in all respects. I am unable to repay you for your saintly behavior.” If råsa-l^lå is måyika, then the proof provided by this portion of the verse which substantiates the superexcellence of prema is rendered baseless and insubstantial. (7) In this same ßloka, the phrase ya måbhajan durjarageha-ßùíkhalåè also offers evidence supporting paroàhå and upapati-bhåva. Cutting the indestructible shackles of household life, the Vraja damsels served çr^ Kù£òa with singlepointed attention. Expressing His inability to repay them for their loving service and sacriﬁce, çr^ Kù£òa was rendered eternally indebted to them. He was thus controlled by the gop^s’ love. This is the eternal and highest truth. If this råsal^lå is illusory, then this actual fact would also be false. (8) It is illogical to say that Kù£òa is deceitful and that, as a shrewd trick, He expressed His indebtedness to the
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gop^s only to ﬂatter them. Why, then, did Uddhava, the exalted scholar and crown-jewel of aikåntika-bhaktas, point out the gop^s’ selﬂess dedication to çr^ Kù£òa as the pinnacle of devotion if it is only illusory and transient? Why did he yearn to take birth as a creeper or grass in Vùndåvana in order to be bathed in the footdust of the gop^s? Äsåm aho caraòa-reòu-ju£åm ahaì syåì, vùndåvane kim api gulma-latau£adh^nåm (SB 10.47.61). Is it not proved by this ßloka that the gop^s’ prema is superior to that of the queens of Dvårakå? This prema is unequalled and superexcellent because the gop^s demonstrate intense, undivided anuråga for Kù£òa, having forsaken their family relations and even their virtuous conduct. If one thinks this sacriﬁce of the gop^s to be an illusory act of måyå, then the cause of the excellence of their prema would also have to be unreal. Thus, in turn, the statement of the aikåntika-bhakta çr^ Uddhava would be proved false as well. Would the proponent of such an opinion not be guilty of the fault of refusing to accept the words of trustworthy authorities? (9) The meaning of daßåk£ara and a£éadaßåk£ara (the ten- and eighteen-syllable) mantras is also full of paroàhåupapati-bhåva. This secret is not hidden from those who know the extraordinary power of ßabda (transcendental sound). (10) A glimpse of paroàhå-upapati-bhåva is seen in the different meditations and mantras for çr^ Kù£òa. (11) Sådhakas in the fully ripened stage of meditation directly perceive the moods of prakaéa-l^lå. Therefore, this l^lå is not transitory or illusory. The G^tå mentions that the birth and activities of Bhagavån are transcendental: janma karma ca me divyam evaì yo vetti tattvataè. The respected
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çr^ Råmånujåcårya, in his commentary on this ßloka, establishes the eternality of the birth and activities of Bhagavån and His associates. çr^ Madhus¨dana Sarasvat^ also explains that divya means apråkùta, beyond the material realm. The Puru£abodhan^ çruti (the Upani£ad which is explained in the paramparå of Pippalåda û£i) also states that Bhagavån’s pastimes are eternal: eko devo nitya-l^lånurakto bhakta-vyåp^ bhakta hùdayådy-åntaråtmå. In his sacred text entitled Vidvan-Maòàalana, çr^ Viééhalanåtha afﬁrms the timelessness of Bhagavån’s birth and activities. Bùhad-Våmana Puråòa also testiﬁes to the perpetual nature of prakaéa-l^lå. çr^ Bhagavån says, “By accepting Me as your paramour, all of you will develop boundlessly deep feelings of love and affection for Me. Thus, every aspect of your lives will be ﬁlled with success.” (12) The names of çr^ Bhagavån are eternal. For each of His l^lås, a speciﬁc name is designated. If His l^lås are transitory, then His names, like Råsa-Bihår^ and so on, would also have to be impermanent. If this were so, the essence of bhajana would also become false. To consider Bhagavån’s name to be temporary is actually nåmåparådha. (13) In çr^ Bhågavat-Sandarbha, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^caraòa has personally established that Bhagavån’s name, birth, activities, and so on are eternal. He also proves that the l^lås pertaining to Bhagavån’s form, incarnation, birth, activities, and associates are unlimited, timeless manifestations of His svar¨pa-ßakti. If all of these are eternal according to çr^la J^va Gosvåm^’s views, then how can paroàhå-upapati-bhåva-may^-l^lå be considered illusory?
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(14) It is not mentioned anywhere in ßåstra that the vraja-sundar^s were married to Kù£òa with the bråhmaòas and the sacriﬁcial ﬁre present as witnesses. Would çr^ çukadeva Gosvåm^ agree with anyone saying this? When Par^k£it Mahåråja raised a question, being doubtful about the upapati-bhåva of aptakåma çr^ Kù£òa, the establisher of dharma, çr^ çukadeva Gosvåm^ could have clearly stated that these gop^s were the married wives of Kù£òa, not of anyone else. Why, then, did he try to make Par^k£it Mahåråja understand the subject through arduous siddhånta? There is another point to be considered here. If çr^ Kù£òa had married in Vraja, the wedding would have taken place before His sacred thread ceremony was performed in Mathurå. Would this not be against årya-ßåstra, the scripture governing the behavior of civilized society? (15) We see that the word pati, husband, is mentioned in a few places. This does not refer to a married man. Rather, it should be understood as gati, meaning, “You are my everything, you are my ultimate shelter.” It is not always correct to say that pati refers only to a married man, the husband of a nåyikå. For example, in the chapter in UjjvalaN^lamaòi describing various types of nåyikås, the term svådh^na-bhartùkå (a woman who controls her husband) is used in relation to parak^yå. Furthermore, it may be said that Kù£òa has been described as the pati of some of the nåyikås, but He has no marital relationship with other nåyikås. If çr^ Kù£òa is the married husband of them all, then the topic ‘para-dåråbhimar£aòa’ (to enjoy with another’s wife – SB 10.33.27) would not arise. çr^madBhågavatam also mentions the vraja-dev^s’ husbands. Moreover, it is also stated that the gop^s never had union with their husbands at any time:
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na jåtu vraja-dev^nåì patibhiè saha saígamaè (Ujjvala-N^lamaòi 3.32)
(16) In the statement sa vo hi svåm^ bhavati from GopålaTåpan^, the word svåm^ indicates aißvarya, not marriage. This is authenticated in Påòini’s grammar (5.2.126), which says svåminn-aißvarya. However, some texts cite the following application: loke hi yasya hi yaè svåm^ bhavati, sa tasya bhoktå bhavat^bhi. “In this world, svåm^ is he who maintains and supports others (like a king or any magnanimous benefactor) and who is the enjoyer of all.” Therefore, the word svåm^ does not always refer to a husband. (17) All relationships in Vraja are transcendental. Wherever the word måyå is used, it should be understood as Yogamåyå. Therefore, çr^mat^ Rådhikå’s acceptance of Abhimanyu as Her husband should be seen as a transcendental arrangement. As one inseparable link in the chain of çr^ Bhagavån’s pastimes, this relationship is also not illusory. Yogamåyå is behind it. (18) çr^mat^ Rådhikå is the hladin^-ßakti of çr^ Kù£òa, His pleasure potency. Of this there is no doubt. The object of our adoration is Rådhå-Kù£òa Yugala along with Their special l^lås. To worship Rådhå-Kù£òa devoid of Their pastimes is outside our line of thought and concept of bhajana. (19) One may question why the Vraja maidens are seen to endure bad reputation, mental agony, and torment inﬂicted by their mothers-in-law and sisters-in-law who prohibit them from meeting with Kù£òa, whereas this is not so for Satyabhåmå, Rukmiò^ and the other queens. One might thus conclude that, compared to Rukmiò^, the gop^s’ position is inferior. However, just as apparently mundane
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distress is witnessed in the gop^s, who are ﬁlled with mahåbhåva, they are also seen to experience happiness to a much higher degree than others. (20) The gop^s’ relationship with Kù£òa is the result of their inconceivable anuråga. To establish this bond with Him, the cowherd maidens had to give up their family members, thus cutting themselves off from the path of respectability. However, they experienced all resultant anguish and unhappiness as the highest pleasure. Can we ﬁnd any other example of such an elevated expression of anuråga? Even p¨jyapåda çr^la J^va Gosvåm^’s cherished desire would be the unique and supra-mundane anuråga of the mahåbhåvavat^ gop^s; there is no doubt about this. Therefore, the supremely merciful çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ has written the verse svecchayå likhitaì kiñcit [see p. 83], indicating that the paramour relationship is also his coveted goal. If the marriages of the young girls of Vraja had occurred and been witnessed by guru, agni, and the bråhmaòas, then all the discussions in Ujjvala-N^lamaòi from beginning to end would be overturned. Therefore, J^va Gosvåm^’s statement denoting a husband-wife relationship has been written to satisfy the desires of others – parecchå. The ûg Veda (1.12.66, 1.17.117, 1.20.134, 6.55.4-5, 9.38.4, 10.162.5) and other ßruti-mantras mention the word jåra, a paramour, the lover of an unmarried girl (kanyå). The Chåndogya Upani£ad (1.66.4, 1.17.117, 118) and Änandagiri’s commentary on çaíkara-Bhåßya (2.13.2) also approve of parak^yå-bhåva as Våmadevya’s method of worship by såmopåsanå (as presented in the Såma Veda). In the commentary of Påòini (3.3.20 s¨tra, 743 Vårttika), we see the origin of the word jåra in the phrase jarayant^ti jåråè.
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Opinions of Other Vai£òavas Parak^yå-bhåva is the prime specialty in the sådhya and sådhana of the çr^ Gauà^ya Vai£òavas. Prior to them no Vai£òava åcårya had presented this principle. A hint of parak^yå-bhåva is seen in çr^ Kù£òa-Karòåmùta (ßlokas 9, 51, 53, 76, 77, 87, 90), in çr^mad-Bhågavatam RåsaPañcådhyåy^ (10.29.22, 25, 26, 10.33.27, 35), in the commentary on Muktåphala 5.14, and in the collections of poems of çr^ Caòà^dåsa and Vidyåpati. In çr^ Jayadeva Gosvåm^’s work, we deﬁnitely ﬁnd an indication of parak^yå-bhåva, although it is not explicitly mentioned. G^ta Govinda (12.14) mentions the word husband (patyur manaè k^litaì). However, from other references in G^ta Govinda, it does not appear that çr^mat^ Rådhikå is the married wife of çr^ Kù£òa: dehi pada pallavam udåram (10.9); part one, in the discussion of våsant^-råsa, çr^mat^ Rådhikå is seen from a distance; and Her måna is difﬁcult to pacify; and sukham utkaòéhitam gopa-vadhu-kathitaì vitanotu sal^lam (2.14). No other Vai£òava åcårya gave instructions for performing bhajana in parak^yå-bhåva prior to the Gauà^ya Vai£òavas. Many persons are under the impression that çr^ J^va Gosvåm^ favored svak^yå, but this suspicion is unfounded. çr^ R¨pa, çr^ Sanåtana, çr^ Raghunåtha dåsa, çr^ Kavi Karòap¨ra and other Gosvåm^s have described çr^ RådhåKù£òa’s l^lås in terms of parak^yå-bhåva. However, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ saw that those qualiﬁed to appreciate parak^yå-rasa or to perform bhajana in parak^yå-bhåva are very rare. He has, therefore, discussed worship by mantra (mantra-may^upåsanå, or the meditation on a single pastime described in a ßloka) in çr^ Kù£òa-Sandarbha (verse 153). çr^ R¨pa-
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Raghunåtha and other Gosvåm^s have mentioned in their books svårasik^-upåsanå, or sevå within a continuous ﬂow of l^lås that appears spontaneously in one’s bhajana. This svårasik^-upåsanå is, indeed, çr^man Mahåprabhu’s innermost cherished desire (mano’bh^£éa). Nowhere in their writings have the Gosvåm^s emphasized mantra-may^upåsanå. Svårasik^ bhajana and parak^yå-bhåva-bhajana are discussed in the original text of çr^ Bùhad-Bhågavatåmùta (1.7.82, 154-155; 2.5.84-85) and its commentaries. The example of bhajana given in the Uttara Khaòàa of BùhadBhågavatåmùta is simply presenting the process of svårasik^bhajana step by step. Moreover, the method of bhajana in sakhå or priya-narma-sakhå-bhåva is svårasik^, not mantramay^-paddhati. Even the mantras themselves have been explained as svårasik^. The following description is written in Bùhad-Bhågavatåmùta (2.1.77): gopårbha-vargaiè sakhibhir vane sa gå, vaìß^-mukho rak£ati vanya-bh¨£aòaè gopåòganå-varga vilåsa-lampaéo, dharmaì satåì laíghayat^taro yathå
“Decorated with forest ﬂowers, my worshipable Lord holds a ﬂute to His mouth and, along with His sakhås, takes the cows out to graze. Because He is a great debauchee, He always enjoys pastimes with the gop^s which violate the religious principles of the pious.” In mantra-may^-upåsanå, the meeting of çr^ RådhåKù£òa in one place is described. Thus, there is no possibility of practicing parak^yå-bhåva. çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ and çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura, in their commentaries on çr^ Ujjvala-N^lamaòi, have presented detailed deliberations on svak^yå and
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parak^yå. Both conclusions are appropriate in their respective places. The only difference is their angle of vision. çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ has favored svak^yå from the perspective of tattva, whereas çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura has supported parak^yå-bhåva from the viewpoint of l^lå. Just as in the material world there are innumerable universes, and in paravyoma there are countless Vaikuòéhas, similarly in çr^ Kù£òa-loka (Goloka Vraja) there are inﬁnite prako£éhas (chambers). Even though this is not overtly described anywhere, there are certainly hints in the writings of the Gosvåm^s. Kù£òa’s mood differs depending on His diverse manifestations (i.e., Vrajendra-nandana, Mathurådh^ßa or Dvårakådh^ßa). While there is meeting in one manifestation (prakåßa), there is separation in another. In meeting, there is the bliss of union, and in separation pangs of viraha – such experiences cannot be denied. In Gopåla-Camp¨, p¨rva 1.22, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^påda describes the l^lås of the prakaéa-prakåßa and the aprakaéa-prakåßa from among Goloka’s many different types of manifestations. Just as there can be innumerable types of l^lås in the amorous pastimes of mådanåkhyamahåbhåva, similarly, there is no objection to eternal svak^yå, eternal parak^yå, and also svak^yå and parak^yå occurring simultaneously in the different prako£éhas. However, after considering them all from a neutral standpoint, one must surely accept the superiority of parak^yå.
çr^la Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura on Svak^yå and Parak^yå çr^la Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura has given a beautiful, detailed elucidation of this subject matter in his commentary on
s vak î y Ä p a r ak î y Ä
the ßloka, ånanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhåvitåbhiè (BrahmaSaìhitå, verse 37). We are presenting it here for the beneﬁt of the sådhakas: In his commentaries on this ßloka and on UjjvalaN^lamaòi, in Kù£òa-Sandarbha and his other works, our worshipable åcårya, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^, says that Kù£òa’s prakaéa-l^lås are arranged by Yogamåyå. Because of their connection with the illusory realm, they appear to have assimilated some mundane features that cannot exist in svar¨pa-tattva, the intrinsic fundamental reality. Examples of such pastimes include killing the demons, attracting the wives of others, taking birth, and so on. It is an established truth that the gop^s are Kù£òa’s svar¨pa-ßakti, extensions of His personal power; hence, they are Kù£òa’s svak^yå, unquestionably His own. There is no possibility of their being anyone else’s wives. Still, we see that in prakaéa-l^lå, the gop^s do appear to be the wives of others, but this is only an implicit conviction created by Yogamåyå. There is a secret meaning in the statement of çr^ J^va Gosvåm^, which, if brought to light, will automatically dispel all types of doubts. The revered çr^ J^va Gosvåm^, the foremost follower of çr^la R¨pa and Sanåtana Gosvåm^s, is the tattvåcårya of the Gauà^ya Vai£òavas. Furthermore, in kù£òa-l^lå he is a mañjar^. Therefore, there is no secret truth that is unknown to him. Those who do not understand his esoteric intentions raise arguments accepting and rejecting his ideas by presenting their own concocted interpretations. According to çr^ R¨pa-Sanåtana’s vision, there is no difference between prakaéa and aprakaéa-l^lå – they are identical. The only distinction is that one manifestation is beyond the material domain and the other is within it.
pa r t on e
Everything, the seer and the seen, in the region beyond the mundane sphere is vißuddha, of divine purity. Fortunate persons, on receiving the mercy of çr^ Kù£òa, relinquish all material connections and enter the spiritual domain. If, during the performance of sådhana, they attain perfection in savoring the extraordinary varieties of rasa, then they can see and take delight in all the supremely pure pastimes of Goloka. Such qualiﬁed sådhakas are very rare. On the other hand, those who by Kù£òa’s mercy attain perfection in bhakti, and experience the nectar of spiritual rasa, witness Goloka l^lå in the manifest Bhauma Gokula l^lå itself while remaining in the material universe. There are some gradations in qualiﬁcation of both these categories of sådhakas. As long as one has not attained vastusiddhi, there remains some restriction in one’s vision of the Goloka l^lås due to the inﬂuence of måyå. On the other hand, realization of one’s svar¨pa varies according to the level of one’s svar¨pa-siddhi. It is to be accepted that a devotee’s darßana of Goloka will vary according to the degree that he has realized his svar¨pa. J^vas tightly bound by måyå have no spiritual vision. Some of them are trapped by the variegated charm of måyå, and some, having taken shelter of nirviße£a-jñåna, which is opposed to the reality of Bhagavån’s personality, proceed toward the path of total destruction. Even after seeing Bhagavån’s prakaéa-l^lå, both types of bound j^vas view such pastimes as mundane activities, having no connection with aprakaéa-l^lå. Thus, there is gradation in one’s darßana of Goloka depending upon one’s qualiﬁcation. A ﬁne point to note here is that, just as Goloka is the completely pure, divine truth beyond the illusory realm, in the same way, even though Bhauma Gokula is pure and
s vak î y Ä p a r ak î y Ä
always uncontaminated, it appears in the material world by Bhagavån’s cit-ßakti, Yogamåyå. In regard to prakaéa and aprakaéa, there is not even the slightest touch of material defect, degradation, or imperfection. Different visions are perceived depending on the qualiﬁcation of the person viewing the l^lå. Defect (contamination), foulness, designation, illusion, ignorance, impurity, falsity, loathsomeness and grossness are all perceived through the conditioned j^vas’ eyes, intelligence, and false ego dulled by the material nature, but these shortcomings have no footing in the spiritual realm. The more one is free from defects, the more one is granted vision of the transcendental truth. The truth is revealed in ßåstra, but the purity of realization for those who deliberate on these tattvas will depend upon one’s qualiﬁcation. According to the views of çr^ R¨pa and çr^ Sanåtana, whichever l^lås manifest in Bhauma-Gokula are present in Goloka in their pure form without a tinge of måyå. That is why parak^yå-bhåva, in some form or another, is also certainly present in Goloka in its inconceivably pure state. All the manifestations created by Yogamåyå are immaculate. Para-dårå (parak^yå) bhåva, the creation of Yogamåyå, is therefore established on the pure absolute reality. But what is this ßuddha-tattva? This should be discussed. çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^ writes: p¨rvokta-dh^rodattådi catur-bhedasya tasya tu patiß copapatiß ceti prabhedåv iha vißrutau. tatra patiè sa kanyåyåè yaè påòi-gråhako bhavet. rågeòollaíghayan dharmaì parak^yå-valårthinå / tad^ya-prema-sarvasyaì b¨dhair upapatiè smùtaè. laghutvam atra yat proktaì tat tu pråkùta-nåyake / na kù£òe rasa-niryåsa – svådårtham avat��riòi.
pa r t on e
tatra nåyikå-bheda-vicåraè, “nåsau nåéye rase mukhye yat paroàhå nigadyate. tat tu syåt pråkùta-k£udra-nåyikådy-anusårataè.”
After deep deliberation on these ßlokas, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ establishes that parak^yå-bhåva, like janma-l^lå, is a divine delusion (vibhrama-vilåsa) created by Yogamåyå. Tathåpi patiè pura-vanitånåì dvit^yo vraja-vanitånåì: “It is understood that pati-bhåva exists in Dvårakå while the vraja-sundar^s have parak^yå-bhåva.” According to the conclusions of çr^la R¨pa and Sanåtana Gosvåm^s, the delightfully deceptive vibhrama-vilåsa pastimes are accepted as the contrivance of Yogamåyå. J^va Gosvåm^ has proved that there is no difference between the l^lås of Goloka and Gokula, so it must be admitted that all pastimes have their origin in Gokula. One who takes the hand of a virgin girl according to the sacred rites of marriage is called a husband (pati). And he who, being overcome by passion, violates conventional morality in order to win another’s wife (parak^yå-ramaò^) is called a paramour (upapati). In Goloka, the religious obligation binding one within matrimonial regulation does not exist. Thus, no husbandhood ascribed with those characteristics is found there. In this connection, the gop^s, who are Kù£òa’s own potency, are not married elsewhere; thus, they are also not para-dårå, other men’s wives. Furthermore, it is not possible for parak^yå and svak^yåbhåva to be separate from each other. In the manifest pastimes within the illusory realm, the strictures of marriage do exist, but çr^ Kù£òa is beyond their jurisdiction. Thus, the form of dharma found in mådhurya-maòàala (Vraja) is a creation of Yogamåyå. Kù£òa transgresses this dharma and enjoys parak^yå-rasa. Only a person with mundane
s vak î y Ä p a r ak î y Ä
vision in the material world will see this as a violation of the dharma created by Yogamåyå. In reality, there is no such degradation in kù£òa-l^lå. Parak^yå-rasa is the very essence of all rasas. To deny its presence in Goloka minimizes that realm. It is not possible that the highest delight in rasa is absent in the topmost abode Goloka. Sarvåvatår^ çr^ Kù£òa, the source of all avatåras, relishes this rasa in one way in Goloka and in another way in Gokula. Thus, even though there appears to be a transgression of dharma according to material vision, nevertheless, this truth also exists in Goloka. Ätmåråmo ’py ar^ramat (SB 10.29.42) – “Kù£òa performed amorous pastimes although He is åtmåråma, selfsatisﬁed.” Ätmany avaruddha-saurataè (SB 10.33.25) – “Satya-kåma çr^ Kù£òa, whose every desire comes to fruition, keeps in His heart the håva, bhåva and other anubhåvas arising from His amorous diversions.” Reme rameßo vraja-sundar^bhir yathårbhakaè sva-pratibimbavibhramaè (SB 10.33.16) – “Just as an innocent child plays with his reﬂection without undergoing any transformation, in the same manner ramå-ramaòa Bhagavån çr^ Kù£òa enjoyed with the beautiful Vraja maidens.” It is understood from these statements from ßåstra that çr^ Kù£òa’s intrinsic nature is to be self-satisﬁed. çr^ Kù£òa manifests His own ßakti (as Lak£m^) in those spiritual planets dominated by aißvarya and consorts with her in svak^yåbhåva. There, with the sense of svak^yå prevailing, rasa goes only up to the stage of dåsya. But in Goloka, Kù£òa manifests millions and millions of gop^s and, forgetting any sentiments of svak^yå, continuously enjoys with them. In the svak^yå conception, as there are no obstacles in meeting, the enjoyment of rasa is not so exceptional. Therefore,
pa r t on e
from time eternal, the gop^s, who are naturally imbued with an innate paroàhå sentiment, see themselves as other men’s wives. And çr^ Kù£òa, reciprocating with their mood, intrinsically assumes the identity of their paramour and, taking the help of His intimate companion vaìß^, who is His priya-sakh^, accomplishes råsa and other l^lås. Goloka, which is eternally perfect and free from illusion, is the rasa-p^éha, the abode of divine rapture. Thus, the ﬂow of rasa in the conception of paramourship ﬁnds its perfection there. Even våtsalya-rasa is not found in Vaikuòéha because of aißvarya. However, in paramamådhurya-maya Goloka, the fountainhead of ultimate sweetness (situated in Vraja), there exists nothing other than the original conception of rasa (ßùígåra-rasa). There, Nanda and Yaßodå are actually present, but there is no occurrence of birth. In the absence of birth, parenthood does not actually exist. Nanda and Yaßodå only have the mood (abhimåna) of being parents. This is substantiated in the verse, jayati jana-nivåso devak^-janmavådaè. This abhimåna is eternal for the sake of perfect rasa. Similarly, in ßùígåra-rasa also, since paroàhå and upapati-bhåvas are simply eternal self-conceptions, there is no fault or transgression of ßåstra. When Goloka tattva manifests in prakaéa Vraja, both of these conceptions are seen in tangible form by worldly vision. This is the only difference. In våtsalya-rasa, the mood of Nanda and Yaßodå being parents becomes apparent in a concrete way through birth and other l^lås; and in ßùígåra-rasa, the idea of the Vraja maidens being the wives of others takes on a perceptible shape in the form of their marriages with Abhimanyu, Govardhana Malla and others. In reality, the gop^s have no separately existing husbands, either in Gokula or in Goloka.
s vak î y Ä p a r ak î y Ä
Therefore, ßåstra proclaims: na jåtu vraja-dev^nåì patibhiè saha saígamaè (see p. 90). “The vraja-dev^s never had union with their husbands.” Thus, rasa-tattvåcårya çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^, the master of the truths of rasa, has written: patiß copapatiß ceti prabhedåv iha vißrutau. “In ujjvalarasa, the mellow of amorous love, there are two types of nåyakas (heroes) – pati and upapati.” çr^la J^va Gosvåm^, in his commentary on this ßloka, has written: patiè puravanitånåì dvit^yo vraja-vanitånåì. “The nåyaka of Dvårakå-pur^’s vanitås (young women) is called pati, a wedded husband, and in Vraja, nåyaka çr^ Kù£òa is the upapati of the Vraja vanitås.” This passage shows that çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ has accepted Kù£òa as the pati in Vaikuòéha and Dvårakå and as the eternal upapati in Goloka-Gokula. In the Lord of GolokaGokula, the characteristics of a paramour are exhibited to their full extent. Ätmåråma çr^ Kù£òa transgresses the dharma of His natural self-satisfaction. Rågeòollaíghayan dharmaì: His råga, intense passion, to meet with the paroàhå Vraja damsels is the cause for transgressing this dharma. Even though the gop^s do not factually have real husbands, their parak^yå-ramaò^-bhåva is fulﬁlled just by having the sentiment (abhimåna) of being the wives of others. Therefore, rågeòollaíghayan dharmaì and all other such symptoms are eternally present in mådhurya-p^éha, the meeting place of superexcellent amour. In Bhauma Vraja, this bhåva assumes a tangible form, visible to some degree by people with mundane vision. Therefore, in Goloka both svak^yå and parak^yå-rasa exist. Their divergence and oneness are inconceivable by material intelligence (acintya-bhedåbheda). It can be said that there is no difference between them, and it can also
pa r t on e
be said that there is difference. Why? The essence of parak^yå is svak^ya-nivùtti, or loving enjoyment outside of the sanction of wedlock, and the essence of svak^yå is parak^ya-nivùtti, or the abstention from unlawful connections, that is, from loving enjoyment with svar¨pa-ßakti, çr^ Kù£òa’s personal potency. Parak^yå and svak^yå are one rasa, and they also exist eternally as two varieties. Furthermore, although the form of rasa in Gokula is the same, mundane observers view it otherwise. Husbandhood and paramourship, beyond all piety and impiety (dharmådharma), brilliantly shine forth in çr^ Govinda, the hero of Goloka, in their pristine splendor. These same characteristics also exist in the hero of Gokula, but with some diversity created by the agency of Yogamåyå. If it is said that whatever Yogamåyå manifests is the Absolute Truth, then the sentiment of paramour love would similarly have to be accepted as absolutely true. To dispel this doubt, it is said that, in the relishing of rasa, conviction in the paramour conception can exist and there is no fault in that because it is without foundation. However, in mundane consciousness whatever base convictions exist are faulty. They are not present in the pure, transcendental world. In fact, çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ has indeed given the correct siddhånta, while the opposing conclusions are also inconceivably true. Simply arguing in vain about parak^yå-våda and svak^ya-våda is a fruitless exhibition of word jugglery. There is no possibility of any type of skepticism rising in the hearts of those who without partiality thoroughly study the commentaries of çr^la J^va Gosvåm^ and of the opposing views. Whatever is spoken by pure Vai£òavas is true and utterly free from any bias or party spirit. However,
s vak î y Ä p a r ak î y Ä
there is some mystery surrounding their verbal disagreements. Devoid of pure Vai£òava sentiments, people possessed of materialistic intelligence cannot fathom the deep secrets of the loving controversies between ßuddha Vai£òavas, and thus they wrongly conceive of them as philosophical adversaries. The opinion given by çr^ Sanåtana Gosvåm^ in his Vai£òava-To£an^ commentary on the ßloka from Råsa-Pañcådhyåy^, gop^nåì tat-pat^nåñ ca, “the gop^s and their husbands” (SB 10.33.35 – see also p. 82), has been wholeheartedly supported by bhakta çr^la Cakravart^påda with head bowed. When contemplating any opinion connected with the divine pastimes of Goloka and other transcendental realms, we should keep in mind the invaluable advice given by çr^man Mahåprabhu and His followers, the çr^ Gosvåm^s: Bhagavat-tattva, the Supreme Absolute Truth, is never nirviße£a, without form and attributes. It is completely beyond the material plane and is full of variegated qualities and pleasurable engagements. The supremely relishable and splendid form of bhagavad-rasa, tasted through four types of transcendentally variegated ingredients – vibhåva, anubhåva, såttvika, and vyabhicår^ – is eternally present in Goloka and Vaikuòéha. By the authority of Yogamåyå, this very rasa of Goloka manifests in the material realm for the beneﬁt of the devotees in the form of vraja-rasa. One should know that all the rasas seen in this Gokula must surely be found also in Goloka in their radiantly pure state. That is why the wonderful varieties of någara and någar^ (Kù£òa and the gop^s), the diversity of rasa in them, and all the surroundings and paraphernalia of Gokula, including the land (Vraja), rivers (Yamunå, Månas^
pa r t on e
Gaígå), mountain (Giriråja), residences (Yåvaéa, Nandagåon, etc.), gateways, kuñjas, cows and so on, collectively exist in the same form in Goloka. Only the worldly beliefs of persons imbued with mundane intelligence are missing in Goloka. In the variegated Vraja pastimes, different visions of Goloka are realized according to one’s level of qualiﬁcation. It is difﬁcult to establish a ﬁxed standard to determine among these varieties of visions which part is illusory and which is pure. As the eyes of devotion become cleansed, being anointed with the salve of prema, a clear vision gradually arises in the heart. Therefore, there is no need to argue and counter-argue over this matter, because it will not elevate one’s adhikåra (qualiﬁcation). The truth of Goloka is ﬁlled with inconceivable bhåva. An attempt to investigate this acintyatattva by the mind would prove as unproductive as threshing empty husks. Hence, disregarding the method of empirical knowledge, a person should strive for realization through the practice of unalloyed bhakti. In bhakti-mårga, it is crucial to renounce any subject matter which, on acceptance, would ultimately give rise to a nirviße£a conception. çuddha-parak^yå-rasa free from all mundane conception, as described in Goloka l^lå, is very rarely attained. Rågånuga devotees should adopt this concept and perform sådhana. By doing so, they will achieve this highly auspicious fundamental truth upon perfection. When persons of gross worldly intellect endeavor for parak^yå-bhakti, it generally culminates in immoral activity in the material sphere. Our master of truth, tattvåcårya çr^la J^va Gosvåm^, took this into consideration and presented his line
s vak î y Ä p a r ak î y Ä
of thought out of great concern. The spirit of pure Vai£òavism is to accept the essence of his statements. It is an offense to disregard the åcårya by attempting to establish another theory.
thus ends the
Candrikå-Cakora-Vùtti on the
Råga Vartma Candrikå of the honorable, highly exalted preceptor of preceptors,
mahåmahopådhyåya çRîMAD VIçVANÄTHA CAKRAVARTî.
four classes on
Råga Vartma Candrikå
By çr^ çr^mad Bhaktivedånta Nåråyaòa Mahåråja
spoken in english mathura, c. 1991
f I want a rasagulla but I wonder what to do, because I see that I have no paisa in my pocket to purchase it, then that means that I have no real greed. When a person resolves that he must have it somehow, by hook or by crook, by begging, borrowing, stealing, or anything, he does not consider whether he is qualiďŹ ed to have it or not. He only thinks, â€œI must have it.â€? This is actual greed.
efore beginning Råga Vartma Candrikå, we should pray ﬁrst to our Gurudeva, oì vi£òupåda a£éottara-£ata çr^ çr^mad Bhakti Prajñåna Keßava Gosvåm^ Mahåråja and oì vi£òupåda a£éottara-ßata çr^ çr^mad Bhaktivedånta Svåm^ Mahåråja, then to çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^, Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^, and to the author, çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura. We earnestly beg that his mercy especially should come to us. In this Råga Vartma Candrikå, çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura tells us what he has realized about çr^ çr^ Rådhå-Kù£òa’s anuråga by the grace of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu and çr^la R¨pa Gosvåm^. Anuråga refers to that stage of prema that comes just before mahåbhåva – sneha, måna, praòåya, råga, and anuråga. The author states, “I am writing something for those persons who have greed for this råga but cannot ﬁnd the way to enter and achieve it. This book will serve as their guide, like a candrikå, or moonbeam, to shed light on råga vartma, the path of spontaneous loving devotion. In this world this path is very rare. Just as the moon diffuses some rays of light that illuminate a very narrow trail hidden in the shadows on a dark, moonless amavasya
pa r t t wo
night, similarly this book is the candrikå which casts light on the path of råga.” Therefore it is called Råga Vartma Candrikå.
Qualiﬁcations for Entering We should know that this pathway is a very, very narrow one, meant only for a few rare, highly qualiﬁed persons. It is not for everyone. çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura advises that others should never read this book. However, no worldly qualiﬁcation is required to enter this path, only lobha, or greed. Api cet suduråcåro: even if a person is engaged in most abominable actions, he can enter if he has greed. A man may be full of anarthas, but if he takes association of a rågånuga-bhakta and under his guidance, reads the Tenth Canto of çr^mad-Bhågavatam – especially Gop^G^ta, Yugala-G^ta, Bhråmara-G^ta, and Veòu-G^ta – he may become attracted and acquire a very deep greed to have the samjåt^ya (same) bhåva as the Vrajavås^s, either in sakhya, våtsalya or mådhurya-rasa. Just by faithfully hearing çr^mad-Bhågavatam’s descriptions of the moods of the gop^s, the våtsalya-bhåva of Kù£òa’s father and mother, or the mood of Kù£òa’s friends, one may begin to yearn to have in his heart moods like theirs. In Råga Vartma Candrikå, however, çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is not describing sakhya and våtsalya-bhåva; he is presenting gop^-bhåva only. One who has saìskåra from having taken proper association in his previous birth will be able to cultivate greed and achieve gop^-bhåva simply from reading; he will not have to rely on ßåstra or logic. For such a person, this treatise will be the candrikå for discovering the rågånuga path.
Two Kinds of çraddhå First the author tells that there are two different kinds of ßraddhå – vaidh^ and rågånugå – which result in two kinds of bhakti – vaidh^-bhakti and rågånugå-bhakti. Both types of ßraddhå are achieved through the association of qualiﬁed Vai£òavas. Where entrance in bhakti is impelled by the order of ßåstra, which instructs everyone to perform bhakti to Kù£òa or else they will go to hell – this is called vaidh^bhakti. For example, ßåstra has ordered: sa vai puìsåì paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhok£aje ahaituky apratihatå yayåtmå supras^dati (Bhag. 1.2.6)
[The highest pursuit for all humanity is ßuddha-bhakti – to please Kù£òa, the transcendent Lord Adhok£aja, by all one’s efforts of body, mind and soul. Such uttama-bhakti must be continuously performed without any personal desire (anyåbhilå£itå-ß¨nyaì) and without any break (no jñåna or karma) in order to fully satisfy the åtmå.] These are orders. By hearing such instructions, many people will enter bhakti out of fear. This is vaidh^-bhakti. And that bhakti which is based only on greed is called rågånugå-bhakti. Such greed is generated by hearing the pastimes of Kù£òa and the gop^s described in çr^madBhågavatam, by reading the books of the Gosvåm^s, and especially by being in the association of a rågånuga-bhakta, without whose association the pastimes of Kù£òa and the gop^s will not be properly understood. How can we tell if our greed is genuine or not? When a sådhaka hears the mådhurya-l^lå of Kù£òa, especially with
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the gop^s, whether it be from çr^mad-Bhågavatam, Kù£òaKarnåmùta, Ujjvala-N^lamaòi, Rådhå-Rasa-Sudhå-Nidhi, or any other books by rågånuga-rasika Vai£òavas, and he becomes very eager to be like Kù£òa’s parikaras and have their bhåvas, his heart will become ﬁlled with Kù£òa’s nåma, guòa, r¨pa, and l^lå. This condition of the heart, called citta-vùtti, is its real or natural state, as opposed to the imposed worldly citta-vùtti. At this time the devotee will not be interested to examine injunctions of ßåstra; he will only want to achieve that mood which he sees in his åßraya-gop^, for whose mood he has developed genuine greed. But how can this be achieved? In the face of such greed, shastric orders and bindings are left aside. Scriptural rules and regulations are simply not needed. We become determined to have something we desire, no matter what – whether we have wealth, rupees and dollars or not. For example, I saw a rasagulla and rabaài, and at once, overwhelmed by desire for them, I thought, “These are very tasteful.” Greed came. So in whatever stage one may be, a man will not heed any shastric restrictions, rules or regulations at all if he thinks something is very tasteful and he has greed for it. But if we judge that we are not qualiﬁed and that what we want is a very high thing, then we do not possess greed. Do you understand? If I want a rasagulla but I wonder what to do, because I see that I have no paisa in my pocket to purchase it, then that means that I have no real greed. When a person resolves that he must have it somehow, by hook or by crook, by begging, borrowing, stealing, or anything, he does not consider whether he is qualiﬁed to have it or not. He only thinks, “I must have it.” This is actual greed. Our heart must be completely overpowered
by Kù£òa’s nåma, r¨pa, guòa, and l^lå. Then we know that greed has come. A sådhaka may ponder, “I heard from a rasika Vai£òava how Lalitå, Vißåkhå, Citrå, R¨pa Mañjar^ and others serve Kù£òa, and I want to serve like them.” I may have no qualiﬁcation or anything, nor do I know how to achieve this samjåt^ya-bhåva, but greed for it comes. If I will not wait for any logical argument at all to convince me, then it is called greed. It should come without relying on any reasoning, and if logic is required, it is not lobha. “How can I receive this?” In the association of that rågånuga-rasika Vai£òava, you should read Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu, Ujjvala-N^lamaòi, especially Råga Vartma Candrikå, Vraja Riti Cintåmaòi, Kù£òa-Karnåmùta, Rådhå-Rasa-SudhåNidhi, Jayadeva Gosvåm^’s G^ta Govinda, the books of all our Gosvåm^s and of Kav^ Karíap¨ra. You will have to read all of these books and learn how to achieve it most easily, be it by stealing, begging, borrowing, dacoiting, or whatever it takes. You should do whatever method is simplest. So without ßåstra we cannot achieve it. All our åcåryas, including Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura and Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura, have recorded for us in a practical way how they themselves achieved it and how the sådhana-siddha-gop^s achieved it. Their writings are authentic. So we must search out their methods and follow ßåstra – because without abiding by ßåstra or by R¨pa Gosvåm^ and the other åcåryas’ instructions, we will become sahaj^ya or på£aòà^ (atheistic). Yet we should know at the same time that a person with greed will never consider his qualiﬁcation. This is the main point. But he will take assistance from these books. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is not personally present, but through his books
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he is here. It is important to understand that this greed will not come by any effort. Lobha comes only by the grace of Kù£òa Himself or a rågånuga-bhakta, not by one’s personal endeavor. Without their mercy one cannot have it.
Bhakta-Kùpa – Mercy of the Vai£òavas Bhakta-kùpa is of two kinds: pråktana (or pråc^na), old, and ådhunika, recent. Pråktana means ancient, or mercy that comes from past births as well as the present birth. If a man has saìskåra from his previous birth’s devotional activities and receives the mercy of a Vai£òava, then in this birth he will very easily and quickly go up. Perhaps he will not even have to accept d^k£å, like some of our Gosvåm^s. Or, if he does take d^k£å, he will be seen to advance very rapidly. Haridåsa ëhåkura, Svar¨pa Dåmodara, and Råya Råmånanda did not reveal their guru-paramparå. Yet they received the association of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu, and thus achieved all these things. This is an example of pråcinakùpa, due to purva-saìskåra, impressions accrued in previous births. Of course, eternal associates of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu, not being conditioned souls, do not depend upon saìskåra, etc. Yet, when they appear in this world, they set an example for us by their behavior. The other one, ådhunika-kùpa, refers to one who has no past birth saìskåra, but somehow, by the causeless mercy of a guru or qualiﬁed Vai£òava, he has developed greed. Such a person should accept a rågånuga Vai£òava guru. Or if he has received his d^k£å before developing greed, then he should accept a rågånuga Vai£òava as his ßik£å-guru. Then he may serve both ßik£å and d^k£å-gurus with equal devotion, or in some cases, he may prefer to serve the ßik£å-guru more
closely than the anu£éhana-d^k£å-guru (who gives mantras according to pañcaråtrika-vidhi), as çyåmånanda Prabhu, Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ and Kù£òadåsa Kaviråja did. Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^’s guru was Yadunandana Äcårya. Afterwards, çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu placed him in the hands of Svar¨pa Dåmodara. Later, when Raghunåtha dåsa went to Vùndåvana, he had the association of Sanåtana Gosvåm^ and especially R¨pa Gosvåm^, whom he joined on the order of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu. Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ prayed to R¨pa Gosvåm^ only for all the activities of sevå described in Vilåpa Kusumåñjali. Kù£òadåsa Kaviråja Gosvåm^ also did not disclose who his d^k£å-guru was. He only acknowledged R¨pa and Raghunåtha, because he received all his thoughts from them.
The Goal – Mañjari-Bhåva Why does Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ pray only to R¨pa Gosvåm^? Svar¨pa Dåmodara is Lalitå-dev^ and is more qualiﬁed than R¨pa Gosvåm^, who is R¨pa Mañjar^. Yet Raghunåtha dåsa prays only to R¨pa Gosvåm^, because he does not want to be a nåyikå of Kù£òa, like Lalitå and Vißåkhå. He wants to become a mañjar^ only. What is a mañjar^, as in kamala mañjar^ and åmra, or mango, mañjar^? Any creeper or any good ﬂower has mañjar^s. First the mañjar^ comes and then the ﬂower. But the mañjar^ is always located above the ﬂower. When the bee comes to take the honey from the ﬂower, it sits on the petals, and then the mañjar^s, being overjoyed, tremble. When the Kù£òa bee comes to çr^mat^ Rådhikå, and They engage in prema-vilåsa (the action of prema between Them), the bee does not sit on the mañjar^. Yet the mañjar^
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trembles, feeling as if the bee is sitting on her. The bhåva of Their prema-vilåsa comes to the mañjar^. So there is no need for the bee to go to her. She automatically feels everything the ﬂower experiences. If the bee kisses the ﬂower, then by seeing this, the mañjar^ tastes even more than the ﬂower because the ﬂower does not tremble as the mañjar^ does. Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ wanted to be a mañjar^, not a ﬂower. He did not want sakh^-bhåva. Herein lies the importance of the mañjar^s. In our sampradåya, nobody wants to be a rådhå-sakh^. They only want to be Rådhikå’s kiíkar^, or maidservant. There is no equivalent word in English for kiíkar^. It is such a beautiful Sanskrit word – so soft, fragrant, and very madhura, so sweet. You will not ﬁnd these descriptions in any books. They have not been written down anywhere; they come only through realization. I myself have no realization, but by God’s mercy I am able to explain this a little. The ﬁrst ßloka of Vilåpa Kusumåñjali tells that R¨pa Mañjar^’s husband is absent, but we see some marks on her lips. How? It is not that Kù£òa has kissed R¨pa Mañjar^. He has kissed çr^mat^ Rådhikå, and Rådhikå has that mark, but at once it came to R¨pa Mañjar^. Everything, whatever marks come to çr^mat^ Rådhåråò^ will not come to the sakh^s (Lalitå, Vißåkhå), but they will come to the mañjar^s. That is why we are followers of R¨pa Gosvåm^. This is a very special benediction that his followers receive, and I think that you will never forget this in your whole life.
The Process – Real D^k£å A person may have taken only anu£éhaniki-d^k£å as a formality, thinking, “So many others have taken d^k£å so I
should also take,” and by ﬁre yajñå he has received sacred thread, kaòéh^-målå and so on. But he has not been given instructions on the internal mood of d^k£å, which constitutes real initiation. This will come gradually, not in a moment. Actually, d^k£å takes place over a long period of time, but formal d^k£å can be taken by anyone. When one has past birth saìskåra, one will easily accept d^k£å, and the process will be accomplished quickly. Without previous saìskåra, d^k£å will be slow unless one gets the association of a rågånuga-bhakta. In this case, the rågånuga-bhakta as well as the disciple should both be very qualiﬁed. If the disciple does not have that saìskåra and does not yet possess any greed, he will not be able to receive these things from his d^k£å-guru, who may be very qualiﬁed but may have no time to give him all these things. Later on, when that greed comes, he should not change his gurudeva. He only needs to accept a ßik£å-guru, who will instruct him according to his qualiﬁcation. He will hear all these things from him. If the d^k£å-guru is present, he will receive all these things from his gurudeva, or his gurudeva will gladly order him to hear from another person, as in the case of çyåmånanda Paòàita, Narottama dåsa ëhåkura and çr^nivåsa Äcårya. The d^k£å-guru will gladly give this order. If one has some association with his guru or any Vai£òava in the line of R¨pa Gosvåm^, then his bhakti may gradually come to rågånugå. And if we see that a person has greed without the help of any Vai£òava or without taking d^k£å or anything, like Bilvamaígala, then, by his actions and thoughts, we can know that his greed is real and that he is rågånuga. But at ﬁrst we should know that our bhakti will be vaidh^, and after that, by hearing, greed can come.
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So, if from previous or present saìskåra one has developed greed, one will have to read, hear, study and search the ßåstras, especially the writings of R¨pa Gosvåm^ and his followers, the r¨pånuga Vai£òavas. Actually, what is r¨pånuga? In his books R¨pa Gosvåm^ has written in taéasthåbhåva, from a neutral position, about ßånta, dåsya, sakhya, våtsalya and mådhurya. Following these moods with lobha, one will be a rågånuga-bhakta, but not necessarily r¨pånuga, even if one follows Ujjvala-N^lamaòi. One will be r¨pånuga when one especially follows how R¨pa Gosvåm^ serves Rådhå and Kù£òa, deeply meditating on the qualities and the bhåva he possesses for serving Them. So the sådhaka will have to search in ßåstra how to receive these things and hear from a r¨pånuga Vai£òava, who will tell him to read çr^mad-Bhågavatam, UjjvalaN^lamaòi, Kù£òa-Karnåmùta, Rådhå-Rasa-SudhåNidhi, Jayadeva Gosvåm^’s G^ta-Govinda, and the books of Caòà^dåsa, Vidyåpati and others. He will also instruct him to search only for that bhåva for which he has lobha. That r¨pånuga Vai£òava will know everything (sakhya, våtsalya, mådhurya), but he will serve only by one, which is his sthåy^-bhåva (permanent mood). This will come only when prema is reached, but greed for that sthåy^-bhåva can be achieved before that. One’s sthåy^bhåva will not change in this or any future life – this is called saìskåra (which is innate in the åtmå). If I have greed, as R¨pa Gosvåm^ has, and if it is real, that permanent mood will never change in any life. It will always remain the same. Bharata Mahåråja had achieved the stage of bhåva, but we don’t know in which rasa. Perhaps it was dåsya-bhåva.
The Kumåras have sthåy^-bhåva in ßånta-rasa, but even so, they can narrate the whole çr^mad-Bhågavatam. Being neutral, they know everything, but they do not possess greed for vraja-bhakti. çukadeva Gosvåm^ is a special case, because he is the parrot of çr^mat^ Rådhikå. Yet he cannot serve Rådhå and Kù£òa like the gop^s. He enjoys knowledge of everything, but still he is a parrot. For the beneﬁt of ßånta-rasa-bhaktas, sometimes it is said that he is in ßånta-rasa. This is an important point. If çukadeva is the parrot of çr^mat^ Rådhåråò^, he will sit on the branches of any tamåla or kadamba tree and with very great bliss, watch all the pastimes; yet he cannot serve like R¨pa Mañjar^. In ßåstra it has been told that he has ßånta-bhåva, because he is neutral, but he is in Vraja, where there is no ßånta-bhåva. We will have to ponder what rasa he actually possesses. When Rådhikå and Kù£òa are sleeping in the morning, çuka speaks so many charming, clever words to wake Them up. This is certainly not ßånta-bhåva. For the sake of ßånta-rasa-bhaktas, it is said that he is in ßåntabhåva, and externally it appears that way, but actually he is not. Similarly, the cows in Vraja also appear to have ßånta-bhåva, but they really have våtsalya-bhåva.
The Need of çåstra To illustrate how to search out the process, Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura gives the example of a man who has greed to drink milk – seeing some milk, he wants to taste it. So he must go through a process to get it. He can ask someone who drinks milk how he acquired it. After questioning him, he will purchase a cow, making sure that there is a calf, because without a calf there can be no milk.
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He will take them to his home. There he will apply water or ghee to the udder of the cow and bring the calf to drink. When the calf has taken milk, the udder must be washed, and then he can milk the cow. Next the milk has to be put on the ﬁre to boil. If he wants it sweet, he can add sugar, and for extra ﬂavor he can add gulab-jal (rose water), kevaùå, karp¨ra (camphor), and so on, making it even more fragrant. Similarly, for developing desire, we do not require ßåstra, but it is necessary to help us ﬁnd out the means to achieve our goal.
Vißrambha Bhåva in Rågånugå-Bhakti Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura tells us that when a man has actual greed, he will also follow the procedures of vaidh^-bhakti, but the mood will not be the same. He will engage in ßravaòaì, k^rtanaì, vi£òoè smaraòaì, pådasevånam and especially he will carefully perform gurucaraòåßraya (taking shelter of the lotus feet of guru), and faithfully in vißrambha-bhåva, giving up all fear, he will serve guru as a bosom friend. He will not meditate, “I am very low and he is very high.” No, he will think, “I am his and he is mine,” just as a child, seeing his father sitting up high, does not care to sit on the ground and will at once jump up and sit on his father’s lap. Then he will pat his father’s shoulder, stroke his father’s face, touch him on his arm or hold his hand, serving his father with great love. Similarly, a qualiﬁed person having greed will serve his gurudeva from whom he has heard all these things with even more love. This type of intimate service is essential. If you know your guru in his sakh^-veßa and you have greed to serve him in that form, then this
will be rågånuga. And if your greed is to serve him as guru, this is not rågånuga but rather vaidh^-sådhana. You should pray to your guru that he should please manifest his internal form in your heart. He will grant His darßana, giving you an inner idea. Now you should pray to Him, “Please manifest your r¨pa yourself, who you are in kù£òa-l^lå.” Tan no guruè pracodayåt. Yes, that is gurumantra. Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu lists the sixty-four practices of devotional service. The ﬁrst ten deal with the relationship with guru. For rågånugå-bhakti you will have to follow these same procedures, but the bhåva will change from what is found in vaidh^-bhakti. The vaidh^-bhakti disciple will sit lower and pray to his gurudeva with folded hands, “Gurudeva, please give me an order. What sevå shall I do?” And if he receives an order, then as servant, as a dåsa, he will perform the service. But a greedy person will serve in a mood as I have already described, with no fear and no sense of difference. He will see that “I am his and he is mine.” All the limbs of vaidh^-bhakti should also be followed in rågånugå-bhakti, but in a different mood. If one rejects vaidh^, he will not be able to enter rågånugå and his greed will be checked, so he must follow.
Serving Gurudeva For a man who has greed and wants to follow the process of rågånuga, çr^mad-Bhågavatam tells us that Bhagavån comes to him in the form of guru, as both caitya-guru and d^k£å-guru. Here we should know that guru is akhaòàa (complete, undivided) tattva, because gurudeva gives
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everything that Nityånanda Prabhu and Baladeva Prabhu have come to give. All his instructions are from Them, so we should regard him as Nityånanda Prabhu or Baladeva Prabhu. In Bhagavad-G^tå (10.10) it is stated: te£åì satata-yuktånåì bhajatåì pr^ti p¨rvakam dadåmi buddhi-yogaì taì yena måm upayånti te
[Upon those who perform bhajana to Me with love, yearning for My eternal association, I bestow the transcendental knowledge by which they can come to Me.] If a soul surrenders, Kù£òa gives everything to him in the heart – dadåmi buddhi-yogaì. He says, “I give him the intelligence how to achieve bhakti.” Kù£òa gives that, but not openly; He dictates within the heart. So when pure greed comes, Kù£òa, as caitya-guru, benedicts His devotee in the heart with a sph¨rti, inspiring him internally with the understanding “how he can achieve Me.” Then He gives instructions as d^k£å-guru or ßik£å-guru. If one has a pure heart and sufﬁcient saìskåra, Kù£òa Himself will manifest all siddhåntas and the way to achieve Him. People may see someone with no guru and wonder, “How does he know these things?” Here is the answer. Kù£òa dictates everything or manifests Himself from within, whether anyone sees or not. Sometimes I have experienced this myself. I feel something within myself – I have not read it, nor have I seen or heard it. Yet sometimes something very beautiful comes in my heart. Perhaps you have also had this experience? Certainly you will have this, because one who serves his gurudeva will surely receive these things. Even if gurudeva is not present in our sight, still he will manifest everything.
How to Enter into Rågånuga-bhajana Now Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura tells the three key ßlokas from Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu (1.294-296) which explain how to enter into rågånugå-bhakti: (1) kù£òaì smaran janañ cåsya pre£éhaì nija sam^hitam tat tat kathå rataß cåsau kuryåd våsaì vraje sadå
[While remembering çr^ Kù£òa and His beloved associates whom we desire to follow, being fully absorbed in discussions of their pastimes, one should always reside in Vraja. If this is not possible, then reside there by mind.] (2) sevå sådhaka r¨peòa siddha r¨peòa cåtra hi tad bhåva lipsunå kåryå vraja-lokånusårataè
[On this rågånuga path, being charmed by the intense love of Kù£òa’s beloved Vrajavås^s, the sådhaka should live in Vraja under the guidance of those devotees who have taken shelter of the Vrajavås^s (like çr^ R¨pa, Sanåtana and Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^s), always eager to serve them in his present physical body. And in the perfected stage in his siddha-r¨pa, the internally conceived spiritual body suitable for performing prema-sevå, he should engage in the cherished service of çr^ Kù£òa according to his chosen mood, following in the footsteps of the eternal residents of Vraja, such as çr^ Rådhikå, Lalitå, Vißakhå, and çr^ R¨pa Mañjar^.] (3) ßravaòotk^rtanåd^ni vaidh^-bhakty uditåni tu yåny aígåni ca tånyatra vijñeyåni man^£ibhiè
[In vaidh^-bhakti one should practice the limbs of bhakti like ßravana, k^rtana, and so on according to one’s quali-
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ﬁcation. Similarly, for rågånugå-bhakti also it has been advised by scholars who are well versed in the principles of bhakti to follow the same practices.] Now Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura comments on them one by one.
Verse One – Remembering Kù£òa and His Dear Ones Here smaraòa means remembering Kù£òa and His dear ones with rati, with bhåva, with emotion and love. They may be in dåsya, sakhya or våtsalya-rasa, but here he is especially explaining mådhurya-rasa. How should we remember Kù£òa? How do we do smaraòa? One who has greed like the gop^s will remember Kißora Kù£òa in ßùígårarasa when He is in Sevå Kuñja or Vaìß^ Vaéa. He has a lovely, smiling face and He has placed a very beautiful vaìß^ on His lips. Like a deer, His eyes are restlessly searching here and there. The gop^s are coming. Seeing them, Kù£òa becomes so overjoyed. At that moment, Kù£òa has no control over His body or mind. He is God Himself, yet He forgets everything – He does not know what He is doing or even what He looks like. Standing in His tribhaígalalita pose, He is so beautiful. Thousands and thousands of gop^s are there, but from the corner of His eyes, He is searching out one particular gop^ – and She is delaying. Who is that? Then, from far away He sees that She is coming. At this time, how will Kù£òa appear? So this is smaraòaì – remembering Kù£òa with all these details, appreciating His many virtues. In Jaiva Dharma, we can read about all the qualities of Kißora Kù£òa in ßùígåra-rasa. The Kù£òa of sakhya-rasa is not the Kù£òa of
the gop^s, and the Kù£òa with Nanda and Yaßodå is also another. He is different in every rasa. So we should remember Kù£òa in the bhåva in which we desire to enter. Thus, cultivating madhura-bhåva, one should remember Kù£òa with the gop^s, playing, gambling and cheating them, and how they in turn cheat Kù£òa and try to steal His ﬂute. Remember Kù£òa and His priya-jana, His dearmost associates. What are the gop^s, and especially çr^mat^ Rådhåråò^, like? And that very gop^ for whom we have greed – what is she doing? Not Rådhikå, Lalitå or Vißåkhå, but R¨pa Mañjar^. We have a very keen interest only to see what she is doing – that mood I want to have. When çr^mat^ Rådhikå is pleased, then R¨pa Mañjar^ becomes very happy. She performs so many services, like bringing water in a golden pot, fanning with a cåmara, very slowly and gently. When she sees that Yugala Kißora are so tired, she serves Them accordingly. We will watch that mañjar^ and see how she won the love of Kù£òa, Rådhikå, Lalitå, Vißåkhå and all the others. We should always remember how she performs all her services to Yugala Kißora and follow her. This is rågånugå-bhakti – how to enter into all these pastimes and services. It is based on remembrance that should not be broken. Then we can achieve that service. Kù£òaì smaran janañ cåsya – remembering all the gop^s and especially that one in whom I have a special interest. This is the method of rågånuga-sådhana-bhajana. Tat tat kathå rataß cåsau – we must cultivate our relationship with guru, ßik£å-guru and that prem^-guru, the rågånugaguru from whom we are hearing. He will tell us how all the sakh^s are serving Kù£òa, and especially what R¨pa Mañjar^ and our guru in sakh^-veßa (in the form of a sakh^)
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are doing. We must talk about their activities and their pastimes with Kù£òa. And the devotee should always reside in Vùndåvana. If he has no chance to stay in Vùndåvana by body, he should surely live there by mind. Without living in Vùndåvana, he cannot have that kind of love; therefore, it is essential. Three practices are prominent – kù£òa smaraòa, remembering that special Kù£òa with His samjåt^ya priya jana, His dearmost associates; tat tat kathå rataß cåsau, continuously discussing their pastimes; and kuryåd våsaì vraje sadå, by body or at least by mind always residing in Vùndåvana, in Sevå Kuñja, in Saíketa, in Jåvaé and all other such places. And if you have the qualiﬁcation, at midday you should go to Rådhå Kuòàa with Rådhikå and with that gop^ for whom you have special attraction. Someone not so qualiﬁed cannot live in Vùndåvana all the time. He will be convinced that he has some other more pressing duties. But even if he is tied to house, family, factory and so many other facilities far away from here, still by mind he can begin to enter the mood of Vraja to some degree. But those who are like Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ will think, “My house should be burned if I am not there. Let anyone burn down my house. And what will happen to my parents, children and wife if I go to Vùndåvana? I don’t care – let them die or let anything else happen to them.” On the other hand, a neophyte disciple may say, “Oh, my Gurudeva told me to preach, so I must do that. This is my duty.” But when greed will come in full bloom, we will forget everything. At that stage no other obligation can come in our way, and then the whole world will see us as a guru, actually following in the mood of R¨pa Gosvåm^ and Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^. As guru we
should adhere to our line very closely and preach our åcåryas’ words only. Then, if others will see that our words are correctly in line, they will be bound to accept all our instructions. At that time there will be no harm in preaching or doing any other sevå. That will be the real preaching, but I don’t know how many births it will take to come to that stage. You may be attached to preaching now, but one day you will have to leave preaching and go to Goloka Vùndåvana, where there is no preaching, only service. And then, if you want, from there, as R¨pa Gosvåm^ came with çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu, you can also return and preach with your spiritual master. This surrender and complete dedication of the heart to the guru is called tadåtmya in Sanskrit – as ﬁre enters into iron. The iron then knows that “I am ﬁre” and does the work of ﬁre. Here, also, R¨pa Gosvåm^ and all mañjar^s are tadåtmika with Rådhå. So the action of Rådhå becomes the action of all the mañjar^s. Whatever She realizes is also realized by every mañjar^. Nothing is hidden from them. Some things are withheld from Her sakh^s, but not from Her mañjar^s.
Verse Two – How Will We Serve? (2) sevå sådhaka r¨peòa siddha r¨peòa cåtra hi tad bhåva lipsunå kåryå vraja-lokånusårataè
[A sådhaka who has lobha for rågånugå-bhakti should serve çr^ Kù£òa both in the sådhaka-r¨pa and the siddha-r¨pa in accordance with the bhåva of the vraja-parikaras who possess the same mood for which he aspires. The sådhakar¨pa refers to the physical body in which one is presently
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situated, and the siddha-r¨pa refers to the internally conceived spiritual form which is suitable to serve Kù£òa according to one’s cherished desire. In the siddha-deha, one should offer mental services to çr^ Kù£òa under the guidance of çr^ Rådhå, çr^ Lalitå, Vißåkhå, R¨pa Mañjar^, Rati Mañjar^, and others. In the sådhaka-r¨pa, one should render physical service under the guidance of çr^ R¨pa, çr^ Sanåtana and others.] Sevå means service. Sådhaka-r¨peòa means to function as a practitioner of rågånugå-bhakti, and siddha-r¨peòa means to serve in one’s siddha body which can be achieved when intense greed arises. By the grace of one’s guru and by the grace of Kù£òa, the devotee’s siddha-ßarira is revealed in his inner heart. Then, as it is written in Caitanya-Caritåmùta (M. 22.157): mane nija siddha deha koriyå bhåvana, råtri dine kore vraje kù£òera sevåna. “With one’s siddhaßarira, revealed by the mercy of guru, one should serve çri Rådhå-Kù£òa Yugala day and night in Vraja.” Each and every j^va has his own individual siddha-ßarira. We also have our own, but it has not yet manifested. Now it is in the b^ja, or seed, stage. Just as the whole tree is contained in the b^ja, our full siddha-svar¨pa, with all its characteristics, is existing in seed form. But now, as we are bahirmukha, turned away from Kù£òa, it is not seen. When, by the grace of guru and Gauråíga, our greed sprouts and subsequently fully blossoms, then the ßik£å-guru or d^k£åguru can reveal our siddha-svar¨pa. First he will tell us what is our svar¨pa, just as in Jaiva Dharma we see with Brajanåtha and Vijaya Kumåra. Our siddha-svar¨pa is in a dormant condition. çr^la Bhaktivinoda ëhåkura tells that in one life it can be revealed, but I see that for us it is many births away. He has simply indicated the path.
When Brajanåtha and Vijaya Kumåra took d^k£å, they saw Caitanya Mahåprabhu with all His parikaras standing there. At the time of our d^k£å, we were unable to see them, but they are fully visible to a realized soul. This is real d^k£å. We have entered in the class of taking d^k£å, but our d^k£å is not complete. So we are in class now. God and guru should shower their grace that we can take full d^k£å – divya-jñåna, actually receive transcendental knowledge and spiritual vision, divya-darßana, just as Vijaya Kumåra and Brajanåtha had darßana. They at once fainted. Subsequently, they took all necessary ßik£å in Navadv^pa from çr^ Raghunåtha dåsa Båbåj^, and upon his order for further ßik£å, or training, they went to Pur^ where they met Vakreßvara Paòàita’s disciple, çr^ Gopåla Guru Gosvåm^. He was a rågånuga Vai£òava and is one of the eight sakh^s. So they went there and inquired from him. He was so merciful that afterwards he called them one at a time and revealed to them their siddha-ßariras, having realized that Vrajanåtha was in sakhya-bhåva and that Vijaya Kumåra was in gop^ or mañjar^-bhåva. He gave both of them the gopåla-mantra, a£éa-daßåk£ara (eighteen syllables) or daßåk£ara (ten syllables). Dåsya, sakhya, våtsalya, and madhura-bhåvas are all found in the daßåk£ara-mantra which nourishes and supports every rasa. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura explains the construction of daßåk£ara, which Caitanya Mahåprabhu received from His Gurudeva, and a£éa-daßåk£ara. Gop^-janavallabhåya svåhå without kl^ì is the ten-syllable mantra. And when Kù£òa and Govinda, kù£òåya govindåya, are added, it becomes a£éa-daßåk£ara, an eighteen-syllable mantra. Kl^ì alone is itself a complete mantra, the b^ja added to the ten syllables.
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This mantra will support the rasa of every kind of j^va. Kl^ì kù£òåya govindåya gop^-janavallabhåya svåhå. In this everything is there. But one thing should be understood: kù£òåya is the Deity for one in dåsya and sakhya-rasa. For him govindåya and gop^-janavallabhåya will be adjectives describing Kù£òa’s qualities, i.e., the qualiﬁcations of the ﬁrst name, kù£òåya. Who is Kù£òa? He is my master, I am His servant, and Kù£òa is gop^-vallabha, in a general way. Kù£òa is the name which is prominent also for those in sakhya-rasa. They will focus on Kù£òa or Govinda. But those who have gop^-bhåva, or mañjar^-bhåva, will focus on Gop^-janavallabha, and these two words, kù£òåya and govindåya, will be adjectives of that. Våtsalya follows the same principle, accepting the name Kù£òa as the Deity with whom they are related. Everyone with våtsalya-bhåva knows that the gop^s love Kù£òa, but they have no experience of how they love Him. They don’t know that all the girls engage in intimate, loving affairs with Him. And sakhas also do not know the nature of these exchanges. So when someone has greed like the mañjar^s or gop^s, then go will mean gop^s – He gives so much ånanda to the gop^s – this is Govinda. They will not contemplate other meanings. And Kù£òa, by His appearance with ﬁve arrows, is immensely attractive. So all the names will support the name gop^-janavallabhåya. They will see the other names as adjectives of that name with whom they are related. Thus, everyone receives Gop^-janavallabha in our sampradåya. By the grace of çr^ Caitanya Mahåprabhu, those who come to this sampradåya are mainly of gop^bhåva. Some may be of other rasas like çr^våsa, Muråri Gupta, Anupama and so on. Therefore, Brajanåtha and
Vijaya Kumåra have the same mantra although their siddha-dehas are in separate rasas. Vijaya Kumåra saw his Gurudeva as Lalitå, and Brajanåtha saw him as Baladeva or Subala. It can happen like this. Guru gives training for serving under Lalitå and Vißåkhå in madhura-rasa. R¨pa Mañjar^, who is a pråòa-sakh^, also gives training in everything, not as a guru but as a very intimate bosom friend. In madhura-rasa everyone has to go to R¨pa Mañjar^ for training to serve as a mañjar^. We can see our instructing guru as R¨pa Mañjar^, and he can also be seen as Lalitå, but our vision of guru in this way should not be måyåvåda. You understand? We should see our Gurudeva as a manifestation, or delegated representative, of R¨pa Mañjar^. There is no harm in this. That is why Gopåla Guru was seen as Lalitå and also as Subala. We should know that this means he was their manifestation, just as in Kù£òa one can see Nåråyaòa, Våmana, and all other avatåras. Anyone can see his guru in this way according to one’s inner bhåva, as a manifestation. Otherwise, seeing our Gurudeva directly as R¨pa Mañjar^ will be måyåvåda, and we should always keep måyåvåda very far away.
Sådhaka R¨peòa Here sevå-sådhaka-r¨peòa means that I should do service outwardly as R¨pa Gosvåm^ did. What did he do? saíkhyå-p¨rvaka-nåma-gåna-natibhiè kålåvasån^-kùtau nidråhåra-vihårakådi-vijitau cåtyanta-d^nau ca yau rådhå-kù£òa-guòa-smùter madhurimånandena sammohitau vande r¨pa-sanåtanau raghu-yugau ßr^-j^va-gopålakau (öad Gosvåmyå£éakam 6)
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[I worship the Six Gosvåm^s, who passed all their time in chanting the holy names, singing songs, and offering daòàavat-praòåma, thereby humbly fulﬁlling their vow to complete a ﬁxed number daily. In this way they utilized their valuable lives and conquered over eating, sleeping and other such pleasures. Always very meek and humble, they became enchanted in divine rapture from remembering çr^ Rådhå-Kù£òa’s sweet qualities.] Sometimes he would go to Rådhå Kuòàa, sometimes to Govardhana, and sometimes to Nandagram. In Nandagåon sometimes he would go to Ter Kadamba, sometimes he would spend one day at Uddhava Kyåri, Nanda Baiéhak, Kokilavana, or Jåvaé. He, as well as our other öaà Gosvåm^s, would visit all our most cherished places. He always liked to go to Jåvaé because çr^mat^ Rådhikå, R¨pa Mañjar^ and all Her other friends used to live there. In the night they would go from there to meet in Saíketa, Sevå Kuñja, and many other places, and at midday they would meet at Rådhå Kuòàa. This sacred pond has some greater importance than all other places because pastimes there take place in the daytime, and only çr^mat^ Rådhikå’s gaòa, Her svapak£a-sakh^s, can come there. Vipak£a, suhùt and taéastha-gop^s are not allowed, nor can Nanda and Yaßodå ever come there.
Siddha R¨peòa So sådhaka-r¨peòa means to follow öad Gosvåm^s, especially R¨pa Gosvåm^. And siddha-r¨peòa refers to R¨pa Gosvåm^ in the siddha form as R¨pa Mañjar^. As a sådhaka, he comes in a male form as R¨pa Gosvåm^, and in his siddhasvar¨pa, he is R¨pa Mañjar^. What services does she do?
tamb¨lårpaòa påda mardana payo dånåbhisåradhibhir vùndåranya-maheßvariì priyataya yas to£ayanti priyah pråòa-pre£éha-sakhi-kulåd api kilåsaíkoc^tå bh¨mikåh keli-bh¨mi£u r¨pa-mañjar^-mukhås tå dåsikå saìßraye (Vraja-Vilåsa-Stava, verse 38, Raghunåtha dåsa)
She brings Rådhå and Kù£òa tamb¨la (påna) and payodåna, very sweetly ﬂavored water in a golden pitcher. She brings a golden pot when Rådhikå and Kù£òa want to spit Their påna. Then, arodhana-visarade-abhisåra. Do you know what abhisåra is? It is when çr^mat^ Rådhikå meets Kù£òa in Saíketa-sthal^. When She goes to meet Him on p¨ròimå, the full moon, and during Suklavara, the 15 days of the full moon, She dresses completely in white. Even though çr^mat^ Rådhikå is very golden and fair, still She has the mañjar^s rub karp¨ra (camphor) mixed with so many ingredients on Her body to make Her appear white, so that if anyone sees Her, they will think it is the moonrays only. This is Her disguise. The mañjar^s will bind Her ankle bells so that they will not make any “kling kling” sound. No noise should be heard. And Her sår^ and cunar^ (veil) should also be white. One sakh^ tells çr^mat^ Rådhikå, “The amavasya night is very dark, so You should practice how You will go there.” Thus, çr^mat^ Rådhikå takes training at midnight when it is quite dark. She has Her sakh^s take pots full of water and pour them in the courtyard to make it muddy and very slippery. Then they put down thorns here and there. They have created a setting as if it is a cloudy day with rain falling very heavily, making the earth extremely slippery, with many serpents here and there and thorns also. So in this situation, how can She go to Kù£òa? She
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practices in the night by moving very quietly and cautiously on tip toes. Lalitå is instructing çr^mat^ Rådhikå, while R¨pa Mañjar^ watches, and our Guru in this world as sakh^-mañjar^ also watches. The mañjar^s know everything – at what time and how they should go – and very cleverly make all arrangements. This is abhisåra. Kù£òa is waiting at Saíketa. The night is dark and it is raining. The mañjar^s come there ﬁrst to ﬁnd Kù£òa and tell Him that çr^mat^ Rådhikå will not come today. Actually, She has already come and is hiding, watching to see Kù£òa’s reaction. And to increase Kù£òa’s desire for çr^mat^ Rådhikå, the mañjar^s lie to Him, saying that she will not come. And immediately Kù£òa practically faints and suggests a way how They can get together. If they see that Kù£òa is sincerely hankering to meet, they at once go and tell çr^mat^ Rådhikå, who then comes. Otherwise, She will not come. So Her sakh^s know all these clever tricks. Sometimes, too, when it is time for abhisåra, it may be that their fathers-in-law or mothers-in-law or all of their sisters-in-law are present. The sakh^ should be so cunning that she can ﬁnd a way to cheat them, telling them lies and cleverly devising a way for Rådhå and Kù£òa to meet. This is called abhisåra. The mañjar^s perform all these activities. What is the meaning of the word abhisåra? It is a Sanskrit word meaning to go to meet one’s lover in the night. There are eight kinds of gop^s: abhisårikå – one who arranges the abhisåra; then våsaksajjå – one who comes before the meeting and prepares a bed of ﬂowers for Rådhå and Kù£òa to sleep on. They are always thinking that Kù£òa is coming just now, just now, just now. As they are making the beds, they are always listening for any noise. Or if
they hear any rustling sound of the leaves, they think that Kù£òa is coming. These are called våsaksajjå. Utkanéhitå – she is so eager for Kù£òa to come. Kù£òa is just coming, just coming. When will He come? When will He come? But when Kù£òa does not reach there, she is called khanàitå. When the time for meeting Kù£òa is over, and He has not yet come, she wonders why not. There must be some reason. Perhaps He has gone to another gop^, or He may have fallen into danger. There are so many demons in Vùndåvana. Perhaps He had to ﬁght with them or anything may have happened. Kù£òa ﬁnally comes well after the appointed time when it is about to be morning. Seeing some signs on Kù£òa’s body indicating that He has just come from another beloved, she becomes furious. This is khanàitå. Kalahantarikå – she has prema-kalaha, a lover’s quarrel, and does not speak to Him. So in each situation that mañjar^ has some duty – to rebuke Kù£òa, to make Him understand, or to give consolation to Rådhikå. And when Kù£òa apologizes, falls at the feet of Rådhikå, and at last He convinces Her to give up Her anger, then çr^mat^ Rådhikå commands Kù£òa, “Give Me My nupura, My ankle bell. Take My chotis, My braids, and decorate them,” and Kù£òa follows Her order. At this time, She is called svådh^na-bhartùkå – a lady who has gotten her lover under her control. (The other two kinds of nåyikås are vipralabdhå, who is feeling great separation because her lover has never come, and pro£itabhartùkå, whose lover is far away in a distant place.) So all qualities should be in that mañjar^. She prepares, gives sympathy, decorates, and makes so many arrangements:
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nikuñja-y¨no rati -keli-siddhyai yå yålibhir yuktir apek£an^yå tatråti-dåk£yåd ati-vallabhasya vande guroè ßr^ caraòåravindam
[çr^ Gurudeva is always present with the sakh^s, planning the arrangements for the perfection of Yugala Kißora’s amorous pastimes (rati-keli) within the kuñjas of Vùndåvana. Because he is so expert in making these tasteful arrangements for Their pleasure, he is very dear to çr^ Rådhå and Kù£òa. I offer prayers unto the lotus feet of çr^ Gurudeva.] So many arrangements are required to prepare the kuñjas where Rådhå and Kù£òa meet and engage in Their vilåsa, Their pleasurable amorous affairs. The sakh^s must cheat others, meet with Kù£òa, rebuke Him and perform many other duties for arranging Yugala Kißora’s meetings. R¨pa Mañjar^ is well trained in kuñja-sevå and, being highly experienced, is quite ﬁt to do all these services. We should always remember what she does in her siddha-ßarira as R¨pa Mañjar^ and hope to be able to adopt her mood. But until we receive our sthåy^-bhåva, which comes from hlådin^-ßakti, we can only pray to have all these things, as Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ does in Vilåpa Kusumåñjali. We cannot do all these things in our present stage, and the guru warns disciples not to try. We can only pray, “When will my saubhågya, good fortune, come and actually I will be in the service of Yugala Kißora, just like R¨pa Mañjar^, Anaíga Mañjar^, and our Gurus?” So, as sådhakas we should adopt in this body what R¨pa Gosvåm^, Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ and our Gurudeva have done. And siddha-r¨peòa, like R¨pa Mañjar^, Rati Mañjar^ and Labaíga Mañjar^, we should try to do service for Rådhå-Kù£òa Yugala. Tad bhåva lipsunå kåryå
vraja-lokånusårataè. Those who have greed should do all these things – vraja-lokånusarataè – just as the Vrajavås^s have done. Here Vrajavås^s means R¨pa Mañjar^ and other mañjar^s.
Nara L^lå – Aißvarya in Vraja What is the meaning of vraja-lokånusarataè? There are two kinds of Kù£òa’s pastimes. One is aißvarya-l^lå and the other is mådhurya-l^lå. What is aißvarya-l^lå? Kù£òa is always full of six opulences: jñåna, vairågya, ßr^ and so on. He always exhibits these, whether He is Nåråyaòa or whether He is Kù£òa. Even in Vùndåvana, we see that Kù£òa is full of these six virtues. He is never without them. When He killed P¨tanå, He was a baby of only a few days. She tried to ﬂy away when He took her breast, but still Kù£òa would not let her go. “Oh, I will take your milk and at the same time your life also. I will keep you with Me eternally and never leave you.” P¨tanå had the power of 10,000 elephants, yet she could not break away from Kù£òa. Baby Kù£òa was doing nothing, only holding her breast in His mouth, yet He took her life. This is actually aißvarya-l^lå, but still, Kù£òa never changed His shape or anything. He remained as a boy and just kept hold of P¨tanå’s breast. This is lokånusårataè, as in nara-l^lå, or human-like pastimes, even though P¨tanå was killed by aißvarya. There is also aißvarya in Vraja, but along with mådhurya. The gop^s see only mådhurya, not aißvarya. But aißvarya is there, covered by mådhurya. So, it is not that in Vùndåvana there is no aißvarya-l^lå. The aißvarya in Vraja is greater than in Dvårakå or even Vaikuòéha, but it is always covered by mådhurya. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^
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ëhåkura has written that if there were only nara-l^lå and no aißvarya in Kù£òa, then He would be simply an ordinary human child doing nara-l^lå. Without the quality of aißvarya, He cannot be God, and there is no rasa in worshiping Him. So there must be aißvarya, because without aißvarya He is not God, nor is He the gop^s’ upåsyå, object of worship. There is an interesting point to be noted here. We see that at ﬁrst all the gopas and gop^s accept Kù£òa as Nanda Båbå and Yaßodå’s son or as their friend only and behave accordingly. But when everyone saw Kù£òa lifting Govardhana Hill on His ﬁnger at the age of seven, the elder Vrajavås^s told Nanda Båbå, “This child is not an ordinary boy. He is just like Nåråyaòa, and in fact He is Nåråyaòa.” Nanda Båbå replied, “He may be Nåråyaòa, but yet He is my son. At the time of Kù£òa’s name-giving ceremony, I understood this by hearing the words of Garga û£i, who told that He is not less than Nåråyaòa; ﬁrst He was Nåråyaòa, Våsudeva, Vasudeva’s son.” This is why all the elder gopas were saying, “So don’t treat Him as your boy. And you should not rebuke Him or tie Him up. Don’t abuse Him. Don’t call Him chotå-cora, kapati, dhurta, little thief, cheater, rascal. Don’t call Him these names.” Nanda Båbå at once laughed and said, “You are saying that He is God, and He held Govardhana up on His ﬁnger. Garga û£i has also told this. But I see that you are over sixty. Your mind is not working correctly. Kù£òa comes and begs from His mother, ‘Give me bread and butter.’ And He always weeps. If it is late, He becomes so furious with anger, and sometimes He steals. These are not symptoms of God. So whether He held up Govardhana or not, He is my son. But in my opinion, He did not do it; it was actually our
deity of Nåråyaòa, our gùha-devatå, the worshipful deity of our home, who lifted Govardhana upon hearing our prayer. Why? Because we prayed to Nåråyaòa so He answered our prayers. But it appears that Kù£òa has done this. He is my son. If for argument’s sake we say that Kù£òa is God, still He is my son, and I will beat Him, I will discipline Him, and do whatever else needed to make Him behave.” Here, Nanda Mahåråja is seeing actually that all of Kù£òa’s virtues make Him appear God-like, and even though He had performed an act of God, Nanda Båbå still cannot give up his belief that Kù£òa is his son. On the other hand, we see Vasudeva and Devak^. After killing Kaìsa, Kù£òa and Balaråma went to them in prison and untied their shackles. The two boys wanted to offer praòåma to Their mother and father, who were standing with folded hands and praying, “Oh, You are God. We saw You in the wrestling arena. Originally, You appeared four-handed and now You have come here before us.” Kù£òa saw that the pastimes would be spoiled by their mood of aißvarya. So, calling Yogamåyå to come, Kù£òa climbed into Devak^’s lap and began to weep. By the effect of Yogamåyå, Devak^ also began to weep. And Baladeva went to the feet of Vasudeva, who began to weep as well. But they never saw Kù£òa as their son. They always saw Him as God. So here we see aißvarya accompanied with some mådhurya, but so little that it cannot cover the aißvarya. In Vraja, however, even if there is an abundance of aißvarya, Yaßodå and Nanda still do not forget that He is their son. They always remember this. And their breast becomes so high with pride observing that, “Oh, Kù£òa has lifted Govardhana Hill. My son has done this? Now all Vraja can see how strong and powerful my son is.”
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And for madhura-rasa, Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura has given many good examples with the gop^s. For instance, when Uddhava went to Vraja to give consolation to the gop^s, he heard them speaking to the bumblebee, “O bee, go at once! Get out of here. We will have no connection with Kù£òa. We will make no mutual settlement, no reconciliation with Him. We cannot do that. We know who He is from so many previous births, not just from this birth.” This is aißvarya. We can give another example of the gop^s realizing Kù£òa’s Godhood when they say, “P¨ròimå has told us about Kù£òa, and we have faith in her words. Puròamås^ told us that in His ﬁrst birth He was Råma, having the same blackish color as Kù£òa. He loved S^tå so much that He acted like Her servant, and when He went to the forest, He took Her with Him because He could not live alone. Kù£òa also cannot live alone. He cannot. He always has to keep some lady with Him. Råma loved S^tå so much that He took Her with Him into the jungle, becoming Her order-supplier. S^tå said to him, ‘Oh, look at that golden deer! Go and bring it to me – dead or alive. If it is alive, I will take it to Ayodhyå when we return and give it to Kaikey^ Må or Bharata, and if it is dead, then I will make a very smooth and beautiful åsana cover out of it. So, in either case I want it.’ “Lak£maòa warned Råma, ‘I think this is the måyå of demons. You should not go.’ But we know that Råma cannot change this lady’s mind once she has spoken, even if He were Brahmå or any other great personality, because He is the servant of that lady. So Råma went to capture the deer. “ç¨rpaòakhå came to Råma, saying, ‘I am so beautiful and You are so handsome. I want to marry you. Your wife is not so beautiful; she is not as beautiful as me. I am making
myself available for you.’ Råma replied, ‘Go to Lak£maòa. He is unmarried. My wife is here so I cannot accept you. But he is single so you can go to him.’ She went and told this to Lak£maòa, who asked her, ‘Do you want to be a maidservant or do you want to be the queen?’ She answered, ‘I want to be the queen.’ Lak£maòa replied, ‘But I am the servant of Råma. If you wed me, you will be a maidservant. Råma can have many marriages and every wife will be a queen. So return to Råma.’ “Again ç¨rpaòakhå went to Råmacandra, who directed her back to Lak£maòa. Then she became furious and was ready to eat S^tå. Råma told Lak£maòa, ‘Don’t make any jokes. It will create a harmful reaction. Don’t ever joke with ladies. Don’t laugh or make them laugh.’ But Lak£maòa had done this.” The gop^s continued, “He is so cruel and lusty. Why did He cut ç¨rpaòakhå’s nose and ears? He purposely cut her to make her ugly so that no one would marry her. Even her husband would not keep her. So how cruel this person is. And in her next birth, ç¨rpaòakhå came as Kubjå, being so ugly that no one would marry her. So see what kind of person He is! “In Satya Yuga, He came as Våmana, and for no good reason He cheated Bali Mahåråja, telling him, ‘I will take only three steps of land.’ Bali Mahåråja agreed, ‘Yes, I will give you.’ But when He began to measure his steps, He became so tall that with one leg He covered the whole universe. And with the second foot He covered from Patåla to Satya-loka. And for His third step, He needed somewhere to place His foot, so Bali Mahåråja offered himself. But He was not satisﬁed. He tied Bali up and threw him down to hell. This is what we know about this person, and
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there are even more things that we don’t know, so we will have no reconciliation with that person. Go away from here at once.” This is what the gop^s were saying to the bumble bee. Here Visvanåtha Cakravart^ tells that the gop^s know that Kù£òa is God, that He is Råma, Våmana, and all other incarnations, but nonetheless they recognize that “Kù£òa is our lover.” So this is aißvarya, but always covered with mådhurya. This aißvarya-bhåva in the gop^s comes only in viraha-bhåva, separation, not in meeting. Their aißvaryabhåva is like a piece of grass in three or four manas 1 of milk being boiled over a very big ﬁre. When the milk is very hot and starts to boil, after much time that grass will come to the surface, but only brieﬂy. At once it will go to the bottom. So only in the heat of separation that grass, that is, aißvarya-bhåva, will be seen in the gop^s. It is not visible all the time. But even being in aißvarya, they will see Kù£òa as their lover. When aißvarya is favorable to nara-l^lå and Kù£òa continues to act like an ordinary child, then it is mådhurya. And sometimes Devak^ and Arjuna also have mådhuryabhåva. For instance, when Kù£òa was sitting on the chariot, Arjuna told Him, “O Kù£òa, take my chariot to the middle of the battle ﬁeld.” And Kù£òa did that. But when Arjuna saw the vißvar¨pa, he became very nervous and said, ”I will not call You sakhå. You are God Himself.” Arjuna became covered by aißvarya and forgot that Kù£òa was his friend. Dvårakå l^lå is full of aißvarya. Sometimes there is mådhurya, but it is always defeated by aißvarya. Vraja1. 1 mana=40 kilos
lokånusårataè refers to nara-l^lå – Kù£òa always retains the mood of being an ordinary human. Nanda Båbå, Yaßodå, and the gop^s have a relationship with Kù£òa as human beings even though they are not humans – this is nara-l^lå. He is the lover of the gop^s and of çr^mat^ Rådhikå (Rådhåkånta). So, just as the gop^s in nara-l^lå serve Rådhå and Kù£òa, we should also serve Them like a mañjar^. This the meaning of vraja-lokånusårataè.
Verse Three – Mood Determines the Difference Between Vaidh^ and Rågånugå The third ßloka is: ßravaòotk^rtanåd^ni vaidhi-bhakty uditåni tu yåny aígåni ca tånyatra vijñeyåni man^£ibhiè (BRS 1.296)
[In vaidh^-bhakti one should practice the limbs of bhakti like ßravaòa, k^rtana, and so on according to one’s qualiﬁcation. Similarly, it has been advised by scholars who are well versed in the principles of bhakti to follow the same practices on the path of rågånugå-bhakti also.] çravaòotk^rtanåd^ni – this means that all the sixty-four aígas, or limbs, of sådhana-bhakti should be performed, or else the ﬁve main limbs, namely, sådhu-saíga, nåmak^rtana, bhågavata-ßravaòa, mathurå-våsa (this refers to Vraja, Navadv^pa and Pur^), and ßr^-m¨rtira-ßraddhåyasevåna. These ﬁve aígas that are executed in vaidh^-bhakti should be adopted in mådhurya-bhakti also, but the bhåva will be changed. If a man develops ßraddhå by seeing the order of ßåstra and consequently is inspired to cultivate
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bhakti, it is called vaidh^-bhakti. But a devotee who has greed to have service like the gop^s, even though he is performing vaidh^-bhakti, actually has mådhurya or rågånugåbhåva. The mood of this vaidh^-bhakti will change; it will not be the same as vaidh^-bhakti. So a rågånuga-bhakta should follow all the aígas of bhakti, or nine, ﬁve, three (ßravaòam, k^rtana, smaraòam), or only one – harinåma-k^rtana. But the proper bhåva must come. Here Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is explaining that a rågånuga-sådhaka should adopt only those practices which are favorable. He should not follow all of the sixty-four or nine limbs of bhakti. He will not incur any offense if he neglects any one of them for his m¨la, or root, purpose. This is also called aìß^, meaning the essential thing he is striving for – namely, gop^ or mañjar^bhåva. To have the personal service of çr^mat^ Rådhikå like gop^s, like mañjar^s, is the essence, the m¨la-aìß^-bhåva. To obtain this, one should do what is anuk¨la, favorable. And what is unfavorable one should kick out, like ahaígrahopåsanå, which means to think that “I am Lalitå, I am Vißåkhå, or I am R¨pa Mañjar^.” Sahaj^ya båbåj^s meditate in this way, rather than thinking that “I am Lalitå dås^.” This ahaígrahopåsanå, considering oneself as non-different from the object of worship (I am Lalitå, I am Vißåkhå, I am Citrå, I am R¨pa Mañjar^, and so on), is very dangerous, so you should be careful to escape from this. Other unfavorable practices to avoid are mudras and all the procedures for åcamana. Go-sevå, cow protection, and all these things are not important. We don’t hold ku£a in the hand for saíkalpa (taking a vow), nor do we adopt nyåsa. We should not do dvårakå-dhyåna or Rukmiò^ and
mahi£^-p¨jå, although they are included in the sixty-four limbs of bhakti. Then, worship of Råmacandra – be careful. This is for others, not for us. Kù£òa is Råma; yet we should be very careful with this. We can offer praòåma, saying, “O Kù£òa! You have made such a beautiful Råma r¨pa in which You are performing many wonderful pastimes,” but we will not worship that form. We should focus on Kù£òa. Do not perform Råma p¨jå. Dvårakådhißa Kù£òa p¨jå is better than Råma p¨jå, but that also has been warned against. In some cases, perhaps Nùsiìhadeva as the protector of bhakti can be worshiped without ill effect. çåstra presents these various forms of worship, instructing that they should be done. But these are for ordinary persons, for the general public, not for those sådhakas who are speciﬁcally going to serve çr^mat^ Rådhikå. Rågånuga means to serve Rådhikå with Kù£òa, so we should be aikåntik^, single-pointed. Our åcårya-varga has established so many deities for the general public which are not meant for those engaged in specialized worship. So you should perform your worship very carefully in such a way that no one will think that you are against Råma or Dvårakådhißa. And you should execute all your bhakti activities with greed. So, even though it is written in the bhakti-ßåstras that one should perform all these practices that we have mentioned and should not do avajña (neglect) to any aspect of bhakti, we have to understand that those practices which are not anuk¨la, favorable, in rågånuga are not to be done. There may be a time when a person following this principle of rågånuga comes to a mandira of Satyabhåmå, Rukmiò^, Råmacandra, or some other such vigraha. By chance he may have to worship them, but even if he does
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not, he incurs no offense. For a general person, it would be an offense, but in our case we do not avoid this worship in a mood that would be considered offensive. Take the example of Hanumån. Garuàa told Hanumån, “Your i£éadeva is calling you. Your i£éadeva çr^ Kù£òa wants you to come.” He said, “My health is so bad. I am sick. I cannot go. I am seriously ill.” Garuàa repeated, “Kù£òa is calling you.” Hanumån replied, “I know, but I am so tired that I cannot do anything.” Then Garuàa tried to take him by force, but Hanumån ﬂicked Garuàa with his tail, throwing him with such tremendous force that he at once landed in Dvårakå. Then Kù£òa told Garuàa, “Go again and tell him that Råma is calling him.” Garuàa returned to Hanumån and told him, “Your i£éadeva Råma is calling you.” Then immediately Hanumån became very joyful and said, “I am just taking my bath, and as soon as I put on tilaka, I am coming. You should go ahead and tell Råma that I am coming just now.” Garuàa said, “I will go very quickly, as quickly as the mind. So please come with me and ride on my back.” Hanumån said, “No, there is no need. I am coming just now. You should go ahead.” In the meantime, as Garuàa had gone half-way to see Råma, ﬂying so fast, he saw Hanumån coming back, jumping back from seeing Råma. He had already seen Kù£òa in the shape of Råma, having spoken with Him and paid his respects. He was now returning while Garuàa was only half-way there. If we have that root bhåva and are not following pådasevanam, arcanaì, vandanaì, dåsyaì, sakhyam, or any of them, it will not be an offense for the rågånuga-sådhaka. That aìß^-bhåva will ﬁll up all the practices which are missing.
ßruti smùti puråòådi pañcaråtra vidhiì vinå aikåntik^ harer bhaktir utpåtåyaiva kalpate
“Devotional service to Bhagavån that ignores the authorized Vedic literatures like the Upani£ads, Puråòas, NåradaPañcaråtra, etc., is simply an unnecessary disturbance in society.” This is a very important ßloka from Bhakti-RasåmùtaSindhu (1.2.101). The purport is that if one is doing aikåntik^ hari bhakti (exclusive worship of Kù£òa) but not following the instructions of ßåstra, then some disturbance will come. Disturbance means doing something that is not sanctioned by ßåstra. So here, ßruti smùti puråòådi pañcaratriki vidhiì vinå means that for a person having greed to serve Rådhå and Kù£òa, this root bhakti should be observed. That alone will be sufﬁcient. And if you do not follow any of the other aígas which are unfavorable, even though ßåstra instructs that they should be observed, still there is no chance of committing an offense.
Five Principles of Practice for Entering Rågånuga To develop greed, a person has to follow ﬁve principles: 1. Abh^£éa-bhåva-may^-sevå. What is abh^£éa-bhåvamay^-sevå? Always thinking of one’s siddha-bhåva. To have the bhåva of a mañjar^ – this is bhåva-may^. It will never be changed. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ will describe more about this. 2. Abh^£éa-bhåva-sambandh^ – these practices are related to one’s cherished mood. Abhi-i£éa – abhi means ‘surely’, and i£éa means ‘what we want’. These practices will surely deliver the desired goal.
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3. Abh^£éa-bhåva-anuk¨la – those practices favorable to the desired mood. 4. Abh^£éa-bhåva-avirudha – that which is not unfavorable we may adopt. 5. Abh^£éa-bhåva-virudha – that which is unfavorable we should not accept. What is favorable we should take, and that which is neither favorable nor unfavorable, we can reject or accept according to the atmosphere. Now Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is telling more about these ﬁve aspects. Abh^£éa-bhåva-may^ is our sådhana – that which we are doing, and in siddhi it will be the same. Remembering Govinda now, and in siddha-ßarira remembering Kù£òa. Both will be the same, but one is unripe and the other will be ripe. The practices will never change. K^rtana will never be changed, whether in sådhana or in siddha. These practices are abh^£éa-bhåva-may^. Now we are thinking we are kißor^-gop^s engaged in Rådhikå’s service. In our remembering, we are seeing ourselves as cowherd maidens making very beautiful garlands and giving them to R¨pa Mañjar^. In turn, R¨pa Mañjar^ gives them to Lalitå and Vißåkhå, who place them on the necks of Rådhå and Kù£òa. This type of remembrance is called a£éa-kål^ya-sevå, or a£éa-yåmi-sevå. Or, with such thoughts in mind, we may pray like Raghunåtha dåsa in Vilåpa Kusumåñjali, and in siddha-sevå we will actually engage in internal sevå. So there is no change. It is only a question of the unripe and ripe stage. This is called abh^£éabhåva-may^. Now let us consider the second principle, abh^£éa-bhåvasambandh^. There are two reasons behind everything – upådåna-kåraòa and nimitta-kåraòa, the material cause and the efﬁcient cause. Like an earthen pot – upådåna is
the earth, and nimitta is the potter himself, who is the immediate cause. Another example is Kåraòodaka£ay^ Vi£òu, who is the nimitta-kåraòa, and Advaitåcårya, who is the upådåna-kåraòa. So, måyå is of two kinds – nimitta and upådåna, and of the two, upådåna is more important. In upådåna-kåraòa, everything is Kù£òa Himself, meaning God. And as nimitta-kåraòa, måyå is prakùt^. (This is further explained in CC. Adi 6.) Here Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is telling that the upådåna-kåraòa of bhakti is greed arising out of ßravaòaì, that which we have heard from our ßik£å or d^k£å-guru about Kù£òa. That Kù£òa, who is so kißora and so sweet, holding a ﬂute to His lips, is very favorable for gop^-prema. Guru will also tell us about åßraya. Who is åßraya? R¨pa Mañjar^ and all her companions. We should remember and discuss all the activities of R¨pa Mañjar^. This is upådåna-kåraòa. We should go to their places, l^låsthånas, like Rådhå Kuòàa, çyåma Kuòàa, Giriråja Govardhana, Vùndåvana, Vaìß^ Vaéa and all these places. These are all upådåna-kåraòa, crucial or essential practices which will quickly bring us to our goal. And some practices are nimitta-kåraòa. This refers to putting on tilaka, wearing a kaòéh^ målå, taking sannyåsa, wearing red cloth, and so on. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura will clarify this further. Some aspects are favorable. If you do them, you will gain something by it. For example, reading Bhågavat and all other books. If you do not do this, you will be the loser. So these practices are necessary. But in all activities, we must always keep our mind focused on the abh^£éa (desired) root bhåva for which we have greed and which we are striving to attain – dåsya, sakhya, våtsalya or mådhurya. In sådhana it is unripe, and in siddha it is ripe.
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Gurupadåßraya, mantra-japa, dhyåna, hearing and remembering, these key practices are bhåva-sambandh^ upådåna-kåraòa. First is bhåva-may^, developing actual greed for that particular mood we want, that is, gop^bhåva, mañjar^-bhåva. Second is bhåva-sambandh^, that is, upådåna-kåraòa – engaging in those essential practices which will give that mood. Without taking gurupadåßraya, one cannot attain this greed. Gurupadåßraya, to follow guru, is crucial. To hear from him and to serve him are essential and are called upådåna-kåraòa bhåva-sambandh^. So, upådåna should be understood to mean ingredient or essential. To remember the gopåla-mantra, kåma-gåyatr^, and Caitanya Mahåprabhu’s mantra are all bhåva-sambandh^. When remembering kl^ì gauråya svåhå, will we utter words only? Something should come in our hearts. What? That Caitanya Mahåprabhu is Himself Kù£òa, and He is so kind that ahaituk^, without any cause, He is always in a mood to give kù£òa-prema through that mantra, kl^ì gauråya svåhå. To that Gauråíga we are offering ourselves, svåhå, to attain His service. We are advised to chant all these mantras that guru has given us three times every day – this is upådåna-kåraòa. We must do this. Nijåbh^£éa kù£òa-pre£éha pacheta’ lågiyå (CC. M. 22.159) – following one of Kù£òa’s beloved associates according to your inner desire, the mahå-mantra should always be chanted. This is upådåna-kåraòa. This means not only chanting but remembering the qualities of kù£òa-nåma. What qualities? Hare Råma Hare Råma Råma Råma Hare Hare. That Hare Kù£òa: Hare – çr^mat^ Rådhikå, kù£òaì vanaì harati vanamågamayat^ti harå. Harå means attractive to all, but here çr^mat^ Rådhikå enchants Kù£òa and attracts Him in
the nikuñja. Kù£òa fascinates all, but here çr^mat^ Rådhikå attracts Kù£òa. Therefore, She is Madana-mohana Mohin^. With these thoughts in mind, we should chant harinåma. These mantras are siddha-mantras. So no anu£éhana (ceremony) of puraßcaraòa (preliminary puriﬁcatory procedures) should be done with these mantras. These are bhåvasambandh^, that is, upådåna-kåraòa. Hearing and telling about Kù£òa and His priya-jana, His dear ones, are also bhåva-sambandh^. Nimitta-kåraòa is not bhåva-sambandh^. Here Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is telling that in rågånugå there are two primary activities – smaraòa and k^rtana. In this instance, which is superior, k^rtana or smaraòa? Here he is telling that for ordinary persons smaraòa seems to be superior, but in this Kali-yuga it is declared: harinåma harinåma harinåma eva kevalam. çr^ Caitanya Mahaprabhu has come only for k^rtana. Those who perform k^rtana-yajñå are called sumedhå, very intelligent. He is telling that whatever Caitanya Mahåprabhu has stated is a decided fact. So here smaraòa is not superior, but is in anugatya (the following) of k^rtana. And in Bùhad-Bhågavatåmùta, Sanåtana Gosvåm^ has told why. The sahaj^ya båbåj^s do not accept Sanåtana Gosvåm^’s or Mahåprabhu’s idea. But Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is emphasizing here that smaraòa should be done under the supervision of saík^rtana. Why? Because a man remembering the pastimes of Kù£òa will be disturbed if any noise comes. His meditation will be disrupted. If a man whose mind is restless and ﬂickering does k^rtana very, very loudly, all his senses become subdued. All the senses, indriyas, are bound to be silent. If we engage in k^rtana, our minds will feel no disturbance when we remember in silence in the morning.
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This k^rtana may be japa or congregational k^rtana. The important thing is having this greed and being in anugatya, following a rasika Vai£òava, remembering the pastimes of Kù£òa, chanting by mouth, and being in Vùndåvana by body or mind – this k^rtana is required. And it should be vyaktigata, individual, not sama£tigata, collective. If our Guruj^ is doing k^rtana and we have participated in that, our k^rtana will not be the same as his because we are not equal to our Gurudeva. He is remembering the pastimes of Kù£òa and weeping, but we are not. We are only singing along with him, so our chanting is not the same. His is vyaktigata, individual, performed for his personal bhajana, and ours is sama£tigata, congregational. Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ is doing k^rtana individually by his own mouth. And when he is doing k^rtana with Caitanya Mahåprabhu and His associates, it is not individual. But what Caitanya Mahåprabhu discusses with Råya Råmånanda is individual. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura relates from UjjvalaN^lamaòi the account of the ù£is who performed tapasya, austerities. We should not think that this means surrounding oneself by ﬁre in the summer, taking bath in very, very cold water in the winter, not eating, taking a vow of silence, or any other such bodily hardships. Here it refers to årådhana, worship. By the grace of Råmacandra, 60,000 mahar£is did årådhana by mind, and all of them became gop^s. So these practices are all bhåva-sambandh^. Nimitta-kåraòa includes observing vratas – Ekådaß^ vrata, Janmå£éam^ vrata, doing tapasya or anything for Kù£òa only and having that greed. Upådåna means you must certainly do it. And if you fail to do nimitta, it is harmful but not as harmful as not doing the upådåna.
I gave the example that upådåna is the clay and nimitta is the potter. Without the potter or without earth, nothing can be done, but the earth is especially crucial, so upådåna is superior. Hearing the pastimes of Kù£òa and serving gurudeva are upådåna-kåraòa, and these other practices are secondary. Nimitta means the support, the cause, and upådåna means the base, the ingredient. Without the ingredient, nothing can be done, so upådåna is more important. But if anyone is saying that we should not observe Ekådaß^, like Hithari-Vaìßa, it is not right. We should follow Ekådaß^ and Janmå£éam^ also, even though these are nimitta-kåraòa and not as important as the other practices. Ekådaß^, Janmå£éam^ and other tithis, applying tilaka and so on are upåkår^, beneﬁcial, for smaraòa-aíga, m¨la-aíga, bhåva-sambandh^. Bhåva-sambandh^ is m¨lakåraòa, the main cause, and is superior to nimitta-kåraòa, which is the secondary cause. The superiority of bhåvasambandh^ over nimitta-kåraòa is stressed for the beneﬁt of those who put emphasis on observing Ekådaß^, Janmå£éam^ and Råmanåvam^ but do not give importance to hearing pastimes. For these people this has been written. If anyone does not observe Ekådaß^, what will be the harm? When one has greed and is engaged in doing bhåvamay^ or bhåva-sambandh^, one may overlook Ekådaß^, as Vaìß^dåsa Båbåj^ Mahåråja did, for example. On å£éam^ and nåvam^, he was observing Ekådaß^ for three or four days, and when Ekådaß^ came, he was completely unaware of the day. Ragunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ would be internally absorbed in remembering for many days and Ekådaß^ would go by at that time. Since they were performing rågånuga, there was no harm in missing it. But if they were
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not to follow when they regained their external senses, then it would be harmful. First I have explained bhåva-may^ – this can be unripe and ripe. That is, in sådhana we can think we are gop^s, and when we will actually be a gop^, then it will be siddhabhåva. In both cases, it is called bhåva-may^. Next is bhåvasambandh^ upådåna-kåraòa – these are activities we must do, like hearing and remembering. These things cannot be neglected for any reason. But if we cannot follow nimittakåraòa in certain circumstances, it is not harmful. Therefore, it is considered secondary. Karttika vrata is of two kinds. When it is followed as vairagya, not to accept many things, it is nimitta-kåraòa. But Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is telling in relation to bhåva-sambandh^. When ßravaòam-k^rtanaì of çr^mat^ Rådhikå and Kù£òa is being performed, it is upådånakåraòa. So if vairagya is not observed, there is no harm. But this ßravaòam-k^rtanaì should not be neglected. Every vrata is of two kinds. When it is upådåna-kåraòa, it should not be missed. But if we fail to do the aígas of nimitta-kåraòa, there is no harm. Once I went to Govindaj^ Mandira in Jaipur in the month of Kårttika. They requested me to take mahåprasådam, and I told them, “I am so lucky that you are giving me this mahå-prasådam of Rådhå-Govinda.” They brought me rice, lauk^ (bottle-gourd), and eggplant. We are not supposed to take lauk^ or eggplant during Kårttika, but I accepted them as mahå-prasåda, placing it on my head with great ßraddhå. I thought to myself, “This is upådåna-kåraòa, to respect mahå-prasåda. çr^ Govindaj^ is the vigraha of R¨pa Gosvåm^,” so I respected it; but here in our mandira we tell them not to prepare
lauk^, eggplant and all these things during Kårttika, and we do not take them. Third is bhåva-anuk¨la. This includes gop^-candanatilaka, Tulas^ sevå, parikramå, and offering praòåma. These are favorable and should be done. Cow sevå, giving water, worshiping the pipal tree and respecting bråhmaòas– these are among sixty-four kinds of bhakti listed in BhaktiRasåmùta-Sindhu and are somewhat favorable, upåkår^, or beneﬁcial. If a sådhaka does not follow them, there is no harm, but we should do as Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^ has instructed – sujane bh¨sura gaòe. Bh¨sura refers to the bråhmaòas. But if a rågånuga Vai£òava has no time for these practices, no harm because this is nimitta-upåkår^ only. These are bhåva-anuk¨la – they are favorable, supportive, but not essential. Then, the fourth is bhåva-avirudha – not unfavorable but not yet favorable. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura gives one example. Kù£òa wants to have milk from the breast of Yaßodå, and at the same time she has kept milk on the ﬁre. As the milk was boiling over, Yaßodå forcibly put Kù£òa down. He was weeping and was so angry, but she went to protect the milk on the stove. We should protect the things that Kù£òa likes more than we should protect Kù£òa Himself. And we should favor these things more than Kù£òa because they will be used in His sevå. For a rågånuga-bhakta, although ßravaòaì, k^rtanaì, and smaraòaì are superior, the management of the k^rtana is not less important. “Oh, come on and play the mùdaíga. Oh, you should come and you should do k^rtana.” Making arrangements and managing of all these things are considered preaching. At ﬁrst, ßravaòaì and k^rtanaì are superior to managing, but ultimately it will
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be transferred into them. If one has rågånugå in his heart, he can do all these other activities if they are supportive of saík^rtana, smaraòa and so forth. Like in your case, you are preaching, going here and there for nåma-saík^rtana, having meetings and managing so many things. There is no alternative – you must perform these duties. But internally, we keep a certain mood while we engage in all these other activites only to promote saík^rtana. In this case there is no harm. Saík^rtana should be supported. Another example is the washing of Kù£òa’s cloth. It is not less than k^rtana or smaraòa, because later it will be transferred into k^rtana. In the future, that person will perform k^rtana and smaraòa. One should have respect for the aígas – ßravaòaì k^rtanaì vi£òoè smaraòaì – and should do smaraòaì of Kù£òa. This smaraòa is superior. Äsakti is of two kinds: åsakti in sådhana-aíga and åsakti in Kù£òa and His parikaras. Both are good, but later on åsakti in ßravaòaì k^rtanaì and all such practices will transfer into åsakti for Kù£òa and then become smaraòa. So it begins as bhåvaanuk¨la and after that it will become bhåva-may^. The ﬁfth is bhåva-virudha. These are things that should be rejected. Here ahaígrahopåsanå (to consider oneself as non-different from the object of worship), nyåsa, mudrås (different procedures of intertwining the ﬁngers during worship), Dvårakå and mahi£^-dhyåna – all should be rejected. Other practices are helpful, but these are directly harmful. Bhåva-virudha should be given up. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ has explained as I have related. When you attain siddha-ßarira, you will realize these things. In the preliminary stage, you cannot have an exact idea of what these things are. He concludes this section
by saying, “I am explaining to you, and if you have not understood properly, it is my fault that I could not make you comprehend, so God and ßuddha-bhaktas should forgive me.”
he gop^s knew that Kù£òa was God, yet they never saw Him as such. They always said to Him, “Come on. The red lac has come off my feet. You please paint our feet.” They would give Him so many orders, and they would become angry with Kù£òa, because they never accepted Him as God. They behaved with Kù£òa as if He was their own. So here, even though they had ^ßvara-bhåva, they knew nothing beyond Kù£òa as their lover. This is mådhurya-bhåva.
Who Hears Prayers of the Rågånuga-bhakta?
ow we are beginning the second prakåßa. Here çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^påda is raising a question. If Kù£òa is always engaged in vilåsa with the gop^s only, doing råsa and playing with them, and He has forgotten everything else that is going on, then who will hear the prayers of all the rågånuga-bhaktas who are praying to Him? Kù£òa is always tasting vilåsa in the association of the gop^s, continuously trying to please them, and the gop^s are also in a mood of how they can make Kù£òa happy. Kù£òa has forgotten His house and His duties. He is not aware if any danger or any enemy can come or not. He does not know what fear is, and He has no anxiety. So Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is asking, “Who will fulﬁll the desires of the rågånuga-bhaktas when Kù£òa has forgotten everything? Who will give them blessings or consolation?” He tells that some propose that Paråmåtmå, the fraction of Kù£òa, will hear all these things, because He comes in the form as witness to every j^va. So as Paråmåtmå, He will hear. But Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ is of the opinion that no rågånuga-bhakta will be satisﬁed dealing with Paråmåtmå, because He is not rasika and is unaware
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of the rågånuga-bhakta’s mood. Thus, Paråmåtmå is not sufﬁcient; He is only såk£^, the witness who gives the fruits of one’s karmas, and is bound in His duty in this way. The rågånuga-bhaktas will not be satisﬁed even by Nåråyaòa, Råmacandra and Dvårakådhißa, what to speak of Their fractions. So now again Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ is explaining that Kù£òa will hear. Brajendra-nandana çyåmasundara Gop^kånta will hear. But how? He is engaged and has forgotten everything. How will He hear? There are two special qualities in Kù£òa – sarva-jñatå and mugdhatå. Mugdhatå means that, by the power of His prema, He does not know anything. Prema is so powerful that it covers Kù£òa over so that He acts like an ordinary person of limited intelligence. This is observed when Kù£òa was in Dvårakå. Uddhava was there and Kù£òa called him, telling him that there were two very important engagements to be done – one, to kill Jaråsandhå, and the other, to accept the Påòàavas’ invitation to join the råjas¨ya-yajñå. “Both are equally important. What should I do?” Here Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is asking that if Kù£òa is sarva-jña, omniscient, knowing past, present and future, then why did He seek Uddhava’s advice? So, it may be that Kù£òa was only acting as if ignorant, but from the subject it is seen that He was not acting. Uddhava answered Him, “Prabhu, I’m surprised and don’t know why You have asked me. You know everything, but You are speaking as if You know nothing.” Uddhava advised Him, “First You should go to the råjas¨ya-yajñå. Take Arjuna and Bh^ma with You, and from there, with the horse from the yajñå, You should go to Jaråsandhå and kill him, thereby completing the råjas¨ya-yajñå. Both tasks
will be accomplished with one stroke.” Kù£òa appreciated Uddhava’s solution, “O Uddhava, certainly you are very intelligent. I will do as you advise.” Here Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is telling that Kù£òa exhibits both qualities, mugdha, as if knowing nothing, and sarva-jña, knowing everything at the same time. Kunt^ prays to Kù£òa, “I remember how You were crying bitterly when Yaßodå was going to bind Your hands and waist. That crying was real, it was not imitation. When I recall this, I am astonished – fear personiﬁed fears You, yet You were afraid of the stick in Yaßodå’s hand.” This is called mugdha, knowing nothing, being very innocent like a child. This mugdhatå happens by Yogamåyå’s inﬂuence. A man overpowered by Kù£òa’s illusory måyå feels sufferings and happiness, and undergoes so many births under the illusory energy. His happiness and sufferings are all the work of måyå, which causes him to forget Kù£òa. Therefore, are Kù£òa’s sarva-jñatå and mugdhatå fruits of this måyå? No, not brahma-måyå, not even Balaråma’s måyå, not any måyå. Rather, they are the result of Kù£òa’s prema, His bhakta-våtsalya. He loves His åßrayas so much that He knows nothing, that is, He forgets everything else. That prema is Yogamåyå – Yogamåyå is nothing else. There are so many functions of prema, like Yogamåyå, åtmåmåyå, paramåyå, çr^mat^ Rådhikå hlådhin^-ßakti. All are functions of Yogamåyå, that is, of prema. So Kù£òa becomes sarva-jña and mugdha at the same time. Thus, if any rågånuga-bhakta in this world is doing årådhana of the gop^s or Kù£òa and praying for something when He is doing råsa, Kù£òa will fulﬁll the desire of that rågånugabhakta. He hears everything, because, although He is mugdha during råsa-l^lå, at the same time He is sarva-jña.
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The Difference Between Aißvarya and Mådhurya çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is explaining aißvarya and mådhurya. What is aißvarya? It is opulence, majesty and reverence, knowing that Kù£òa is Bhagavån. And what is mådhurya? Just saying ‘sweetness’ is not sufﬁcient because we taste some sweet things, but this is not mådhurya. With family we taste something like this. A kißora boy tastes everything that we might call mådhurya, but this is not mådhurya. Behind it there must be aißvarya, opulence. Without aißvarya there can be no mådhurya. Do you know what mahå-aißvarya is? It is the mood of great opulence. Mahå-aißvarya may or may not be present – that is not the question. When Kù£òa’s pastimes are going on as nara-l^lå, like humans, even though there is mahå-aißvarya underneath, it is mådhurya. And when Kù£òa and His bhaktas are both aware that He is îsvara, He is God, and bhakti also knows that He is God, and if there is mahå-aißvarya, then the pastimes are not like human actions. For instance, we see that Arjuna has so much aißvarya for Kù£òa. When Kù£òa revealed His vißvar¨pa to Arjuna on the battleﬁeld, Arjuna told Him, “I have committed so many offences at Your lotus feet. I have called You sakhå, but You are God. You are my årådhya, and I have called You sakhå, and I have ordered You to drive my chariot.” This is aißvarya-l^lå, because Kù£òa was in a mood that “I am îßvara.” He showed His ^ßvara-r¨pa to Arjuna, who immediately gave up his sakhyå-bhåva. This is aißvarya-l^lå. When Vasudeva and Devak^ saw Kù£òa and Baladeva after They had killed Kaìsa, they actually began to worship Them and uttered so many stava-stutis. When Kù£òa
came to kill Kaìsa, He was in ^ßvara-bhåva, knowing that “I am îßvara.” Vasudeva and Devak^ also knew that He was îßvara, so this is aißvarya-bhåva. Kù£òa went to Govardhana and He lifted Govardhana on one ﬁnger for seven days. Indra came and did abhi£eka of Kù£òa, and Yaßodå heard about this. All were assembled and, calling Yaßodå and Nanda Mahåråja to come, they said, “You should not think that Kù£òa is your son. He is God. You should not beat Him, slap Him or call Him bad names. Don’t call Him thief, liar and all other things, because it will be an offense.” Yaßodå was so much pleased and delighted that her son had lifted up Govardhana for seven days and that all were praising Him. So her breasts became very swollen with pride. If a woman hears her children praised, she becomes greatly pleased. But Yaßodå never said that Kù£òa was God. So this is mådhurya. She knew that His action was not of an ordinary person, but still she thought, “He is only my son.” The gop^s, on the other hand, knew about Kù£òa’s bhagavatå (Godhood). When Uddhava came and met them, the gop^s were saying that Kù£òa was îsvara, Bhagavån, not only in this birth but also in past births. As Råmacandra, He had also done so many questionable things. He was fully controlled by S^tå-dev^. So the gop^s have ^ßvara-bhåva. They learned this from P¨ròimå, who had been told by Gargåcårya. Therefore, they knew that Kù£òa was God, yet they never saw Him as such. They always said to Him, “Come on. The red lac has come off my feet. You please paint our feet.” They would give Him so many orders, and they would become angry with Kù£òa, because they never accepted Him as God. They behaved with Kù£òa as if He was their own. So here, even
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though they had ^ßvara-bhåva, they knew nothing beyond Kù£òa as their lover. This is mådhurya-bhåva. Now Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ is telling that when Kù£òa knows that He is îßvara, and His bhakta knows that He is îßvara, then it is aißvarya-bhåva. And when it is mådhurya, Kù£òa forgets that He is îßvara, and the bhakta also forgets. The bhakta has an idea that Kù£òa is God, but he does not treat Him like that. He treats Him only as a lover, son and so on. So Kù£òa is always in vraja-bhåva, overpowered by prema. Under the inﬂuence of Yogamåyå, He performs all His actions by this prema. And it is not against siddhånta that Kù£òa is overpowered by prema, because prema and Kù£òa are the same thing. Kù£òa is saccidånanda-maya, and prema is His svabhåva. Do you know what svabhåva is? It is the nature of Kù£òa. We may say that prema is the ßakti and is also Kù£òa Himself. Kù£òa is raso vai saè – as rasa is prema, so prema is Kù£òa. And Kù£òa is prema also, and at the same time prema is the ßakti of Kù£òa – both. Therefore, çr^la Cakravart^påda explains that at the time of råsa Kù£òa was sarva-jña, because He knew that all the gop^s wanted to love Him and dance with Him. He knew. Then He expanded into so many Kù£òas, and He did what the gop^s wanted. That is mugdhatå. When He knew that “everyone wants to dance with Me,” this is aißvarya, sarvajñatå. So both come at the same time. Why? Because of Kù£òa’s acintya-ßakti. These are His qualities. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is saying in this connection that those who have actual greed and follow rågånugå exclusively will have the service of Rådhå and Kù£òa in gop^-bhåva. If someone has the ambition, some greed, to serve Rådhå and Kù£òa with råga, and he is doing only vaidh^-bhakti – ßravaòaì k^rtanaì vi£òoè smaraòaì –
some people say that he will achieve Dvårakå bhåva and will become a maidservant of Rukmiò^ and Satyabhåmå. They also say that if a sådhaka has greed and is doing vaidh^-bhakti mixed with rågånugå-bhakti, he will become the maidservant of a Mathurå mahi£^. But Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura says that this is not correct. Why is it not correct? Who is the queen, the mahi£^, of Mathurå? Kubjå. And the mahi£^s of Dvårakå are Rukmiò^, Satyabhåmå, and so on. If a man performing vaidh^-bhakti receives the service of the mahi£^s of Dvårakå, and if a man having greed and doing both vaidh^ and rågånugå becomes the maidservant of Kubjå, it is not justiﬁed. Kubjå’s prema is less than Dvårakå mahi£^-prema. The Dvårakå mahi£^s are so much superior to Kubjå. Vaidh^ plus rågånugå is superior to vaidh^-bhakti. So it is against the principles of bhakti that someone having only vaidh^-bhakti attains a better goal, that is, the service of the Dvårakå mahi£^s, whereas a sådhaka performing vaidh^ mixed with rågånugå receives something less than that. It has been written in Gopåla Tåpani çrut^ that Rukmiò^’s marriage was performed in Mathurå, so some say that Rukmiò^ must be there. Yet this is against our principle. Is it correct that by following vaidh^-bhakti one will receive the same award as one who is doing vaidh^ mixed with rågånugå? No, this is against our Gauà^ya Vai£òava idea. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ states that Rukmiò^’s marriage in Mathurå is against ßåstra and has been told only in Gopåla çruti. Here Mathurå actually means Dvårakå, because they are the same. So, according to Bhågavata and all other authentic bhakti-granthas, what is told in Gopåla çruti is not valid. He will further explain this later on, but he is mentioning it now so that this point will be clearly understood.
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Now Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is telling that when a sådhaka worships Nåråyaòa, Råma, and all other incarnations of Kù£òa by vaidh^-bhakti, he goes to Vaikuòéha after attaining siddhi. And those who have no greed but want to serve Rådhå and Kù£òa and worship Them by doing vaidh^-bhakti, where will they go at the time of siddhi? They will go to Goloka. They don’t know about parak^yå – they only know about svak^yå. Svak^yå is in Goloka, which is a vast place with many, many prako£éha, or chambers. Someone may be worshiping Rådhå and Kù£òa and want to go to Goloka. In Goloka, there is no difference between svak^yå and parak^yå. There is only svak^yå-bhåva in aißvarya. But Rådhå-Kù£òa are there with every kind of aißvarya. There They are almost like Nåråyaòa, but They are not Nåråyaòa. First comes Vaikuòéha. In lower Vaikuòéha there is Nåråyaòa, the twenty-four åvåtaras, and all others. After that comes Råma-loka, followed by Kù£òa-loka, which begins with Goloka. In Goloka there are so many divisions – Goloka, Dvårakå, Mathurå, and then Vraja. In lower Goloka, there is only svak^yå-bhåva with ai£varya-jñåna. There is no lobha, no greed at all for vraja-bhåva there. They like Rådhå and Kù£òa, but in a mood like that of Nåråyaòa and Råma. If a sådhaka has lobha and is worshiping Rådhå and Kù£òa but in vaidh^-mårga, not in råga-mårga, then where will he go? He will go to Dvårakå. Why? Because Rådhikå is Satyabhåmå and Candråval^ is Rukmiò^, Kù£òa is Dvårakådißa Yådhava Kumåra, and aißvarya is there. One who has no greed goes to Goloka, and the sådhaka who has lobha but worships in vaidh^-bhakti goes to Dvårakå. And those who have greed for vraja-bhåva and are worshiping
by rågånugå-bhakti under the guidance of a rasika Vrajavås^ will achieve vraja-bhåva. This is a very important point. Without knowing these things, we cannot have the proper idea of Vraja. We may be deceived, and instead of Vraja, we will go to Dvårakå or Goloka. If you want to achieve this vraja-bhakti, you will have to offer your life to that Vai£òava who can give it. Certainly we are lucky that we are discussing all these good things. I think that even by our practicing sådhana for hundreds of låkhas of births, there is no certainty that we will be able discuss all these things. It is by the mercy of guru and Gauråíga that this is possible.
Worship Rådhå-Kù£òa with Their Pastimes and Associates One thing çr^la Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura stresses is that we should not worship Rådhå and Kù£òa without Their l^lås. If you chant Hare Kù£òa Hare Kù£òa without meditating on Their pastimes, a very simple thing can be achieved. R¨pa Gosvåm^ has told, “By chanting Kù£òa’s name and by remembering the pastimes, both should amalgamate, and then rasa will come.” If sugar is there and water is there but they are not mixed together, there will be no rasa. So they need to be mixed together. Then there can be rasa. What kind of pastimes should we meditate on? Only those with the gop^s. If a man has greed for that vraja-bhakti, even though Kù£òa is always with His hlådhin^-ßakti, çr^mat^ Rådhikå, who is also svar¨paßakti, it is not sufﬁcient to remember Rådhå-Kù£òa without Their pastimes. Without meditating on Their l^lås, hlådhin^-ßakti will not work. Just by worshiping Rådhå-
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Kù£òa in ßr^ mandira, there is no certainty that we will attain vraja-bhåva. We may receive darßana of Lak£m^ or Satyabhåmå and Rukmiò^ instead. So, thinking of R¨pa Mañjar^, Rati Mañjar^, and our Gurudeva as a mañjar^ 2 in this order, we should remember Rådhå and Kù£òa’s pastimes that our Gosvåm^s and çr^mad-Bhågavatam have described. When we do årati of Rådhå and Kù£òa, we should think of Their pastimes. What pastimes? In the morning, we should meditate on Their morning pastimes; and at midday, the pastimes of midday. And we should see ourselves and our Gurudeva also as one of the mañjar^s. Then our bhajana will be rågånuga. Otherwise, it is simply vaidh^-bhakti. When the gop^s offer årati, they have a pradipa, or ghee lamp. The ghee is our heart’s prema, the pradipa is our heart, and the cotton wick is our bhåva. What bhåva? A special bhåva. Every bhakta has a special bhåva. And that bhåva will be transmitted through the eyes. The gop^s are worshiping by the corners of their eyes. And Kù£òa, in turn, accepting their worship with His eyes, takes it in His heart. The gop^s do arcana in this way, not by simply waving a lamp with great ceremony! When Kù£òa comes, Yaßodå Ma takes a pradipa, ﬂower, everything, and greets Him with great affection. The gop^s, standing at the door where no one can see them, are doing arcana to Kù£òa with their very lusty eyes. Kù£òa does not see what His mother is doing. Where are His eyes focused? So this is best arcana and best årati. And we should see that årati in Vraja through this årati that we are performing here. 2. We can meditate on our Gurudeva as a very near and dear sakh^ of Rupa Manjari, having qualities similar to hers.
There is one thing that Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ has warned to be very careful about – some of our åcåryas have told that Rådhikå is svak^yå, not parak^yå, and that parak^yå occurs only in prakaéa-l^lå, not in aprakaéa. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ has not mentioned the name of who has said this, but we can reveal that it was J^va Gosvåm^. He has written that the ßuddha-parak^yå-bhåvabhakta should think that çr^mat^ Rådhikå is parak^yå, but he cautioned that if a man has any doubt, he is advised strictly to follow svak^yå-bhåva. Our author is telling that in the Puråòas or in any books written by rasika Vai£òava åcåryas like Nårada, Vyåsa, çuka, çaíkara, and Paraßara, the father of Vyåsadeva, it has never been stated that Rådhikå is the svak^yå of Kù£òa. So we should know that, whether in prakaéal^lå or aprakaéa-l^lå, it is told everywhere that Rådhikå has parak^yå-bhåva. Svak^yå means the hlådin^-ßakti of Kù£òa 3, so whether She is svak^yå or not, She always has the bhåva of parak^yå, in both prakaéa and aprakaéa-l^lå. Therefore, we should think of and worship Rådhikå in parak^yå-bhåva. And while meditating on nikuñja-y¨no rati keli siddhyai, yå yålibhir yuktir apek£an^yå, we should serve Her. How? By cheating householders, cheating husbands, father-in-law, mother-in-law, brothers and everyone else. And we will also have to know the sixteen kinds of ßik£å 4 (see page 175 for footnote) to be able to assist çr^mat^ Rådhikå in parak^yå-bhåva. If we have greed, we will have to be expert in all these things. If not, then we will not be able to serve Her in that way. 3. Sva means own, k^yå means wealth or possession. Rådhikå is Kù£òa’s ‘own wealth’.
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There is one l^lå when Rådhå and Kù£òa were married as children, but that marriage is parak^yå, not svak^yå. The gop^s were sitting with Kù£òa and wanted to joke with Him. Lalitå, going behind Kù£òa and çr^mat^ Rådhikå, took the ends of Her sår^ and His dhoti and tied them together. Vißakhå uttered mantras while the gop^s were singing marriage songs. Then they told Kù£òa, “You should hold Your hand out and take Rådhikå’s hand in Yours,” and all were very pleased when He did this. This is a joke in parak^yå, similar to the way Brahmå jested in Bhåòà^rvan. So it has two meanings. The inner meaning is parak^yå-pu£éi, to increase the pleasure of and to nourish parak^yå-rasa – just as in this world little children play getting married. And the outer meaning is to close the mouths of the unqualiﬁed, “See, there is a marriage here. It is legitimate.” Both purposes are served.
After Bhåva: Prakaéa or Aprakaéa? Now çr^la Cakravart^pada is telling one last thing. A rågånuga-sådhaka, having crossed the stages of ßraddhå, ni£éhå, ruci, and åsakti, has completed his sådhana upon achieving bhåva, which is the ﬁrst ray of prema. After bhåva, there is nothing further to do in this world. This physical body cannot tolerate the weight of prema. So after one leaves this body, what happens? Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura is questioning – will the sådhaka directly go to Goloka Vùndåvana? From that time onwards, what does he do, where does he live? He is relating that some say that he goes direct to Vraja, but it is not the fact. There is something more. Ujjvala-N^lamaòi says that after this stage one goes to Vùndåvana, but the fact is not clear whether it is
prakaéa or aprakaéa Vraja. If they go directly to Goloka Vùndåvana, then some questions arise. After prema comes, then sneha, måna, praòåya, råga, anuråga, bhåva, and ﬁnally mahåbhåva must be achieved. Then anyone can meet Kù£òa in Vraja. Without mahåbhåva no one can meet Rådhå and Kù£òa. There must be mahåbhåva. This is the qualiﬁcation of the gop^s who meet and serve Rådhå and Kù£òa. If one can directly go to Goloka Vùndåvana in aprakaéa-prakåßa, then where has he received sneha to mahåbhåva? He has not received it, so he cannot go directly there. In the sådhaka-deha, in this practicing body, sthåy^-bhåva cannot come. What to speak of mahåbhåva, even sneha, måna, and praòåya will not come. Sthåy^-bhåva cannot come in this body. It will come when åßrayaålambana, uddipana, vyabhicar^ and all bhåvas will gather there. Then it becomes prema. This physical body can tolerate only up to bhåva, not beyond. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ is telling that it is not clearly stated whether the destination is aprakaéa or prakaéa Vraja, but only that one goes to Vraja. So we should deliberate on this. Our åcåryas have investigated this matter. Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ says that we will have to take birth from the womb of a gop^. So we will go directly to aprakaéa Vraja where we will have birth as a gop^. This is one argument, but he concludes that it is not correct, because there is no sådhana-bhumika in aprakaéa. Thus, the sådhaka cannot go there directly and receive birth from a gop^ womb. Our author rejects these two proposals. Now the author gives his own opinion. When a sådhaka receives bhåva-avasthå, Yogamåyå, by the wishes of Kù£òa and Rådhikå, takes him to a prakaéa-l^lå in some universe. Prakaéa-l^lå is always present somewhere at every moment.
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So Yogamåyå, complying with the wishes of Yugala Kißora, takes that lucky j^va to that brahmåòàa and gives her birth from the womb of a gop^. From childhood, she receives the association of nitya-siddha-gop^s. Sometimes she sees Kù£òa and feels greed to meet with Him – this is p¨rva-råga. She experiences so many levels of emotion from prema to mahåbhåva, and even if she is married and has associated with her husband, still she can have prema for Kù£òa. But if she has borne a child, Yogamåyå will not approve of her association with Kù£òa and the gop^s. So, such a j^va, still having some kasaya, must be married, and by her virahatåpa, the anguish experienced by not being allowed to meet with Kù£òa, all her remaining desires will be washed away. Then she will know that “this is not my child, this is not my husband,” at which point she will meet with Kù£òa. And those who associate with nitya-siddha-gop^s will develop their prema up to mahåbhåva and be allowed to meet Kù£òa. When that prakaéa-l^lå winds up and becomes aprakaéa, these new gop^s go there together with all of Kù£òa’s parikaras to serve Kù£òa eternally.
A Rågånuga Bhakta’s Prayers to Kù£òa Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ ëhåkura assures us, “O mahånuråg^ Vai£òava, rågånuga Vai£òava, don’t be worried. Don’t be afraid. You should go on practicing your rågånuga-bhajana. After this life, you will go to a planet where Kù£òa is present, and He will attract you. Be assured that Kù£òa is always waiting for you there, so go on practicing this rågånuga-bhajana.” Our author prays to Kù£òa, “O Gokulånanda! You are l^lå-vilås^, always sinking in an ocean of gop^-prema. You
are a swan swimming in the ocean of gop^-prema, and You are the enjoyer of that gop^-prema. You have no time, yet You are sarva-jña. You are mugdha, and at the same time by acintya-ßakti, You are sarva-jña also. So listen to my prayer. Don’t be mugdha. If you are mugdha, You cannot hear. So I pray to You that You should be both, so that You can know my heart and hear my prayer. You are the bee of the bhakti-mañjar^. Bhakti is like a mañjar^, çr^mat^ Rådhikå is like a ﬂower, and You are madhukara, a bee. I pray to You to give me intelligence so that I can receive vraja-prema for both You and Rådhikå. If You do not answer my prayer, then I will declare that You are not fulﬁlling Your promise, dadåmi buddhi-yogaì taì. So You must keep Your word. O Vrajendra-nandana, Your feet are always taking great pleasure in playing with the breasts of the gop^s. How will I obtain this stage of service to You? You should give me that kind of buddhi-yoga so that I can receive this.”
Can çåstra Be Neglected? Now Vißvanåtha Cakravart^ concludes this book by saying that it is a mistake to think that rågånugå-bhakti is beyond shastric injunctions and that only those who have left every ßåstra-vidhi can enter into rågånugå-bhakti. This view is not correct. Why? Without following çr^madBhågavatam and the ßåstras written by R¨pa Gosvåm^, Raghunåtha dåsa Gosvåm^, Kù£òadåsa Kaviråja Gosvåm^, Nårada’s Bhakti Sutra, and all others, one will create troubles for oneself. So we should not follow those persons who reject ßåstra-vidhi. It is most difﬁcult for the devatås to achieve this rågånugåbhakti, what to speak of general persons. This Candrikå,
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the rays of the moon of råga, has been written for those who are very qualiﬁed and who have received the mercy of guru and Gauråíga in order that they may search out the way and then proceed along that path. çr^la Cakravart^ ëhåkura says, “If I have shed some light and someone has received it, then I will feel that my endeavors in writing this book have been successful.” The moonlight is now cool, ß^tala, but afterwards, when some realizations come, it will gradually become hotter and hotter and hottest. Our siddha-deha will not manifest until we have grasped the essence of this process. We should know that we are not yet qualiﬁed. When we lose our dhairya and can no longer patiently wait for this, whether adhikåra has come or not, at that time all impediments will be washed away. Pure greed must arise. Then Kù£òa and guru will arrange that our spiritual identity, the eleven aspects of our siddha-deha, will be revealed to us, and we will not be able to remain alive until we know all these things. So pure greed must come. Then there will be no question of qualiﬁcation, whether we are in this stage or not. Kù£òa will arrange everything. But we should not do any kalpana (imagination). This is our Gauà^ya Vai£òava speciality. We should continue practicing, and go on trying to learn everything that is needed. Then, by performing rågånugå-bhakti, the goal will come. We are sure that çr^mat^ Rådhikå is making preparations for us. If She arranged for Gopa Kumåra and that Govardhana bråhmaòa, why won’t She arrange for us also? Surely She will do this. She has sent one of Her associates to bring us up to this stage, so why won’t She arrange further? Whatever mercy has come to you already will surely continue. If you
have greed and a very strong desire, She must arrange for you to progress. If someone is not available to come in person, She will inspire us through caitya-guru in our hearts – She will do it! At this time we can only desire, following the way Raghunåtha dåsa prays in Vilåpa Kusumåñjali, but in our present stage we are not qualiﬁed to do any more than this. So keeping a strong desire, we must pray – this is within our power, and after that çr^mat^ Rådhikå will arrange whatever else is needed.
4. The sakh^s’ duties are related in çr^ Ujjvala-N^lamaòi and described in the Bhaktivedånta purport of CC. M. 8.204-205 as follows: “In the conjugal pastimes of Kù£òa, Kù£òa is the hero (nåyaka), and Rådhikå is the heroine (nåyikå). The ﬁrst business of the gop^s is to chant the glories of both the hero and the heroine. Their second business is to gradually create a situation in which the hero may be attracted to the heroine and vice versa. Their third business is to induce both of Them to approach each other. Their fourth business is to surrender unto Kù£òa, the ﬁfth is to create a jovial atmosphere, the sixth to give Them assurance to enjoy Their pastimes, the seventh to dress and decorate both hero and heroine, the eighth to show expertise in expressing Their desires, the ninth to conceal the faults of the heroine, the tenth to cheat their respective husbands and relatives, the eleventh to educate, the twelfth to enable both the hero and heroine to meet at the proper time, the thirteenth to fan the hero and heroine, the fourteenth to sometimes reproach the hero and heroine, the ﬁfteenth to set conversations in motion, and the sixteenth to protect the heroine by various means.”
INDEX OF çLOKAS
anådim eva janmådi l^låm eva tathå adbhutam .. 85 ånanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhåvitåbhi .. .. 81 aneka janma siddhånåì gop^nåma patireva vå .. 82 aniketa duíhe vane yata vùk£å-gaòa .. .. .. 26 åpta-kåmo yadu-patiè .. .. .. .. .. 81 åsåm aho caraòa-reòu-ju£åm ahaì syåì .. .. 87 asvargyam ayaßasyaì ca .. .. .. .. .. 81 ataeva yadyanyåpi bhaktiè kalau .. .. .. 51 atha rågånugåyåè paripåé^måha-kù£òamityådinå .. 23 atmany avaruddha-saurataè .. .. .. .. 99 åtmåråmo ’py ar^ramat .. .. .. .. .. 99 bhråtaraè patayaß ca vaè .. .. .. .. .. 85 dadåmi buddhi-yogaì taì .. .. .. .. 173 eko devo nitya-l^lånurakto bhakta-vyåp^ .. .. 88 evaì mad-arthojjhita-loka-veda-svånåì .. .. 85 evaì yat-patyapatya suhùdåm anuvùttir aòga .. 85 gitan^ nåmåni tadarthakåni .. .. .. .. 47 gopårbha-vargai sakhibhir vane sa gå .. .. .. 93 gop^nåì tat-pat^nåñ ca .. .. .. .. 82, 103 janma karma ca me divyam evaì .. .. .. 87 japyaè svåbh^£éa saìsarg^ kù£òa-nåmamahåmanuè .. 46
jayati jana-nivåso devak^-janmavådaè .. .. 100 kåma-gåyatr^-mantra r¨pa .. .. .. .. xviii kiraòa-bindu-kaòå, ei t^na niye vai£òava paòå .. xxv kl^ì kù£òåya govindåya .. .. .. .. .. 130 kù£òaì smaran janañ cåsya .. .. .. 15, 123 kù£òasya nånå-vidha-k^rttane£u .. .. .. .. 52 kùtvå tåvantam åtmånaì .. .. .. .. 85 laghutvam atra yat proktaì .. .. .. xxii, 97 lak£m^-sahasra-ßata-saìbhrama-sevyamånaì .. 82 loke hi yasya hi yaè svåm^ bhavati .. .. .. 90 mådhurya kådambin^ grantha jagata kaila dhanya .. xxv mane nija siddha deha koriyå bhåvana .. .. 128 mantre£u måì vå upah¨ya yat tvam .. .. .. 57 manyåmahe k^rttanam eva sattaì .. .. .. 51 månyamånåè sva-pårßva-sthån .. .. .. .. 85 na cånyatra k£etre haritanu-sanåthe ‘pi sujanåd .. 26 na håniì na glåniì na nija-gùha-kùtyaì vyasanitåì 56 na hy aígopakrame dhvaìso .. .. .. .. 37 na jåtu vraja-dev^nåì patibhiè saha saígamaè 90,101 na påraye ‘ham niravadhya-saìyujåì .. .. 86 nåyaì ßriyo ‘ngau nitånta-rateè prasådaè .. .. 86 nijåbh^£éa kù£òa-pre£éha pacheta’ lågiyå .. .. 150 nikuñja-y¨no rati-keli-siddhyai .. .. 136, 169 pådåbjyos tava vinå vara dåsyam-eva .. .. .. 22 parånandamay^ siddhir-mathurå-sparßamåtrataè .. 24
patiè pura-vanitånåì dvit^yo vraja-vanitånåò .. 101 patiß copapatiß ceti .. .. .. .. .. 97, 101 pati-sutånvaya-bhåtù-båndhavån .. .. .. 85 p¨rvokta-dh^rodattådi caturbbhedasya tasya tu .. 97 rådhåparast^ra-kué^ara-varttinaè .. .. .. xxii rågeòollaíghayan dharmaì .. .. .. 97, 10i reme rameßo vraja-sundar^bhir .. .. .. .. 99 riraìsåì su£éhu kurvvan yo vidhi-mårgena sevate .. 38 sa vai puìsåì paro dharmo .. .. .. .. 111 sakhi he! kù£òa-mukha-dvija-råja-råja .. .. xx saíkhyå-p¨rvaka-nåma-gåna-natibhiè .. 28, 131 sevå sådhaka r¨peòa siddha r¨peòa cåtra hi 15, 123, 127 siddha deha diyå, vùndåvana måjhe .. .. .. 31 ßravaòotk^rtanåd^ni vaidh^-bhakty uditåni tu .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15, 123, 143 ßr^ r¨pa mañjar^ karårcita pådapadma .. .. 32 ßr^ r¨pa-mañjar^ pada, sei mora sampada .. .. 30 ßr^ r¨pa-rati mañjaryyor aíghri .. .. .. .. 25 ßr^ råma-kù£òa-gaígå-caraòån .. .. .. .. xiv ßùígo hi manmathod bhedas tad-ågamana-hetukaè .. 80 ßùòvanti gåyanti gùòanty .. .. .. .. .. 47 ßruti smùti puråòådi pañcaråtra vidhiì vinå 37, 42, 147 ßuniyåchi sådhu-mukhe bole sarva-jana .. .. 31 svecchaya likhitam kincit .. .. .. xxiv, 83, 91
tå våryamåòåè patibhiè .. .. .. .. .. 85 tad bhåva baddha-rågå ye janås te sådhane ratåè .. 72 tad-guòån eva gåyantyo nåtmågåråòi sasmaruè .. 85 tad vai tasya priya kr^àåvana-bh¨mau sadå rahaè .. 24 tamb¨lårpaòa-påda-mardana .. .. .. 22, 133 tan-nåma-r¨pa-caritådi-suk^rtanånu .. .. .. 24 tat tad bhåvådi mådhuryye .. .. .. .. 7 tathåpi patiè pura-vanitånåì .. .. .. .. 98 tatra nåyikå-bheda-vicåraè .. .. .. .. 98 te£åì satata-yuktånåì bhajatåì pr^ti p¨rvakam .. 122 upanåyaka-saìsthåyåì muni-guru patn^ gatåyåñca .. 80 vasato girivara-kuñje lapataè .. .. .. .. 25 vidhi-h^nam asù£éånnam .. .. .. .. .. 77 yån åsthåya naro råjan .. .. .. .. .. 37 ye ßåstra-vidhim utsùjya .. .. .. .. .. 77
abbreviations of texts: SB and Bhåg. – çr^mad-Bhågavatam CC. – Caitanya-Caritamùta BRS – Bhakti-Rasåmùta-Sindhu UN – Ujjvala-Nilamani Br. Bhåg. – Bùhad-Bhågavatåmùta