Governance assessment in the field of Social inclusion Meeting with National Stakeholders #2 Skopje December 2009
Eitan Felner and Memet Memeti
What is Governance? â€œThe process and institutions through which decision are made and authority in a country is exercisedâ€? World Bank
Governance comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differencesâ€? UNDP
What is Social Exclusion? • Exclusion from social, political and economic institutions • resulting from a complex and dynamic set of processes and relationships • that prevent individuals or groups from accessing resources, participating in society and asserting their rights” (Beall & Piron, 2004).
Selected Features of SE – Both a process and outcome. – Is linked to inequalities between groups, as well as individuals. – It results from direct or indirect discrimination – It results both from government policies (of commission and omission) and from society (traditional beliefs, stigmatization, etc) – Social exclusion is multi-dimensional: it often involves economic, political, cultural, social and spatial exclusion. – Multiple deprivations often reinforce each other. – Lack of power, or unequal power relations, is at the root of every type of exclusion.
Dimensions of Exclusion Exclusion from social services -Inequalities in access to services -Inequality in human development -outcomes
Exclusion from economic life -Inequality in incomes - Inequality in employment opportunities
Exclusion from political participation -Inequalities in access to political participation and decision-making
Why focus on education and health?
Education Net completion Rate in RM (UNESCO Child Poverty Report 2005)
Net primary education completion rate (%)
Transition rate to secondary education
Health Infant Mortality Rate in Macedonia in 2007, According to Ethnic Background (State Statistical Office of RM) Macedonian Albanian Turkish Roma Vlach Serbs <5M
HEALTH % of children aged 18-29 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases (UNESCO Child Poverty Report 2005)
Vaccinated against: BCG, DPT1, DPT2, DPT3, Polio1, Polio2, Polio3 and Measles (%)
Not vaccinated at all (%)
Macedonian Albanian Roma Other ethnic group
88.3 65.0 66.4 76.2
0.9 1.0 3.4 0.0
Guiding Questions • Legal and Policy Framework • Social Inclusion and Cultural Adaptability of Education And Health Services • Decentralization • Human Resources • Financial Management • Accountability Mechanisms - General • Accountability - Complaint Mechanism • Accountability - Enforcement Mechanisms • Voice and Participation • Transparency • Monitoring, Evaluation And Research