Page 1

NEW

SHARKs BOOK OF

& OCEAN PREDATOrs

THE ULTIMATE COLLECTION OF THE OCEAN’S SKILLED THEMOST ULTIMATE HUNTERS COLLECTION

OF THE OCEAN’S MOST SKILLED HUNTERS

INSIDE:

THE LIFE

GREAT WOF THE HITE


Welcome to :

SHARKs BOOK OF

& OCEAN PREDATOrs The deep dark blue harbours some of the most chilling and mysterious predators. Cunning, ruthless, and highly adapted to its environment, the shark is at the top of the ocean’s food chain, and continues to strike fear into the hearts of humans and animals alike. We go under the shimmery surface of the seven seas and dive deep into the world of these razortoothed creatures to discover the treasures they hide. Uncover the truth behind the monstrous face made notorious by Jaws, Deep Blue Sea, Sharknado and other high-action blockbusters. But there are more dangers lurking in these waters – get face to face with the jaws and claws that want to make you and other animals into their dinner, from cunning octopuses, humongous killer whales and yes, even fl uffy grey seals.

2


SHARKs BOOK OF

& OCEAN PREDATOrs Práctica de maquetación de una revista de 16 páginas en dos versiones: PDF para imprimir y PDF enriquecido, multimedia e interactivo IES PUERTA BONITA CFGS DE DISEÑO Y PRODUCCIÓN EDITORIAL 1º curso, turno de mañana. MP DE PROCESO DE IMPRESIÓN Curso 2016 / 2017 ALUMNA Eva Sánchez López SISTEMA OPERATIVO MAC OS X, versión 10.8.5 APLICACIÓN Adobe photoshop CS6, Adobe illustrator CS6, Adobe indesign cs6 Tipografías The bold Font Helvetica neue Myriad pro Formatos de archivo Taiff, Ai, Psd, Ind, Eps Cover Images Eva Sánchez López Head of Design Eva Sánchez López RIP EFI Fiery Graphic Arts Package Premium edition Impresión Ricoh Pro C 631 ex © 2017 Imagine Publishing Ltd ISBN 978 1785461187

Part of the

bookazine series

I M AG I N E PUBLISHING

3


Sharks

10 The truth about sharks

86 Grey seals

16 50 facts about sharks

98 Galápagos sea lion

26 The most endangered sharks

90 Meet the family of whales

34 Tackling shark attacks

92 Songs of the humpback

38 All about great white sharks

98 Journey of the humpback

48 Great white attacks

100 Blue whales

54 Super senses of the hammerhead

102 The beauty of the gray whale

60 The beauty of the whale shark

104 Squid vs whale

62 Spotters’ guide to the whale shark

106 The mimic octopus

64 Prehistoric sharks 66 Interview with Steve Backshall

Ocean Predators

4

108 Meet the family of rays 110 Dolphins 118 Spotters’ guide to dolphins 120 Atlantic blue marlin

72 The mind of a killer whale

122 Saltwater crocodiles

80 18 facts about killer whales

134 Mysteries of the narwhal

82 The beauty of the orca

140 Polar bears

84 18 amazing facts about seals

150 50 facts about penguins


5 5


Sharks & Ocean Predators

6


The truth about sharks

THE TRUTH ABOUT

SHARKS

Often the victims of fear and misinformation, the scientifi c facts about these killer fi sh are far more fascinating than any myth Legends of sea monsters were widespread in times before science was as advanced as it is today. Sailors would return from voyages and tell tales of mermaids, giant octopuses and enormous fi sh that attacked for sport. As time went on, our understanding of the sea grew and science eventually dispelled notions of such creatures, but revealed the truth about the ocean’s dangerous inhabitants.

Sharks haunt nightmares across the globe and their position in popular culture has been stirred by Hollywood hits like Jaws and media coverage of shark attacks. The truth about these huge fi sh is that they are intelligent animals at the very top of the food chain. Each has evolved to fi ll a specifi c niche and only a handful of these creatures can be considered truly deadly to humans.

What makes a fish deadly?

Though a flounder is unlikely to strike fear into your heart, some fish have super-charged equipment to make them killing machines

Skin

Even a shark’s skin is covered with teeth. These are called denticles and make the animal more streamlined.

Muscle

Fast-twitch muscles allow sharks to leap high out of the water. The muscle contracts quickly for short bursts.

Senses

Sharks have extremely good vision and smell to help pinpoint the exact location of their prey.

Teeth

Growing up to 20,000 teeth in a lifetime, sharks constantly grow new teeth to replace any that are lost.

Electro-reception

Jelly-fi lled pores on their face conduct electrical impulses, like those created by the muscles of injured prey.

Skeleton

A shark’s skeleton is made of cartilage rather than bone, making the animal lighter, faster and more flexible.

7


Sharks & Ocean Predators Bull shark

The deadliest shark alive

With the ability to invade fresh water as well as the ocean, bull sharks have evolved to handle environments that other sharks cannot. It gets its name from its strength, stockiness and ferocious reputation. This species has been spotted 4,000 kilometres (2,485 miles) up the Amazon river, as well as in rivers across the globe. Its kidneys have evolved to process both salt and fresh water to give it more water to explore. It is well documented that bull sharks have eaten other members of their own species, along with smaller sharks and bony fi shes. They swim slowly along the seabed, stalking their target before launching toward it with its jaws wide open. Its teeth are heavily serrated and tear through fl esh with ease. The small eyes indicate the fi sh relies more on electro-reception than its vision and therefore might be more likely to attack an unfamiliar animal. Many attacks on humans have been reported, with one expert suffering a bite during a television interview. Though they aren’t the biggest, these sharks can pop up in almost any body of water and attack anything that’s swimming. They have a big appetite and don’t share the great white’s particular taste when it comes to what they eat.

“Many attacks on humans have been reported, with one expert suffering a bite during a television interview”

Megalodon myth

© Frank Lane Picture Agency; Alamy; Thinkstock

Though long extinct, reports of megalodon sightings keep the world guessing

8

Don’t be fooled by altered photographs or misleading footage. The largest shark that ever lived is extinct and has never been seen alive by human eyes. Measuring up to 18 metres (59 feet), the shark’s size has been determined by its large teeth and rare fossilised sections of the shark’s spine. If the giant shark still existed it would need a healthy supply of extremely large animals like whales to survive. However, It is thought that the megalodon’s extinction allowed the evolution of large fi lter-feeding whales. If the megalodon still existed, whales probably would not.

Megalodon

“The largest shark that ever lived is extinct and has never been seen alive by human eyes”

Whale shark

Great white shark

20m (65.6ft)


The truth about sharks BULL SHARK Carcharhinus leucas Class Chondrichthyes

Territory Coasts of the southern hemisphere Diet Fish, marine mammals Lifespan Up to 16 years Adult weight 90-230kg (198507lb) Conservation status EX EW CR EN VU NT LC NEAR THREATENED

Four myths about sharks Some fallacies about the oceans’ greatest hunters All sharks are man-eaters

While some spcies do indeed have an occasional nibble on unfortunate humans (the great whites, bull and tiger variety being among them), that leaves approximately 475 types of sharks that don’t.

Sharks need to keep moving in order to survive

It’s true to a certain extent that some sharks need to move in order to breathe as they need water fl owing over their gills to take in oxygen, but the vast majority are able to pump water over their gills. This means they can remain more or less stationary in the water and still “breathe”.

Buccal chamber Sharks maintain a fl ow of water to their gills by expanding and contracting a cavity in their head called the buccal chamber. Mouth open Valves leaving the gills stay closed and water rushes in to the buccal chamber causing it to expand.

Sharks can smell human blood

Sharks have to turn on their side to bite properly

from miles away They can smell food, but if their sense of smell were so sensitive as to detect human blood from miles away, the other smells throughout the ocean would be overwhelming.

Sharks are adept at biting and certainly don’t have to be sideways in order to do so. The misconception could come from the fact that they whip their prey around to break off chunks of meat.

Mouth closed The valves are open, so the buccal chamber contracts and forces water through the gills.

“Sharks are adept at biting and certainly don’t need to be sideways in order to do so” 9


Sharks & Ocean Predators

Shark bites

31How many

people are killed/ attacked by sharks every year?

In the last ten years, the number of fatalities caused by sharks averages out at less than fi ve per year, worldwide

35

How powerful are shark jaws?

Razor The mako shark’s front teeth are razor sharp and are backward orientated to aid grip. Wear and tear Due to their thinness, the mako’s teeth are continuously worn down and replaced constantly.

A six-metre shark, such as a great white, can exert more than 18,000 newtons of force with a bite. That’s a huge force – twice as much as the largest alligators, which have the strongest bite of any land animal, and more even than current estimates of the bite of the T-rex. But it doesn’t end there. An alligator only exerts maximum bite force when its jaws are almost shut. The wider it opens its mouth, the less leverage is available for the jaw muscles and the weaker the bite becomes. Great white sharks have a unique arrangement of muscles in their jaw that enables them to exert maximum bite force, regardless of how wide their mouth is opened.

32

How many

sharks are killed/ attacked by people every year? About 100 million sharks are killed every year by humans. Some of this is recreational fi shing, but most is commercial. Sharks are killed for their fi ns for shark fi n soup, and in the Australian state of Victoria, shark is the most commonly used fi sh in fi sh and chip shops

36

33

If you turn a

Force The wider the mako opens its mouth the less bite force it has. As such,it relies more on cutting its prey, rather than crushing it.

shark upside down does it go into a deep trance?

This is called ‘tonic immobility’ and it doesn’t work with all species, but yes, lemon, nurse and bull sharks and even great whites will suddenly become paralysed when fl ipped on their back. This may have evolved as part of mating, to protect females from aggressive males.

34

shark swim?

37

Ampullae of Lorenzini These jelly-fi lled sacs in the head help the shark locate prey.

Do sharks use electricity to sense their prey? Sharks have an arrangement of jelly-fi lled pores, concentrated around the head. These are called ampullae of Lorenzini and they allow the shark to detect electromagnetic fi elds. As well as giving sharks an internal compass, this lets them detect the minute electrical fi elds produced by the muscle contractions of all living animals. A few fi sh and other animals can also sense electrical fi elds, but sharks have by far the most sensitive version of this sixth sense.

10

Everyone know dolphins are intelligent,but what about sharks? Sharks have asimilar ratio of brain to body mass as most mammals and birds. They certainly aren’t mindless killing machines. Seven great white sharks were observed in 1987 off the coast of South Africa, co-operating to refl oat a dead, beached whale so thatthey could eat it. When great whites hunt dolphins, they approach from above and behind, to prevent the dolphin using its echolocation sense to detect the shark.

“There were primitive sharks as long ago as 420 million years”

How fast can a

Sharks contract the muscles on their left and right sides alternately to drive their large tails sideways. This makes the head move side to side. Their rigid skin and drag-reducing dermal denticles allow them to reach speeds of up to 32km/h (20mph).

How smart are sharks?

Electro cells The sensory cells in the snout detect electrical signals in the water.


50 facts about shark

38

Statistically, what are the most deadly places on Earth with regard to shark attacks? USA Native example: Basking shark (cetorhinus maximus) Total attacks: 947 Fatal attacks: 36 Last fatality: 2010

BERMUDA Native example: Silky shark (carcharhinus falciformis) Total attacks: 3 Fatal attacks: 0 Last fatality: N/A

EUROPE Native example: Porbeagle (lamna nasus) Total attacks: 36 Fatal attacks: 17 Last fatality: 1984

Threasher shark

ASIA Native example: Oceanic whitetip shark (carcharhinus longimanus) Total attacks: 120 Fatal attacks: 52 Last fatality: 2000

Bull shark Basking shark

Shortin mako

Hammerhead Whales shark

Whale shark

Greatwhite Nurse shark

Tiger shark HAWAII Native example: Sandbar shark (carcharhinus plumbeus) Total attacks: 102 Fatal attacks: 8 Last fatality: 2004

PACIFIC/OCEANIA ISLANDS Native example: Tiger shark (galeocerdo cuvier) Total attacks: 121 Fatal attacks: 48 Last fatality: 2009

ANTILLES/BAHAMAS Native example: Blacktip shark (carcharhinus limbatus) Total attacks: 61 Fatal attacks: 15 Last fatality: 1972

SOUTH AMERICA Native example: Bignose shark (carcharhinus altimus) Total attacks: 101 Fatal attacks: 23 Last fatality: 2006 OPEN OCEAN Native example: Dusky shark (carcharhinus obscurus) Total attacks: 17 Fatal attacks: 5 Last fatality: 2006

39

Are there sharks living in every ocean on the planet? Yes. Sharks can cope with a wide range of ocean temperatures, even within the same species. Some sharks migrate thousands of miles each year.

AFRICA Native example: Bull shark (carcharhinus leucas) Total attacks: 299 Fatal attacks: 78 Last fatality: 2010

AUSTRALIA Native example: Scalloped hammerhead (sphyrna lewini) Total attacks: 417 Fatal attacks: 131 Last fatality: 2010

CENTRAL AMERICA Native example: Great white shark (carcharodon carcharias) Total attacks: 52 Fatal attacks: 26 Last fatality: 2008

40 common shark in British waters? What’s a

Most of the small shark species seen off the British coast are referred to collectively as dogfi sh. This includes the spotted dogfi sh and the spiny dogfish. They can reach 1-1.5m (3.3-4.9ft) in length.

41

Is there such a thing as a freshwater shark?

No shark species spends all its time in fresh water, but both the river shark and bull shark have adapted kidneys that allow them to cope with fresh water for extended periods. They can swim hundreds of miles up large rivers in search of prey.

NEW ZEALAND Native example: Blue shark (prionace glauca) Total attacks: 44 Fatal attacks: 8 Last fatality: 1968

42

Where can I find sharks?

BASKING SHARK: temperate waters, both coastal and offshore BULL SHARK: shallow tropical coastal waters, estuaries and large rivers GREAT WHITE: coastal and offshore temperate waters worldwide HAMMERHEAD: temperate and subtropical waters on the continental shelf NURSE SHARK: shallow tropical reefs off the coast of West Africa and Central America SHORTFIN MAKO: offshore tropical and temperate waters worldwide TIGER SHARK: tropical and subtropical deep water around reefs THRESHER SHARK: tropical and temperate waters on the continental shelf of North America and Asia WHALE SHARK: offshore tropical and subtropical water, especially the west coast of Australia

11 11


Sharks & Ocean Predators

43

Can sharks smell blood from miles away, and if so how?

SMELL SOMETHING FISHY? Sharks have an incredible sense of smell, and can tell which direction a smell comes from with their separate nostrils.

The open-water species can detect blood at concentrations as low as one part per million, but they are even more attracted to the smell of fi sh guts. By comparing the timing of the scent’s arrival at each nostril, they can tell its direction and quickly home in on distant prey. Eyelid The eyes roll back in their sockets before the shark strikes.

44

How do sharks attack?

Only a few species of shark are solitary ambush predators – many are fi lter feeders or eat small fi sh and crustaceans on the seabed. The aggressive hunters – tiger shark, bull shark and great white – usually patrol close to the surface. They attack at dawn or dusk, when light is poor, and from above so their light-coloured bellies make them hard to spot against the sky. Some species of shark have an extra transparent eyelid (called a nictitating membrane) that can shield their eyes, but the great white does not, so it rolls its eyes back in their sockets just before its strike connects, to protect them. Very often sharks will pursue a hit-and-run technique, taking a single bite out of their prey and then retreating to allow it to bleed to death.

Great white sharks roll their eyes when they attack

12 12

45 What are the

weirdest items found in a shark? · Ladles`pujamas · A rubber tyre · A roll of chicken wire · Tar paper · A bag of potatoes · Odd shoes · A dog · A can of Spam · A shack of coal · The hear and forequarters of a cocodrile (All found in the stomachs of tiger sharks, which are the most indiscriminate feeders.)


50 facts about shark

INTERVIEW Richard Peirce

How It Works spoke to Richard Peirce, chairman of the Shark Trust, about sharks, their behaviour around humans and how many species are becoming increasingly endangered.

What activities 46 does the Shark Trust undertake? WHAT’S IN A NAME The tiger shark is named after the sand-coloured stripes on the sides of juvenile tiger sharks, which fade over time.

The Trust was founded in 1997and it was set up to advance the profi le of all families of sharks through awareness, education, legislation and policy. In recent years we have become accepted as the first stop for government departments wanting to look at fi sheries legislation.

47

Which sharks are native to the UK and are media claims of danger overblown?

TALKING TRASH The tiger shark is a potty mouth in the sense that it will eat almost anything, earning him the nickname “wastebasket of the sea”.

“Often sharks pursue a hit-an-run technique, taking a single bite out of a prey and letting it bleed to death”

My book, Sharks In British Seas, lists the 30 or so species that inhabit our native waters. There are many top-of-the-range and iconic species close to home. For example, the hammerhead is a British species; the same can be said for threshers, makos and blue sharks. A favourite of mine is also native: the porbeagle, which is a genuine mini great white…and often mistaken as one. On the area of danger to the public… there has never been a single recorded shark attack in British waters in the conventional sense. There have been shark-caused deaths and incidents, but there has been nothing like we have tragically seen in the Seychelles recently, despite us having some sharks that people would consider dangerous to man.

48

Does a shark behave differently in the presence of humans? It differs mainly from species to species and circumstance. If you are a diver on air and just chilling

out, diving along a reef, that is completely different from being with a shark in a baited situation where its feeding senses have been stimulated. So if you are chumming for sharks – a process where you put an attractant into the water to generate a scent corridor – and in a cage then they behave very differently.

is cage 49What diving about?

Cage diving is a fantastic way to see sharks… The cage has a hinged top that rests on the surface of the water. So the human jumps over the side of the boat and into the cage… They then proceed to move to the bottom of the cage, which is commonly about nine feet in depth. So the top of their head is usually only about three feet below the surface of the water… There is a rope out with some bait on it and the shark is drawn to that. The bait line is then drawn towards the cage and the shark will follow it. The boat’s operator will then say something like ‘coming in from the left’, and the cage’s occupant will then take a big draw of breath and submerge themselves for ten seconds or so, viewing the shark as it passes.

Where is the 50 best place to go cage diving?

I would say South Africa. It isn’t necessarily the place with the clearest waters, but it is affordable and it is pretty commercialised, with companies running multiple dives a day. You can do it off Britain, though; I helped set up Atlantic Divers in Newquay, Cornwall..

13 13


Sharks & Ocean Predators kilometres per hour (25 miles per hour), the velocity launches both shark and seal clear of the water in what’s known as a Polaris Attack. With jaws opening wide, the predator tries to catch its prey but this meal brings a whole new meaning to the term fast food. Seals have agility on their side and will attempt a zig-zag manoeuvre in a bid for freedom, but death comes quick this time. Rows and rows of serrated teeth bear down on the blubbery fl esh, as it’s shaken violently from side to side and, within minutes, the seal’s inanimate body is sliding down the shark’s throat, whole. In that fi rst bite, the great white shark’s sensitive taste buds can assess the energy content of its prey to see if it’s palatable. Fat and blubber are energy-rich food that sharks need to feast on, which has been proven in an experiment where sharks were tempted with carcasses of seals, pigs and sheep. The great white attacked all three but rejected the sheep, indicating fat is required to meet the high energy demands of a great white. Too low, and it won’t be worth the effort (and energy) of attacking When chasing prey, their streamlined bodies and powerful tails propel them through the water with ease,while their fi ns enable them to have effective control over their movement. The crescent-shaped caudal fi ns at the end of a shark’s body is the main propulsive structure, while the pectoral fi ns (on its sides) are for turning and braking and the infamous dorsal fi n, which can be seen poking out the water, is crucial for keeping it upright. It gives this daytime hunter an advantage while up against prey that are not only

“Despite what Hollywood would have us believe, we’re far too bony and lacking the essential nutrition a shark needs for a hearty meal” clever, but also equally adept swimmers. In addition to seals, it also eats dolphins and whales, but smaller juveniles will feast on tuna, seabirds and even sea turtles Notice how humans aren’t on the menu? Despite what Hollywood would have us believe, we’re far too bony and lacking the essential nutrition a shark needs for a hearty meal and, after a sample bite, it usually spits out its victim. But unfortunately for sharks, and the occasional swimmer,a wetsuit-clad human on the surface of the water closely resembles its normal prey. Add a surfboard to the equation and the silhouette is uncannily like a shark’s favourite dish, particularly when they are in the vicinity of their normal prey. However, once the shark has realised its error, it’s usually too late and the victim will have been claimed by blood loss or drowning. This man-eating image has largely been blamed on the 1975 movie Jaws, which portrayed them as indiscriminate killers. While a shark attack is a potential danger in marine waters, it’s worth putting this risk into perspective. As the Florida Museum LEFT Seabirds are occasionally on the menu of younger sharks, though would be too scrawny for larger adults

Why they don’t eat humans

Though we fear them, we’re not nutritional enough for a shark Attacks on humans are extremely rare; in fact, you’re more likely to get hurt on your way to the beach than you are to get bitten by a great white shark. What’s more, it’s even rarer for the attack to be fatal. In 2014, of the 72 reported shark attacks worldwide only three were lethal. Our muscle content means we don’t make a substantial meal for a great white, which needs plenty of energy that blubbery mammals like seals offer

“Thank you for not eating me!”

14

During a surfi ng event, Mick Fanning had a very close call when a great white shark misstook him for a tasty treat It was a gorgeous day at the J-Bay Open in South Africa, the waves were rolling in perfectly, and professional surfer Mick Fanning was at the top of his game. What could possibly ruin this picture? The daunting image of a shark fin emerging out of the water behind Fanning. In one of the most harrowing 30 seconds in live television, viewers watched as Fanning struggled with the shark and disappeared behind a wave. Lifeguards feared the worst and hurried to his presumed location with jetskis. The audience, including Fanning’s family and friends, were relieved when the next shot showed Fanning safe on a jetski. But what happened underwater? Well, apparently one of the most impressive showdowns between man and shark. Fanning described being dragged down by the great white and – in true “fi ght or fl ight“ fashion – punched the shark in the nose. The few punches he managed to throw were eff ective, as it confused the shark enough for Fanning make his quick getaway and get onboard the jetski. When asked what he’d do if faced with the shark again, he said he’d say: “Thank you for not eating me!”


Great white sharks Great White Sharks

The great white in numbers

25

mph

The speed a shark can reach prior to an attack to pursue and catch its prey.

05-07

The rows of teeth ready to move into a frontal position when one is lost or broken.

48

%

Shark surface attacks that actually result in successful kills.

20-30 YEARS The average lifespan of a great white in the wild.

03 tons

How much a great white can weigh up to

06 300 metres

How long they can grow.

The number of teeth a shark can have in its mouth at any one time.

25-30

CM

The amount a great white grows per year

“A great white can smell a seal colony from 2 miles away”

ABOVE Propelling itself at speeds of up to 25 miles per hour, the shark’s Polaris Attack is sudden and deadly BELOW Breaching is a technique employed frequently by great whites when hunting surface-dwelling prey

of Natural History points out, bees, wasps and snakes are responsible for far more fatalities every year and, in the United States, up to 30-times more deaths occur as a result of lightning strikes per year than from shark attacks. In reality, great whites have more in common with human serial killers than the boat-bashing, mindless opportunists of the Steven Spielberg movies. Far from killing at random, a study has shown sharks will fi nd a good hiding spot and return to it time and again, watching specifi c victims from afar until an opening presents itself. The crucial difference, however, is the motive – a shark

kills purely to eat and survive. As part of the research conducted by Neil Hammerschlag of the University of Miami, Florida, geographic profi ling (a police tool for analysing serial crime) was used to observe shark behaviour at Seal Island in False Bay, South Africa. Named for its dense Cape fur seal population, this is one instance where safety in numbers doesn’t apply. A great white can smell a seal colony from over three killometres (two miles) away thanks to its super-sensitive snout that’s covered in sensory cells. It can even hone in on faint electrical signals from hearts and gills. If you’re a living creature in the ocean, there really is nowhere to hide. These finely tuned senses are driven into a bloodthirstyfrenzy when this many fl ippers are found in one place, making Seal Island a prime spot for studying great white attacks. But rather than waiting where the seals congregate, Hammerschlag’s investigation found that larger, older sharks have well-defi ned anchor points, 100 metres (328 feet) from the seals’ entry-exit point. It’s not an ideal location for snatching prey, but he suspects it’s a balance between prey-detection, capture rates and competition. They attacked early in the morning when the light was low, when no other sharks are around and they preferred victims that were young and alone. Smaller sharks, on the other hand, didn’t have such distinct lairs and had lower success rates, suggesting either sharks refi ne their strategy with experience, or the larger specimens are purposefully excluding them from the

“It can even hone in on faint electrical signals from hearts and gills. If you’re a living creature in the ocean, there really is nowhere to hide” Shark’s eye view

There’s no reason for sharks to see us as their natural prey, so why do attacks occur? One theory is mistaken identity. Scientists have noticed that most incidents happened when water conditions were poor, so the shark may have confused a swimmer with their regular food. Another reason could be that these apex predators have nothing to fear, leading them to be incredibly curious. However, there’s no way of knowing for certain what an unknown object is without a sample bite. Human surfer

Sea turtle

Seal


SHARKs BOOK OF

& OCEAN PREDATOrs

RUTHLESS HUNTERS

You´ve seen these sharks icons in the movies, but the truth behind their hunting skulls in far more chilling

CREATURES OF THE ABYSS They’re the stalkers that haunt your nughtmares; meet the ocean predators

Deadly predators

The deep blue sea hides many beasts, including the strangest, fiercest and most adapted of sharks

THE UNEXPECTED KILLERS

Danger lurks in the unlikeliest of places, as we uncover why cute and friendly can also mean deadly

DigitalEdition I M AG I N E PUBLISHING

GreatDigitalMags.com

http://www.animalesyanimales.com

16

Profile for schz.eva

Sharks and ocean predators  

Realización de la maquetación de todo el contenido, selección de textos,  tratamiento de imágenes, es decir elegí 16 páginas de 148 y las re...

Sharks and ocean predators  

Realización de la maquetación de todo el contenido, selección de textos,  tratamiento de imágenes, es decir elegí 16 páginas de 148 y las re...

Profile for schz.eva
Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded