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Serigraphy


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Serigraphy


graphy A.K.A SCREEN PRINTING

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Table of contents . history . equipment . process . bibliography

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Screen Printing


History One of the newest types of art in the West, screen printing (screen printing, silkscreen, or serigraphy - from sericum, Latin for silk) is a twentieth century intaglio printmaking technique derived from traditional stencilling, itself one of the earliest forms of graphic art duplication. A style of screen printing first appeared in China during the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 CE), and made its way to Europe in the 18th century. However, it was not until silk mesh was more available for trade in the 19th century that screen printing began to pick up popularity. At first, the process was used to print interesting colors and patterns on wall paper and fabrics and then by advertisers. Eventually however it was adopted by artists as a convenient and reliable way of reproducing their works.

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History In todays contemporary world screen printing is used by fine artists, and along with commercial printers who use graphic screen printing to place images on t-shirts, DVDs, glass, paper, metal and wood. In the 1930s a group of artists, who wanted to differentiate what they did from the commercial world, formed the National Serigraphic Society. In doing so, they linked the word Serigraphy with fine arts and screen printing. ‘Seri’ is Latin for silk and ‘graphein’ is Greek for to write or draw. In recent history, the Pop Artists are generally seen to have popularised the form of screen printing known as serigraphy. Pop artists, took their images from the world of mass culture, so it was appropriate that they used a technique known for its mass production ability. Op artists also valued the use of the medium, finding it suited their aesthetics.

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Screen Printing


Equipment

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Equipment Screen printing consists of three elements: the screen which is the image carrier; the squeegee; and ink. The screen printing process uses a porous mesh stretched tightly over a frame made of wood or metal. Proper tension is essential to accurate color registration. The mesh is made of porous fabric or stainless steel mesh. A stencil is produced on the screen either manually or photochemically. The stencil defines the image to be printed. Screen printing ink is applied to the surface by placing the screen over the material. Ink with a paint-like consistency is placed onto the top of the screen. Ink is then forced through the fine mesh openings using a squeegee that is drawn across the screen, applying pressure thereby forcing the ink through the open areas of the screen. Ink will pass through only in areas where no stencil is applied, thus forming an image on the printing surface.

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Equipment Many factors such as composition, size and form, angle, pressure, and speed of the blade (squeegee) determine the quality of the impression made by the squeegee. At one time most blades were made from rubber which, however, is prone to wear and edge nicks and has a tendency to warp and distort. While blades continue to be made from rubbers such as neoprene, most are now made from polyurethane which can produce as many as 25,000 impressions without significant degradation of the image. If the item was printed on a manual or automatic screen press the printed product will be placed on a conveyor belt which carries the item into the drying oven or through the UV curing system. Rotary screen presses feed the material through the drying or curing system automatically. Air drying of certain inks, though rare in the industry, is still sometimes utilized.

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Equipment Frames There are two types of screen frames, metal and wood. Metal frames, both static (solid) and retentionable, have become the industry standard. Retentionables do not require the use of adhesive products. Metal frames have been replaced by wood because they do not warp from water like wood frames do. The most commonly used types of wood are cedar and pine. Pine is preferred because it is more water resistant while it is light weight. Metal screens are made out of aluminum or steel. Aluminum is commonly preferred because it is light weight, yet sturdy. There are some applications where steel is preferred such as very large printing frames used for long printing runs.

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Serigraphy


Equipment Screens Screen making - there are two types of threads for screen fabric:

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• Monofilament - single strands weaved into fabric • •

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Primarily used in commercial printing and other applications Advantage: Monofilament is easier to clean than multifilament

• Multifilament - multiple strands wound together like a rope, then weaved into fabric • •

Primarily used in textile printing. Disadvantage: ink tends to build up on screen, more difficult to clean Monofilament mesh has become the industry standard

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Equipment Inks

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• UV Curable •

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UV curable inks consist of liquid prepolymers, monomers, and initiators which upon being exposed to large doses of U.V. Radiation instantly polymerize the vehicle to a dry, tough thermosetting resin. They also require less energy, overall, to dry or “cure” compared to gas or electric driers. The down side of UV inks is they can cost as much as three times that of regular inks and must be handled differently than conventional inks due to safety issues. Additionally, solvents are required for clean-up which results in some VOC emissions.

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Equipment Inks

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• Plastisol •

Plastisol inks (both solvent and water based) are used in textile screen printing.

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• Solvent + Water •

Solvent and water based screen printing inks are formulated with primarily solvent or water. The solvent evaporates and results in VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds)emissions. Water based inks, though they contain significantly less, may still emit VOC’s from small amounts of solvent and other additives blended into the ink.

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Process In screen printing, the screen is first created by stretching a fabric (eg silk) over a frame of wood or aluminium. The image is first drawn (manually or with software) on a piece of paper or plastic, or captured in a photograph. Then it is cut out to form a stencil. Next, the stencil is attached to the screen. Then areas of the screen mesh are blocked with a waterproof masking medium. These areas become the negative areas of the final image. The screen is then placed over the desired substrate (eg. paper, glass, textile) and ink is then applied to top of the screen and spread across the screen, over the stencil and through the open mesh onto the substrate underneath. The ink is spread using a squeegee - a rubber blade usually the same width as the screen. The unblocked area is where the ink filters through and creates the image.

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Process If the item was printed on a manual or automatic screen press the printed product will be placed on a conveyor belt which carries the item into the drying oven or through the UV curing system. Rotary screen presses feed the material through the drying or curing system automatically. Air drying of certain inks, though rare in the industry, is still sometimes utilized. If the item was printed on a manual or automatic screen press the printed product will be placed on a conveyor belt which carries the item into the drying oven or through the UV curing system. Rotary screen presses feed the material through the drying or curing system automatically.

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Biblio2 0

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Bibliography •

“Screen Printing: Type of Printmaking.” Screen Printing, Silkscreen: History, Types, Famous Screen Printers, Andy Warhol: Serigraphy, Intaglio Printmaking Technique, Stencilling. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/printmaking/screen-printing.htm>.

“Printing Process Descriptions: Environment and Printing: The Printers’National Environmental Assistance Center: PNEAC: The Environmental InformationWebsite for the Printing Industry.” Printing Process Descriptions: Environment and Printing: The Printers’National Environmental Assistance Center: PNEAC: The Environmental InformationWebsite for the Printing Industry. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pneac.org/printprocesses/screen/>.

Images

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“Vastex V-2000HD Manual Printers.” Vastex V-2000HD Heavy Duty Manual Rotary Printer. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://acescreensupply.com/product_info.php?products_id=539>.

“Rebecca Nemser.” » Blog Archive » American Screenprints. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.rebeccanemser.com/1989/09/american-screenprints/>.

“Andy Warhol Images Page 30.” Andy Warhol Page 30 Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pixmule.com/andy-warhol-/30/>.

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Bibliography •

“SABS Standards for Paint Industry to Be Updated - DesignMind.” SABS Standards for Paint Industry to Be Updated - DesignMind. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.designmind. co.za/profiles/blogs/sabs-standards-for-paint-industry?xg_source=activity>.

“System Add Ons.” Let-it-rain. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.printa.com/catalog/ products/system-add-ons>.

“How-to: Basic Screenprinting.” Hands Occupied. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www. handsoccupied.com/2011/10/how-to-basic-screenprinting/>.

“How to Buy Screen Printing Meshes.” Free Press Release Distribution Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.prlog.org/11818768-how-to-buy-screen-printing-meshes.html>.

“Your One-stop Custom Embroidery Shop Headquarters!” Eagle Custom Embroidery Inc. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.eaglecustomembroidery.com/screen_printing.php>.

“Wix.com WP99 Created by Shrooms Based on Auto Repair | Wix.com.” Wix.com WP99 Created by Shrooms Based on Auto Repair. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://shrooms.wix. com/wp99>.

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Bibliography

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“Iszytech Computers & Communication.” Www.iszytechng.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.iszytech.com.ng/>.

“American Screen Printing Dryer 10” 30” Belt.” American Screen Printing Dryer 10” 30” Belt. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://www.digitsmith.com/american-screen-printing-dryer-1030-belt-18377.html>.

Self shot photography on pages: Cover, Back, 17, and 19.

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This booklet on Serigraphy was designed by Scott Johnston.

I would like to thank Hi Tech Screen Graphics for the pictures and hands on experience with the screen printing process.

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Serigraphy


Serigraphy  

A how to guide for screen printing.

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