Page 1

ISSUE 3

06 专访陈庆顺 Interview with Keith Tan

CHI NESE E N TREPRENEU R

16 以变应变 应对人力短缺 Embrace Change with Change in Face of Manpower Shortage


目录

编辑顾问

EDITORIAL ADVISORS 黄山忠 Roland Ng San Tiong 蔡其生 Thomas Chua Kee Seng 谢锦发 Chia Kim Huat 周兆呈 Zhou Zhao Cheng

CONTENTS

出版监督

PUBLICATIONS SUPERVISION 吕正扬 Lu

Cheng Yang

主编

CHIEF EDITOR 梁廷昭 Leong

06

Teng Chau

助理编辑

ASSISTANT EDITOR 明永昌 Ming

华商人物

32

Up Close

撰稿

STAFF WRITERS

Three Major Trends of Commercial Drone Industry in Singapore

Genuine Knowledge Flows From a Grasp of Human Heart: Interview with Keith Tan, Co-Founder of Dymon Asia Capital

张明亮 Larry Teo 李胜保 Lee Sin Poh 明永昌 Ming Wing Cheong 陈丁辉 Tan Teng Phee

Industry Dynamics 商用无人机产业 在新加坡的三大趋势

人情练达即学问: 专访鼎亚资本联合创办人 陈庆顺

Wing Cheong

商团动态

特约撰稿

CONTRIBUTORS

37

郑永年 Zheng Yongnian 唐子筌 Tanya Tang 郑 晰 Zheng Xi

16

行销

MARKETING 黄兆荣 Leonardo

Wong

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Spirit of Loyalty SCCCI and Singapore’s Citizenship Movement

Embrace Change with Change in Face of Manpower Shortage

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Focus

以变应变 应对人力短缺

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PUBLISHER 新加坡中华总商会

Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry 9 Jurong Town Hall Road #04-01 Trade Association Hub Jurong Town Hall Singapore 609431 Tel: (65) 6337 8381 Fax: (65) 6339 0605 E-mail: corporate@sccci.org.sg Website: www.sccci.org.sg

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Chinese Entrepreneur is produced and designed by Media Group Pte Ltd (Registration No. 200105565G) for Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry (Registration No. S61550014E). Copyright of the materials contained in this publication belongs to SCCCI. Nothing in here shall be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written consent of SCCCI and/or Media Group Pte Ltd. The views expressed in Chinese Entrepreneur by authors and contributors are not necessarily those of SCCCI and no liabilities shall be attached thereto. All rights reserved. Editorial enquiries should be directed to the Editor, Chinese Entrepreneur, Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry, 9 Jurong Town Hall Road, #04-01, Trade Association Hub, Jurong Town Hall, Singapore 609431. Tel: (65) 6337 8381 Fax: (65) 6339 0605 E-mail: research@ sccci.org.sg. Unsolicited material will not be returned unless accompanied by a self-addressed envelope and sufficient return postage. While every reasonable care will be taken by the Editor, no responsibility is assumed for the return of unsolicited material. MCI (P) 121/09/2018. Printed by KHL Printing Co Pte Ltd (Registration No. 197801823M).

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华商人物 | U p C l o s e

人情练达即学问 专访鼎亚资本联合创办人陈庆顺

GENUINE KNOWLEDGE FLOWS FROM A GRASP OF HUMAN HEART INTERVIEW WITH KEITH TAN, CO-FOUNDER OF DYMON ASIA CAPITAL

06

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


U p C l o s e | 华商人物

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

07 5


华商人物 | U p C l o s e

身小贩家庭、自幼在菜市场中

SMEs, and loves to engage with

长大,陈庆顺深刻体会对创

businessmen, all of which paves the

业家、中小企业的艰辛,享受和企业家接

way for his successful investment

触交流,为他日后在投资界的成就埋下伏

career in future. After working for

笔。在银行业工作十多年后,他和老同学

more than 10 years in banking, he

重燃创业热忱,联合创办鼎亚资本,在仅

partnered with his old schoolmate,

仅十年内发展为管理超过60亿元资产的投

re-ignited

资机构。身处事业顶峰的他不忘初心,如

entrepreneurship

今主管私募股权投资,热爱走访商界,聆

Dymon Asia Capital, which in only 10

听创业心声,规划制胜之道。

years, develops into an investment firm

the

passion and

for

co-founded

that manages more than S$6 billion

B

family

assets. Notwithstanding the tremendous

and raised up in wet market,

success, his passion remains, and while

Keith Tan empathises deeply with

managing the private equity arm in

the hardships of entrepreneurs and

the firm, Keith enjoys staying close to

orn

into

a

hawker

the ground, listening to the stories of entrepreneurs and helping SMEs to craft their roadmap to success.

从一名银行职员到创办自己的 投资管理机构,您经历哪些方 面的成长? 作为银行职员,一旦事情出错,最终 还是由机构负担损失;而在企业,我必须 学习作重大决定,这些决定将影响许多人 的生计。第二,我也从创业中获得机会去 决定和建设企业文化。例如在鼎亚资本, 我们的文化标语是“赢得正当”。那是因 为明章和我都曾经是运动员,我们都求胜 心切,但同时也不断提醒自己必须遵守规 则,不踏入灰色地带,不妥协原则,尊重 竞争对手和合作伙伴。

08

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


U p C l o s e | 华商人物

From being a bank employee to founding your own investment firm, how have you grown?

还在三岁就被他们带去菜市场,方便父母照 顾。同样的,从草根起步的经历,使我可以 理解许多企业家的挑战。如今当我和企业家

As an employee, the bank is always

接洽时,这些经验都很有用。我常开自己玩

there to bear the losses whenever

笑说,过去的平凡,反而造就了今日的优势。

things go wrong. Whereas when you are running your own business, you are trained to make critical decisions, which affect the livelihood of many people.

What is the biggest strength that you see in yourself as an investor?

Secondly, founding Dymon Asia allows

I believe my biggest edge is that I am

me to have the chance to craft the culture

also an entrepreneur myself. It was very

of the firm. One of our culture statements

difficult, from being a salaried worker

is to “win right”. As Danny and I were

to founding Dymon Asia. We started

both sportsmen in our younger days, we

just before the start of the Lehman

always wanted to win as we are highly

Financial Crisis in 2008, operated from

competitive individuals, yet we constantly

a small shophouse in Mohamed Sultan

remind ourselves that we must win right,

Road, where the rental was only $1,300

and this includes playing within the rule,

per month and bought used furniture.

not venturing into the grey areas, not

Therefore, I can empathise the hardship

compromising on our value systems and

and challenges entrepreneurs go through.

respecting our competitors and partners.

We speak the same language. Secondly, I came from a very humble

作为一名投资者,您认为自己最大的强项是什么?

background, my parents were vegetable hawkers in a wet market in Geylang Serai,

我相信自己最大的强项在于我本身也

and they brought me to the market since

是企业家。从一名受薪职员到出来创办鼎亚

I was three. Starting from the bottom,

资本是极其艰难的,我们是在2008年雷曼兄

again, allows me to understand all the

弟倒闭及金融危机爆发前夕创办,在莫罕默

difficulties a lot of entrepreneurs faced.

苏丹路一家小店屋起步,当时的月租才1300

This experience has come in handy

元,买的是二手家具。经历这些,我对企业

as it allows me to connect with them

家的艰难能感同身受,可以和他们有效沟通。

better. I have often joked that my humble

第二是我来自一个很平凡的家庭。我

background, ironically, puts me in an

的父母是芽笼士乃菜市场里的蔬菜小贩,我

advantage position now.

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

09


华商人物 | U p C l o s e

作为私募基金经理,及以您投资亚洲中小企业的丰 富经验,您如何鉴定中小企业及其领导的素质? 中华总商会的黄山忠会长经常谈到诚 信,对我来说这是传统的亚洲企业家身上一 个很重要的特性。只要他们承诺,就会能够 做到——即使没有白纸黑字记录下来。这种 诚信、信用让我非常享受和他们打交道。 我欣赏的另一点是热诚、耐力和决 心——你必须真正地了解创业的艰难: 大多 数企业是从零开始,起初没有获得银行太多 支持,还得和跨国企业及政联公司竞争;还 有,邻国企业还要面对许多政治挑战。我对 企业家一直非常敬佩,因为创业要成功,必 须要有热忱、决心和对自己坚信不移。

As a manager of private equity arm and being specialised in investing Asian SMEs, what qualities in SMEs and their leaderships do you value most? SCCCI President Roland Ng always speaks about integrity. To me, this is a

understand the hardship involved in

very important characteristic of many

starting up a new business. Most of these

Asian traditional entrepreneurs. Once

businesses start from zero, don’t have

they promised something, they will

much support from the banks initially,

attempt to deliver, even those things are

need to compete with the MNCs and GLCs,

not documented in black-and-white. The

and those in our neighbouring countries

integrity, credibility and trustworthiness

even have to go through many political

of the Asian entrepreneurs make my job

challenges and hurdles. I always have a

a lot more enjoyable.

huge respect for entrepreneurs because it

The other is the passion, perseverance and determination – you really need to

10

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

takes a lot of passion, determination and self-belief in order to succeed.


U p C l o s e | 华商人物

随着经济的转型,许多传统企业面对转型的压力。 私募股权投资如何在这个过程中扮演它的角色, 以促进传统企业升级,获得新生?

这个基金投了许多新兴技术公司。这也是我 们可以和旗下被投资企业分享的资源。 接着是谈战略进步。这是从中长期 来说对企业有益的部分,例如扩展区域业

普遍来说,我们可以在两个方面贡

务、人才栽培、职员的股权激励、合并与

献:第一是推动运营进步,第二是推动战略

收购等。拿合并和收购来说:许多中小企

进步。运营进步是指提升企业每天的运作程

业都了解其中的好处,想通过这个途径来

序。由于资源有限,大多中小企业很自然地

成长,但不知道怎么做——可能不懂如何

把资源用在推动销售,因为这是企业的生

找对象、不好意思和同行谈判、不知道条

命线。不过,其他的运营功能,例如人力资

款清单应该加入什么、不会做尽职调查、

源、财务、研发、品牌和技术也同样重要。

不懂要哪些法律条款,这是都我们可以帮

例如许多企业都没有按时做财务报告,但这

助的。另一方面是企业的传承:50%的企

是很重要的,因为我们活在一个商业环境急

业还有第二代接手,另外50%则没那么幸

剧变化的时代,你很可能一个月赚钱,下个

运,得聘请专业经理人来管理。我们可以

月却亏钱。手握最新的财务报告,有助于及

帮助这类企业寻找合适的经理人,或是买

时作出重要决策。

家——如果他们打算出售。我们也经常协

企业家都明白这些运营功能是重要

助企业扩展区域业务。新加坡政府向来都

的,但是因为成本考量,他们无法在这方面

鼓励中小企业走出去,但需要大量资本、

投入充足资源。所以,鼎亚资本经常会将内

时间和精力。为了帮助他们节省时间、降

部资源借给这些企业,让他们在无需耗费巨

低成本,我们可以把全球和区域的关系网

额的情况下提升能力。最近我们就聘请了

络、资源和技术诀窍借给他们使用,并通

来自IBM的一位数码营销专才,帮助中小企

过英国、日本、香港、泰国、马来西亚的

业驾驭新社交媒体世界,例如Youtube、

办公室来帮助他们。

面簿、Instagram等平台。今天要聘请这样 的人才不容易,对中小企业来说更是难以负 荷,但是由鼎亚资本来聘请,并和所有我们 旗下的被投资企业分享这个人才,就非常有 经济效益。 此外,技术的升级和改变是其中一个 使企业担忧的方面,但他们可能没有充足资 金或知识去投资和发展技术能力。在鼎亚资 本,我们已经投资在人工智能、精算、网络 安全以及成立一个内部的投资基金,并通过

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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华商人物 | U p C l o s e

As the economy transform, many traditional businesses face pressure to transform. How can private equity play a role in this process so that traditional businesses may get an uplift and a new life?

to the companies, so that we can help them to improve but yet they need not necessarily have to incur too much of additional costs. For example, we have recently hired a digital marketing person

Broadly, there are two aspects which

from IBM, where he helped SMEs to

we typically contribute. One is the

understand how to navigate better in

operational improvement, and the other

the new social media world such as

is strategic improvement.

Youtube, Facebook, Instagram, etc. Not

Operational improvement is about

only it is difficult to hire such a person

enhancing what you do in the day-

now, it may be too expensive for a SME

in-day-out basis. Because of limited

to individually enlist the services of such

resources, most SMEs naturally allocate

a resource. However, when we hire at

their resources to generating sales

Dymon level and we share this resource

because this is the lifeline of businesses.

among all our portfolio companies, then

However, other operational functions like

it makes more economical sense.

human resource, finance, R&D, brand

Also,

technological

advancement

development and technology are equally

and changes are probably one of the

important. For instance, many SMEs may

things which worry a lot of companies.

not have timely and regular financial

However, they may not have the

reports. This is important, especially in

financial ability or the knowledge

a volatile business environment where

to invest in the various technology

we are in now, as you could be making

capabilities. Within Dymon, we have

profits in a month, but suffering losses in

invested in AI, quant, cybersecurity

the next. Thus, having up-to-date financial

and also has an in-house Venture

reports allow you to make timely and

Capital

critical business decisions.

numerous new technology companies.

Entrepreneurs are actually aware such operational functions are important.

12

lend our internal resources in Dymon

Fund

which

invests

in

Similarly, these are resources we can share with our investee companies.

However, due to cost concerns, they may

Then we move on to strategic initiatives,

not be in a position to invest in these

which are more medium to long term,

functions. Thus, very often, we will

rather than day-to-day issues. These

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


U p C l o s e | 华商人物

include succession, regional expansion, talent development, employees’ stock options and incentives, mergers & acquisitions (M&A), etc. Take for example,

什么因素使你和杨明章在创办鼎亚资本时 如此顺利?你们从一开始建立团队至今, 抱着怎样的理念?

M&A. Many SMEs understand the

从在南洋商学院念书至今,我认识明章

benefits and want to grow through M&A

共25年了。我们都是来自低收入的家庭,在

but they don’t know how to. Some say they

大学第二年我们对彼此承诺:如果哪一天他

do not know how to identify M&A targets,

创业了,必须邀请我;如果我先创业,也必

some are too shy to negotiate terms with

须邀请他。但时机还没到,因为毕业后我们

their peers, not sure what to include in the

都得打工养家。一直到15年后,也就是2008

term sheet, how to do the due diligence,

年,我们才觉得时候到了。

what legal clauses should be included,

在创业前,我们花了6个月坐下来讨论

etc. This is our rice bowl and thus, we can

正确的商业模式和企业文化。我们想要双方

help them. Another area we have helped is on business succession. About 50% of businesses may have younger generation to take over, while the other 50% may not be as fortunate and have to look for professional managers or plan what to do with their businesses. We will work with them to identify and screen for suitable professional managers or even buyers for their businesses when they decide to exit. The other aspect that we often render our help is in regional expansion. Singapore government has rightfully been encouraging our SMEs to venture out, but this involves a lot of capital, time and effort… We try to reduce the time and risk for the businesses by lending our regional and global network, resources and knowhow and leveraging on our offices in UK, Japan, Hong Kong, Thailand and Malaysia.

陈庆顺(左)与杨明章(右)毕业自南大商学院时合影。

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

13


华商人物 | U p C l o s e

理念一致,以免因为一盘生意影响友谊。首

so that we can start contributing to the

先,我们同意要建立“赢得正当”的企业文

household income. It was only about 15

化,这在之前提过了。第二,我们想建立一

years later, in 2008 when we felt it was the

个让人才发光、建立成功事业的平台。这不

right time to start.

是一个我们两人说了算的家族企业,而是人

Prior to starting the business, we spent

才都可以长期在此发挥所长、发掘潜力甚至

about 6 months discussing the right

成为业主的一个平台。多年来,我们也一直

business culture and model we wanted to

在对核心高管进行股权激励,并打算坚持做

build. We wanted to ensure we have the

下去,因为我们认为这是吸引、激励和留顶

same thinking as we did not want this

尖人才的最佳方法。

business venture to affect our friendship.

我相信明章和我能够顺利合作,是因为

We agreed we wanted a culture of “Winning

拥有相同的价值观。这为我们的合作关系打

right”, which is something I elaborated in

下坚实的基础。此外,交情久、拥有相似的

the beginning of this interview. Secondly,

家庭背景大有帮助;而我们一开始就针对业

we wanted Dymon to be a platform

务理念坦诚交流,也非常有益。况且,我们

whereby the best talents can excel and

在最坏的时期——2008年金融危机爆发之前

build successful careers. It is not meant to

的两个月开始合作,给我们的伙伴关系作了

be a business between Danny and myself,

一次严格测试,并强化了它。

but instead, it is a platform where the best talents can fully exploit and realize their

What makes you and Danny Yong successful partner in founding Dymon? What is Dymon’s philosophy in building a strong team since the beginning? I have known Danny for 25 years now, since we were students in Nanyang

14

potential and over time, can even become owners of the business. Over the years, we have given shares to several key managers and we intend to continue doing this as we feel this is the best way to attract, motivate and retain the best talents.

Business School. We both came from

I believe one of the key reasons why

humble families and in our second year

Danny and myself can be such strong

in university, we have a pact that one

partners is because of our common

day if he were to start a business, he

value systems. This has formed a very

must invite me; and similarly, if I were to

strong foundation for our partnership. In

start a business, I must invite him. Upon

addition, knowing each other since young

graduation, the option to start a business

and having similar family backgrounds

was not there as we needed to find a job

help, also, having a genuine conversation

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


U p C l o s e | 华商人物

on what kind of business we wanted to

会,明章和我都出身草根家庭,我们很感

build, as I mentioned above, helped a lot

恩在人生中获得许多机会。六年前,公司

too. Ironically, starting during the worst

开始聘请了一位全职员工,专门做好企业

time – about 2 months before the Lehman

社会责任(CSR)项目,让鼎亚资本以更

crisis in 2008, actually put our partnership

具针对性、贯彻性的方法来回馈社会。我

to a real test and as a result, have made the

现在也是黄丝带基金的副主席。

partnership stronger.

达到了不俗的事业成就,您对于未来—— 或生活或事业,有什么新展望? 我曾经和许多中小企业打交道,希望

Having achieved successful entrepreneurship, what do you look forward to progress, be it in career or in life?

分享这些经验,来给新创企业和年轻企业

Having dealt with a lot of businesses,

家提供指导。每当有企业家想要和我喝咖

I hope that I can share my experience

啡,我都会尽量抽空赴会。另外是回馈社

by coaching and mentoring new businesses and young entrepreneurs. Whenever there is an entrepreneur who wants to have a coffee with me, I will try my best to allocate my time to meet him or her. Second is giving back. Coming from humble families, Danny and myself are very grateful for the opportunities given to us in our lives so far. About 6 years ago, Dymon recruited a full-time person to focus fully on our CSR initiatives so that we can adopt a more targeted and consistent approach. I am currently also the Vice Chairman of the Yellow Ribbon Fund.

在履行企业社会责任方面,鼎亚资本致力于发展学生品格。

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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热点专题 | F o c u s

以变应变 应对人力短缺 新

加坡面临生育率下降、人口老化问 题,再加上政府收紧对外籍劳工引

进政策,劳动力市场持续吃紧。从建筑业 到餐饮业、零售业到制造业,劳工短缺将 对中小企业影响深远,如果坐视不理,甚 至会影响工程进度、产品出口、服务素质 和企业经营,并导致成本激增,对经济产 生负面影响。

扩大输入外劳并非长远之计,因此政 府在过去多年来试图通过其他不同手段解 决这一难题,例如鼓励企业引入自动化科 技,以降低人手需求,并延长退休年龄, 鼓励企业聘请年长员工。政府也鼓励国人 通过重新培训学习新技能,以提升竞争 力,并具备适应新挑战的能力。 本期热点专题,我们专访三位来自 不同领域的企业总裁,看他们如何以变应 变,应对人力短缺问题。

16

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F o c u s | 热点专题

混凝土外、钢铁或木材等其他建材,都可 以在室内环境预制。 白连源说,将部分施工步骤从工地搬 到工厂,还有另一好处,就是吸引更多本 地人加入建筑业。 “许多人都不愿意长时间在地盘工 作,又累又脏,日晒雨淋。但如果是在工 厂里设计、制造和组装建材,专业技术含 量更高,会有更多本地人愿意尝试。” 新加坡力图将建筑业转型成为高科 技领域,为年轻新加坡人创造更多工作岗 位。为此,政府在2017年颁布建筑业产业 转型蓝图,目标是在2025年为建筑业培养

长成控股总裁

白连源

出8万个高技能人才。 除了预制建材,需要高技能的领域

建筑业有没有可能 不再依赖外劳? 新加坡的建筑业长期以来高度依赖低 技术外劳,但面对周边国家建筑业蓬勃发 展,以及外劳输出国自身的发展,引进外劳 已不像过去那样容易,成本也越来越高。 对此,长成控股总裁白连源认为,传

还包括集成式数码传输科技的运用,将设 计、审核、工程预算等业务纳入同一个系 统,方便建筑师、工程师及承包商等在这 个平台上沟通和协调。 此外,建设局自2015年起也规定,所 有5000平方米以上的建筑项目,须采用建 筑信息模型提交建筑及工程蓝图。这项技术

统的一砖一瓦盖房子的模式必须改变,改用 装配的方式可以大大节省人工和时间成本。 他说: “关键是如何从传统建筑业转型 成为‘制造建筑业’。建筑材料尽可能在工 厂制造,在运往地盘组装。” 以混凝土为例,向来是在工地现 场制模、浇注,但如果改用precast concrete。是在工厂生产混凝土预制件, 再运往工地组装,更加省时、省力。除了

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

用装配的方式盖房子可以大大节省人工和时间成本。

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热点专题 | F o c u s

透过三维资讯系统整合各工程设计及施工

步调低至35%。S准证的比率顶限也将从现有

图,令施工更协调,资源运用更妥善,还可

的15%逐渐调低至10%。员工难请,生意难

减少不必要的工程损耗、错漏及翻工。

做,让餐饮业者大吐苦水,有些干脆结业收

白连源说,政府和业界多年来就如何 提高生产力及减少依赖外劳,展开了深入

场。许多消费者也发现有不少餐馆侍应生忙 不过来,本地餐饮服务的整体质量变差。

的探讨。他认为,各项鼓励本地人从事建

对此,政府鼓励餐馆转以科技取代部分

筑业的措施,包括颁发奖学金和职业培训

人手,“机器人炒菜”、“无人机上菜”等

等,已初显成效。他相信,建筑业转型成

实验性计划开始上路。以新加坡知名餐饮集

功指日可待。

团珍宝为例,从中央厨房到门店、从厨房到 楼面、从顾客订座、点餐到外卖,到供应商 送货等,各个环节无不见到科技的身影。 自动化设备是中央厨房未来的发展方 向。珍宝餐饮集团首席执行官兼执行主席黄 建铭指出,许多繁琐的工作,例如切菜、腌 肉等,都可以以机器代劳。科技让烹饪效率 更高,但如何管控品质,确保机器人做菜不 输真人大厨,则是不断研发和试验的成果。 以煲汤为例,利用科技精准控温以把握火 候,再通过先进的速冻保鲜技术储存,即使 不是现煲现卖,汤头依然保持鲜甜。 此外,让顾客采用智能系统点餐和订

透过三维资讯系统整合各工程设计及施工图,令施工更协调,资源运用更妥善。

座,不但可以减轻前线服务员的工作量和压 力,还可以增加点菜的效率,降低出错率和 漏单的情况发生。 黄建铭说:“以前是侍应生记下顾客点

科技无法取代的 才是价值更高的工作

的菜,然后到厨房通知厨师准备。但现在顾

餐饮业向来是新加坡打工族抗拒的行

少侍应生的工作。同样地,网上订座也省下

业。然而,政府一再收紧外劳配额,最新的

18

客自己用系统点菜,信息直接送往厨房,减 员工接电话的时间。”

财政预算案更宣布将服务业的客工比率顶限

有些人认为科技化会导致服务失去人

从目前的40%降至明年的38%, 2021年进一

情味,但在黄建铭看来未必如此。科技只是

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


F o c u s | 热点专题

取代了那些费事费劲的工作,而腾出了更 多时间让侍应生为顾客提供更好的服务。而 且,随着部分工作被科技取代,餐饮服务从 业员应该在工作量减轻的同时,享有更高 工资。“因为剩下的正是科技无法取代的工 作,你的存在价值更高。” 科技的运用,将原本繁琐的工作变得更 轻松,这也意味着更多工作也适合年长员工 担任。以珍宝为例,本地前线员工当中,近 八成是55岁以上的年长员工。聘请年长员工 也是应付人力需求的重要手段。除了重新设 计工作岗位外,集团也不断改进工作流程, 让上了年纪的员工可以继续工作。

许多繁琐的工作,例如切菜、腌肉等,都可以以机器代劳。

利用先进的速冻保鲜技术储存食物,让食物保持新鲜。

珍宝餐饮集团首席执行官兼执行主席

黄建铭

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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热点专题 | F o c u s

Sunseap是新加坡的太阳能发电系统供应商。

中途转业者 新兴领域生力军 新加坡政府在2016年推出高达45亿元

Sunseap集团总裁

潘凌峰

的产业转型计划,以协助本地企业顺应宏 观经济环境的迅速变化,创造出更多价值和 增长渠道。在加速淘汰或改革落后行业的同

Sunseap集团总裁潘凌峰说:“根据

时,培养新兴领域人才,使其具备市场所需

我们的观察,加入我们的中途专业者当中,

的技能也至关重要。其中一个方法是协助中

绝大部分都很乐意将自己的知识和宝贵经验

途转业者顺利转换跑道,加入新兴领域,为

与他人分享,也很热心于帮助和指导那些比

这些领域增添人手。

他们资历浅的同事。他们工作认真,对自己

为了应对气候变化,减少对化石燃料来

20

培训,辅助他们转换跑道。

负责的工作任务有责任感。”

源的依赖,世界各国政府正在加紧努力发展

但与此同时,潘凌峰也发现,少数中途

其清洁能源技术,新加坡也不例外。政府计

转业者比较抗拒改变,只愿意专注在自己熟

划在2020年以前,显著增加新加坡太阳能的

悉的领域,掌握新技能较慢。

使用量,从目前的60兆峰瓦提高至350兆峰

潘凌峰指出,作为一家财力有限的中小

瓦。因此,具备能源管理能力的人才需求也

型企业,政府辅助企业聘用及培训中途转业

将随之增加。

者加入这一行业,对企业而言帮助很大。除

作为新加坡最大及最早成立的清洁能源

了参加专业人士转业计划外,企业也可以利

供应商,Sunseap集团也响应了政府的专业

用政府给予的多项补贴,用于聘用及培训中

人士转业计划,给那些想中途转行加入能源

途转业者。这不但为中途转业者解决就业问

管理业的专业人士,提供为期三个月的在职

题,也是新兴领域培养生力军的重要渠道。

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


V o i c e o f S M E s | S M E 心声

串通操纵价格后果严重 检视商业行为减低违法风险 去

年9月,13家鲜鸡批发商串通操

令禁止他们继续进行任何可能触犯竞争法

纵鲜鸡价格的新闻震惊社会。

的行为。对于竞消委的决定,目前有五家

原来,早从2007年开始,这些批发商就经

鲜鸡经销商提出上诉。

常交换价格信息,以便在同一时期提高鲜

2010年,14家电气及建筑公司也被

鸡价格,并约定不相互争夺对方的顾客。

告。竞消委发现这些公司在2007年和2009

据新加坡竞争与消费者委员会(竞消委)

年之间,共同操纵了10个电气和建筑工程

调查,在长达七年的时间里,鲜鸡价格被

项目的投标。一般而言,A公司会将投标报

这些不法批发商抬高多达七次。竞消委向

价告知另一家B公司,并要求B公司以更高

他们开出了将近2700万新元的罚款,并勒

的报价投标同一个项目,以便造成竞争的

新加坡立杰 有限责任合伙 律师事务所 合伙人

唐子筌

新加坡立杰 有限责任合伙 律师事务所 律师

郑晰

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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S M E 心声 | V o i c e o f S M E s

假象,也让A公司赢得投标项目。作为回 报,A公司也会在B公司的要求下以同样的

了解竞争法 让自己处于优势 不过,从正面看,竞争法可以确保所

方式帮助B公司赢得其他投标项目,达成双

有企业通过自己的长处公平竞争,不受反竞

赢的局面。这样的行为显然违反竞争法,

争行为的迫害。例如,竞争法禁止具有市场

于是竞消委对这14家公司处以18万新元的

支配能力的企业通过诸如拒绝供应,与客户

罚款。当局考虑到案件发生在新加坡引入

或供应商达成独家协议,或与其他规模强大

竞争法后不久,而涉案公司都是中小型企

的竞争对手合并,从而大幅度减少市场竞

业,酌情开出较低的罚款金额。

争,来强化其市场地位。

以上两起案件都牵涉中小型企业,都

通过了解竞争法,中小型企业可以让

是在竞消委接到知情人士的线报后展开调

自己处于优势,因为一旦发现竞争对手作出

查。据悉,新加坡还有不少其他涉及中小

反竞争行为,就可以向监管机构投诉,并要

型企业违反竞争法的案例,违法的企业包

求调查。它们也可以提高警惕,对业务中任

括发糕生产商、女佣代理公司、害虫控制

何可能具有反竞争性的行为,采取必要的预

公司等 。

防或补救措施。

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华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


V o i c e o f S M E s | S M E 心声

预防违法 企业可以为管理层和员工,特别是销售 和面对竞争对手的员工,制定一份简单的行为 准则,并定期为管理层和员工举办培训活动, 以提高他们对于竞争法的认知。进行培训的目 的不是让员工成为法律专家,而是让他们对竞 争法有基本的了解,知道该做什么、不该做什

三个简单步骤 停止反竞争行为 竞争法看似复杂,不少商家担心自己已经违 法,或不知道自己是否违法,该怎么办?以下三个

么,以及如何应对涉及竞争对手的常见情况。 如此一来,犯法的风险可以降低。

简单步骤,也许能帮得上忙: 纠正问题 当发现确实有违法行为时,应提早采取

评估风险 竞争法看似复杂,但只要多加留意,避免与

必要的补救措施。虽然这些措施不能让违法的

竞争对手进行不恰当的讨论,就可以减低违法的风

企业免于罪责,但竞消委可能会酌情处理,例

险。企业可以根据以下由国际商会(ICC)中小型企

如降低罚款金额。

业工具包提供的清单,评估自己是否遵从竞争法: 您的员工是否知道,与竞争对手讨论价格、 数量、客户或地区可能违法? 如果竞争对手与您的员工进行非法讨论,员 工是否知道如何应对?您是否已就应对方式 给予员工指导? 当您派员工出席商务活动时,您是否已确保 员工了解竞争法,并提醒员工避免与竞争对 手进行不恰当的讨论? 您的企业是否已采取适当措施预防违法? 就以上几个问题,如果有任何答案是 “否定” ,那么您的企业存在严重违反竞争行为风 险,应当及时反应,纠正问题。

“由于对竞争法缺乏认知,许 多中小型企业往往会在无意间 或不知情的情况下触犯法规。 中小型企业规模较小,经常会 加入行业协会或与竞争对手频 密交流,而在跟竞争对手接触 时作出了违法的行为。”

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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中华脉搏 | C h i n a B e a t

CHINA’S OPENDOOR POLICY 4.0

BRINGS NEW OPPORTUNITIES

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华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


C h i n a B e a t | 中华脉搏

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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中华脉搏 | C h i n a B e a t

S

ince its launch in 1978, China’s

concerning wealth distribution in Europe

open-door policy has undergone

and the United States have led to social

four distinct phases of progression. After

divisions. As a result, trade protectionism

the Chinese Communist Party held its

and economic nationalism began to rear

18th National Congress in 2012, a series

their heads, running against the trend

of measures were rolled out, not only to

of globalisation. China on the contrary

“welcome in” foreign investments but also

vigorously

to encourage China’s capital to “go abroad”,

globalisation. During the Davos World

marking China’s Open-Door Policy 4.0.

Economic Forum and Boao Forum of Asia,

In recent years, growing problems

advocates

even

greater

President Xi Jinping reaffirmed China’s commitment to continuously push for globalisation. Meanwhile China also quickened its pace in opening its market to the world. Although some people believe China has to “open up” more due to pressures from the US, Beijing might in fact be acting on its own accord while harnessing the forces of change in the external environment. Apparently greater “opening up” is an imperative for China to develop sustainably. The latest initiative involves building a world-class economic megaplatform that includes the GuangdongHong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area (GBA), amending laws on foreign investment, enforcing intellectual property protection, and reducing import tariffs.

PROFESSOR ZHENG YONGNIAN

Director of East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore

China’s open-door policy can be traced to the late 1970s when the country was under Hua Guofeng. Although some criticised it as a “rash leap forward”, it

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华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


C h i n a B e a t | 中华脉搏

reflected China’s urgency to open its door.

let in foreign investments. As Western

In 1978 China officially entered the

investors were still highly suspicious of

“open-door” era. Placing “open up” and

China at that point, the first to venture in

domestic reforms in equivalent positions

were the overseas Chinese, including from

shows the importance of the former.

Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and Singapore.

However, “open up” was no easy matter as China’s economic development then was stuck at low levels and capital was in dire shortage.

MORE CHANGES TO ATTRACT FOREIGN INVESTMENTS

Due to the lack of capital, China

If “welcome in” was Open Door Policy

implemented the “welcome in” policy,

1.0, “link up with the world”, which began

taking the initiative to open its door and

in the early 1990s, was the 2.0 edition.

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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中华脉搏 | C h i n a B e a t

miracles in a number of aspects, such as China’s attainment of double-digit growths over an extended period. China has also leapt in a short time to become the world’s second largest economy and the nation with the largest trade volume and highest foreign reserve. But in terms of “opening up”, the most important change was its transformation from a capital-deficient economy to one with surplus capital. Hence, China’s capital began to “go abroad”. This “going abroad” of capital represents China’s Open Door 3.0. Comprising state-owned and private ones, the Chinese capital that moved The official affirmation of the concept

out was basically no different from the

of “Socialist Market Economy” during

capitals of other countries, as it tended

the 14th Congress in 1992 injected

to flow to places where there were

vigour into China’s open-door policy. In

profits to be made. What differed was

order to gain admission into the World

that most of the economic spaces had

Trade Organisation, China voluntarily

already been taken up by its Western

implemented measures for the “link up”,

counterpart, leaving it to head for

by amending its own laws and policies to

places where economic conditions were

match international requirements.

not so ideal, including areas rocked by

After joining the WTO in 2001, China saw a massive influx of Western investments and quickly became the world’s manufacturing base, seamlessly

28

political instability or frequent wars.

CONTEST FOR HIGH-QUALITY CAPITAL

integrating China’s labour and land

After the 18th Congress, China’s

factor with capital and technology

Open Door 4.0 began to take shape.

from the West. This spawned economic

This version is a systematic and

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


C h i n a B e a t | 中华脉搏

directly related to China’s sustainable development. “Go abroad” without “welcome in” will make it impossible to maintain domestic economic growth. On the international plane, China’s sustainable development is its largest contribution to the world economy. For many years after it joined the WTO, China’s contribution made up organic merger of both the key features

more than 40 per cent of the world’s

of “welcome in” and “go abroad”.

economic growth. Since the 18th

In the case of “go abroad”, investments

Congress, although China’s economy

were relatively piecemeal and uncoordinated

has slowed down, that contribution has

in the past. However, things changed

still come up to 30 per cent. Initiatives

with the introduction of the Belt and Road

ranging from the free trade experiment

Initiative (BRI). This methodical plan has

zones, the free trade port experiment

greater dynamics because it combines

zones to the building of the GBA could

China’s surplus

be considered illustrations of this effort.

capital,

production

capacities and the skill it possesses in infrastructure development. China’s demonstrated

own

experience

that

has

infrastructure

development is vital to economic development. In fact, infrastructure is also the precondition for developments in other aspects. Most of the countries along the Belt and Road routes are developing ones, with many even in under-development. The emphasis of the BRI on infrastructure development is likely to benefit these countries. On the other hand, “welcome in” is

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

29


中华脉搏 | C h i n a B e a t

raise

be avoided, economic contest is the

competitiveness is also part of the

best form of contention as this will lead

“welcome in”. Today, the contest for

to a win-win situation. Military and

high-quality capital and technologies

strategic contests are the worst kind,

has grown intense. The West’s resort

often leading to conflicts and even war.

to protectionism and nationalism is

In view of this, China does not fear

not to put themselves in isolation, but

tussling economically with the US.

to attract the return of high-quality

What is more important is that in the

capital and technologies. For China, if

current Sino-US trade dispute, as long

rivalry between big countries cannot

as China does not close its own door, no

China’s

30

aspiration

to

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


C h i n a B e a t | 中华脉搏

country could shut it up, nor could it

with the times. However, when re-

be blockaded or contained. By building

writing the rules, China cannot be the

a world-class economic platform, China

only arbiter. The work must be done

could attract high-quality capital and

through multilateral efforts. In the

technologies from the West while

era of Open Door 4.0, China has found

averting containment by the latter.

another new undertaking – that in the realm of rule setting.

SETTING NEW TRADE RULES

On the one hand, China fills up the gaps in the existing international rules

In the early years of opening up, the

through multi-party mechanisms such as

size of China’s domestic economy was

the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank

small, and a few projects were enough

and the BRI. On the other, China hopes to

to produce economic growth. However,

discover and deepen free trade rules by

given its current bulk, China is no

building a mega platform at home. This

longer a “project-based economy”. It

is especially true in the case of the GBA.

needs a far larger economic platform or

The building of the European Union has

market. Developing the Beijing-Tianjin-

not only fuelled its own development,

Hebei Metropolitan Region, the Yangtze

but also the development of the world’s

Economic Belt and the GBA are all part

free trade system. China’s building of

and parcel of building a mega-market

the GBA is not only for developing that

economic platform.

region, but also to explore the system of

Building a world-class economic

regional free trade. If this is successful, it

platform also implies world trade rules

is also a great contribution to the world

could be recast. China has chosen to

trade system.

first “connect” with the world’s system and then revamp the unreasonable

(This article is excerpted and translated from a

rules from within. This does not mean

commentary by Professor Zheng Yongnian, director of

China wants to rectify and alter the

East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore.

existing rules to suit its own interests.

It was first published in Lianhe Zaobao, Singapore’s

It only means the rules must evolve

Chinese newspaper on March 12, 2019.)

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

31


商团动态 | I n d u s t r y D y n a m i c s

32

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


I n d u s t r y D y n a m i c s | 商团动态

THREE MAJOR TRENDS OF COMMERCIAL DRONE INDUSTRY IN SINGAPORE The expanding use of drones today for commercial purposes has not only led to the phenomenal growth of the sector but also given rise to numerous severe disruption issues around the world. With the use of drones gathering pace in Singapore, an association on unmanned aerial vehicles has been established here in 2018 to examine its development and applications. Here, Chinese Entrepreneur identifies three major trends relating to the use of commercial drones in Singapore.

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

33


商团动态 | I n d u s t r y D y n a m i c s

trying out parcel delivery in their campuses via drones. In 2018, renowned plane manufacturer Airbus completed its flight demonstration of drones in NUS through an experimental project named ‘Skyways’, which is an economically viable aerial unmanned parcel delivery system suitable for a dense urban environment. The maximum air parcel weight is estimated at 4 kg, and the drones are programmed to travel fully automated In December 2016, Amazon demonstrated drone delivery for its first time when it documented the airborne delivery of a TV streaming device and a bag of popcorn to a customer in Cambridgeshire, England. Lately, the company has been developing an air-traffic control system for drones in its attempt to realise the new business operation. (Photo: Amazon)

along pre-set routes and land on any of several designated landing pads across the campus. Soon, students in the campus can deliver parcels using drones, with the recipients getting a phone message informing them to

TREND

1

34

SETTING UP DRONE LOGISTICS SYSTEM IN DESIGNATED AREAS

pick up their article from a drop-off station. NUS is further exploring delivery between the campus and ships at the port.

To meet the needs of last-mile delivery,

The potential of drones could be even

it is not unusual for some big countries like

bigger upstream in the logistics chain. Drones

the United States and China, drones are

could be used to move small items around a

deployed to deploy drones in the delivery

warehouse in a faster and more flexible way.

of e-commerce parcels. The first-ever such

YCH, one of the largest logistics companies in

delivery was made by Amazon Prime Air

Singapore, uses inventory-counting drones

in December 2016. Although this need

in its warehouse, reducing the time needed

may appear less critical in a small nation

for the task from days to a matter of hours.

like Singapore, the growth of drone use

Another laudable attempt is that the

is becoming more visible, especially in

Singapore government has designated

designated areas. For example, the two

One-north, a 200-hectare business park,

largest universities in Singapore – National

as the first drone estate in Singapore to

University of Singapore (NUS) and Nanyang

trial innovative UAS (unmanned aircraft

Technological University (NTU) – have been

systems) technologies for commercial use.

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


I n d u s t r y D y n a m i c s | 商团动态

Under this initiative, approved operators

Defibrillator) to a golfer who has suffered

and researchers can carry out trials and

from a heart attack on the golf course. He

operations within the estate.

is particularly optimistic about the advent of 5G mobile network technology and its

TREND

2

BREATHING NEW LIFE FROM 5G NETWORK

application on drones. The benefits of a high-speed, low-latency 5G network includes keeping vehicles from

“Give me a place to stand and I will

crashing into each other and enabling the

move the earth,” said Greek mathematician

continuous flight of drones. This will enable

Archimedes in demonstrating the principle

scaling up of drone deployment in all fields

of the lever. Today, the function of drones

including delivery, aerial inspection, traffic

is similarly being diversified, refined and

monitoring,

amplified by cutting-edge technologies.

platform, and real-time data transmission.

airborne

communication

Chinese Entrepreneur conducted an

Just recently, the Singapore government

interview with Frederick Chia, President of

announced the rolling out of 5G by 2020.

UAV Industry Association Singapore cum

This is expected to be as much as 100 times

representative of the Singapore Chapter of

faster in processing speed than the present

World UAV Federation, to learn about the latest

4G system, with up to 25 times lower latency

applications of drones. Mr Chia recognises the

or lag time.

potential of drones in emergency responses,

In Chengdu, a fire drill was conducted

such as delivering AED (Automated External

this February where 5G-enabled drones were used to extinguish fire. When a fire breaks out, it is necessary to transmit the scene’s images as instantly as possible to receive timely and appropriate assistance. This requires the real-time images returned by the drone to be ultra-high-definition and analysable. After the situation is determined, the command centre will issue command to the drone accurately and without delay, which is made possible only by the low

NASA, SoftBank and AeroVironment are in collaboration to build a massive solar-powered drone that can beam 5G connectivity to the ground. (Photo: NASA)

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

latency of the 5G network, whose response time is down to milli-seconds.

35


商团动态 | I n d u s t r y D y n a m i c s

TREND

3

MORE REGULATIONS AND ANTI-DRONE TECHNOLOGIES REQUIRED

While drones are often viewed as techie toys, they could be disastrous if abused. Across the US-Mexico border, drones are already being used to spy on federal law enforcement operations and smuggle contraband through the sky. In Britain, drone sightings disrupted more than 1,000 flights to and from Gatwick Airport last December and led to policing costs of £459,000 (about S$800,000). Recently,

Civil

Aviation

Authority

of Singapore (CAAS) has reviewed the unmanned

aircraft

(UA)

regulatory

framework. Users with drones weighing more than 1.5 kg will first have to undergo

Frederick Chia, President of UAV Industry Association Singapore cum representative of the Singapore Chapter of World UAV Federation, expressed optimism on the advent of 5G mobile network technology and its application on drones, while recognising the need to beef up regulations in this rapidly transforming industry.

an online compulsory training programme, which covers topics such as how to manoeuvre drones through various weather

jammer gun, which emits signals that jam

conditions and when near buildings. For

the control signals of drones, and a drone

flying unmanned aircraft weighing more

catcher system which uses a net to catch

than 7 kg, drone users are required to

the gadget.

obtain a pilot licence, just like how car drivers undergo theory and practical tests. Regulations would likely lead to more

Interested to engage the UAV business community

professional practices in Singapore.

in Singapore? Get in touch with the UAV Industry

Anti-drone technologies are also being

Association Singapore to develop network in this sector,

developed. The Republic of Singapore Air

participate in business missions or relevant activities!

Force has several weapons that can be

More information at http://www.uavias.org.sg/

applied against errant drones, including a

36

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


P a s s i n g t h e To r c h | 薪 火 相 传

效忠精神 总商会与新加坡的 公民权运动

SPIRIT OF LOYALTY SCCCI AND SINGAPORE’S CITIZENSHIP MOVEMENT

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

37


薪火相传 | P a s s i n g t h e To r c h

天,新加坡国民对“信约”郎

justice and equality so as to achieve

郎上口,因为那是新加坡的立

happiness, prosperity and progress

国精神: “我们是新加坡公民,誓愿不分种

for our nation.”

族、言语、宗教、团结一致,建设公正平

Many may not know the Singapore

等的民主社会,并为实现国家之幸福、繁

Chinese Chamber of Commerce (SCCC,

荣与进步,共同努力。”

now known as Singapore Chinese

许多人可能不知道,新加坡中华总商

Chamber of Commerce and Industry)

会是我国争取公民权法的先驱。早在1947

was a pioneer in our country’s bid

年,总商会已要求本地居民应享有平等的

for the right to citizenship. As early

公民权,并于1951年以正式文书提呈具体

as 1947, SCCC already demanded

方案。这意味着,总商会所开启的争取公

that residents here should enjoy the

民权运动之路,为后来新加坡的自治与独

equal right to citizenship, and in 1951

立奠下重要的基础。

submitted specific proposals through

为何总商会在二战以后关心和投入

official document. This means the

公民权的课题?其过程如何?最后达到什

journey to citizenship entitlement

么成果?透过当时的会议记录,让我们回

initiated by SCCC laid down an

顾总商会在争取公民权运动中所扮演的角

important foundation for Singapore’s

色,以及该运动对新加坡当代政治发展历

self-government and independence.

程的意义。

Why did SCCC care about and commit itself to the citizenship issue

T

38

oday, Singapore citizens could

after World War II? How did this

recite the National Pledge

unfold? What did this achieve at the

fluently as it is about the founding

end? This article will illustrate the

spirit of our nation: “We, the citizens

role SCCC played in the campaign

of Singapore, pledge ourselves as

for citizenship through records of its

one united people, regardless of

meetings as well as the movement’s

race, language or religion, to build

significance to the course of modern

a

Singapore’s political development.

democratic

society

based

on

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


P a s s i n g t h e To r c h | 薪 火 相 传

战后认同转向 从落叶归根到落地生根 过去海外华人多与原乡保持密切联系,期许将 来衣锦还乡、光宗耀祖,政治认同方面也多倾向中 国。而中国自清末1909年颁布「大清国籍条例」以 来,经民国政府到中华人民共和国政府,其国籍法 都采用血统主义原则,使海外华人亦可包含在内, 直到1955年印尼万隆会议之后才有所改变。 本地公民权的议题,与战后英国重返马来亚 和新加坡后的形势有关。首先是全球民族自决的声 浪。1946年,英殖民政府宣布成立「马来亚联邦」

总商会史料征集

,响应当地人民要求独立自主的愿望。在新制度之

新加坡中华总商会欢迎大家捐赠史料,

下,英国原打算让所有效忠本地的各种族人士享有

一起与我们保存和传承总商会的历史。

相同的公民权利。此举招来马来社群的强烈反对, 他们担心马来人的地位与优势因此受到威胁。英国

您可以透过以下途径提供有关总商会的 的文物资料(如旧照片、证件、佩章)给 我们,我们会尽快与您联系。

人随即改变方案宣布成立「马来亚联合邦」宪制, 并以较为严厉的公民权条例来安抚马来社群的情 绪。这个转变的结果,却加速了本地各族群的政治 觉醒,引起更多人对政治事务及自身权益的关注。 其次是政治认同的转向。新马华人在3年8个月 的日据时期受尽苦难,因此更深刻体会当家作主、 保卫家园的重要性,政治意识也大幅提升,身份 认同遂发生变化,从过去落叶归根的心态转向在本 土落地生根。1949年新中国成立以

CALL FOR HISTORICAL ITEMS Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry warmly invites you to donate historical documents to help preserve and perpetuate the historical heritage of SCCCI. You may wish to provide us with more information about the Historical Documents (e.g. old photographs, certificates and badges) through the following contact: Email: history@sccci.org.sg Contact: (65) 6430 8304 Address: Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry (Historical Items) 9 Jurong Town Hall Road, #04-01, Trade Association Hub, Jurong Town Hall, Singapore 609431

来,本地华人与中国的政治联 系渐形疏远,也促使人们 开始思考在新马安居乐 业、永久居留、打造新家 园的可行性。

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

39


薪火相传 | P a s s i n g t h e To r c h

IDENTITY CHANGE POSTWWII: FROM BACK TO ROOTS TO PUTTING DOWN ROOTS

community, who feared that Malay status and supremacy would be threatened.

Chinese

The British immediately changed its

maintained close ties with their native

plan, announcing the institution of the

land, expecting to return to China in

“Federation of Malaya” Constitution and

grandeur and bringing glories to their

applying stricter citizenship requirements

ancestors. Their political identity was also

to calm the mood of the Malay community.

often oriented towards China. On the other

The result of this change quickened the

hand, since the promulgation of the Qing

political awakening of the local ethnic

Nationality Law near the end of the Qing

groups, arousing more people to be

dynasty, China adopted the jus sanguinis

concerned about political matters and

principle for its nationality law through the

their own rights and interests.

In

40

stoked strong opposition from the Malay

the

past,

overseas

period of the Republican government to

Second was the shift in political

the People’s Republic of China (PRC). That

orientation. The Chinese in Singapore

encompassed overseas Chinese within the

and Malaya had suffered much in the

law up to 1955 when this changed following

three-year and eight-month period under

the Bandung Conference in Indonesia.

Japanese occupation. Therefore, they had a

The issue of local citizenship was

deeper understanding of the importance of

related to the post-war situation following

being the master of their homeland and its

the return of Britain to Malaya and

defence. The political awareness increased

Singapore. First, there was the call for

substantially and their identity alignment

national self-determination across the

also changed, turning away from returning

world. In 1946, the British colonial

to the roots (in China) to putting down

government announced the establishment

roots here. Since the founding of PRC in

of the “Malayan Union” in response to

1949, the political connection between

the local people’s wish for independence.

local Chinese and China gradually become

Under the new system, Britain originally

estranged, and that also drove people to

intended to allow all ethnic groups

think about the possibility of living and

who were loyal to the territory enjoy

working in Singapore and Malaya, staying,

equal right to citizenship. The move

and building a new home.

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


P a s s i n g t h e To r c h | 薪 火 相 传

回应殖民政策 争取公民权 1946年12月23日,时任中华总商会会 长的李光前在董事会议上首次提出应该就 公民权课题详加讨论。这件事的背景是: 英殖民政府将于1947年颁布的新加坡立法 议会选举法令里,规定非英藉民将没有资 格投票和被提名权。当时适逢代表总商会 受委任为市政局议员的连瀛洲任期将满, 总商会推荐他连任,但市政局根据新条例 唯有英藉民才能担任议员的规定,要求总 商会推举其他合适人选。这两件事让总商 会深刻意识到公民权的重要,开始对此议 题投入更多关注。 当时新加坡奉行「英国国藉法」,本 地居民可申请归化为英籍民。提出申请者 必须品行良好,年龄达21岁或以上,通晓 英文,提出申请前须在申请地居住满8年, 另请4名英藉民为其背书,缴付费用后静 候结果。一旦获得英国殖民地大臣批准通 过,申请者必须宣誓效忠英皇,然后由当 地总督颁发归化证书,正式成为英籍民。 不过,由于门槛太高,又碍于要宣誓效忠 英皇,大多数本地华人都无法或不愿意归 化为英籍民。 1947年2月15日,随着总商会 向英殖民政府提呈备忘录为本地华人 争取公民权不果,就在英国人签署马 来亚联合邦文件前夕,总商会遂于同 1947年2月14日,总商会开会通过研究宪制小组委员会起草的意见书。 (新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Council of SCCC approved the citizenship right memorandum draft on February 14, 1947 (SCCCI Collection)

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

年10月20日发动全新加坡全市总罢 业。翌年,会长李光前率领代表团与

41


薪火相传 | P a s s i n g t h e To r c h

新加坡总督金森会面,口头提出有关

议院代表团和英国殖民部的宪制谈判议程

“新加坡公民权”的诉求,争取非英籍民

里。马绍尔后因没有争取到完全自治而辞

能享有立法议会的选举权。总督对此有所

职,不过在林有福政府时期制定的“1957

保留,表示会考虑总商会的意见,但不作

年新加坡公民权法令”,规定凡品行良好

任何承诺。

的成年人﹑在新加坡住满8年者,依法可以

1949年10月1日中华人民共和国成立以

在新法令下提出公民权申请。

来,总商会更积极推动公民权运动。1951

公民权法令在1957年11月1日生效后,

年2月21日,总商会向英殖民政府提交

总商会和华社团体立即协助政府办理公民权

“新加坡公民权”备忘录,提出凡在新加坡

登记工作,促成22万人顺利取得公民权。

住满8年者﹑宣誓效忠本坡﹑具有中文或英 文能力者便可成为公民,同时也建议简化归 化英籍民申请程序、取消通晓英语的条件, 以便更多人符合资格。英殖民政府接受取消 英语门槛,但拒绝公民权的诉求。 总商会遂于1952年9月成立一个9人 小组委员会,专门负责推动申请公民权事 宜。1953年英殖民政府成立林德宪制委员 会时,总商会开会决议提呈意见书再度诉 求本地的参政权。时任副会长的高德根表 示,华人居留本邦很久,均以此为第一故 乡,殖民政府应该重视中国出生华人之利 益,迅速予华人参政权。他认为当时只有

1957年,总商会协助市民办理公民权登记手续。 (新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

In 1957, the Chamber opened its doors to assist locals in the citizenship registration process. (SCCCI Collection)

少数华人有参政权,不能真正代表民意。 1955年,有两个外部因素促使商会 所领导的公民权运动朝有利的方向发展。 首先是万隆会议所签订的双重国籍问题条

42

RESPOND TO COLONIAL POLICY, FIGHT FOR CITIZENSHIP

约,清楚表明中国政府不再承认双重国

On December 23, 1946, Lee Kong

籍,鼓励海外居民取得当地公民权。其

Chian, then president of SCCC, proposed

次是新加坡实行林德宪制后,开放部份议

at a council meeting that the topic of

员民选。第一任民选首席部长马绍尔支持

citizenship to be discussed in detail. The

总商会争取公民权的主张,将之纳入立法

background of this development was that

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


P a s s i n g t h e To r c h | 薪 火 相 传

the British colonial government would

issued a naturalisation certificate by the

be stipulating in the 1947 Singapore

territory’s governor for him to officially

Legislative Council Election Ordinance

become a British subject. However,

that non-British subjects would not be

because the threshold was too high,

eligible to vote or be nominated as a

or balked by the oath of allegiance to

candidate. It so happened that at that

the British monarch, most of the local

time, Mr Lien Ying Chow was appointed

Chinese were unable or unwilling to

Municipal Councilor to represent SCCC.

become naturalised British subjects.

His term was coming to an end. SCCC

Following SCCC’s failure to obtain

recommended him for re-nomination,

the right to citizenship for local

but the Municipal Council, citing the

Chinese on February 15, 1947, via a

rule of the new ordinance, requested

memorandum it submitted earlier to

SCCC put up an eligible candidate.

the British colonial government, a strike

These two incidents made SCCC deeply

was launched on October 20 the same

aware of the importance of citizenship,

year - one day before the signing of the

and it began to give more attention to

Federation of Malaya agreement - across

the issue.

the entire Singapore. The following

At that time, Singapore observed

year SCCC President Lee Kong Chian

the “British Nationality Law”, and

led a delegation to meet Singapore

residents here could apply to be

Governor Sir Franklin Charles Gimson

naturalised as British subjects. An

to voice the appeal for “Singapore

applicant must have good character, be

Citizenship” and argue that non-British

of age 21, fluent in English, have lived

subjects should enjoy election right to

in where he filed the application for

the Legislative Council. The Governor

eight years, and in addition enlist four

reserved his opinion, and indicating he

British subjects as referees. He then

would consider SCCC’s view, he made

waited for the result after paying a fee.

no promises.

Once the applicant obtained approval

After the founding of the PRC on

from the British colonial secretary, he

October 1, 1949, SCCC more actively

must swear allegiance to the British

propelled the citizenship movement.

monarch, after which he would be

On February 21, 1951, SCCC submitted

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薪火相传 | P a s s i n g t h e To r c h

“Singapore

The colonial government therefore

Citizenship” to the British colonial

should recognise the interests of China-

government, proposing that anyone

born Chinese and quickly grant them

who had lived in Singapore for eight

the rights of political participation.

years in the previous 10 years, swore

He believed at that time only a small

allegiance to Singapore, and possessed

number of Chinese had the right to be

the ability to use either Chinese or

engaged in politics and they could not

English could apply for citizenship. It

truly represent public opinion.

a

memorandum

on

also proposed simplifying the procedure

In 1955, there were two external

of naturalisation to become British

factors that caused the SCCC-led

citizens and suggested scrapping the

citizenship movement to move in a

condition of fluency in English so

favorable direction. The first was the

that more people could qualify. The

Treaty on Dual Nationality signed

British colonial government accepted

at the Bandung Conference, which

abolishing the English-language hurdle

clearly affirmed that the Chinese

but rejected the appeal on citizenship.

government no longer recognised dual

In September 1952, SCCC set sub-committee

residents to obtain local citizenship.

specially tasked with handling matters

Second, after the implementation of

concerning

citizenship.

the Rendel Constitution in Singapore,

When the British colonial government

some seats in the Legislative Assembly

established the Rendel Constitutional

were open to public voting. The first-

Commission in 1953, SCCC convened a

elected chief minister David Marshall

meeting and again decided to submit a

supported SCCC’s advocacy of fighting

written proposal to appeal for political

for citizenship and included it in the

participation rights for the locals. Ko

agenda of the constitutional negotiation

Teck Kin, then SCCC vice president,

between

pointed out that ethnic Chinese had

delegation and Britain’s Colonial Office.

lived in this municipality for a long time

Later Marshall resigned after he failed to

and they all treated it as their first home.

win full self-government. However, the

up

44

citizenship and encouraged its overseas

a

nine-member appeal

for

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

the

Legislative

Assembly


P a s s i n g t h e To r c h | 薪 火 相 传

1957 Singapore Citizenship Ordinance enacted during the time of the Lim Yew Hock government provided that all adults who had good character and had lived in Singapore for eight years could apply for citizenship under the new law. After the Citizenship Ordinance came into effect on November 1, 1957, SCCC and the Chinese community immediately assisted the government in the registration of citizenship, effectively and smoothly helping 220,000 people

争取公民权运动的时代意义 回顾历史,总商会自二战后开始对

acquire the status.

公民权议题投入关注,是有其跨时代意义 的。总商会经过长达十年的努力,多次向 英殖民政府争取公民权,才促使更多本地 公民得以当家作主,在1959年的选举中投 票选出新加坡第一届自治政府。总商会领 导人也展现政治智慧与远见,透过和平协 商的方式争取政治上的权利,使本地公民 在“1957年新加坡公民权法令”下受到更 多法律保障。 公民权赋予人民参政的权利,也允许 人民扩大参与公共事务,对新加坡产生更 大的归属感,共同建设一个美好家园。总 商会在争取公民权运动中的胜利,也意谓 着本地华人正式成为这块土地的一员,从 1957年,连瀛洲(右三)与高德根(中)在位于福康宁山的公民权登记中心。 (新加坡中华总商会珍藏)

Lien Ying Chow (third from right) and Ko Teck Kin (centre) at the citizenship registration centre at Fort Canning, 1957. (SCCCI Collection)

过去的华侨身份认同转变为新加坡认同。 总商会的付出,对于独立建国后的新加坡 能朝向一个多元种族及文化的社会稳定发 展,奠定基础,贡献卓著。

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薪火相传 | P a s s i n g t h e To r c h

EPOCH-MAKING SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CITIZENSHIP MOVEMENT Looking back, SCCC’s devotion to the citizenship issue since the end of World War II, carried significance across generations. It took SCCC ten years of hard work and several attempts to wrestle citizenship from the British colonial government to finally enable more local citizens to become masters of their land, who could vote to elect Singapore’s first autonomous

government

in

the

1959 elections. SCCC leaders also demonstrated political wisdom and foresight in seeking political rights by way of peaceful consultation, so that local citizens came under greater legal protection with the 1957 Singapore Citizenship Ordinance Act.

杨修灏先生于1958年1月领取的公民权证书。(杨修灏家属捐赠)

Mr Yong Siew Hong received his Certificate of Citizenship in January 1958. (Courtesy of Yong Siew Hong’s family)

Citizenship gives people the right to participate in politics and allows them to expand their involvement

land, switching from their past identity

in public affairs, fostering in them

as overseas Chinese to identifying with

a greater sense of belonging to

Singapore. The contributions of SCCC

Singapore and leading to a joint

after independence and during nation

effort to build a beautiful homeland.

building have laid a solid foundation

The victory of SCCC in its bid for

for Singapore to stably develop into a

citizenship also means that the local

multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society.

Chinese officially became a part of this

These merits were outstanding.

46

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


M o m e n t s | 商会时讯

2019·3·3

“放眼360° ” 国际三八妇女节 论坛晚宴 “WOMEN 360°” INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S DAY FORUM 总商会事业女性组于香格里拉大酒店举 办论坛晚宴,同时欢庆成立25周年, 共600名嘉宾出席。文化、社区及青年 部长傅海燕担任主宾,主讲嘉宾为新 希望六和股份有限公司董事长刘畅; DP Architects集团总裁陈丽君及集团 董事陈慧敏;The Great Room联合创 始人兼总裁洪可珈。

SCCCI

Career

Women’s

Group

(CWG) held a forum and celebrated the 25th anniversary of CWG at Shangri-La Hotel. A total of 600 guests attended the event. Minister for Culture, Community and Youth Grace Fu attended as Guest of Honour. Guest speakers include Liu Chang, Chairman of New Hope Liuhe Co Ltd; Angelene Chan, CEO of DP Architects; Chan Hui Min, Director of DP Architects; and Jaelle Ang, cofounder and CEO of The Great Room.

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商会时讯 | M o m e n t s

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华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


M o m e n t s | 商会时讯

2019·3·15

总商会 第60届董事会 就职典礼 SCCCI’S 60th COUNCIL INSTALLATION CEREMONY 总商会第60届董事会于3月15日具备 那就职典礼。黄山忠会长和55名第 60届董事成员在我国总统哈莉玛的 见证下宣誓就职。

The SCCCI held the installation ceremony of its 60th Council on March 15. President Roland Ng led all 55 members of the 60th Council in an oath-taking and signing ceremony, witnessed by President Halimah Yacob.

华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R

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商会时讯 | M o m e n t s

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华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


M o m e n t s | 商会时讯

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51


欢迎新会员 W E LCO M E A B OA R D ( Fe b r u a r y -A p r i l )

Member Company

Business Representative

Designation

Business Nature

ASSURE IT PTE LTD

MR

CHIA SHIH KOON

Director

Information & Communications

STARMED SPECIALIST CENTRE PTE LTD

MR

CHIN WEI YAO

Chief Financial Officer

Health & Social Services

GTLA INTERNATIONAL PTE LTD

MR

LOW YI CHENG

Director

Manufacturing

B3IGNITE PTE LTD

MR

MICHAEL LEE

Director

Others: (please specify)

KODI ENGINEERING SERVICES PTE LTD

MR

NEO JOHN JI

Director

Wholesale & Retail Trade

ABI INDUSTRIES SINGAPORE PTE LTD

MR

CHUA WUN FONG

Director

Wholesale & Retail Trade

MMI INTERNATIONAL HOLDINGS PTE LTD

MDM

CRYSTAL XIA

Chief Executive Officer & Co-Founder

Professional, Business & Technical Services

ASIA SINGA HOSPITALITY PTE LTD

MDM

KATRINA SHEN

Director

Tourism & Hotels

W-AXIS TECHNOLOGY PTE LTD

MR

XIAO WENHAN

Founder

Information & Communications

ASTRO PARKING PTE LTD

MR

ROY GAY

Director

Transport, Storage & Logistics

DUAN LIAN ZHENG

MR

DUAN LIAN ZHENG

Student

AIR MEDIA INTERNATIONAL (S) PTE LTD

MS

SHAO DAN

Managing Director

Information & Communications

KEMINDO ASIA PACIFIC PTE LTD

MR

YUSLI SABIDIN

Managing Director

Wholesale & Retail Trade

EGENCIA SINGAPORE PTE LTD

MR

KENJI MIRASSOU

Director

Tourism & Hotels

FRASERS HOSPITALITY PTE LTD

MS

CLARA BENG

General Manager

Professional, Business & Technical Services

ATOMY DISTRIBUTION PTE LTD

MS

WENDY LEE

Director

Others: (please specify)

ATA IMS BERHAD

MR

JAMES FOO

Group Executive Chairman

Manufacturing

UNABIZ PTE LTD

MR

JONATHAN TAN

Managing Director

Information & Communications

LEE FEI, ELIZABETH

MDM

ELIZABETH LEE

Associate Director

HUANG JIN, JIM

MR

JIM HUANG

Managing Director

BERNARD BENEDICT FOONG

MR

BERNARD BENEDICT FOONG Financial Advisor

GUO JINFU, JEFF

MR

JEFF GUO

First Vice-President

CAO HUI

MDM

CAO HUI

Director

CHAN HUI MIN

MS

CHAN HUI MIN

Director

ONG GHEE HENG, JEFFREY

MR

JEFFREY ONG

Director

CHAN LAI HOONG, MADELEINE

MS

MADELEINE CHAN

Associate Director

UGEL COSMETICS PTE LTD

MS

Grace Ling

Officer

Wholesale & Retail Trade

THE EXECUTIVE CIRCLE ASIA PACIFIC PTE LTD

MS

HELEN SHEK

Director

Professional, Business & Technical Services

OVERSEAS CHINESE FINANCIAL ADVISERS PTE LTD

MR

SIMEON CHAN

Chief Operating Officer

Finance & Insurance

TOMOE TRANSTECH SPECIALTY GASES PTE LTD

MR

MICHAEL TAN

General Manager

Wholesale & Retail Trade

CHINA SOUTHERN AIRLINES COMPANY LIMITED

MS

CHEN YAN LI

General Manager

Transport, Storage & Logistics

CARLSON WAGONLIT SINGAPORE PTE LTD

MR

SIM KIAN PENG

General Manager

Tourism & Hotels

TAN XIN LIANG, LOUIS

MR

LOUIS TAN

Director

KHAW POH CHAI

MR

KHAW POH CHAI

Executive Director

LIM QING RU

MS

LIM QING RU

Partner

Claire Au

MDM

CLAIRE AU

Sales & Marketing Director

NG KOK LENG, THOMAS

MR

THOMAS NG

Chief Commercial Officer

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华商 | C H I N E S E E N T R E P R E N E U R


Profile for Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry

华商 Chinese Entrepreneur Issue 3 2019  

华商 Chinese Entrepreneur Issue 3 2019  

Profile for sccci