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Governance assessment in the field of Social inclusion Meeting with National Stakeholders #2 Skopje December 2009

Eitan Felner and Memet Memeti


What is Governance? “The process and institutions through which decision are made and authority in a country is exercised� World Bank

Governance comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences� UNDP


What is Social Exclusion? • Exclusion from social, political and economic institutions • resulting from a complex and dynamic set of processes and relationships • that prevent individuals or groups from accessing resources, participating in society and asserting their rights” (Beall & Piron, 2004).


Selected Features of SE – Both a process and outcome. – Is linked to inequalities between groups, as well as individuals. – It results from direct or indirect discrimination – It results both from government policies (of commission and omission) and from society (traditional beliefs, stigmatization, etc) – Social exclusion is multi-dimensional: it often involves economic, political, cultural, social and spatial exclusion. – Multiple deprivations often reinforce each other. – Lack of power, or unequal power relations, is at the root of every type of exclusion.


Dimensions of Exclusion Exclusion from social services -Inequalities in access to services -Inequality in human development -outcomes

Exclusion from economic life -Inequality in incomes - Inequality in employment opportunities

Exclusion from political participation -Inequalities in access to political participation and decision-making


Why focus on education and health?


Education Net completion Rate in RM (UNESCO Child Poverty Report 2005)

Net primary education completion rate (%)

Transition rate to secondary education

Urban

81.3

95.1

Rural

83.3

94.1

Poorest

61.9

91.7

Richest

99.6

97.9

Macedonian

86.6

99.7

Albanian

80.5

90.8

Roma

44.6

26.9


Health Infant Mortality Rate in Macedonia in 2007, According to Ethnic Background (State Statistical Office of RM) Macedonian Albanian Turkish Roma Vlach Serbs <5M

9

15

14,7

15,1

0

8,3

IM

8

13,4

14,2

13,1

0

7,9


HEALTH % of children aged 18-29 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases (UNESCO Child Poverty Report 2005)

Vaccinated against: BCG, DPT1, DPT2, DPT3, Polio1, Polio2, Polio3 and Measles (%)

Not vaccinated at all (%)

Urban Rural

80.4 69.5

1.5 0.3

Poorest Richest

60.1 77.1

2.8 1.2

Macedonian Albanian Roma Other ethnic group

88.3 65.0 66.4 76.2

0.9 1.0 3.4 0.0


Guiding Questions • Legal and Policy Framework • Social Inclusion and Cultural Adaptability of Education And Health Services • Decentralization • Human Resources • Financial Management • Accountability Mechanisms - General • Accountability - Complaint Mechanism • Accountability - Enforcement Mechanisms • Voice and Participation • Transparency • Monitoring, Evaluation And Research


Gov ass soc incl skopje10