â€œBuildings that have a strong impact always convey an intense feeling of their spatial quality. They embrace the mysterious void called space in a special way and make it vibrate.â€? - peter zumthor
what is architecture? Over two thousand years ago Vitruvius describes architecture as having firmitas, utilitas, and venustas. That is a structure must be solid, useful, and beautiful. What separates architecture from a decorated shed, is the emotional experience one encounters with a true masterpiece of architecture. The aspect that makes architecture so special is the spatial quality that it creates. The void between structures is where the true emotional experience takes place. Architecture, like music, provides an emotional journey for the human. In music, emotions are experienced throughout the sequence of time, but emotion in architecture is felt through time and space. The progression through architecture begins before you even step foot inside a structure. The sense of space around the structure is just as important as the architecture itself. Architecture creates a social identity for a city or a community that influences the cultural development. Individual buildings should be interconnected with the fabric of the surrounding community. Everyone experiences architecture. As architects we have the ultimate task of making other peopleâ€™s lives better. We live to better someone elseâ€™s life with architecture. Whether or not people are aware of it, architecture creates built environments that influence every day decisions. Architecture creates space where people live, work and interact.
[considering space & details]
[sustainability as a destination]
Sketching is an important part of the design process. Itâ€™s a great way to work through ideas, explore different concepts, and to communicate to a client. Sketching an existing building or place is also important. It takes 1 second to click a button on a camera, but to sit down and capture the moment with a paper and pencil is irreplaceable.
The nine weeks in Europe was a chance to re-live and understand the history and influence of western European architecture. It was such an incredible experience to stand in the presence of two thousand year old architecture. I remember walking through Rome and wondering, what the world will look like in another two thousand years and how will they look back to the architecture that is being built now?
Another focus during my travels to Europe was the analyzing the concepts of path, portal, and place in an urban setting. I emphasized the importance of trying to understand what makes an urban space successful. I analyzed five different historically significant urban spaces and Investigated the architecture, the people, and the general character of the space. This experience proved to pay off in the ensuing urban studio. 10
This entry analyzes Piazza Navona, which evolved from a roman arena to a medieval market and then finally reorganized during the Baroque time period. It was a delightful experience to sit and watch people interact with the different elements of the historical piazza. 12
Education Campus & Sanctuary Morogoro, Tanzania, Africa individual project spring 201 Project Description_ Architecture is about creating environments for other people. I was lucky enough to collaborate with an amazing humanitarian service group: Greenwik. Greenwik is working with Pastor Umba Kalangwa and his wife Ngoy in Morogoro to provide children with HIV positive parents, opportunities they would otherwise not receive. This is an incredible project and I was lucky enough to make a 3d model and some 2d images of the project to help raise awareness. This was a very rewarding experience and it made me really step back and think about what is important in life.
The following buildings have been completed or very near completion; • • • • •
Pre-school & daycare Susanna Wesley Training Center - Women’s sewing school Classrooms - approximately half of the proposed 16 classrooms have been finished Pastor’s home Market shops
The sanctuary and more classrooms are currently under construction. The sanctuary is nearly halfway completed. Proposed projects include: • Medical clinic • Orphanage • Hostel
approximately half of the proposed 16 classrooms have been finished
Integrated Living Bosconero, Italy Two person team project
arch 4116 fall 2008
Phase one_ this week long phase was a study purely on geometric volumes and the interconnections. Eventually these studies led to a final product, but for now they were purely abstract and conceptual. Project Description_ This [three-phase] team project included a complex mix of uses that incorporated every chapter of life. The project program consisted of a small elementary school, an assisted living facility for the elderly, a geriatrics technology institute for research and development for the care of elderly people, and a chapel. The first phase [1 week] of the project emphasized an abstract approach to organizing volume. As a team of two we developed an abundant amount of study models that interconnected with each other. The second phase [5 weeks] of the project consisted of the architecture development. The project site was located in Bosconero, Italy. The concepts explored in the previous phase inspired the planning and development. One of the most unique challenges in this project was finding the right way to combine these vastly different uses. 20
Working as a team, we discovered that the best ways to communicate to each other were through hand drawings and physical models.
This unique section perspective shows the main functions of the school component of the project. The vertical and horizontal circulation is open to the courtyard and assisted living center. Portals are established on the landings to encourage viewing ports to the exterior as well as framing views to the interior. 22
This floor plate model was used to express the complex spatial relationships between the various programmatic functions.
montessori elementary school
assisted living center
geriatrics research center
chapel_ connects the third floor of the school to the third floor of the chapel
sunken courtyard_ both the elementary school and assisted living center utilize
geriatrics center_ The skin wraps up the facade and embraces the assisted living center
Bricktown International Dance Theater Bricktown, Oklahoma City individual project
[investigating space in the details]
arch 4216 spring 2009 The program for this project focused on the schematic, design development, and construction document phases for a single architectural project. The focus of the project was creating a dance theater, with developing a complete understanding of the inner workings of a theater project. The programming this included rehearsal rooms, costume and stage preparation, a café, and appropriate mechanical system development. A key component to the overall project was the integration of the different architectural systems. Appropriate sizing of the heating and air conditioning equipment, lighting and structure was fully developed.
The program consisted of a lobby, rehearsal rooms, a cafe, art gallery, and “back of house” support, but the most important element was the actual Theatre. Therefore I chose to make this “heart” of the project. In order to relate to the context, the theatre would be of brick with the surrounding materials and elements in more modern materials, like metal and glass. The iconic theatre would be on display and become a true focal point for Bricktown.
This diagram demonstrates the different systems investigated in the schematic phase of the project. The overall building form, human circulation (both vertical and horizontal), structure and mechanical systems are integrated into this axonometric diagram.
The presentation for the first phase of the project was to various consultants in the professional industry. The jury included practicing architects from Oklahoma City and Tulsa, mechanical and structural consultants and architectural professors from within the school. 27
International dance theater Bricktown, Oklahoma City
The development of the dance theater space was another critical aspect to the project. Inside the theater, materials and lighting were explored and specified. Technical details were also considered with seating, seat spacing, sight lines, acoustics, and as well as the stage development and back stage requirements.
The final phase of the project was an introduction into the construction document phase. This phase was a great way to wrap up the semester. Seeing an idea develop from conceptual diagrams on pen and paper into working architectural drawings was a humbling experience.
Mixed-Use Transit Oriented-Development in capitol hill, Seattle three person, 5 week project
project background: This project started out with a week of seminars, article and book discussions regarding the need to reorganize the growth patterns of American cities. The program consisted of developing a master plan and design for a mixeduse development for the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle. Each specific use was carefully considered in this walk-able transit-linked neighborhood (commercial/ residential, public/semi-public/ private, transit/vehicular/pedestrian transportation, etc.).
_to interact with a professional urban design project _to design within a true urban context _develop an architectural program _design of housing within an urban â€œneighborhoodâ€? as well as the relation of that neighborhood to a larger district/region _Discuss the immediate effects of the energy and real estate crisis on the city _Familiarize you with the Seattle context _Introduce the process of working together as part of a team _Provide an opportunity to further explore the design process, including techniques of communicating with oneself and others
Elevated roof deck to take advantage of downtown views Relief in building mass to engage visual and physical axis from downtown to park
Both the origin and destination. This focal space initiates a basis by which design decisions are made
Relief in mass at crucial points provide portals to experience focus space
Axes converge at park. a response to its presence and an invitation to form a community 33
study models used in the design process to communicate ideaâ€™s 34
Section perspective through two sites
iconic corner identifyâ€™s the overall image of the overall development
restaurants and shops activate the urban edge architectural expression of residential units compared to commercial units
expression of vertical circulation
CIVIC SQUARE in downtown Seattle five person, eight week project
This studio project focused on six primary goals.
(1) the opportunity to design in a true urban environment (2) participate in â€œprogrammingâ€? of the projectâ€™s requirements (3) experience the process of designing a large building complex (4) develop a design solution in greater detail (5) opportunity to develop skills for working on a design team (6) focus on sustainability as a design determinant
backround: We started this project with intensive research on urban design and sustainability. As a class, we participated in urban design seminars to discuss urban design theory. We also had the opportunity to work with a practicing architect from Perkins+Will, who received the AIA Minnesota 2010 Young Architect Award and is a leader in the architecture sustainability industry. The civic square complex is part of a ten-year civic master plan that the city of Seattle has awarded to Foster+Partners in 2006. After the initial research and sustainability seminars, the class traveled to Seattle for a four day visit. At the end of the trip we met at a local Seattle architecture firm and presented to a group of architects our initial reactions to the site and contextual research of Seattle. 40
[sustainability as a destination]
economic research: Another aspect of this project that I contributed with, was the financial research. One of the goals for the teams was to participate in the programming requirements. I used prior knowledge from a real estate development and finance course to develop a spreadsheet that the class could use to estimate the financial factors for the project. I developed a two page spreadsheet that was easy to use and understand. On the first page, the groups would enter their square footage based on different use. The estimated construction cost, net operating income and cap value would be automatically calculated and the return on equity, total profit and estimated land purchase price would also be calculated and shown on this page. The second page was linked to the first page and this is where all the formula’s and calculations occurred. It was quite complicated and would be overwhelming to look at from an “untrained eye” This spreadsheet would allow the groups to run the numbers and get an approximate estimation of the economic factors that would affect the programming of a project of this magnitude. There are many factors that go into the programming and planning of a project of this size, and the economic factor is merely one of the many design decisions that the team had to consider.
input data here
> > > > > > > >
326,895 82,709 120 19,586 189,117 555 40,000 40 total:
SF of Office Space SF of Residential Space Residential Units SF of Retail Space SF of Parking Space Parking Units SF of Hotel Space Hotel Units
Construction Cost 63,574,865 21,168,922
Net Operating Income $ 7,510,739.52 $ 2,269,022.36
Cap Rate Value 70,856,033.21 36,016,227.94
^ NOTE: Except for Parking, the figures (SF) above represent leasable space. Before entering your program areas, you should discount for common areas that aren't leasable/sold (i.e. common circulation, service, mechanical, etc.) v
NOTE: Enter total gross floor area below, the efficiency figure is automatically calculated (do not change). 860,000 SF Gross (All Buildings/All Uses) 76.55% Overall Efficiency (Calculated, Do not change)
Return On Total Assets
Return on Equity
Land Purchase Price
Table 1: Table Total 1: Development Total Development Costs (TDC) Costs (TDC)
Table 2: Table Net2: Operating Net Operating Income Income (NOI) (NOI)
OfficeOffice Use Use Net Leasable Net Leasable Floor Area Floor Area Gross Gross Floor Area Floor Area
326,895 326,895 427,050 427,050
Income Income Gross Gross Rent (Office) Rent (Office) less vacancy less vacancy less operating less operating expense expense NOI (Office) NOI (Office)
326,895 Sf 326,895 Sf
SF perSF year per year $33.36 33.36 15.00% 15.00% $ 5.38 $ SF 5.38 perSF year per year
Per Year(x12) Per Year(x12) $ $ 10,905,217.20 10,905,217.20 $ $ (1,635,782.58) (1,635,782.58) $ $ (1,758,695.10) (1,758,695.10) $ 7,510,739.52 $ 7,510,739.52
SubtotalSubtotal $ 112.35 $ 112.35
Gross Gross Rent (Residential) Rent (Residential)
$ 28.09 $ 28.09 Contractor Contractor Fees (25%) Fees (25%) Architectural Architectural Fees (6.0%) Fees (6.0%) $ $8.43 8.43
OfficeOffice Cost Cost
$ 148.87 $ 148.87 $ $
For Rent For Rent 63,574,865 63,574,865
Residential Residential Use Use Net Leasable Net Leasable Floor Area Floor Area Gross Gross Floor Area Floor Area
82,70982,709 108,049 108,049 SubtotalSubtotal $ 145.13 $ 145.13
$ 36.28 $ 36.28 Contractor Contractor Fees (25%) Fees (25%) Architectural Architectural Fees (6.0%) Fees (6.0%) $ $14.51 14.51
Residential Residential Cost Cost
$ 195.92 $ 195.92 $ $
Retail Retail Use Use
Net Leasable Net Leasable Floor Area Floor Area Gross Gross Floor Area Floor Area
19,58619,586 25,58725,587 SubtotalSubtotal $ 143.88 $ 143.88
$ 35.97 $ 35.97 Contractor Contractor Fees (25%) Fees (25%) Architectural Architectural Fees (6.0%) Fees (6.0%) $ $14.39 14.39
Retail Retail Cost Cost
$ 194.24 $ 194.24 $ $
less vacancy less vacancy less operating less operating expense expense NOI Residential NOI Residential Gross Gross Rent (Retail) Rent (Retail) less vacancy less vacancy less operating expense less operating expense NOI (Retail) NOI (Retail)
82,70982,709 Sf Sf 120 Units 120 Units $ 1,789.17 $ 1,789.17 SF SF $ $ 214,700.00 214,700.00 $ 5.51%5.51% $ assume assume $ 2.00 $ SF 2.00 perSF year per year $ $ 19,58619,586 SF SF
$ $ $ $
2,576,400.00 2,576,400.00 (141,959.64) (141,959.64) (165,418.00) (165,418.00) 2,269,022.36 2,269,022.36
$20.90 20.90 SF SF $ $ 409,347.40 409,347.40 $ 8.9% 8.9% $ $ 2.88 perSF year $ $ SF 2.88 per year $
$ $ $ $
4,912,168.80 4,912,168.80 (437,183.02) (437,183.02) (56,407.68) (56,407.68) 4,418,578.10 4,418,578.10
Gross Gross Rent (Parking) Rent (Parking) less vacancy less vacancy less operating expense less operating expense NOI (Parking) NOI (Parking)
189,117 189,117 SF 555 SF Units 555 Units $
141.00 $ 141.00 Per Unit Per Unit $ $ 78,255.00 78,255.00 $ assume assume 5.0% 5.0% $ assume assume $ 2.00 $ SF 2.00 perSF year per year $ $
$ $ $ $
939,060.00 939,060.00 (46,953.00) (46,953.00) (378,234.00) (378,234.00) 513,873.00 513,873.00
Gross Gross Hotel Hotel less vacancy less vacancy less operating expense less operating expense NOI (Hotel) NOI (Hotel)
40,00040,000 SF 40 Units $ 7,500.00 Per Unit $ $ SF 40 Units $ 7,500.00 Per Unit $ 300,000.00 300,000.00 assume assume35.0%35.0% $ assume assume $ 50.00 $ 50.00 SF perSF year per year $ $
$ $ $ $
3,600,000.00 3,600,000.00 (1,260,000.00) (1,260,000.00) (2,000,000.00) (2,000,000.00) 340,000.00 340,000.00
Net Operating Net Operating Income Income (All Uses) (All Uses)
AnnualAnnual Debt Service Debt Service (Level (Level Payment, Payment, 30-Year 30-Year Amortization, Amortization, 6.0% Interest 6.0% Interest Rate) Rate) Cash Flow CashAfter Flow Financing After Financing
(6,214,571.91) (6,214,571.91) 8,837,641.07 8,837,641.07
ReturnReturn on Total on Assets-ROTA Total Assets-ROTA (NOI/TDC) (NOI/TDC) ReturnReturn on Equity-ROE on Equity-ROE (CFAF/Equity) (CFAF/Equity)
Parking Parking Use Use Table 2: Table Net2: Operating Net Operating Income Income (NOI) (NOI) Gross Gross Floor Area Floor Area
189,117 189,117 Cap Rate CapAnalysis Rate Analysis OfficeOffice NOI NOI Cap Rate Cap Rate Capitalized Capitalized Value Value
SubtotalSubtotal $ $53.20 53.20 $ 13.30 $ 13.30 Contractor Contractor Fees (25%) Fees (25%) Architectural Architectural Fees (6.0%) Fees (6.0%) $ $ 5.32 5.32
Parking Parking Cost Cost
71.82 $ 71.82
7,510,739.52 7,510,739.52 10.6%10.6% 70,856,033.21 70,856,033.21
13,582,383 13,582,383 Retail Retail
Hotel Use Hotel Use Net Leasable Net Leasable Floor Area Floor Area Gross Gross Floor Area Floor Area Construction Construction Cost: Cost:
Total Construction Total Construction Cost: Cost: Land Cost Land(% Cost Const. (% Const. Cost) Cost) Total Development Total Development Costs:Costs:
NOI NOI Cap Rate Cap Rate Capitalized Capitalized Value Value
4000040000 52255.25477 52255.25477 $ 170.00 $ 170.00 $ $
$ $ 10% $10% $ $ $
112,179,489 112,179,489 11,217,949 11,217,949 123,397,438 123,397,438
Financing Financing Required: Required: TDC: TDC: $ $ Equity:Equity: 30% $30% $ Total Debt $ Total Debt $
123,397,438 123,397,438 37,019,231 37,019,231 86,378,207 86,378,207
Residential Residential NOI NOI Cap Rate Cap Rate Capitalized Capitalized Value Value
4,418,578.10 4,418,578.10 8.4% 8.4% 52,602,120.20 52,602,120.20
2,269,022.36 2,269,022.36 6.3% 6.3% 36,016,227.94 36,016,227.94
Parking Parking NOI NOI Cap Rate Cap Rate Capitalized Capitalized Value Value
NOI NOI Cap Rate Cap Rate Capitalized Value Value Capitalized
513,873.00 513,873.00 6.0% 6.0% 8,564,550.00 8,564,550.00
Hotel Hotel 340,000.00 340,000.00 9.0% 9.0% 3,777,777.78 3,777,777.78
Total Capitalized Value Value Total Capitalized
$ 171,816,709.12 171,816,709.12
PROFITPROFIT (Total (Total Capitalized Value-Total Development Cost) Cost) Capitalized Value-Total Development
As a group of five we used all sorts of media to communicate our ideaâ€™s to each other. During the early stages of the design process, we primarily used sketching and physical models. Early on we developed six main objectives that we wanted to focus on and address with our project. Whenever we had a disagreement we would look to these goals and debate which ideaâ€™s would help us reach these goals the best. 1. Integrated into the Contextual fabric of Seattle 2. Activate the area as a Destination Point 3. Foster the unique Culture of the immediate area 4. Design the spaces to Evolve to meet Future Needs 5. Develop the interior and exterior Spaces as an entire unit 6. Educate the public in Sustainability
large scale conceptual study model(s)
This study model was used by our group to explore different plaza developments. The connection between the civic and plaza level was an important element in this model as well.
Here we explored different cladding and structural systems in this study model. The plaza and civic spaces continued to be developed and thought out thoroughly.
â€œsense of placeâ€?
This close up photo of the relationship between the civic and plaza level express the sense of place. The grand stairs serve as a portal into the plaza and upon arriving the users would sense a feeling of arrival and purpose. 48
sustainability development: We had an element in our project that wrapped around the tower and linked the human scale on the plaza level to the over city scale. We calculated that if we used the entire horizontal area of the site to capture rain, it wouldn’t be a very effective system. Even though Seattle is known as a rainy city, the city of Tulsa receives more rain water per year than Seattle. Capturing rain from vertical surfaces is really difficult, but we looked to nature to find an answer. Instead of depending on just capturing rain water, we looked into capturing moisture out of the air by condensation and dew. We started by looking into fog screens that countries have developed to capture moisture out of the air and reuse the water. We also looked at a beetle in Africa that collects dew from the air. In conclusion, we determined that our water collection system would collect almost 1.5 million gallons of water. That’s more than enough water for the flush fixture’s in the building
A fog fence is a device for collecting liquid water from fog, using a fine mesh. An ideal location for fog fences is high areas near cold offshore currents, where fog is common. Fog settles slowly and is carried by wind. Therefore, an efficient fog fence must be placed facing the prevailing winds, so that the moisture flows through the fence, which then catches the moisture.
Biomimetics has provided a precedent for efficient dew
collection. The Namib Desert Beetle survives only on the
moisture it extracts from the atmosphere. It has been found that its back is coated with microscopic projections: the peaks are hydrophilic and the troughs are hydrophobic. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have emulated this capability by texturing hydrophilic surfaces. These systems have shown a very marked increase in water and
The cells can additionally be skewed to direct views in particular directions, or to prevent glare. For example, the cells on the lower floors are skewed downward, as shown here, in order to foster interaction with the plaza. Other areas are focused to frame views of historic buildings, cityscapes, etc.
Water is collected from the bottom planes of the cells via perforations, from the bottom of the mesh via a slit, and from the vertical facade via overlapping of the cells.
These two photoâ€™s show the contextual relationship with the final model inside the site. Even though the tower stretches to 500 feet , the lower base of the complex has a meaningful human scale expression. 56
This tower completes the Seattle Civic Campus and creates an iconic plaza that enhances the character of Seattle. 58
This two person team project was submitted to the AIAS 2011 steel competition.
We envisioned a time in the future, (2131), where skyscrapers have become a global commodity. Throughout the 20th century Chicago and New York were the international capitalâ€™s of skyscraper technology. Now cities all over the world are constructing skyscrapers, easily.
Our simple objective was to create a project that would capture the judgeâ€™s attention by bordering the line of architectural absurdity.
The Empire State Building is an iconic symbol to America, but what will happen when skyscrapers are everywhere? This building has had a history of constant vacancy, and what will happen when it becomes so outdated that it is forgotten? We also explored the reinvention of a thrill park in a urban setting. The roller coaster experience would exponentially be intensified with the increased thrill of skyscrapers all around the ride. By introducing roller coasters into the Empire State Building, and by adding a modern futuristic hotel, the Empire State Building experience would be a completely new adventure.
The importance of sketching and exploring different ideas early on in the project was present in this project. Exploring forms and through sections and perspectives prooved to be the most valuable.
Scott Leever Bachelor of Architecture | May 2011 Minor in Architectural History | May 2011 Oklahoma State University 972.841.5165 email@example.com
studio projects first year_ 2006.2007 Part/whole, abstract composition
Nine Square Family Tower Art House on a slope
second year_ 2007.2008 Glossy Mountain State Park Memorial, Oklahoma
Row House, Paris Rodin Museum, Paris Architectural Study Center and Gallery, Chicago Woodward Park Community Library, Tulsa
third year_ 2008.2009 Family Chapel and Memorial, St. Louis
Prairie Visitor Center, Kansas Range Elementary School, Stillwater A Garden Birdbath
travel fourth year_ 2009.2010 Structural prototype from biomimetics
A Center for Wellness, Oklahoma City Interlocking Connections; integrated living, Boscanaro, Italy International Dance Theater, Bricktown, OKC Haiti Relief Design Challenge Real Estate Development Project included market research, development and construction costs, optimal land use analysis and financial analysis
fifth year_ 2010.2011 Transit Oriented Development, Seattle
Civic Square, Seattle 2011 ACSA Student Competition* Architecture Installment* Schnabel House (by Frank Gehry) in Revit 2010*
Seattle Versailles, France San Francisco Paris, France Los Angeles Nimes, France San Diego Normandy, France Las Vegas Interlaken, Switzerland Phoenix Rome, Italy Salt Lake City Florence, Italy Denver Munich, Germany Dallas Berlin, Germany Houston Prague, Czech Republic Oklahoma City Amsterdam, Netherlands Tulsa London, United Kingdom St. Louis Chicago The District of Columbia Baltimore Philadelphia Boston New York City