SSCOLA Innova ative M Modularr Training Currriculum m Backgground theorettical ma aterial „SCO OLA” ‐ Skills and Co ompetencces on the e Labor ma arket Deevelopmen nt of comp petences o of teacherrs workingg in vocational education forr enhancin ng the successfful entran nce of stud dents into o the LM 22015‐2017 7
ERASM US + PROGRAMME Key Action:
Cooperation C n for innovaation and th he exchangee of good practices
Strategic Pa S artnerships
Strategic pa S artnerships for vocation nal educatioon and train ning
This prroject is bein ng funded with support f rom the Euro opean Comm mission.This publication rreflects the view ws only of thee authors, an nd the Comm mission cannot be held re esponsible foor any use which may be made of the innformation ccontained therein.
Authorss: the members of the SCOLA parttnership apra Forgó N Nonprofit Közzhasznú Kft.. Na Érd d (Hungary) ww ww.napra‐forgo.hu Edit Kóródi
email@example.com “Spoluprácou pre lepšiu buudúcnos” eľký Meder (S Slovakia) Ve ww ww.ozbuducnost.sk
Ildikó Hanuliakkova firstname.lastname@example.org Endurance Parrtners in Hosspitality Am mersfoort (Netherlands) ww ww.endurance.nl Ro ob Versteeg
r.vversteeg@en ndurance.nl LENO Consulting Naailloux/Toulo ouse (France)) ww ww.leno.fr
Laurent Dedieu u lau urent.dedieu email@example.com ibiis acam Bildu ungs GmbH Vie enna (Austria) ww ww.ibisacam.at Be eate Dobler‐T Tomek
Be eate.Dobler‐T Tomek@ibisaacam.at di Szakképzé ési Centrum Kós Károly SSzakképző Érd Iskkolája Érd d (Hungary) ww ww.koskarolyyszki.hu Lajjos Dózsa
Súkromná stre edná odbornná škola s vjm m, Du unajska Stred da (Slovakia)) ww ww.skolads.ssk De enisa Lőrincz Bitterova
Edited b by project ccoordinatorr: Napra Fo rgó Nonpro ofit Közhaszznú Ltd. This intellectual ou utput is owned by the SCOLA parrtnership.
Content 1. Introduction of life‐career building as a competence area ........................ 1 1.1.
Competency based on development approach in pedagogy .............................. 1
1.1.1. The concept of competence .................................................................................... 1 1.1.2. Competence areas in pedagogy ............................................................................... 1 1.1.3. Development of „life‐career competency” ............................................................. 1 1.1.4. Development of life‐career building competency as a pedagogical task ................ 3 1.2.
Career guidance ................................................................................................. 4
1.2.1. Professional information on career guidance and career counselling .................... 4 1.2.2. Career guidance tools for the XXI century ............................................................... 8
2. Promotion of a change of attitude on the base of self‐knowledge ........... 13 2.1.
Life career analysis and self‐knowledge ........................................................... 13
2.1.1. Life career analysis: ................................................................................................ 13 2.1.2. Socialization: .......................................................................................................... 13 2.1.3. Self‐knowledge ....................................................................................................... 15 2.1.4. Self‐knowledge factors in life career building ....................................................... 16 2.2.
Self‐knowledge and self‐assessment ............................................................... 20
3. Well prepared for the job ........................................................................ 23 3.1.
The National System of Occupation and National System of Qualifications ..... 23
3.1.1. The National System of Occupation ...................................................................... 23 3.1.2. National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) ............... 24 3.1.3. European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) ............. 25 3.2.
Information on labour market ......................................................................... 26
How to identify students' interests and the areas of improvement ................. 27
3.3.1. Process of career orientation................................................................................. 28 3.3.2. Phases of career orientation process .................................................................... 28 3.3.3. Tests: Assessment of interests and skills ............................................................... 28 3.4.
Looking for a job is a job itself ......................................................................... 33
3.4.1. What is a job search strategy? ............................................................................... 33 3.4.2. Planning a job search strategy ............................................................................... 33 3.4.3. Tools of the job search strategy ............................................................................. 36
3.5. The importance and development of soft skills needed to be successful in the world of work ................................................................................................................ 44 3.5.1. Soft Skills ................................................................................................................ 44 3.5.2. New skills................................................................................................................ 46 3.5.3. Expectations and desires of the companies .......................................................... 46
4. VideoMaster ........................................................................................... 48 4.1.
The impact of media ........................................................................................ 48
Media Education ............................................................................................. 48
Media and self esteem .................................................................................... 49
How to change the students’ point of view ..................................................... 49
5. ICT, I see T(team) ..................................................................................... 51 5.1.
The importance of social networks in a field of LM .......................................... 51
The useful usage of ICT tools ........................................................................... 53
Virtual team building ........................................................................................................ 54
6. References .............................................................................................. 54
1. Introduction of life‐career building as a competence area
Competency based on development approach in pedagogy
1.1.1. The concept of competence There are several definitions related to competence. In case of our current topic we consider the most appropriate approach which is focusing on three elements: knowledge, skills and attitude. One of the most important criteria is that competence is manifested in the level of activities, actions, competence is therefore the ability to interpret knowledge.
1.1.2. Competence areas in pedagogy For the pedagogue the following competence areas are defined to develop:
text comprehension, text production mathematics foreign languages informatics social issues, lifestyle and environment career‐building
1.1.3. Development of „life‐career competency”
The concept of „life‐career competency” Life‐career building is a lifelong active process. There is a competency emerging during this process, whereby we are able to define realistic aims, to plan consciously all steps for reaching them, then to achieve these goals. We have to learn lifelong for this, but it can occur differently in several life phases. Life‐career competency also means flexible managing and changing of aims and of needed strategies which can help to achieve these aims. Life‐career is a flexible system wherein successful people can take over several life periods, but they can accommodate themselves to changes, and they can recognize in which field they can use their extant knowledge and skills, or they can acquire some new knowledge and skills.
The goal of life‐career competency The goal of life‐career competency is to become successful in professional improvement while adapting its own and environmental changes. In this context improvement doesn’t mean a progress through the ranks, but rather achieving its own consciously set out goals. A person who masters the life‐career competency will be able to: ‐ ‐ ‐
define realistic goals and sub‐tasks related these goals, recognize what he can learn with what kind of method to improve life‐career competency collect, organize and use properly the needed environmental information, Page 1 / 57
‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐
recognize th he justification of changge in severaal life situattions, and iss able to make new sstrategies, aaware of him mself (good sself‐knowleddge), his reso ources, abilitties and skillls, aapply his vallues and preferences du ring the goal achievemen nt, fform his profession conssciously, not drifting, aadapt changges properly, and mobilizze his self‐po ower for new w goals and aaims
The con nstituents o of life‐caree er competen ncy o o o
Attittudes Skillss Know wledge
All these fields of developmennt impact the e content of life‐career ccompetency..
elopment The focus areas of life‐carreer compeetency deve Life‐‐career comp petency consists of two well separaated parts. On O one handd, it containss general key competencies. These are self‐deetermination n, self‐prese entation, sttrategy mak king and strattegy implem mentation. O On the otherr hand, speccial competencies like caareer orienta ation and
labo our market in nformation b belong to thiis competency as well. For sself‐determination is needed to be oopen to the signals of our environm ment, becausse norms, ruless and extern nal environm ment generallly provide uss a framework. We havee to adapt to this. We Pa age 2 / 57
determine our roles according to our environment. It can change with time, but we have to be aware of our capacity; how tolerant we can be; how we can handle failures; what we can fight for, etc. Correct self‐determination causes good self‐knowledge. But it is another competency how you can present it to others. By the ability of self‐presentation we can represent ourselves adequately both oral and written, and we can stand up for our rights. We have to possess strategy making competency for planning our life career. We have to determine aims and goals, have to plan them in time, and have to find proper resources by collecting useful information. If necessary we have to accommodate our aims to someone else, or we have to accept the delay of the achievement. Strategy thinking correlates with an open‐ minded, curious, and independent personality. By strategy implementation we should check the advancement consistently. Proper need for control and sense of purpose play an important role in this. Meanwhile it can occur that we have to alter our plans, because we left something out of consideration before, or some new circumstances can appear. The advance on our life‐career path means good social relations as well, that is why cooperation and adaptation have an important role during the achievement of our goals.
1.1.4. Development of life‐career building competency as a pedagogical task
New pedagogical role The development of career‐building competence is successful if it helps students to build consciously and actively their lifelong career. The awareness must include the knowledge of ourselves and our environment, based on these issues the development of a realistic strategy and the implementation of the plans. Career‐building competence as a complex structure affects the entire personality it can be developed therefore through school activities in a varied manner: directly during the lessons, by free school programs or outside the classroom. As the development of this competence is possible everywhere, its possibilities are independent from the teaching lessons so any teacher can directly participate in this. Compared to the school education in most cases it requires another approach concerning the aims and methods. Two important levels can be defined in the preparation of teachers: • •
The first level is revealing, valuing the career‐building competence based on own experience. The second level is getting to know the methodological tools needed for the development.
The development opportunities of first level depend on the preparedness, the professional knowledge, the methodological repertoire of the leader. The aim is to reveal, raise awareness of those self‐knowledge issues which play a significant role in their career path. For example, are we aware of which conditions or persons influenced our decision in our career choices? How has become our perceived or real picture in our chosen career? When and according to what criteria do we perform a self‐assessment? Do we follow the impact of our own changes, development to our career? Through this way the pedagogue is receiving different aspects in which areas he or she can strengthen students’ self‐knowledge in this period of life.
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According to competence‐based teaching expectations in school education pedagogues use several other methods besides the traditional, frontal ones during their daily work. According to this, the aim of the second level is that the pedagogues are able to use the methodological tools fitting for them in a targeted way also during the development of this competence. The way to do this is through analysis of best practices, trying new, previously unknown methods, regular exchange of experiences. Principles of career‐building competence: (Career‐building page) • • • • • •
continuity, regularity personalization, differentiation equal opportunities supporting character the possibility to exchange experience cooperation
The role of partners Based on the principle of cooperation, pedagogues have and also need the possibility to collaborate with the wider environment of students. The main scene of the socialization processes is the family. However, parents are often not aware of the elements of career‐building competence, in some cases they focus on the career choice as a one‐time event instead of a process. Pedagogues therefore should involve the family at certain points or rather should get information about the effect of family environment on the student. Pedagogues have especially important role if the student lives in difficult family circumstances or without family. In this case the process of building contact should be also extended to the institutional partners. In order to obtain true and real information on the labour market and professions the best way is to acquire knowledge directly. It requires an established network of contacts with companies, advocacy organizations or entrepreneurs. There can be more options to exploit connections, however the widespread practice of visiting workplaces has also limits. Over simple visits it is more efficient if there is a possibility to try certain work tasks. During the effective development those solutions which facilitate feedbacks are more appropriate. Interviewing people working in specific areas, sharing of personal experiences, common projects, some other processing methods are considered to be more appropriate in using this network of contacts. It is worth involving those schools and pedagogues to the partnership who are active in similar topics. Through sharing of experiences and connections the exploration of opportunities will be more efficient for developing career‐building competence.
1.2.1. Professional information on career guidance and career counselling
Definition of career guidance and counselling Modern society, economy and technology, particularly the new ICT in the 21st century brought unprecedented changes. New technologies require flexibility, retraining, education and further education throughout life irrespective of age and profession. Page 4 / 57
The responsibility for success in the labour market takes every citizen himself, and the government provides him available employment services. Individual success also depends on whether to keep pace with the new requirements, is willing to become employable and work on his career. If a jobseeker wants to increase its employability must enhance their offerings. A person has to change not only their jobs, place of work, but also their profession, perhaps several times during his life. Youth must be educated in the ever changing requirements of the labour market. The definition of career guidance by OECD:
“Career guidance refers to services and activities intended to assist individuals, of any age and at any point throughout their live, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their career. Such services may be found in schools, universities and colleges, in training institutions, in public employment services, in the workplace, in the voluntary or community sector and in the private sector. The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and may be face‐to‐face or at a distance (including help lines and web‐based services). They include tools, counselling interviews, career education programmes (to help individuals develop their self‐ awareness, opportunity awareness and career management skills), taster programmes (to sample option before choosing them), work search programmes, and transition services.” (OECD, 2004).
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Levels of career guidance According to the definition of career guidance by OECD there are three levels of services with the following content: a) b) c)
career counselling career guidance career information provision
These three levels are also hierarchically arranged as illustrated in the image: Professional consulting services are intended for those who require specific, usually an individual professional help to solve the problem of choice of profession, choice of job, often due to the existence of a problem or obstacle complaining entering the labour market.
career counselling ‐
Professional orientation in the sense of help to orient in the information and on its basis to make a decision asks minor part of individuals.
career guidance ‐ professional orientation
Fig. no. 1 Schematic representation of the three levels of career guidance Providing career information concerns the largest number of individuals, it may be said of the entire population.
career information provision
The system of career guidance
‐ Career guidance and counselling in the education sector: in primary and secondary school, in universities ‐ Career guidance and counselling in public employment service: information and advisory services, professional counseling services, special counseling services, advising institutions (job clubs, information and counseling centers) Page 6 / 57
‐ Counselling services in the private sector: non‐governmental (non‐profit) organizations, private training and consulting companies, private consultant, coach
Objectives of education in the context of career guidance The aim of education should be to develop the learner’s competencies so that the available guidance and information resources can be efficiently used and according to them to decide and plan the career path. Success of career education and career guidance in schools depends on the cooperation of the school with all of institutions in the field of the educational counseling and prevention: ‐
with social partners of schools,
with public authorities,
with other schools,
with civil society
with employment in services in the fields of: ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐
the current and future needs of the labor market, the possibilities of graduates in practice, the state of professional orientation of students, the results of education and training, the possibilities of their educational guidance in compliance with labor market needs
The difference between career and educational guidance Career counselling at school is to be distinguished from educational counselling, which describes certain activities of career guidance. Career guidance in schools should be a comprehensive range of activities. In this concept of career guidance all teachers should have their roles according to a content of each subject. Their involvement in career guidance should be a part of planning and managing activities of the school. Career guidance at school is insufficiently performed towards pupils and also towards their parents. This should motivate the parents to rational approach to support children with educational and occupational choices and to help them also in consideration of the optimal form of this choice. The teacher should have an important role in that.
Role of career counsellor in secondary school The school must have a key role to career guidance. Page 7 / 57
• searches for, collects, processes and provides for students the necessary information by study chooses, career choices, choosing and changing a job in their own country as well as abroad, • provides information on education possibilities and job placement, • provides information on necessary skills, general competencies, practical experience and on other assumptions and requirements for the performance of an occupation, • helps to students in searching professional counselling services and in career development, • provides professional assistance in filling the application for the study, preparation of CV, cover letter, application for admission to employment, etc., • participates in careers education and training of future labour market participants (students), including the development of their skills to manage their own educational and career pathways, • through professional counselling methods, procedures and techniques leads students to independent and responsible decision‐making in the field of initial and further education, career choice, choosing and changing of occupations, entering into the labour market (find employment), • helps students make a clearer image of their own knowledge, skills and abilities, leading them to make decisions about their own educational and career pathways, • cooperates with key actors in the field of education, employment and labour market, • provides consulting services for students and their legal representatives (parents) to solve the problems of education and training, informs them on issues of study in secondary schools and in universities.
1.2.2. Career guidance tools for the XXI century
Connection means between the education system and the labour market Career guidance is currently one of the newest trends in the labour market, it has an interdisciplinary character. Its mission is to improve the quality of human resources. Changes of general economic conditions in the EU require an increased emphasis on preparation of individuals for the ever‐ changing labour market. At present, the labour market attached great importance to the choice of education, profession and career development.
The educational system, vocational education and training (VET)
Counselling on professions and occupations
Labour market and production
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Counselling on professions and occupations builds a connection between the educational system, especially VET and the labour market and production. Career counselling is becoming a fundamental pillar for the sustainable development of human resources. Teachers who are responsible for providing the services should be aware of their role and the status of schools in the current social environment.
The three basic steps for career guidance 1st Step
To know the pupils, students
‐ it is the first precondition for guidance in choosing schools.
Acquisition of knowledge about world jobs. Information about schools and profession
Matched information about oneself and the world of jobs (including ICT).
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Step 1: to get to know the students is the first step to be able to help the students to find the appropriate school or job. There are different ways to do this, we can use formal tests which is based on a psychological questionnaire or we can use informal ones, which is based on the interaction and the environment the students live in (parents, teachers). Step 2: Acquisition of knowledge about world jobs. Information about schools and professions is the second supposition for making decisions about career choice. The consultant’s task is to help clients to set up the necessary information. Here the consultant refers not just to his own knowledge but to knowledge from different other sources. Step 3: Matched information about oneself and world jobs This step is an important aim of career counseling. Information about schools and professions is provided by computer programs of career orientation. Career information is then compared with abilities, interests and values of a student and the students can examine this information about professions and schools which corresponds their self‐estimation. Computer programs help to make decisions about school choices and professions in a way that they decrease the number of alternatives what the students consider.
Modern tools for career guidance Along the following career guidance tools: • individual and group career counseling (self‐assessment, decision‐making, developing their individual career plan, stress management), • identifying different places for internship (in abroad) for professional growth of students for the integration in the labor market, • job fairs and exchange of information, • visiting of exhibitions (secondary schools and universities), • open days in various companies and universities, • visit of relevant companies in the region, modern career guidance tools play an ever greater role, as like information and communication technologies. The most important links in the context of career education and guidance in the partner countries are as follows:
EUROPEAN UNION EU – Euroguidance ‐ http://euroguidance.eu/ ‐ European network of national resource and information centers for guidance EU – EURES ‐ https://ec.europa.eu/eures/public/language‐selection ‐ European employment services EU – ELPGN ‐ http://www.elgpn.eu/ ‐ European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network EU – IAEVG ‐ http://iaevg.net/ ‐ International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance EU – ECVET ‐ http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/vocational‐policy/ecvet_en.htm ‐ The European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training Page 10 / 57
EU – PLOTEUS ‐ http://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/home_sk.htm ‐ Learning Opportunities and Qualifications in Europe EU – EU Skills Panorama – http://euskillspanorama.ec.europa.eu – Information on the development of the labor market and future professions in Europe EU – Portal EQF ‐ http://ec.europa.eu/eqf/home_sk.htm ‐ European qualifications EU – Eurypédia ‐ https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/index.php/Main_Page ‐ Information on education systems EU – ESCO ‐ http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1042&langId=en ‐ European Skills/Competences, Qqualifications and Occupations (ESCO)
SLOVAKIA SK – ISTP ‐ http://www.istp.sk/ SK – Národná sústava povolaní ‐ http://www.sustavapovolani.sk/vz_domov SK‐ Euroguidance Slovensko ‐ http://web.saaic.sk/nrcg_new/_clanok.cfm?clanok=1&menu=1&open=1&jazyk=sk SK ‐ http://www.navigaciavpovolani.sk/ SK‐ Úrad práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny ‐ http://www.upsvar.sk/ SK – Profesia ‐ http://www.profesia.sk/ SK – IUVENTA ‐ https://www.iuventa.sk/sk/IUVENTA‐home.alej
FRANCE FR‐Guidance for everybody ‐ http://www.orientation‐pour‐tous.fr/ FR‐ONISEP (National Office for information on education and professions) ‐ http://www.onisep.fr/ FR ‐ APEC (Recruitment and jobs frameworks) ‐ https://www.apec.fr/ FR ‐ Midi‐Pyrénées education and professions ‐ http://www.mpfm.fr/ FR ‐ Region Midi‐Pyrénées ‐ http://www.regionlrmp.fr/
HUNGARY HU ‐ Nemzeti Pályaorientációs Portál ‐ http://eletpalya.munka.hu/ HU ‐ Courses in Hungary ‐ http://www.felvi.hu/ HU ‐ Professions in Hungary ‐ https://www.profession.hu/ HU – Karrier ‐ http://www.karrier.hu/ HU ‐ HR portal in Hungary ‐ http://www.hrportal.hu/ HU – Workania ‐ http://www.workania.hu/ HU – Careerjet ‐ http://www.careerjet.hu/ HU ‐ Job portal in Hungary ‐ http://hvg.hu/karrier HU – Career orientation portal ‐ http://palyaorientacio.lap.hu/ Page 11 / 57
HU ‐ Career guidance portal ‐ http://palyanet.hu/ HU ‐ Euroguidance Hungary ‐ http://www.npk.hu/public/tanacsadoknak/
THE NETHERLANDS NL ‐ Career guidance: http://loopbaanbegeleiding.startpagina.nl/ NL – NLQF (National qualification framework): http://www.nlqf.nl/ NL – Professions in NL: www.nationaleberoepengids.nl/ NL – vacancies in NL: www.nationalevacaturebank.nl/ NL – National knowledge center: https://www.s‐bb.nl/ NL – Vet education in NL: www.roc.nl AUSTRIA A ‐ WIFI: Berufsorientierung ‐ wifiwien.at : www.wifiwien.at A ‐ Berufsorientierung | Österreichisches Jugendportal: www.jugendportal.at/themen/arbeit‐ beruf/berufsorientierung A ‐ Berufsorientierung / IBOBB ‐ schule.at: https://www.schule.at/portale/berufsorientierung‐ ibobb.html A ‐ Berufsorientierung und Berufswahl ‐ Arbeitsmarktservice Österreich: www.ams.at/berufsinfo‐ weiterbildung/berufsinfo.../berufsorientierung‐berufswahl A ‐ bic – Berufsinformationscomputer: http://www.bic.at A – Berufsbilder: http://www.berufskunde.com A ‐ AMS Berufskompass: http://www.berufskompass.at/berufskp31/ A ‐ playmit.com – Online Bildungsportal: http://www.playmit.com/poolsystem‐preview.html A ‐ Lehrling.at: http://www.lehrling.at/ A ‐ Berufsschulen in Österreich: http://www.berufsschule.at A ‐ Lehrberuf.Info: http://www.lehrberuf.info: A – Lehrlingskompass: http://www.berufskompass.at/lehrlingskp3 A ‐ Lehrstellenbörse von AMS und WKO: http://www.ams.or.at/lehrstellen
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2. Promotion of a change of attitude on the base of self‐ knowledge
Life career analysis and self‐knowledge
2.1.1. Life career analysis: The whole personality and personality traits can be explored during the life career path. The efficiency and the success of the human individual depend on: • • •
personality primary socialization: family secondary socialization: social groups, peers, society
Self‐experience is highly determining: • • •
how he/she lives his/her life: black‐white, colourful experiences that determines not only his/her past but also his/her future the cognition of life events are continuously changeable (Busshoff, 1989)
The process of socialization: ‐
Many scientists say socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and it has a central influence on the behaviour, beliefs and actions of adults and children. Socialization: lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs, values and ideologies, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within their own society. This is a two‐sided process, there is a continual interaction between an individual and the social environment. The individual not only adapts but also reacts to social factors.
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of development: ‐
The Microsystem: the first basic structure refers to the activities and relationships with significant others experienced by a developing person in a particular small setting such as family, school, peer group, or community. The Mesosystem: the second basic structure consists of linkages and interrelationships between two or more of a developing person’s microsystems, such as the family and the school, or the family and the peer group. The impact of mesosystems on the child depends on the number and quality of interrelationships. The Exosystem: the third basic structure refers to settings in which children are not active participants, but that affect them in one of their microsystems—for example, parents’ jobs, Page 13 / 57
tthe city coun ncil, or paren ntal social suupport netwo orks. The effe ects of exosyystems on th he child aare indirect vvia the micro osystems. TThe Macrosyystem: the fo ourth basic sstructure con nsists of the ssociety and ssubculture to o which tthe developiing person belongs, with particular re eference to tthe belief sysstems, lifestyles, patterns of ssocial interacction, and lifee changes. C Chronosysteem: the temp poral dimenssion of the m model. The en nvironment iis always cha anging.
Primaryy socializatiion: • •
TTypically thiss is initiated by the familly. It occurs d during the ch hildhood andd when a child learns tthe attitudess, values and d actions apppropriate to individuals as members oof a particula ar cculture. ocesses: role es (mother‐faather‐child e etc.); norms a and rules; th e first „collective Learning pro cconscious” eexperience; p power princi ples in interp personal rela ationships; reesponsibilityy; loyalty; rights and du uties; basic p personality; m membership p patterns; ha abits, behaviiour culture eetc..(Buda, 1 1986).
Seconda ary socialization: •
Usually associated with tteenagers annd adults, an nd involves sm maller changges than those o occurring in primary socialization. Pagge 14 / 57
Schools (institutional socialization) ‐ ‐ ‐
Require very different behaviour from home, and children must act according to new rules. Teachers are the mediators of society. Provide(s) new social roles and new interpersonal relationships.
Workplaces (organizational socialization) ‐
The process whereby an employee learns the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his or her organizational role.
What is self‐knowledge? • • • •
Describes the information that an individual draws upon when finding an answer to the question "What am I like?". Requires ongoing self‐awareness and self‐consciousness. Self‐knowledge is a component of the self, or more accurately, the self‐concept. Self‐knowledge informs us of our mental representations of ourselves, which contain attributes that we uniquely pair with ourselves, and theories on whether these attributes are stable or dynamic.
The self‐concept is thought to have three primary aspects: the cognitive self: is made up of everything we know (or think we know about ourselves). the affective self: emotional component of the self (how i feel about myself). the executive self: active self (what i know about how i behave).
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the cognitive self
Self‐ concept the executive self
the affective self
Success All actions and achievements are evaluated by an individual during own life career path (self‐ evaluation). Successfulness, feeling of success, success in career depends upon two factors and their relation: • •
achievements, records person’s expectation (ambitions coming true or not)
Result: Inner satisfaction or dissatisfaction (level of aspiration)
2.1.4. Self‐knowledge factors in life career building Self‐knowledge in life career building ‐ ‐ ‐
Life career building is a competency that provides one to plan and organize his/her life consciously, according to his/her ambitions and opportunities. Concerning all private and public role resources. Concerning the complete personality.
Pedagogical principle: fostering individual processes and outcomes. Page 16 / 57
Human ecological model (Welch, 1984) Human ecology theory is a way of looking at the interactions of humans with their environments and considering this relationship as a system. In this theoretical framework, biological, social and physical aspects of the organism are considered within the context of their environments. We think this other model consists of main factors we need to focus on during self‐knowledge in life career building. •
Social, political, legal, economic factors Interpersonal factors
sociocultural and religious factors
Physical environment Social positions and roles in family, peer groups , workplace etc. Interpersonal factors Intrapsychic al factors It is important to see the differences between individuals who all possess several abilities and have different types of personality, and grow up in various physical, psychological and social environment, and have contact with different agents in their human ecological system.
• Physiological factors: genetic and developmental differences (body frame, disabilities, diseases, race, etc..)
• Bio‐psychological factors: temperament, IQ • Intrapsychical factors: personality: is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behavioural science in various
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situations. There are different theories of personality: trait, type, psychodynamic, behaviourist, humanistic, social cognitive, transpersonal, biopsychological, evolutionary.
creativity: is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The production of "something original and worthwhile" (fluency, originality, flexibility, redefinition, sensibility, elaboration). stress management (coping): is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict. The effectiveness of the coping efforts depend on the type of stress and/or conflict, the particular individual, and the circumstances. skill: constitutional or practical activities, inheritable but can be developed. It is the ability to carry out a task with pre‐determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. The abilities that one possesses. There are basic (biological and psycho‐physiological) and specific skills. some important skills:
domain general skills: time management, leadership, teamwork etc.
domain‐specific skills: for a certain job (doctor, lawyer, teacher etc.) Page 18 / 57
competence: the ability of an individual to do a job properly. It is a combination of practical and theoretical knowledge, cognitive skills, behaviour and values used to improve performance.
• Interpersonal (psychosocial) factors: agents: family, friends, relationships attachment (relationship patterns) psychosocial (E.H. Erikson) and psychosexual (S. Freud) development social intelligence: is the capacity to effectively navigate and negotiate complex social relationships and environments. How to deal with people and social relationships. emotional intelligence: is the capacity of individuals to recognize their own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behaviour.
• Sociocultural factors: agents: family, friends, peer groups, schools, workplaces, society, culture etc. socialization: mentioned above social roles: is a set of connected behaviours, rights, obligations, beliefs and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation. social status: is the position or rank of a person or group, within the society. social position: is the position of an individual in a given society and culture. An individual may hold fall into the categories of occupation, profession, family and hobby among others. social norms: specific guidelines, standards, rules, guides and expectations for actual behaviour. Norms are rules and expectations that specify how people should and should not behave in various social situations, and still work to promote a great deal of social control.(different norms in the family, peer groups, work places etc..) values: general guidelines, abstract conceptions of what is important and worthwhile. Values decide what is good and what is bad in a family, group, community, society. attitude: an expression of favour or disfavour toward a person, place, thing, or event. Attitude can be formed from a person's past and present. belief: when someone thinks something is real, true, when they have no absolute verified foundation for their certainty of the truth or realness of something. culture, religion, ethnicity
Physical environment: type of settlement, capitation, geographical position, infrastructural situation, sanitary and medical conditions, housing conditions. Page 19 / 57
Soccial (politicaal‐legal‐eco onomical) faactors: social condition ns, economic conditions, legal regulattion, political stability, crriminality.
Selff‐knowled dge and seelf‐assessment
ave an abilityy to make ad dvantage The bestt way to reach success iss to know abbout your taalents and ha of them.. It is also necessary to kn now about yyour weaknesses and manage to reduuce or removve them.
Personal aptit P tudes
eople see yoou. The personality is Peersonality: itt consists of how you ar e but also how other pe co onditioned by b internal elements ((temperame ent) and external oness (social and family en nvironment aand upbringiing). Prrofessional interests: it makes referrence to stu udents’ prefferences, whhat aspects they are interested in ((technical, artistic, adminnistrative...). Taking into o account thhe interests, students caan determinaate their prefference secttors. Peersonal and professional aptitudes cconcern the abilities, skills or compeetences that a person haas, for what they servve, what th ey do well.. Each student has a natural or acquired prredisposition n to perform m some activvities better than otherss; the imporrtant thing is able to identify them m. The aptitudes are veery varied (reasoning, ( social, artisttic, creative e, verbal, mechanical…).
Peersonality Intereests P Personal aaptitudes
• How w am I? • How ople see me e? w other peo • Possitive and negative perrsonality traaits
• Whhat I like to do • Whhat I would like to do • Whhat are my p preferencess • I feeel fine doin ng... • Ski lls • Com mpetences • Whhat I know h how to do w well • I am m able to do o...
To identtify these asp pects is not easy for stuudents, above all the perrsonal aptituudes; so teacchers can ask abou ut their form mer activitiess (professionnals or not aas for examp ple part‐timee jobs; internships or Pagge 20 / 57
voluntarist activities). Students must be asked about what activities they managed to do; how they felt doing these activities; which aspects were more complicated and easier… The majority of young graduates are unfamiliar with these aspects, and they are struggling to verbalize what is for them a professional past. Usually, students can over‐ or underestimate their business value, their flaws and professional qualities. Another important point is to analyse the transversal and human skills and professional attitudes that students have acquired in different experiences (as voluntarism, internships, extra activities at school, part‐time jobs in summers....). All these experiences have provided skills and competences that usually students are not able to identify. Even a part‐time job in a different professional sector can provide students important elements (aptitudes to face stress situations, multitasking, punctuality…). After the phase of self‐knowledge, students have to pass the phase of self‐assessment in order to allow them to understand their position and how to plan their strategy. The SWOT analysis is a useful tool for identifying and analysing strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats that each person faces. Identification of SWOT elements is useful because they will help students to plan the later steps to achieve their objective. Thanks to this tool, students can focus on their strengths, minimize their weaknesses and threats and take advantage of opportunities that they have. ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐
Strengths: characteristics that give you an advantage over others Weaknesses: characteristics that place you at a disadvantage related to others Opportunities: elements that you could exploit to your advantage Threats: elements in the environment that could affect you negatively
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• I'm good at... • My main achievements are... • Other people think my strengths are... • I'm better than others doing...
• I am not good at... • I don't feel confident doing... • My negative work habits are...
• Good network • Training/education • Experience
• Economical crisis • Negative labour market situation
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3. Well prepared for the job
The National System of Occupation and National System of Qualifications
3.1.1. The National System of Occupation The National System of Occupations is an integrated information system of description of the standard labour market requirements for particular jobs. National System of Occupation is determined by the requirements of professional knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to carry out work activities on jobs in the labour market. National system of occupations in Hungary is available on the following website: http://eletpalya.munka.hu/foglalkozasok https://www.ksh.hu/docs/szolgaltatasok/hun/feor08/feorlista.html National System of Occupation in the Slovak Republic is available on the following website: http://www.sustavapovolani.sk/ National system of occupations in the Netherland is available on the following website: http://www.nationaleberoepengids.nl/ National system of occupations in France is available on the following website: http://www.pole‐emploi.fr/accueil/ National system of occupations in Austria is available on the following website: http://www.berufslexikon.at/ http://www.bic.at/berufe_von_a_bis_z.php The National System of Occupation provides benefits for all participants in the labour market: • employers ‐ the acquisition of workforce with the required skills and qualifications • the representative organizations of employers, the representative organization of employees ‐ an effective social dialogue involving all actors of the labour market in the research and development of workforce skills employers' requirements • for employees, job seekers ‐ an overview of job opportunities in a fast orientation in the labour market in professions Page 23 / 57
• the educational sphere ‐ order employers to educate pupils and students according to the needs of practice, education and training in line with labour market needs, which increases employability of learners and their greater employability • labour offices ‐ obtaining the actual objective information base for employment in the labour market and competences required for their performance orientation in the possibilities of their further education • for municipalities ‐ provide information about the structure of the labour force, which is useful for the coming new investor in the region National System of Occupation is the basic system framework for the development of system solutions to transfer labour market needs in the lifelong learning system based on the National System of Qualifications. In practice, it is highly desirable to ensure the link between employers' demands for specific performance work and preparation for his performance. National Occupational Standards are standardized descriptions of labour market needs. Qualification and evaluation standards provide translation of these needs into the system of lifelong learning
3.1.2. National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) is a public register that contains the description of qualifications recognized in Slovakia. Based on the assumption that the skills, knowledge and competencies that are necessary to obtain the qualification, we can get thanks to various routes of education and learning: • Formal education ‐ takes place at school and leads to a diploma or degree certificates, • Non‐formal learning ‐ takes place on the soil of various training institutions outside of school education • Informal learning ‐ occurs as a natural part of our lives anywhere and anytime ‐ in the family, at the workplace, in our hobbies, and so on. National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) includes qualification cards, in which are found qualification and assessment standards. • qualification standard – is a summary of the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to acquire adequate qualifications. • evaluation standard – is a summary of criteria, organizational and methodological procedures to verify and assess the proficiency implementation skills
Each qualification is assigned to one of eight levels of Slovak Qualification Framework and the European Qualification Framework. National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) in the Slovak Republic is available on the following website: Page 24 / 57
http://www.kvalifikacie.sk/ National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) in Hungary is available on the following website: http://www.oktatas.hu National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) in the Netherland is available on the following website: www.nlqf.nl National system of occupations in France is available on the following website: http://www.pole‐emploi.fr/accueil/ National System of Qualifications (National Qualification Framework) in Austria is available on the following website: https://www.bildung.erasmusplus.at/guidance_transparenz_anerkennung/nqr/aufgaben_der_nks/ http://www.bildungssystem.at/nationaler‐qualifikationsrahmen/
3.1.3. European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) According to website EUR‐lex: „ECVET is a common methodological framework that facilitates the accumulation and transfer of credits for learning outcomes from one qualifications system to another. It aims to promote transnational mobility and access to lifelong learning. It is not intended to replace national qualification systems, but to achieve better comparability and compatibility among them. ECVET applies to all outcomes obtained by an individual from various education and training pathways that are then transferred, recognised and accumulated in view of achieving a qualification. This initiative makes it easier for European Union (EU) citizens to gain recognition of their training, skills and knowledge in another EU country thank their own.“ Information about the ECVET is available on the website: http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/vocational‐policy/ecvet_en.htm
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Information on labour market
Labour market is a set of conditions related to marketing of labour force, it is part of the social and economic sphere at the same time. Its two sides are: labour demand and labour supply. Actors of the labour demand are employers, and employees represent the labour supply. As the „work” itself isn’t able to appear on the labour market, but it is inseparable from the ability of human work. The main actors of labour market: ‐ ‐ ‐
employers, and their representative organizations, the chambers, employees, and their organizations, the labour unions, the state
There are others who have important roles in the labour market: the VET institutions and the labour offices, labour market service organizations, which help the labour demand and labour supply to find each other.
The most important basic terms: Distribution of labour force resources ‐
economically active population consists of o
employees (gainfully employed; who are on a maternity leave or with benefits ; beside a pension employees)
employees who are employed
independent, or their helping family members
economically inactive population o
inactive earners (pensioners and students, those who don’t have a job at the moment, but they had and they would like to have )
Indicators of balanced labour market ‐
Participative proportion: it means the proportion of the economically active population. The economically active population rate is expressed by percentages.
Employment proportion: the ratio of the employed to the working age population.
The employment rate is expressed by percentages.
Unemployment rate: means the ratio of the unemployed to the economically inactive (inside) population. The unemployed rate is expressed by percentages.
The National Statistical Agencies measure unemployment on different ways. These differences may limit the valuability of unemployment datas in the international comparison. In order to facilitate Page 26 / 57
international comparison, some organizations, such as OECD, Eurostat and International Labour Comparision Program, adjust data on unemployment for comparability across countries. Labour force sectoral structure The sectoral structure is based on workforce sharing. It has three sectors: the primary, the secondary and the tertiary sector. During the economic development the ratio of agricultural employees continuously decreases. Until a defined high level of economic development, the ratio of employees in the industrial and service sector increases parallel. By the further economic development, the growth of industrial employees ratio first slows down, then stops, even start to decrease, while the ratio of service employees remains dynamically increased. Types of unemployment ‐ Cyclical unemployment occurs when there is not enough aggregate demand in the economy to provide jobs for everyone who wants to work. ‐
‐ ‐ ‐
Structural unemployment occurs when the structure of labour demand and labour supply are different from each other. In this case, the reason of unemployment is not the lack of job opportunities compared to job seekers, but there is a mismatch between skills of unemployed workers and the skills for the jobs that are available. Frictional unemployment. This third type of the unemployment appears when a worker is searching for a job or transitioning from one job to another and they become unemployed for a while. At this type there is a mismatch between workers and jobs, there isn’t any structural or scaled differences between them, the two sides don’t meet each other. Technological unemployment. The new technological developments have an impact on the employment which can be examined by many aspects. By the technical revolution, several workplaces came to an end which replaced the mechanization of work. Obviously, it couldn’t be stated as a negative role of the technical development. By the result of the automation new professions were created. Further characteristics of the labour market: The number of registered jobseekers: total number of citizens who are able to work, those, who look for a job and those who are on the register of job applicants kept by the Labour Office. The actual job opportunities (job vacancies): actually available job opportunities offered by employers on the labour market. Wages/Salaries: a regular payment, usually on an hourly, daily, or weekly basis, made by an employer to an employee, especially for manual or unskilled work. The price of the labour force in an economy. Average wages: average wages are obtained by dividing the national accounts based on total wage bill by the average number of employees in the total economy, which is multiplied by the ratio of average usual weekly hours per full‐time employee to the average usual weekly hours for all employees.
How to identify students' interests and the areas of improvement
Career orientation for young people usually takes place in group settings. But it has to be complemented with individual coaching units. Page 27 / 57
3.3.1. Process of career orientation The process of career orientation usually consists of the following parts Start ‐ ‐
To get to know your students/ to know each other To clarify expectations, desires and goals
Orientation, setting up, mobilisation, motivation ‐ ‐
Providing of information and practical hints Support of personal development
Dealing and managing of conflicts, frustration, resignation ‐
Methods to strengthen the self‐responsibility of groups and individuals
Potential and competence analysis ‐ ‐
Identify of interests, skills, preferences, personality factors self‐perception and the perception of others, abilities required
Job information, job requirements, work related factors Learning of job‐hunting skills ‐ ‐ ‐
Job or apprenticeship research Elaboration of application documents Application training
3.3.2. Phases of career orientation process
Phase of orientation
o o o
Phase of decision making
Phase of implementation o Work placements, internships o Applications o Job interviews o Castings o Aptitude tests o To Learn how to handle negative aspects
o Comparison of: Strengths and requirements and weaknesses conditions Interests o perspectives Skills chances Research –work o Job desires and concerning of job alternatives possibilities o Elaboration of an individual competence‐profile 3.3.3. Tests: Assessment of interests and skills
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You can find some useful tests related to interests and skills on the internet. Tests are useful instruments for students. • • • •
It can open a door for a job entrance It can show new job perspectives/chances It can support the process of self‐reflection It can be useful (but take care that tests represent not the 100 percent of the truth)
Useful websites in partner countries In Austria: Preparation of aptitude tests www.playmit.com Playmit.com is a FREE Educational Online Platform where students can increase their knowledge and earn the "Basic Education Certificate". The Playmit.com helps them to prepare their career or apprenticeship training. It is available in German and English. a) Job profiles /career The platform www.whatchado.com. Whatchado is an Austrian platform. The name whatchado comes from the American slang: “What do you do?” The idea is to assist young people in their career orientation by showing website‐video‐ interviews. The platform contains several job profiles and interviews from an apprentice to the Federal President of Austria. In 2014 around 2000 videos were available. Every story counts. Where do you want to be tomorrow. Please take a look at this link (it’s in English) to get an idea about the content etc. With the help of seven questions people tell stories about their professional life to inspire the youth. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
3 pieces of advice for your 14 years old self … What’s written on your business card? What’s the coolest thing about your job? What are the limitations of your job? What’s your job about? What’s your background? Could someone with a different background do your job?
The message: DO WHAT YOU LOVE! You have to have a passion for what you do! Construct your future! There are no limits! Get inspired! b) 20 Questions – a quick‐check for your career choice http://www.frag‐jimmy.at/lehre/berufswahl/ In Hungary: After the registration students can find and fill in some self‐evaluation tests regarding career guidance at the official website of Hungarian Higher Education Admissions like felvi.hu. These tests show individual abilities beyond interpersonal preferences and interests: https://www.felvi.hu/felveteli/teszt Page 29 / 57
If someone wants to talk face‐to‐face with a professional counsellor before an important educational decision, Felvi.hu provides them free career guidance and counselling: https://www.felvi.hu/felveteli/palyaorientacio/palyatanacsadas/ The website of National Labour Office is a real treasure box for those standing in front of an educational decision. There are a lot of self‐evaluation tests for primary school, secondary school students, school leavers and adults considering a career change. Web browsers can find several tests regarding interest subjects, learning resources, mobility and working methods. After filling in the test they get a short evaluation: http://eletpalya.munka.hu/kerdoivek Besides these tests the website provides some useful information about the topic of high school, first profession or adult learning. The menu of qualification and profession groups offers some interactive content for visitors. Training for a specific profession, precise course descriptions are also available, so we can get closer to the everyday professions. Labour market entrants can find some helpful hints about how to prepare for a job interview, write a CV, and time management. http://eletpalya.munka.hu/ There are some other career portals with different self‐tests available in Hungarian like: http://eduline.hu/cimke/p%C3%A1lyav%C3%A1laszt%C3%A1si+teszt http://www.palyanet.hu/index.php?article_id=130 http://europass.hu/palyaorientacio‐online It is often recommended to visit some reliable English portals as well. The test of BBC concentrates on the tasks which are most fitting for the respondent. Based on the answers it classifies the types like realistic, conventional, social, enterprising, artistic and researcher, and accordingly gives professional recommendations. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/careers/ Other recommended website is Your Free Career Test, where you have to express an opinion about some activities. http://www.yourfreecareertest.com/ In Slovakia: https://www.istp.sk/ Labour Market Integrated System ‐ ISTP ‐ is a free web page. ISTP provides assistance to job seekers, unemployed people, employers, educational advisors, parents, students of primary/secondary schools and universities. It includes current vacancies and training opportunities. Catalogue of occupations contains a description of jobs, according to classification of economic activities, requirements of positions (personal skills, health conditions, salary, job classification according to ISCO and EQF). Working compass is used for testing students while choosing different types of schools, in their field of study, to plan their career.
In Netherlands: http://www.nationaleberoepengids.nl/ On this website thee job seeker can find information over more than 2.479 professions. The site is a commercial one, but gives quite complete information and is used a lot. https://www.s‐bb.nl/ For Vet‐students this site is a very handy one. Finding jobs or place as a trainee in a recognized learning establishment in all professions and much other information can be found on this site. Labour market, education and students use this site. https://www.studiekeuze123.nl/ Page 30 / 57
On this commercial site a job seeker, youngster who doesn’t know what to become, can do a test that helps him/her to make the right choice. It is used a lot, just for orientation. In school a dean is often involved to help students with these tests which may be of a better quality. In France: The Onisep (National Information Office on Education and Occupations) is a public institution which produces and disseminates all information about training and jobs. It also offers new services to students, parents and teaching staff. Its mission is to advise on training, trades, professional sectors, to guide young people and their families in their choice of training and professional project course. http://www.onisep.fr/Decouvrir‐les‐metiers#Des‐metiers‐selon‐mes‐gouts An interesting and original tool is a test to help people to discover their domain interests and the professions related to the results. http://www.lesmetiers.net/orientation/c_5190/orientation There is also different private career guiders that provide free tests in their websites with the possibility of having an individual coaching by paying. For example: http://www.orientation‐careere.com/test.php http://kledou.fr/ http://www.cadresonline.com/conseils/coaching/services‐emploi/test‐de‐ recrutement/detail/article/bilan‐de‐competences‐professionnelles.html Examples for creative methods of career orientation: If you work with young students in the orientation phase it is always useful to have different training methods to reach all of them. You have to have multiple ways of approaches concerning their orientation. Otherwise you will risk that your students loose the interests and will be frustrated. Some examples of creative methods: • • • • • • •
• • •
Research work in newspaper Different interviews: students have to develop a questionnaire and ask different people on the street concerning their jobs, their career choice …or to ask the jobs of their parents. Theatre pedagogical elements: Students have to prepare a role play and to play a typical situation of their family. The goal is to show/identify possible influences of parents related to career choice. Research work related to your dream jobs Jobs /Careers of my neighbours, relatives etc.… Jobs – Top – Ten: to do a research work and find out the top ten list of jobs, eg. students take part in Open day at required companies organized by pedagogues for school leavers. Diary of interests: Students will keep a diary of interests including the following questions. o What did you enjoy today? What didn´t you like? o What did you make with ease? What did you make with difficulties? Did you learn something new? Biographical interviews: Analysing the CV of students Writing an essay: „One day working in my dream job?“: try to imagine the daily routine „Daily Soap“: students create a worksheet and to collect job profiles of actors/actress playing in daily soaps. Page 31 / 57
• • •
If I were an animal I would be ….. What kind of animal? Analysing and identifying of personal characteristic self‐perception and the perception of others
For most of the students the career orientation is quite hard. They have to start identifying their interests and strengths. Career orientation for young people frequently needs higher requirements to trainers/teachers. Teachers /trainers working with this target group needs: o o o o
a higher frustration tolerance a lot of creative and “entertaining” ideas to endure the frustration (which is often hidden in lack of interest) of the young students to be consequent and have great powers of endurance , energy and power
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Loo oking for a a job is a j ob itself
33.4.1. Whaat is a job se earch strateegy? o explain sttudents the way how to organize the job sea arch with The mosst important thing is to differentt methods. Find a jo ob is not a matter of chan nce; it is the result of harrd work that takes time, energy, com mmitment and persseverance. This is a full tiime activity, a job itself. or series of stteps that he elp to identiffy the elemeents of the jo ob search A job search strategy is a plan o and facillitate the pro ocess; with the objectivee of finding th he desired jo ob and obvioously being re ecruited. w students th he necessaryy steps of a jo ob‐search strategy: Trainers should show ‐ A perso onal review/assessment ‐ A profeessional proffile
‐ Knowleedge about the Labour M Market and coompanies
‐ The job b search toolls (CV, cover letter, job n etwork…)
ent with the e labour marrket’s needs but also The job search strattegy should be realistic and consiste with students’ perso onal and pro ofessional chhoices. Perhaaps, finding this balancee is the mostt difficult aspect b but an essenttial element of the job seearch strateggy. The train ners must bee able to sho ow students tthat the job search is a p process that requires a ggreat deal of work and motivattion. In this module, yoou will find some tools th hat help studdents to savve energy and timee in their job b search strattegy. motivation tthroughout tthe job searcch, it is the b best asset! Neverr forget the m
33.4.2. Plan nning a job search straategy plans or pathways to es tablish a job b search stra ategy but all of them pre esent the There arre different p followingg key elemen nts:
Pagge 33 / 57
1/ Personal and professional review • Personal inventory and professional profile
2/ Labour market /sector •Targeting companies
3/ Tools for job‐ search •CV •Cover letter •Professional and social networks •Job interviews
Job search strategy
Personal and professional review The success of a job search depends largely on building a proper personal and professional plan. Before that, it is necessary to do a little personal research; research about who you are and what you want to do. The big question that trainers have to ask is: “What do you want to do?: This can be divided into several sub‐questions: ‐ Which are your professional goals? ‐ What are your interests? ‐ What are your experiences? ‐ What are your skills? ‐ Are your skills and competences compatible with your chosen profession? ‐ What are the positive aspects of your professional experience; and the negatives? ‐ What are your career goals at short, medium and long terms? ‐ Which are your personal needs? Students have to wonder if their professional and personal goals are compatible. At first, it can be complicated for students to answer these questions. One useful tool to facilitate this task is to make a personal inventory, listing the skills, professional background... An example of inventory: Page 34 / 57
Personal and professional inventory Training
Soft/ interpersonal skills
Soft/ interpersonal skills
Soft/ interpersonal skills
The success in job interviews goes first to know what assets you have. It is necessary to go through a brainstorming before the job hunt. In order to answer all these questions, trainers should encourage students and verify that they have not forgotten anything and the things what emerge from their work are essential and corresponding to their choice. Asking a family member, a friend or a close colleague to list what they realize as their strengths and weaknesses. It will surprise students when they discover the qualities and weaknesses they have not necessarily thought of. This feedback will help them to understand better the image about themselves and they get a real picture from other people’s view. To succeed, make your inventory of strengths and weaknesses in terms of skills, knowledge, and personality.
Analysis of the Labour Market and targeting companies In order to be efficient in the job search, it is necessary to know the chosen professional sector and link it with the initial personal review. Each sector of activity needs specific competencies and skills. It is necessary to do a research of the competencies that are for employers of that particular sector. There are some tools for target companies and students to help analysing the Labour Market: Apart from the technical competencies of each sector, trainers must show students how to find the qualities, soft and transversal skills that are the most sought after by recruiters. Page 35 / 57
After work is done, students must focus on 3 or 4 essential qualities, those which they possess and those which answer the expectations of recruiters of their sector. Sending a CV is not just like throwing a bottle into the sea. Companies have to be previously identified. The most important part of this step is to identify the susceptible companies depending on their needs and requirements (territory, size, sector…). It is very important to do it before sending the CV in order not to lose time and energy. First of all, it is necessary to identify the geographic territory where they want to find a job. Once the geographic area is identified, they should look for companies located in that territory according to their priorities (size, kind of structure, possibilities of promotion…). The interested companies must be listed in their profile by checking different sources of information (websites, phone calls, business directories, press ...). It is not only limited to companies that could recruit (job) but also to detect the hidden market (open application, networking). It is important to remind students that all these tools will save lot of time and energy in the future. An example of targeting companies tool:
Date of reviving
Date of job interview
Date of sending CV
Date of 1st contact
Useful information (what they search, activities…)
Name and contact of responsable
Source of contact
Name and contact of the company
In a first stage, this chart must be filled out based on students’ research priorities. But in case the job seeker cannot find a job after a while, it is perhaps the time to consider broadening their selection criteria.
3.4.3. Tools of the job search strategy These tools must be developed after the assessment of the previous points in order to be coherent. The CV and cover letter should be complementary and reflect the consistency of the job search strategy. Page 36 / 57
The Internet has become a major tool for job search, with the increase of spontaneous applications and online applications. Nevertheless, traditional job search techniques such as classified ads are still relevant and we cannot forget them. Always‐ Be professional Above all, it is imperative to be able to present professionally to a recruiter. Some tips that trainers can tell the students: ‐ To have a professional email address as: firstname.lastname@example.org and consult it at least once a day. ‐ To have a professional voicemail, no music, child voice or joke. Keep it short and simple. It is important to check the calls regularly and contact back people that have tried to contact you. ‐ To know what we really want, what priorities are: training, employment, salary ... And be open to refine the scheduled career plan if necessary. ‐ To have a CV always prepared and coherent with our project plan. ‐ Not to answer any job because it is a waste of time. To concentrate on the job advertisements related to own personal interests or goals. At first stage, it is necessary to be uncompromising but if the strategy is not efficient after a while, job seekers should be open enough to review down their criteria.
CV Trainers should inform students that writing a CV is a difficult exercise that requires a process of reflection, analysis and synthesis; it is not a simple list of experiences but rather a summary of what you are, what you did and what you can do (identity, experience, skills). It is both a personal and professional identity card. Above all, the CV must be personalized every time it is sent it, with information of the company and the necessary changes in content and design. In three words: it must be clear, complete and regularly updated. The information blocks are the following: ‐ Contact: phone number; address; email address; blog (if in connection with the application). ‐ Personal information: name; age and / or date of birth; marital status. ‐ A title that hitch: a synthesis of the personal request. These few powerful words are intended to capture the recruiter's attention. It can be for example the desired position or the name of the sector.
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‐ Training: the last diploma or training must be at the top of the list. It is advisable to put the year of graduation; the mention if any; the school name or training organization; location. It happens more and more that recruiters contact former training centres. ‐ Skills: to present professional skills (soft and transversal) but also human skills that mingles with the professional area if they are interested for the coveted position. ‐ Experiences: every experience must include the type of contract, the period, the company name, location / region. ‐ Leisure / hobbies: Some activities require important qualities. For example, if someone plays chess, you can deduce that this person has good powers of concentration or a good perception of competitors. Another positive aspect is that the recruiter can share the same hobbies. ‐ Languages: it is important not to lie about the language skills because it is very easy to be trapped in the first job interview and thus lose credibility facing the recruiter. ‐ Other: this not necessarily mandatory but it allows to say things that do not fit into any other category as associative activities, driving licence... These three last items can be combined into a single party called “various” or “other”. A CV online: More and more websites allow people to upload their CV online. This is a more modern and interactive way, allows recruiters to find candidates easily. There are many websites that provide this service but it doesn’t worth having dozens of sites with the same CV. It is more efficient to select those which are more adequate to your professional sphere, your location, a particular theme ... In France: http://www.mon‐cv‐en‐ligne.com/inscription.php https://cadres.apec.fr/home/mes‐outils.html http://moncv.com/ https://www.doyoubuzz.com/fr/ https://www.primocv.com/fr_FR/ In Austria http://www.unterrichtsmaterial‐schule.de/berufskunde2.shtml http://www.karriere.at/c/lebenslauf www.bic.at/downloads/at/brftipps/1_2_lebenslauf_de.pdf www.ams.at/_docs/001_bewerbung_jugendliche.pdf https://lebenslauf.com/ https://www.lebenslauf2go.de/ http://www.musterlebenslauf.net/lebenslauf‐fuer‐schueler‐2014.html https://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/de/documents/curriculum‐vitae Page 38 / 57
In Hungary https://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/editors/hu/cv/compose In Slovakia https://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/sk/documents/curriculum‐vitae In Netherlands: https://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/nl/documents/curriculum‐vitae/templates‐instructions In Europe: Eures https://ec.europa.eu/eures/public/en/homepage There are many other which are paid or free of charge! Four important tips: ‐
After finishing a CV, it is important for students to ask themselves: does it really identify me? And am I proud of what the CV tells about me?
Everything counts in a CV: the contents and the container! Students have to choose their style taking into account their personality but also the sector, the company… The style will not be the same for a post of account that for a creative post.
Grammar and spelling mistakes provoke a very negative image for recruiters. Students have to be very careful about that.
It is always advisable to encourage students to share their CV to other people (classmates, teachers…). Sometimes, things are not clear enough or there are mistakes.
Cover letter It is the tool that accompanies and completes the CV. Writing a cover letter allows the recruiter to have more details. It must be PERFECT in a point of view of syntax and spelling. The cover letter has another advantage: It will help students to organize arguments for a potential job interview. Usually it should contain: ‐ Contact details on the left. ‐ The name of the company, contact details below on the right. Page 39 / 57
‐ Sendingg the city and date. ‐ The purpose of sen nding (bold or italic). ‐ The texxt in 3 or 4 paarts. ‐ The salutation. ‐ Your haandwritten ssignature. The purp pose of the letter is to syynthesize thee CV and the seeker request. o kinds of lettters: There arre mainly two ‐
SSpontaneou us application ns
h applicationss, it is the job b seeker whoo decides to send the lettter. For such For this kind, it is necessary to co ollect as mucch informatio on on the em mployer as ppossible, usin ng several tools: co ompany’s weebsite, corporate brochurre, telephone survey, newspaper artiicle. he post. The easiest way is to break itt down into tthree parts: The letteer must be adapted to th ‐ The comp pany: The inttroduction sh hould capturre the intereest of the reccruiter. It is the mom ment to talk aabout the prrevious colle ected inform mation relevant to the targeting post. ‐ Student: The developpment allow ws the stude ents to talk about them m, to cite examples from f own exxperience an nd what the ey can bringg to the com mpany. In order to givve weight to the arguments, it is nece essary to citee figures, ressults… ‐ Company + students: It is the mom ment to highlight what thhe students can bring to the co ompany. Thiss is the mostt complicate d part to maake but it brings a real "eextra" to the letter. In the concclusion, it is tthe moment to propose meeting or aappointmentts. ‐
TThe responsse letter to an ad
In this caase, the letteer should foccus on skills, qualification ns, experiencce and specifficities for th he post to be filled.. For this, it iis necessary to analyze thhe job, isolatte each of the criteria an d rank them m before responding point by point. hese require ements; the ddevelopment can be divided into twoo parts: theirr The aim is to meet th motivations and contributions. Here is aa tool to help p students th he preparatioon of a coverr letter: Pagge 40 / 57
Yo ou would d like a job as ... with ... You u know tthat thiss com mpany n needs...
Your assetts are...
• Yoour profession • Yoour studies • Yoour compettencies and soft skills • Yoour qualites
• C haracteristiics of what yyou look fo r: reesponsibilities; mission ns; fields...
•A Activities • P rojects • Poost • Exxperience • Skkills •Q Qualities •A Availability • P rofessional or personal networks
Professional netwo ork and soccial networkking professional network is a a state of miind, is to adopt an attitu ude of reachhing out to people, to Build a p ask them m what they are able to give you: noot to set up in a job but to obtain infformation, a advice or contactss that will heelp for the job b search. opportunity to develop this network strategy con ntinuously, itt must be a rreflex. Stude ents must It gives o always h have a posittive attitude to make ann impression n in this sen nse, so that the people who are talking tto will keep a good mem mory of theirr exchanges.. It is also ne ecessary to ddevelop the listening skills. Lots of jobs remain hidden, with hout ad or ccommunicatiion. Finding them requirres putting in place a real netw work strateggy to reach out to the offeer. a: an updateed address book, a phone with suitaable and professional The esseential tools ffor that area greetingg and business cards. The proffessional nettwork can be e formed by ddifferent gro oups, professsional and peersonal: Pagge 41 / 57
Family The networks of th his network
Former employers or colleges
Career guiders of Labour Offices
Mem mbers th hat mayy integraate sttudents' networkk
People that P have already elped you in he the past
All acquaintances: pharmacien...
Memb bers of clubs, associations...
Former classmattes Teacherrs, trainerrs
Social neetworking w Informationn Technologgy and Comm munication) ttool that ena ables the A social network is aa NTIC (New exchange of conten nt in differen nt forms. Thhese networrks can be private, p pubblic or corpo orate and virtual co ommunities have been b born from th ese exchangges. ok is the best known of a all with its 1..55 billion ussers worldwide, but therre are other networks Faceboo like Linkeedln, MySpaace, Trombi.ccom, Twitterr, Google Buzz, Viadeo, X Xing, Yammeer… Trainers can have a discusssion with stu udents aboutt these netw works and how w to use them correctly. es from bad reputation but with a corrected usee, they can b be an ally Social neetworks sufffer sometime in the ssearch for employment. Online soocial networks allow people to ren ew ties that can be professio onally successful as form mer classmattes and also enrich their address boook. The inscription on online networks also o allows people to increaase their visibility to recrruiters and st stay in touch with the market. become time e consumingg, so it is bettter to be Nevertheless, professsional social networks ccan quickly b registereed with one or two netw works and too update the e profiles, ra ather than bbeing present but not active on n several soccial networkss.
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Some tips for students to encourage them about the correct use of the social networks: ‐
To fill the profile carefully, highlighting all the experiences, skills and projects that could interest a recruiter. And not publish personal data or uncomfortable photos.
To select the contacts so that your network is effective.
To be also an active member of the network. Social networks are based on the principle of exchange: you give and you receive. Feel free to share your tips, suggestions, information; this will facilitate a trusting and reciprocal relationship with other members.
Job interviews There are many factors that will impact in a successful job interview but students should know that there are several elements that will increase their chances of success. And the first thing is the preparation of each interview. A prepared interview is a successful interview! Some fundamental steps which students have to follow:
Before the interview •To check the place of the interview and plan how to get there on time •To collect as much as possible information about the company and the specific post •To review the CV and cover letter (to adapt it to the job offer) •To prepare well your arguments (answering the recruiter's expectations) •To prepare questions (to show the recruiter you are well informed and motivated) Conducting the interview •To arrive on time (several minutes before) •To dress correctly •To show a perfect behaviour and a smile (the first impression is very important) •To handshake firmly (to prove determination) •To master your body posture and the way you sit down •The tone of your voice must be clear and enthusiastic •To look at the interviewer directly to their eyes (to prove respect and openness) •To ask questions about the post, the missions... Tips •To bring something to read (for example the cover letter) for avoiding the nerves •Not to be impatient if the recruiter is late •To be always polite
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The importance and development of soft skills needed to be successful in the world of work
3.5.1. Soft Skills Soft skills become more and more important. Soft skills are essential for successful career development even employers lay strong emphasis on soft skills. Soft skills are transferable to any job/career. But it is also complicated to measure soft skills. This is completely different from hard skills. During our training sessions we have noticed that young people with a lower education level needs other soft skills for entering the labour market than school levers with a higher education. In this case we will divide soft skills in basic soft skills which have to be fulfilled first.
Basic soft skills Below you can see the requirements which apprentices and job entrants with a lower education level (compulsory school) have to fulfil. These requirements we called basic soft skills requested by employers.
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WILLINGNESS TO LEARN
Respect, following rules, punctuality, appropriate behaviour, friendliness, stick to rules and deadlines (holiday/sick notes), and cleanliness
Ambition, interest, scrutinize processes, the WILLING, open for new things, to set goals teach and learn, to let things be explained
RELIABILITY‐ HONESTY‐FIDELITY Precision, completeness, confidential handling with information …
QUALITYAWARENESS Precision, follow the rules, control, safety, to do things correctly the first time, …
INDEPENDENCE To meet deadlines, to call, to support others uncalled and work together, to be self‐initiative, the ability to think for oneself, own opinion, self‐ confidence, ...
ATTENTION To show interest, follow, to help in an active way, to ask for information, …
Main soft skills It is almost impossible to make a list with all required soft skills. We have tried to highlight the main ones required at the workplace. We summarised information from different sources and training experiences. 1. To know the expectations and requirements of the companies 2. Working ethic/moral 3. The will and capacity to learn 4. Social skills like teamwork: being able to work effectively with anyone with different skill sets, personalities, work styles, or motivation level to achieve a better team result. 5. Quality awareness
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6. Communication skills: being able to actively listen to others and articulate your ideas in writing and verbally to any audience in a way where you are heard and you achieve the goals you intended with that communication. 7. Assertiveness 8. Organisational skills 9. Conflict resolution (to look for good solutions) 10. Time management 11. Self‐management 12. Presentation skills: ability to present the main points/contents of your work results and ideas formally to an audience 13. Diligence/ effort
3.5.2. New skills These new skills will become essential to the career success: • • • • • • • • • •
“adaptive thinking”: to recognise a problem and find creative solutions for it (instead of “if this, than that”) “social intelligence”: empathy , communication skills to be able to draw the “right” conclusions from different information intercultural competence analytical thinking ‐ “Computational Thinking“ transdisciplinary – „to be able to communicate in the language of different disciplines“ to think in processes ‐ process‐oriented thinking – not to think in ready‐made processes, but develop own strategies, depending on situation, parameters and targets to have the capacity to filter the mass of information online‐ability to work in a team: virtual cooperation ; to work together in different national or transnational work places to have more individual responsibility, independency; responsibility for self‐motivation; less orders due to flat hierarchy
3.5.3. Expectations and desires of the companies • • • • • • • • • •
practical experience through placements reliability commitment flexibility the willingness to learn team spirit the „right“ behaviour/appearance good manners punctuality responsibility
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Often there is a gap between the expectations of employers and the skills of young people entering the labour market concerning hard skills but soft skills as well. In a Lifelong learning project (funded with the support from the European Commission) named “EKS‐ Education as Key to Success – The link between vocational schools, lifelong learning and the world of work” we have asked 120 enterprises in 4 countries (Slovakia, Austria, France and Hungary) the following questions. Please evaluate in a scale of 1‐5 the importance of the skills listed below according to your company and how much of these skills own the target group (school leavers younger than 25 years old) Companies could evaluate from 1 (the least important) to 5 (very important) 20 listed skills and estimate from 1 (do not possess it at all) to 5 (possess it entirely) if the target group inside their enterprises own these skills. 5 4 3 2 1 0
Importance for companies
Real level of the target group
Source: Education as Key to Success – The link between vocational schools, lifelong learning and the world of work – « EKS » Graph 6; page 18 In this graph you can see that the expectations of employers and the skills of young people are not corresponding. These requirements will be checked during a job interview or in an assessment centre. • Social behaviour • Skills • Social competence • Motivation • Willingness/intension
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The impact of media
Most of the youth use gadgets in their everyday life, that’s why we have to deal with the side effects of media and information communication technologies. If we want to prepare students into a labour market, we have to get closer to their daily routine and deal with the side effects of their activity. „Over the past few years, media use among children and teens has become more prevalent than ever. With the launch of the iPod, the explosion in instant messaging, the birth of mobile video and YouTube, and the advent of social networking sites like MySpace, young people are rarely out of contact or out of reach of the media”. We still have to face with the impacts of media and the problems which are caused by it. Media plays an extensive role in an individual’s daily life. The influence of the mass media operates with the mission of providing one with more information than they might have expected. The mass media works is like a pull factor‐ it just drags you into its world, and makes you believe that whatever you do, you see and you hear is true, and the most trustable. (2012b).
Media education includes all activities and ideas in educational contexts which have the aim of developing media literacy. One of the labour market needs is media competence. Media competencies consist of four dimensions: ‐ the capacity for a critical view of media and media developments, ‐ knowledge about media devices and the media market, ‐ the ability to use media both in a receptive and in an interactive manner (e.g., a conversation via the Internet), ‐ and the ability to engage in media production (e.g. producing a film). Via the promotion of media literacy, children shall: ‐ become protected against the negative effects of media (e.g., manipulation by advertising) ‐ learn to make the most of the possibilities offered by media (e.g., the use of a computer as a tool for painting, writing, etc.). ‐ learn how to do action‐oriented projects in which children produce their own media content (e.g. an audio drama, a video or photographic story). Through activities students learn that media content is made by others and shows a specific reality, for example by using special film effects like stop motion (2015a). Page 48 / 57
Media and self esteem
In our society we need youth who want to work and be an active member on labour market. An active member is someone who has good mental and physical health with a correct self‐ concept. Youth spend hours online so we have to deal with the media’s side effects. The media puts such an intense pressure on youngsters today to look like the “ideal” image. The media’s harmful affect on the self‐body image and self‐esteem of youth has brought about some of these three damaging effects: ‐ eating disorders, ‐ mental depression, ‐ and physical depression. No matter where we are or what we do in life, media is going to be there right by our side. Young people are suffering both mentally and physically due to the failure of media. Media education can help them. Inside the classroom We must take care of how media effects the self‐esteem and body image. We can make a quick test with the students to check how satisfied they are with their life, (P1‐Self‐esteem scale). Analysing behaviour
Inside the classroom Analysing different characters in media such as role models, reporters is a good way to show the students different point of views and start a discussion in a classroom. We can choose different genres like news, reality shows, soap operas, designers and advertisements. Students will definitely have an opinion about it. It’s the starting point to become more objective about the things which are around us. The aim is to talk about the language and behaviour and its needs on the labour market, (P2‐Analysing behaviour).
How to change the students’ point of view
Inside the classroom It’s very difficult to change someone’s point of view or attitude towards things. The best way is when we try to do it in an indirect way. Give a project work for students about the same topic, for example about an apple. Students work in pairs /correct collaboration needed/ after doing and presenting their work they will discuss about the topic again. Not just the topic is important, but the following work. They have to analyse the pair work and each other’s product. At the end the teacher points what it was really about. To show different Page 49 / 57
point of view about the same topic, to see how subjective is to talk about something then talk about the media and it’s negative side effects, (P3‐Cooperation and subjectivity). How to collaborate students
To collaborate students is very important, for example in Practice 3 students have to work together. If we want to analyse their pair work later, it’s important that the teacher chooses the pairs (two students who are not friends). In a workplace employees can’t choose whom to work with, they must learn cooperation and creative thinking at school. Preparing comics, preparing videos, preparing Ads, brochures
Preparing something which is really needed is always a challenge. Give some real work for the students. For example doing adverts for the local shops or hotels, they can make brochures or create short videos. Finally they can evaluate each other, (P4‐Preparing videos, Ads, brochures).
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5. ICTT, I see T((team)
The e importance of soccial netwo orks in a fiield of LM M
of showing tthe studentss the correctt – education nal way to uuse their gadgets. We There is a big need o can’t chaange students’ behaviou ur and habitss. They love tto use their phones all dday long. Whether it’s obligatory or not theey are using iit, our task iss to teach them to find re elevant inforrmation in it. w that students are using their moobiles, noteb books, tabletts and otherr gadgets more m than We know writing h homework. IIn spite of th hat the folloowing researrch can be su urprising. 1116 students from age 16‐20 fillled in the anonym quesstionnaire w which shows how studen nts spent theeir free time e. As the followingg diagram shows only 1,72 1 % from the 116 stu udents spend d more thann 2 hours a day with doing ho omework, w while 74,13% of them de als with hom mework less than 20 minnutes a day or never writes ho omework.
D Diagram 1: Time spentt on homew work among adolescentts
1 hour a da ay; 11,21%; 11 1%
2 hoours a day; 1,772%; 2% neve er writes hom mework; 35,34%; 35%
20‐‐40 minutes a day; 12,93%; 13% %
10‐20 minute es a d day; 38,79%; 39%
Timee spent on homework
In contrrast as the second diagram show ws only 5,17 7% of the sttudents usee their gadggets less than 155 minutes a day while 8 87,93% of tthem use th heir gadgetss more thann an hour(1 1, 2, 3 or more ho ours) a day((2015b).
Pagge 51 / 57
never use es gadgets; 0,0 00%; 0%
0‐15 m minutes a day ; 5,,17%; 5%
more th han 3 hours a day;; 39,66%; 40% 4
15‐30 minutes a 1 a day; 6,90%; 7% d %
1 hour a day; 1 25,86%; 26% 2 2 hours a dayy; 22,41%; 22% %
Time sppent on gaadgets
Diagram 2 2: Time spennt on gadgeets among a adolescents
We can’t change th heir habits but we can help to chaange the wa ay they are using it. If w we want to prepaare the stud dents for a labour marrket, we havve to take a look what they are interested in. The 3rd diagram m shows thaat students use the internet mainly for enterrtainment, o only few of them m are interessted in educational sitees. Howeve er they like to use Gogggle and You uTube so we can help them to find the ere interestting things connected their profeession. As th hey love ok we can h help them to o search forr different interesting g groups. Faceboo
Time sspent on in nternet Books/read out loud books eB
eBooks// read out loud books in foreiggn language
on nline games
translato ors for lyrics
online d dictionaries
Skype e and other online movies
ema ail accounts
Goo ogle and other ssearch sites
Facebookk and other soccial network 0
Diagram 3: The w websites useed by adole escents Pagge 52 / 57
The e useful u usage of ICCT tools
A collecction of web bpages to su upport educcation MOOC: MOOC offeers free onliine courses for everyone by the best universiities. http ps://www.m mooc‐list.co m/
SIG grou ups: these sspecial interrest groups deal with sspecific topiics in a highh level. Special Interest Grroups (SIGs) are imporrtant virtuaal communities. Withinn a SIG, one would expect to find exxperienced members aand subjecct matter experts e enggaged in an active converssation with other SIG m members. w.acm.org/sspecial‐interest‐groupss http://www TED:TED D is a non‐p profit devoted to spreeading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful p talks (118 minutess or less). TED begaan in 1984 4 as a conference w where Tech hnology, Entertainment and d Design converged, annd today co overs almosst all topics — from sccience to business to globall issues — in more thhan 100 lan nguages. Meanwhile, M independently run TEDx evvents help sshare ideas in communnities around d the world d. http://www w.ted.com/ BlinkFeeed: Blinkfeeed is a mobiile applicatiion which h helps to be u up to date aabout the topic you are inteerested in Almost everyone kknows Googgle as a searrch site but it has lots o of features which can help, for examplee it helps to o search in aa correct waay using sym mbols, for e example: ‐
A Add an asteerisk as a placeholder ffor any unkn nown or wild card term ms. ee.g.:"a * saved is a * e earned" Pagge 53 / 57
Separatenumbersbytwoperiodswithoutspacestoseeresultsthatcontainnumbersin a range. e.g.: camera $50..$100
Virtual team building Being online has also positive impacts on our everyday life. It’s easy to find groups dealing with interesting things. For English language teachers for example eslprintables.com can help to share and download useful teaching materials. When teachers meet it also helps the students. Connections give an opportunity to work together in an international level. That’s why we are trying to connect all the teachers who are going to be the members of SCOLA’s Test Phase 2. Later their students can also meet in a group where their teachers are involved to. They are from five countries so students should find it interesting, too. The platform we are using is Facebook, we need a social network to be able to easily find each other and our students, (Facebook group named SCOLA, P5‐Virtual team building). Useful collected sites for teachers and students
The first task for the teachers to work together after becoming a member of SCOLA Facebook group would be to collect useful links they use‐in any language. It should be collected in groups, like links connected with the subject catering, etc.
6. References “Introduction of life‐career building as a competence area”: • •
Kerényi Mária szerk., Az Educatio Kht. kompetenciafejlesztő oktatási program kerettanterve – Életpálya‐építési kompetencia ‐1‐12. évfolyam (2008), Educatio Kht. Életpálya‐építés kompetencia terület, suliNova Közoktatás‐fejlesztési és Pedagógus‐ továbbképzési Kht. (2006), (Nemzeti Fejlesztési Terv Humánerőforrás‐fejlesztési Operatív Program 3.1.1.központi program) „Pályára lépünk” T ÁMOP ‐1.4.3‐12/1‐2012‐0026, Módszertani összefoglaló: Személyes és kortárs segítői kör modellje (2015), Napra Forgó Nonprofit Kft.
“Career guidance”: • • • •
OECD ‐ EUROPEAN COMMISSION. 2004. Career guidance: a handbook for policy‐makers. [online]. Paríš: OECD, 2004. 79p. at:<http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/53/34060761.pdf>. GRAJCÁR, Š.,HARGAŠOVÁ, M., LEPEŇOVÁ D.: Kariérové poradenstvo 27 p. DUNČÁKOVÁ, Ľ.: Kariérové poradenstvo pre žiakov stredných škôl, 43 p. SAAIC, EUROGUIDANCE CENTRUM: Kariérové poradenstvo v Slovenskej republike, 114 p. Page 54 / 57
Návrh koncepce Integrovaného systému kariérového poradenství, Autorský kolektív pod vedením Jiřího Strádala, 2013, 41 s. Vozárová, K., Pitoňáková, Z.: Zborník príspevkov konferencie Kariérové poradenstvo – Efektívny nástroj v podpore sociálnej inklúzie, ISBN 978‐80‐971338‐0‐1, 2013, 95 s. Lučanská, M.: Kariérne poradenstvo na stredných školách v Trenčianskom kraji., Diplomová práca, 2007, 86 s. Hargasová, M.: Od teórie k praxi kariérového poradenstva v školách a školských zariadeniach www.sustavapovolani.sk www.careercare.eu
• • • • •
“Promotion of a change of attitude on the base of self‐knowledge” : •
Eliot R. Smith, Diane M. Mackie (2007) ’Social Psychology’ (third edition) New York: Psychology Press Andrew L. Cherry (1994) The Socializing Instincts: Individual, Family, and Social Bonds Praeger Publishers Gibson, R.L. – Mitchell, M.H. (1990): Introduction to counselling and guidance. Maximillan Co., New York Maccoby, E. E. & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent‐child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1‐101). New York: Wiley. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1981) Die Ökologie der menschlichen Entwicklung. Natürliche und geplante Experimente; Klett‐Cotta Levine, K. J., & Hoffner, C. A. (2006). Adolescents' conceptions of work: What is learned from different sources during anticipatory socialization?. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21, 647‐ 669. doi: 10.1177/0743558406293963 Lewin, K. Psychology of success and failure. Occupations, Vol 14, 1936, 926‐930. J. F., & Klein, S. B. (1997). Self‐knowledge and self‐awareness. (As cited inn Sedikedes, C., & Brewer, M. B. (Eds.), Individual self, relational self, collective self. (pop. 35‐36). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press) Dr Móré Mariann: A tanácsadás elmélete. Tanulási segédanyag a Debreceni Egyetem hallgatói számára, elektronikus könyv Á. E. Vámos, K. Pála, A. Puskás, Gy. Rápli. Életpálya‐építés kompetenciaterület. Sulinova Kutatás‐Fejlesztési és Pedagógus továbbképzési központ, Budapest Michael F. Scheier, Charles S. Caever (2006) Személyiséglélektan. Osiris Kiadó, Budapest Atkinson‐Hilgard‐Smith‐Nolen (2005) Pszichológia. Osiris Kiadó, Budapest Susan Folkman and Richard S. Lazarus (1990), "Coping and Emotion", in Nancy Stein et al. eds., Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion M. Dávid, E. M.Varga, Zs. Farkas, Dr. M. Hídvégi, I. Lukács. Hatékony tanulómegismerési technikák. Educatio, elektronikus kézikönyv
• • •
• • • • • •
“The National System of Occupation and National System of Qualifications“ : • • • •
NSP Spravodaj č. 01/2015 http://www.sustavapovolani.sk/ ‐ National System of Occupation in the Slovak Republic http://www.kvalifikacie.sk/ ‐ National System of Qualifications http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/vocational‐policy/ecvet_en.htm ‐ European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training • Act N. 5/2004 Coll. on Employment Services Page 55 / 57
“Information on labour market” • • • • • •
http://medical‐dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/labor+market http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Vocational+education http://nayanmani.weebly.com/uploads/5/8/4/6/5846562/unemployment.ppt https://data.oecd.org/earnwage/average‐wages.htm https://data.oecd.org/emp/employment‐rate.htm http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/service.html#ixzz4F9GChUwz
“How to identify students' interests and the areas of improvement“ : • • • •
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whatchado ibis acam ‐“blue bag”‐training materials http://www.frag‐jimmy.at/lehre/berufswahl/ www.playmit.com
“ Looking for a job is a job itself“ : • interviews with HR manager and representatives from companies • Studie des Deutschen Industrie‐ und Handelskammertages (DIHK) belegt. Aber was sind Soft
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Skills eigentlich genau? Fragt man nach, fallen die Antworten sehr unterschiedlich aus; von Bettina Röckl „new skills“, TREND,03/2016, page 83 Brochure “Education as Key to Success – The link between vocational schools, lifelong learning and the world of work – « EKS »”, Graph 6; page 18 Requirements from Schoeller‐Bleckman company http://www.pole‐emploi.fr/candidat/les‐fiches‐metiers‐@/index.jspz?id=681 http://www.strategies.fr/etudes‐tendances/dossiers/155109/154679W/recrutement‐les‐ techniques‐qui‐marchent.html http://etudiant.bfmtv.com/actualites/emploi/326‐10‐qualites‐ordinaires‐a‐eviter‐de‐mettre‐ sur‐son‐cv.html http://www.cadremploi.fr/edito/actu‐et‐conseils/boite‐a‐outils/reussir‐son‐cv/comment‐ faire‐un‐cv/d/1/les‐avantages‐de‐mettre‐son‐cv‐en‐ligne.html http://www.mon‐cv‐en‐ligne.com/inscription.php https://cadres.apec.fr/home/mes‐outils.html http://moncv.com/ https://www.doyoubuzz.com/fr/ http://www.lefigaro.fr/emploi/2014/02/13/09005‐20140213ARTFIG00033‐les‐reseaux‐ sociaux‐deuxieme‐filtre‐pour‐les‐recruteurs.php http://www.1001actus.com/viadeo‐releve‐limportance‐des‐reseaux‐sociaux‐dans‐le‐marche‐ de‐lemploi‐111470.html http://lci.tf1.fr/les‐decideurs‐de‐l‐emploi/les‐decideurs‐de‐l‐emploi‐comment‐exister‐sur‐les‐ reseaux‐sociaux‐8348051.html http://www.dossierfamilial.com/rechercher‐un‐emploi‐sur‐les‐reseaux‐sociaux‐12856.html http://www.capital.fr/careere‐management/actualites/recherche‐d‐emploi‐misez‐sur‐les‐ reseaux‐sociaux‐specialises‐773225 http://www.lexpress.fr/emploi‐careere/emploi/trouver‐du‐travail‐grace‐aux‐reseaux‐ sociaux_1189625.html http://www.blogdumoderateur.com/chiffres‐reseaux‐sociaux/ http://www.gentside.com/linkedin/linkedin‐viadeo‐amplement‐quel‐est‐le‐meilleur‐reseau‐ social‐professionnel_art67108.html Page 56 / 57
embauche‐les‐pieges‐3.php • http://www.pourseformer.fr/emploi/entretien‐dembauche.html “Videomaster, ICT see Team”: •
Friedrichs‐Liesenkötter, H. (2015a). Media‐ Educational Habitus of FutureEducatorsintheContext of Education inDay‐CareCenters. Journal of Media Literacy Education, v7 n1 p18‐34. Retrieved 13 March 2016, from ERIC database. ERIC number:EJ1074780 Haas Cheryl, J.; Pawlow L. et al. (2012b). An Intervention for the Negative Influence of Media on Body System. College student journal. June 2012, Vol. 46, Issue 2 P. 405‐418. 14p. Henry, J. Kaiser FamilyFoundation. (2007). Parents, Children& Media: A Kaiser FamilyFoundationSurvey. Retrieved 15 January 2016, from ERIC database. ERIC number: ED542901. Rideout, Victoria. LőrinczBitterová, D. (2015b). Tvorbaelektronických učebných pomôcok na podporu vyučovania. Rigorózna práca. Katedra Informatiky. Komárno. Schlegel, A. (2016).How the Media Affects the Self Esteem and Body Image of Young Girls. Retrieved 1 April 2016, fromhttp://www.divinecaroline.com/self/wellness/how‐media‐ affects‐self‐esteem‐and‐body‐image‐young‐girls Suman, Sh. (2012a). Positive and Negative Influence of Media Among Young People. Retrieved: 10 February 2016, from http://uthmag.com/media‐influence‐on‐youth/ The Statistics Portal, Statista Inc. (2015c). Daily time spent online. Retrieved 10 April 2016, fromhttp://www.statista.com/statistics/428425/daily‐time‐spent‐online‐mobile‐age/. New York. United States.
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