WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE IN ZAMBIA 2012 ANNUAL REPORT Program Summary In its first two years (October 2010 through September 2012), the Zambia Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Program helped nearly 219,000 people gain access to clean drinking water. In addition, nearly 5,400 community members have constructed latrines, and World Vision has built 185 ventilated improved pit latrines in 35 schools, benefiting 17,476 students. Accomplishments and upcoming plans are detailed in this annual report. GOALS The goal of the Zambia WASH Program is to contribute to the improved health, nutrition, education, and well-being of 301,250 people, including 100,000 children, living in 16 Area Development Programs (ADPs), by 2015. This will be accomplished through improved access to safe, sustainable supplies of potable water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene education. About 665,600 people who live in these ADPs will benefit indirectly from this program through reduced demand on existing safe water sources and improved sanitation and hygiene among their neighbors. The expected outcomes of the program are as follows: • Increased access to a sustainable and safe water supply for poor and vulnerable communities and schoolchildren • Improved access to environmental sanitation for poor and vulnerable communities and schoolchildren • Reduced prevalence of WASH-related diseases through improved hygiene practices • Communities empowered to facilitate sustainable WASH interventions
PROGRESS AGAINST GOALS In fiscal year 2012 (October 2011 through September 2012), 205 boreholes were drilled through the Zambia WASH Program. This brings the total wells drilled since October 2010 to 448. In addition, 210 boreholes have been rehabilitated and 334 water points have been developed from 17 alternative water systems since October 2010.
Zambia WASH Progress
1,400 1,200 1,000
600 400 200 0
Using the Community-Led Total Sanitation approach, community members have constructed nearly 5,400 household latrines and 4,657 handwashing facilities. In addition, nearly 1,250 communities have been reached with hygiene education.
Watersourcesdeveloped Communitiestrainedinsanitationbenefitsandtechnologies WASHcommitteesformedorreactivated
Actual 2011 389 747 494
Communitiestrainedin sanitationbenefitsand technologies
Actual 2012 269 592 325
2012 240 235 235
Targets 2013 2014 235 235 220 220 232 232
2015 236 220 232
KEY PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATION In FY12, the Zambia WASH Program collaborated with partners in the following activities:
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• Drilled 42 boreholes (exceeding the goal of 35) in 11 ADPs across the country, serving 14,880 people in partnership with the Zambia Telecommunication Company through its “Water for Life” project. • Partnered with Vergnet Hydro Company of France to pilot its hand pumps in five ADPs that have challenges with low pH (a measurement of how acidic water is) in groundwater. • Worked with the Ministry of Health to provide capacity building and supervision of community hygiene promoters and sanitation hygiene resource people in all the ADPs.
Abigail washes her hands using a tippy-tap handwashing station after using the new toilet constructed by World Vision at her school in Zambia.
• Partnered with the Ministry of Education to train and supervise masons to construct ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines in Musele and Moyo ADPs. The ministry also helped form and strengthen school WASH clubs. • Worked with the Ministry of Local Government and Housing and the Department of Water Affairs to supervise borehole construction and mechanization of water systems in the ADPs. • Partnered with the School of Mines (Integrated Water Resources Management Center) at the University of Zambia, which provided student interns and research on topics related to the WASH program. The partnership provides an opportunity for students, university members, and World Vision staff to meet and learn from each another in the context of relevant and important research and training. This joint experience will strengthen the overall capacity for these men and women to become leaders in their professions and to function more effectively in the global world. • Engaged officers from the Ministry of Local Government, Housing, Early Education and Environmental Protection to help build the capacity of WASH committees and well caretakers in operating and maintaining water points in 15 ADPs.
ENSURING SUSTAINABILITY In an effort to ensure long-term sustainability of the new water sources, World Vision established or reactivated 819 WASH committees from October 2010 through September 2012. WASH committee members were trained on WASH facilities operation and management, environmental protection, and hygiene and sanitation awareness. During this period, World Vision trained members of 738 communities on pump maintenance and repair. We also trained students from 152 schools and residents of 1,134 communities on safe water handling, storage, and use. By building the capacity of local communities, WASH infrastructure and practices that ensure good health will endure for generations to come. MILESTONE ACHIEVEMENTS
243 boreholes drilled and 146 rehabilitated
205 boreholes drilled and 64 rehabilitated
160 boreholes drilled and 80 rehabilitated
800 boreholes drilled and 400 rehabilitated
2,879 sanitation facilities constructed by community members
2,700 sanitation facilities constructed by community members
13,500 sanitation facilities constructed by community members
86 schools trained in hygiene benefits and practices
60 schools trained in hygiene benefits and practices
240 schools trained in hygiene benefits and practices
2,517 sanitation facilities constructed by community members 94 schools trained in hygiene benefits and practices Actual Planned
The following chart details key activities accomplished through the Zambia WASH Program in FY12 and since the program’s inception in October 2010.
OBJECTIVE1:Increasedaccesstosustainableandsafewatersupplyforpoorandvulnerablecommunitiesand schoolchildren MonitoringIndicators 1 #ofsuccessfulboreholesorshallowwells 2 #ofsuccessfulwaterpointsfromalternativesystems(mechanizedpumps,springs,largeͲandsmallͲscale watersystems) 3 #ofnonfunctioningwaterpointsrehabilitated 4 #ofschoolsmobilizedforwaterͲrelatedactivities 5 #ofwatertreatmenteducationaltrainings 6 #ofhouseholdsempoweredtotreatwateratthehouseholdlevel
161 146 53
175 80 60
173 64 49 88 1,232
334 210 102 88 1,232
747 2,517 20 91
235 2,700 20 82
592 2,879 34 94
1,339 5,396 54 185
660 94 1,773
235 60 2,700
589 86 2,884 14 474 58
1,249 180 4,657 14 1,134 152
494 12 443 13 57
235 16 235 16 64
325 2 295 13 57
819 14 738 26 114
OBJECTIVE2:Increasedaccesstoimprovedsanitationforpoorandvulnerablecommunitiesandschoolchildren MonitoringIndicators 1 2 3 4 5 6
#ofcommunitiestrainedintheawarenessofsanitationbenefitsandtechnologies #ofimprovedsanitationfacilitiesconstructedbycommunitymembers #ofimprovedhouseholdorpublicsanitationfacilitiesbuiltorsubsidizedbyWorldVision #ofimprovedsanitationfacilitiesinschoolsandhealthclinicsbuiltorsubsidizedbyWorldVision #ofcommunitiescertifiedasfreefromopendefecation #ofcommunitiesexposedtotheimportanceofsolidͲwastemanagement
OBJECTIVE3:ReducedprevalenceofWASHͲrelateddiseasesthroughimprovedhygienepractices MonitoringIndicators 1 #ofcommunitiestrainedintheawarenessofhygienepractices,benefits,andtechnologies 2 #ofschoolstrainedintheawarenessofhygienebenefitsandpractices 3 #ofhandͲwashingstationsbuilt 4 #oflaundrypadsconstructed 5 #ofcommunitiestrainedinsafewaterhandlinganduse 6 #ofschoolstrainedinsafewaterhandling,storage,anduse OBJECTIVE4:CommunitiesempoweredtofacilitatesustainableWASHinterventions MonitoringIndicators 1 2 3 4 5
#ofwatercommitteesformedorreactivated #ofcapacityͲbuildingeffortstoensureaccesstomostvulnerablecommunitymembers #ofcommunitiestrainedinpumpmaintenanceandrepair #ofstrategicrelationshipswithprivateͲsectorpartners #ofstrategicrelationshipsdevelopedwithpublicͲsectorpartners
Further information on FY12 activities contributing to water supply: The Zambia WASH Program helped nearly 56,500 people gain access to safe water during the year. ADP Choongo
No. of Boreholes Drilled 22
Details on the drilled boreholes are in the chart at left. Beneficiaries 4,579
Details on the rehabilitated boreholes are in the chart below. The 21,662 beneficiaries include 10,749 students in 24 schools. No. of Boreholes Rehabilitated
Information on FY12 activities contributing to improved sanitation: No. of ADP
Details on communities trained in sanitation benefits and technologies are in the chart at left. Details on the latrines built in schools are in the chart below. No. of Name of ADP
Beneficiaries VIP Latrines
Lumi, Kakungu, Isofu, Kaka, and Pumpa
Zimba and Munkolo
Thirty-four demonstration latrines (against 20 planned) were constructed by community members in the homes of vulnerable community members such as those with physical disabilities, the elderly, widows, and households with orphans. Demonstration latrine construction helps community members learn how to construct an improved latrine using local materials and serves as an example for others to replicate. Further information on FY12 activities contributing to improved hygiene: • 50 school WASH clubs were formed to spearhead school sanitation and hygiene programs and to help reduce diarrheal disease among students. A total of 180 clubs have been formed since October 2010. • Of more than 42,000 households visited after receiving education on hygiene and sanitation, 75 percent had dish racks, 71 percent had refuse pits, 58 percent were practicing handwashing at critical times, and 73 percent had households with clean surroundings. • The 14 laundry pads were constructed in Kapululwe and Musele. Further information on FY12 activities contributing to sustainability: • More than 2,600 WASH committee members (46 percent of them women) were trained to operate and maintain new and rehabilitated water points. • The Zambia WASH Program was integrated with HIV, livelihood, and economic development activities within the ADPs. The sector teams worked together to provide monitoring of income-generating activities for people living with HIV or AIDS in Kauba and monitoring of smallscale irrigation being implemented by the Hamabbonka club. These initiatives strengthened the vegetable-production skills of vulnerable women, thereby improving the well-being of their families. The program supported both clubs with water pumps for irrigation, which helped reduce the time and energy spent carrying water to irrigate the gardens. The chart below shows the number of pump technicians and well caretakers trained, and the number of tool kits distributed.
No. of Pump
No. of Well
Kapululwe Magoye Makungwa
10 82 14
LEARNING CENTER ACCOMPLISHMENTS The Southern Africa Learning Center worked on the following in FY12: • Held integrated WASH learning labs on gender, disability inclusion, monitoring and evaluation, and disaster and relief response for WASH staff in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia • Provided technical and fundraising support to WASH projects in southern Africa • Built the capacity of new and existing WASH staff by providing skills training • Helped WASH staff capture and disseminate best practices through publications and presentations In fiscal 2013, the Southern Africa Learning Center is embarking on a major WASH initiative in schools that seeks to develop a new generation of community members that will not tolerate WASH-related diseases that contribute to high rates of childhood disease and death. The learning center will partner with other stakeholders, WASH practitioners, academic institutions, and governments to achieve this goal. The learning center will launch this initiative by hosting a school WASH learning lab in Zambia in February 2013.
PLANS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2013 During fiscal year 2013 (October 2012 through September 2013), the Zambia WASH Program plans to accomplish the following: • Drill 223 new boreholes and shallow wells • Construct eight alternative water systems, such as mechanized pump systems, spring developments, or large-scale piped water systems • Rehabilitate 100 nonfunctioning wells • Conduct 281 sessions to train 5,400 families on the proper treatment of water to make it safe to drink
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• Mobilize 50 schools for WASH-related activities • Form or reactivate 331 WASH committees with fee-collection systems • Train members from 331 communities on pump maintenance and repair A Zambian girl demonstrates washing her hands with a tippy-tap facility outside her home.
• Conduct 281 community awareness trainings on sanitation and hygiene benefits, technologies, and practices; safe water handling, storage, and use; and solid-waste management • Empower 4,880 households to construct improved sanitation facilities with hand-washing stations • Help 28 communities become certified as Open Defecation Free • Construct 154 laundry pads • Conduct training in 50 schools on hygiene benefits and practices, and safe water handling, storage, and use • Construct 160 sanitation facilities at schools and health clinics
IMPROVED SANITATION AT MWEEBO BASIC SCHOOL Ritrisha, 15, lives in Chuubo village in Twachiyanda ADP. She is in grade 9 at Mweebo Basic School, which is located about 1.5 miles from her home. The school had outdated latrines, and it was difficult for Ritrisha and other girls to maintain good personal hygiene, especially during menstruation. During these times, they often resorted to staying home from school. “I was discouraged to consistently attend school as there would be congestion at the latrines, and if one is so pressed, would even ease him/herself by the nearby bush,” recalled Ritrisha.
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Fortunately, the Zambia WASH Program constructed six new VIP latrines in addition to the six existing traditional latrines at Mweebo Basic School, benefiting 410 students (188 girls and 222 boys). Hand-washing facilities also were provided. In addition, a school WASH club was formed, and pupils were educated on safe waste disposal, personal hygiene, handwashing at critical times (before eating and after using the toilet), and safe water collection and storage.
The old latrines at Mweebo Basic School are pictured above.
Ritrisha is a member of the WASH club at her school. She has learned the importance of having a clean school environment, especially for girl students. “There is no excuse for one to miss school, as the school has good sanitation facilities,” said Ritrisha. She also has taken her knowledge of good hygiene practices home. “I now help my parents in keeping the latrine clean and maintaining good hygiene practices by ensuring there is water in the 2.5-liter container used for handwashing at home,” she said.
© 2012 World Vision
“I am very grateful to World Vision for the latrines that have been constructed at Mweebo Basic School and the knowledge I have received through educational messages in school WASH clubs and interschool quiz competitions,” said Ritrisha. “It is my hope that World Vision will continue improving sanitation infrastructure in schools.”
Ritrisha washes her hands outside one of the new latrines at her school.
People who are benefiting from the Zambia WASH Program are rejoicing over the recent accomplishments made possible with your support. Your partnership is making a difference in this southern African country, as hundreds of thousands of Zambian children become stronger and healthier as a result of clean water, improved sanitation, and hygiene education. Please contact your World Vision representative with questions or for more information about how your gift is transforming lives in Zambia.
World Vision is a Christian humanitarian organization dedicated to working with children, families, and their communities worldwide to reach their full potential by tackling the causes of poverty and injustice.
ZM B13WA S R E P_ mid _ 2 . 6 .13 © 2013 World Vision , I nc .