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S

cience is a vital part of modern day life. However, you don't

have to understand science to use it. Also, you don't have to use it but you would really have to go out of your way to avoid it.

Many of us can live our entire lives without doing anything scientific, but still, almost everything around us is touched in some way by science, from the quality of the air that we breathe (creation and removal of pollution), the water that we drink (treated chemically or at least tested and then pumped), the food that we eat, the clothes that we wear, the heat in our homes etc, is all affected.

Science is vitally important in your daily life.

This publication was made to be submitted for Dr. Sawsan El Gogary of The American University in Cairo

The Authors: A hmed Moataz

Badr

E brahim Elsebaie Merna Naguib


The Last Word in Disposable Fashion A

dress that dissolves in

the wash is just one result of a project to create a new generation of eco-friendly fabrics Dresses that melt in the wash are the latest, and possibly strangest, environmentally friendly innovation to hit the world of fashion.

They are the fruit of the "Wonderland" project, a unique collaboration between a pioneering British designer and scientists at the country's leading universities seeking a solution to the "Primark effect" – the ever-rising quantities of discarded clothing being sent to landfill sites.


The Environment Select Committee found that the proportion of textile waste at council tips has risen from 7 per cent to 30 per cent in five years. Helen Storey, a designer and professor at the London College of Fashion, teamed up with Professor Tony Ryan from the University of Sheffield and Interface, a research centre at the University of Ulster, to create the Wonderland project. The team created plastic dresses – made out of a similar material to washing capsules – that disappear on contact with water, with the aim of drawing attention to the problem of waste plastic. "It is about getting different disciplines together to solve a global problem." The plastic is made from biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol. By using varying dye weights, chemists altered the movement of the plastic when it hits water, making interesting patterns as the dresses dissolve. A film of the project has also been made by the fashion photographer Nick Knight, which shows the model Alice Dellal going from clothed to naked in just nine seconds. The brainchild of a fashion designer, associated with a famous photographer and fronted by a socialite, the project was guaranteed coverage in glossy magazines, but ran the risk of being dismissed by the scientific community as a publicity stunt.


However, "fashion has the power to reach across boundaries", said Hannah Teare, the fashion editor of Tatler magazine. "It can create a buzz and awareness." The Wonderland team is now working on a project to design "catalytic clothing", which would use the surface area of clothing to harness pollutants that would then be neutralised by washing. "Clothes have a massive surface area, and this surface could be used to purify the air," Professor Storey said. Collaborations of this kind could signal the beginning of a new era of co-operation between fashion and science. A Centre for Fashion Science recently opened at the London College of Fashion, alongside a new MA course in fashion and the environment.

Professor Storey added: "When I started working across fashion and science 10 years ago, fashion people would say 'if you can't buy it in Harvey Nicks, we're not interested', and scientists said 'it's about dresses, why do we care?'. Now that's not the case."


Elements of Style How Science Informs Fashion Design Nowadays people judge fashion in a very superficial way by saying things like “I know it when I see it.” However, these kinds of responses imply any don‟t objective opinion. In a recent interview, Project Runway‟s Tim Gunn even claims that people should avoid conscio usly analyzing and he fashion, explained how to judge a design, or what are the reasons

that make people like a design by saying “ It‟s largely visceral, be perfectly to honest. If my brain tells me that a new design should resonate with me, but I‟m unmoved, then I always go with my gut. I was talking to faculty members at the Parsons School for Design, where I taught for 24 years. They were telling me about how they initially evaluate a new object. They


come upon it not really looking at it. They see it in the

periphery of their vision and then they look at

it for a split second and close their eyes. It‟s that moment of reckoning that tells them the value of the object.

busy,” “it‟s not cohesive,” or, “I HATE that color!” So are there objective, perceptual rules that good fashion adheres to? Or do you have to be a fashion expert to “know it when you see it?”

Guun explained how the eyes and brain react towards a Tim‟s design. suggests response that categorizing a look as “good fashion” results from snap judgments about its visual elements. But what drives this gut feeling about good design? On Project Runway, the judges often critique the perceptual elements of a look, saying things like, “it‟s too

Here‟s one illusion that could speak to this issue: which inner square is smaller?

Most people would think that the black square is smaller; however, both squares have the


exact same size. This illusion could explain why we think black is more flattering than white; black shapes appear thinner than white shapes, possibly because the contours of black objects have more definition. This illusion suggests that color is one element that can fashion influence judgements. Althoug h color trends come and go, red and black are two hues that may stand the test of time in Gunn fashion. talked about how men and women both prefer red on the opposite sex (Eliot, Eliot, 2008; 2010). Referees also

awarded red-clothed Tae Kwon Do competitors more points than when the same competitors wore blue, possibly because red might be easier for referees to see (Strauss et al., 2008). However, not all color biases are positive; referees also out more gave penalties to football and hockey teams wearing black, perhaps because associate people „blackâ€&#x; with hostility (Frank & Gilovich, 1988). This all suggests that color not only influences whether we like what others wear, but also how we perceive performance and character traits. But


how do people judge Designers also commonly use illusions to “trick the eye” into perceiving a more flattering silhouette, such as highlighting the waist with a belt to draw attention to the narrowest part of the body. Another trick is to wear V-neck tops, which gives the illusion of a longer torso. Don‟t believe me? Check out the following image; which line segment is longer?

The lines are actually identical (really!), but the line segment on the right looks longer because of the Vshaped extensions on either side. You can achieve the exact same effect just by wearing a V-neck shirt or dress (and, theoretically, bellbottom pants or mermaid skirts). So why does a longer torso matter?


As it turns out, elongating the body makes you look thinner. When people were shown pairs of bodies that differed only in height, participants thought that the taller body looked thinner over 80% of the time, despite the fact that they were the same width (Savazzi et al., 2010).

Thus, fashion experts could be basing their judgments on basic perceptual elements like color and height. If perceptual elements influence fashion judgments, we can pinpoint why a look appears unflattering, too busy, incohesive, etc.

Ultimately, judging fashion may be less an art than a science.


Fashion Goes to the lab Science breaks the boundaries between performance, environment, fashion, art and technology

Smart Fabrics Nanotechnology is a field of science and engineering that works at the extremely small scale. Scientists and designers are using nanotechnology techniques to create new textiles with special properties. These include “smart fabrics” that can sense and react to their surroundings, kill bacteria, monitor temperature and even lessen the effects of UV radiation. Varying the space between nanoparticles can affect light interactions, and one student designer at the Textiles Nanotechnology Laboratory at Cornell University used this concept to create a dress coloured not by dyes but by nanotechnology. The scientists at the lab have also been working on “invisibility cloaks” that blend into their surroundings and make certain colours invisible. Two other students at the university have created a hooded bodysuit to ward off mosquitoes. The fabric and an insect repellent are bonded at the molecular level, so the mesh fabric is far more effective – and the repellent lasts a much longer time – than traditional mosquito nets that are dipped into a solution.

Medicinal Clothes


What if the clothes you wear not only protect you, but can boost your health? That might sound like science fiction, but it was a major talking point at the 2012 Edinburgh International Science Festival. Scottish outdoor clothing company Keela explained how it has been experimenting with infrared technologies. Its designers discovered that inserting certain materials into clothes meant thermal infrared was reflected and reabsorbed back into the body, creating more heat retention and penetration into joints. This can soothe sore muscles and limbs and could be very useful in sports gear. Other designers have taken a different approach in making clothes that could help in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and skin conditions. Ayuvastra is an Irish clothing company whose designers are working on textiles that incorporate natural ingredients with healing properties. They start with organic fabric which is free of synthetic chemicals and toxic irritants. Instead of using industrial dyes, they apply medicinal plants and herbs to give a natural colour. They don’t use fixatives either: the fabric is designed to enable the body to absorb the medicinal properties gradually through Disappearing Cloth

All these different approaches to create the clothing of the future involve constant experimenting.


The General Science Quiz Test Your Knowledge! 1. What are different masses of an atom in the same element called? 

Isotopes

Atomic mass

Radioisotopes

Electronegativity

2. On a molecular level, why is water such a good solvent? 

It is wet

It is polar

It is non-polar

It contains hydrogen and hydrogen itself is a good solvent

3.

(6.02 x 10 ) represents which number? 23

Avogadro's number

Ramanujan number

Euler's function

Omega constant


4. Which of the following statements is true about noble gases? 

Ununoctium, atomic number 118, is really not a noble gas

They belong to the group called halogens

All of them are diatomic

They are very non-reactive

5. The genotype for skin colour can be expressed as-: 

Aa

AaBbCc

AaBb

AaBbCcDdEe

6. The _________ controls involuntary body functions such as breathing and heart rhythms. 

Frontal lobe

Cerebellum

Medulla oblongata

Occipital lobe

7. A person's father has the genotype bb (blue eyes). The mother has the genotype BB (brown eyes). What is the chance that any children will have blue eyes? Remember that brown eyes are dominant. 

50% chance

25% chance

75% chance

0% chance


8. The Fibonacci Sequence is an example of which kind of formula? 

Arithmetic

Geometric

Recursion

No formula

9. Who discovered that certain elements follow a pattern and have similar properties, thus creating the Periodic Table of the Elements? 

Mendelev

Einstein

Bohr

Lewis

10. Natural selection is not the only process that effects the survival of certain alleles. What is the particular genetic effect that states certain alleles will be expressed by chance fluctuations? 

Mutation

Speciation

Evolution

Genetic drift


T

he use of genetically modified crops have become pretty common around the world. But why do farmers plant genetically modified crops? In fact, there are lots of benefits in the use of genetic engineering. Genetically modified food can easily eliminate world hunger as the seeds were modified to give much more yield than the organic ones. The yield of GM seeds also combine the positive aspects of several types of seeds which could resist herbs and diseases so your use to GM seeds would not only affect the quantity of the product but it would affect the quality as well.

In fact, some people believe that the use of GM is not good for our health.

The safety of genetically modified products is not verified yet and they have possible long-term drawbacks which we are yet to see. That is to say, genetically engineered food is being consumed daily without passing thorough research of its potential threats on human health. Moreover, Genetically modified ingredients can cause cancer according to Dr Stanley Ewen, a consultant histopathologest at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary.


So the questions would be:  Is the use of genetically modified food ethical?  Would depending on GM food increase the dependency of the developing countries on the developed ones?  Is there any other way to satisfy the world’s need for food with the rising rates of population growth?

Would you go for or against the use of genetically modified food?


T

he scientific progress in the field of genetics have caused several ethical debates to arise. Since the successful attempt of cloning Dolly the lamb in 1997, humans began to look at science from a different point of view as cloning was not believed to be possible before. The shock arose several questions like Are we next? Are there possible advantages or drawbacks for such act if it is applied in humans?

In fact, it is undeniable that there are lots of positive aspects in which cloning would Dolly and Bonny affect us. For example, renewing damaged cells which might help on the treatment of cancer and spinal cord injuries. Organ transplant for medical use would shift the progress in medicine to a new way as organ donors will not exist anymore. Moreover, Cloning is a possible cure for sterility as the offspring can have the genetic behavior of one of the parents. Cloning might also affect psychologists and sociologists to clarify


the differences between the inborn human traits and acquired ones by providing different environments for the clones to raise in. But do you think that the production of human beings with specific genetic behaviors to be just used in research or to use their organs is ethical? Do you think the clones will be treated as first class citizens? Cloning would definitely have some possible physical and psychological drawbacks for the clone which should not take place according to American Medical Association. Many scientists and philosophers argue against cloning as it contradicts with the standard way of evolution. Cloning can totally change the world and our presence in it. It’s effect may be so negligible that it would hardly have any effect on us if it is to be allowed. Is this the world we want to live in? It is your opinion and beliefs which would help you make such a serious decision.

"It is absolutely inevitable that groups are going to try to clone a human being. But they are going to create a lot of dead and dying babies along the way." Thomas Murray Did you know? Cloning is the method of producing a baby that has the same genes as its parent by taking an egg and removing its nucleus, which contains the DNA. Then you take the DNA from an adult cell and insert it into the egg, by fusing the adult cell with the enucleated egg, or by a sophisticated nuclear transfer. You then stimulate the reconstructed egg electrically or chemically and try to make it start to divide and become an embryo. You then use the same process to implant the egg into a surrogate mother that you would use with artificial insemination.


The Cloning Puzzle

Across 2. How new individuals are produced. 5. Cloning is said to be state-of-the-art _______. 7. Guidelines for making decisions. 8. The cell “brain.” 10. Cells of the body. 12. Union of egg and sperm. 13. Female cell that will be fertilized. 16. Exchange of information. 17. Contains genetic instructions. 19. Split in two.

Down 1. Made for one purpose. 3. A living thing. 4. Cells that fuse to make a fertilized egg. 6. The same. 9. When cells know what they are going to be. 11. These have “tails." 14. Encoded in DNA. 15. Name of first cloned sheep. 18. Genetically identical individual. 20. Female sheep.


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H

ave you ever thought how doctors could see what is inside the human’s body before the x-rays were invented? The process scientists used to do was extremely difficult. I think that science has helped medicine in many ways.

Science helped medicine in many ways but mainly science gave medicine the new high tech equipment which helps to detect several chronic diseases. Nowadays there are equipment which process DNA codes to detect chronic problems like heart problems, high blood pressure and diabetes. This equipment gave the oppournity for the people


to know what problems they will face in their future and take care of themselves by treating those problems. Moreover, some scientists believe that DNA codes can show how smart is the guy so scientists pay him more attention as he could be the next Einstein. Science gave medicine the power and the knowledge to save life by transferring organs from one body to another. Science found a way to save organs for some time so it can be transferred which save many of lives. Furthermore, now there are some plastic organs which replace some original defect organs so some people can live with it. There is also some scientist who wants to create organs in the lab to help more people to get healthy and have an ordinary life. Science also helped medicine to see the reason behind some diseases in the modern day by producing the microscope. The microscope gave the doctors the ability to see bacteria and viruses. Doctors and scientist studied those organisms to find a cure for many diseases which they cause.

At the end, I believe that science had a huge role in the success of medicine. This success shaped our community in many ways we can’t imagine. Medicine helped to cure some choric diseases, replace defect organs and cure some everyday diseases like the flu. I think that science and medicine are the two faces of the same coin.


D

id you ever wonder how electricity is generated? Or how much power needed to generate electricity? In the past decades people used coal to generate it and that caused a huge amount of air pollution; so scientists made some researches until they reached to use of nucleic power. People when hear about nucleic power remember nuclear weapons, Hiroshima and Chernobyl. However, those people only remember the disadvantages of this power and don’t remember the many advantages of it.

Nucleic power has lots of advantages. To begin with, this power is considered as renewable and clean source of energy; it has the ability to generate more electricity compared to coal and don’t affect the environment in any harmful way. Nucleic power causes fewer disturbances to the earth compared to mining for fuel. Moreover, nucleic power doesn’t produce the same volume of waste


produced by any other source of energy; there are no waste products which cause any danger to environment and people’s health. Some people believe that nucleic power has more drawbacks than benefits; I believe that they are wrong for many reasons. People claims that nucleic power can have a melt down and destroys many cities and all living organisms but there are some studies that’s prove that this meltdown can rarely happen as the lifespan of the nucleic power station more than decades. Furthermore, other people think about nuclear weapons and the disasters it leaves the world in. for example, when America bombed Hiroshima; the city suffered destruction. About half the national total died and more than half the bridges in the city were destroyed, along with heavy damage to roads and railroads. At the end, nucleic power provides more energy than coal and it also doesn’t cause any disturbance or pollution to the environment. However there are some drawbacks that we should avoid. One of those drawbacks is using the nuclear weapons so we can avoid some disasters like Hiroshima and Chernobyl. I believe that nuclear power is the best thing science gave humanity till now.


Mobile Phones and its Uses

D

id you ever imagine how your life without mobile phones is? I as a college guy can't imagine it. I use my mobile every second in my life. I check my important emails which the university sends from it. Nowadays

all people need mobile phones so they can communicate with other people anytime

and anywhere. Mobile phones changed our life totally. Mobile phones helped us with staying in touch with our parents, conducting business and calling for help in any emergency. Mobile phones changed the society in many ways. To begin with, mobile phones made people stay in touch even if they traveled away; such that people can talk to each other and exchange news if they both on different continents .Moreover, business man use their mobile phones to close deals and save them time as they can do their jobs at home. Furthermore, mobile phones nowadays are a safe net; people use their mobile phones to call for any emergency or help in difficult situation.


Some people believe that mobile phone brought more disadvantages than advantages. Firstly, people claims that mobile phones is a huge danger to the language of any country ; as more and more teens use mobile phones, they use it for texting and they write words with abbreviations and miss many letters of word and that dangerous as people will be used to those words. Secondly, scientists believe that mobile phones are dangerous on people's b. mobile phones produce some radiations which are very dangerous on human's brain. Thirdly, mobile phones caused a lot of car accidents; people text while driving and don’t give the full attention to the street which leads to car accidents.

At the end, mobile phones have many advantages which helped the society like keeping in touch with family and friends and they act like safe net for any emergency. However, I believe it has more disadvantages which causing lots of problems like some diseases caused by its radiation and many car accidents due of people not paying attention to the streets while driving because they are texting in same time. From my point of view, those mobile phones not the best invention science produce to that society.


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