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ADMINISTRA P A L M E T T O

Vol. 28

South Carolina Association of School Administrators

OR Winter 2013


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SCASA STAFF Molly Spearman Executive Director Hannah Pittman Director of Professional Development Jay Welch Director of Finance and Technology Beth Phibbs Director of Governmental Affairs Sandy Burton Administrative Assistant/ Membership Coordinator $SULO*ULIĂ€Q Administrative Assistant/ Assistant Meeting Planner

SCASA BOARD Dr. Connie Long President Dr. Rose Wilder President-Elect Mr. Lou Lavely Past President Mrs. Betty Bagley Dr. Scott Turner Mr. Robbie Binnicker Dr. Lynn Cary Mr. James Blake Ms. Carole Ingram Mrs. Margaret Spivey 0U0LFKDHO:DLNVQLV Mrs. Denise Barth Mrs. Camilla Groome Mr. Roger Richburg Ms. Sandy Andrews Mrs. Nancy Verburg Dr. Marthena Grate Morant Dr. Stephanie Lackey Mrs. Liana Calloway Ms. Audrey Ratchford Dr. Mildred Huey-Rowland Mrs. Renee Mathews 'U/HPXHO:DWVRQ Mrs. Molly Spearman The Palmetto Administrator is published annually by the South Carolina Association of School Administrators, :HVWSDUN%OYG&ROXPELD6&   http://www.scasa.org. Send address changes to Sandy@scasa.org. Advertising information and contributors’ information are available online. Publication Policy: Articles should be written in an informal, conversational style, where treatment of the topic is interesting, insightful and based on the writer’s experience. The editor encourages the use of charts, photos and other artwork. To be considered for publication, articles should be submitted HOHFWURQLFDOO\SUHIHUDEO\LQ06:RUGXVLQJRQHLQFKPDUJLQV The cover page should show the author’s name, position and complete contact information. The article’s working title and a one or two sentence summary should appear on the title page.

ADMINISTRA P A L M E T T O

FEATURES

OR

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Pursuing Balance Between Work and Home ‡ By Chris Gardner

10

Reframing Professional Development ‡ By Edward Cox, Ed. D. and Sandra Lindsay, Ph. D.

14

Innovation Now, From Best Practices to Next Practices ‡ By Michelle Aiken Wilson

18

Fostering Department Chair Instructional Leadership Capacity ‡ By Hans Klar, Ph.D., Virginia Metts and Lori Corley

24

Countering the Negative Effects of Poverty Through Innovation ‡ By Betty T. Bagley, Nikki Hawthorne and Dr. Sonia Cunningham Leverette

28

Superintendents’ Longevity, Board Relationships, and Student Achievement ‡ By Betty T. Bagley

32

For Real! Professional Development for Athletic Coaches Now Available ‡ By Bill Utsey

34

Bullying to the Core ‡ By Karis Clarke, Ed.D.

38

Poverty is Not a Predictor of Potential ‡ By Mike Waisknis and Latoya Dixon

40

Religion in Public School: What’s Up in South Carolina ‡ By Thomas McDaniel, Ph.D.

44

Transforming South Carolina Schools into 21st Century Learning Centers ‡ By Shawn Suber, Ph.D. and Diane Harwell, Ph.D.

50

“Am I Really That Special?� ‡ By Dr. G. Cleve Pilot

52

Wellness Programs Bolster Health of Employees and Bottom Line ‡ By Mike Linebaugh

56

Educating Black and Latino Males ‡ By Jane Hileman, James Jerry Clark and Dr. Anthony Hicks

60

Educators as Sales People ‡ By: Marcus Benjamin

62

Graduating All Students Innovation-Ready ‡ By Tony Wagner

DEPARTMENTS 3

A Message From The Executive Director 7KHst Century Graduate ‡ By Molly Spearman

4

A Message From the President SC Public Schools, On the Move ‡ By Connie Long

66

PHOTO CONTEST

72

SCASA BUSINESS AFFILIATES

Submit article proposals or completed articles for consideration to the Managing Editor, Hannah Hopkins, hannah@scasa.org. Articles submitted to Palmetto Administrator may be edited for style, content, and space before publication. Articles may not be reproduced without consent of the publisher.




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A MESSAGE FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

The 21st Century Graduate By Molly Spearman

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ere we are - 13 years into the 21st Century. It’s about time that we get ready for the 21st Century. We all know that the 21st Century graduate must be equipped with new abilities, skills, and understandings that are evolving every day. How are South Carolina schools meeting the new graduate’s needs? What changes do we need to make in our system to prepare each graduate to meet his greatest potential? What is SCASA doing to drive this change? Over the past two years, our district superintendents have stepped up to cultivate a vision for South Carolina’s 21st Century schools . Sharing that vision with our colleagues, other educators, business and community partners has been an in-depth conversation focused on the 21st Century graduate – who the graduate is, what the graduate should possess to be successful, and what changes are needed to get there. The great news is that all of these partner groups were ready to talk. They were and are dedicated to this change becoming a

reality in South Carolina’s public education system. The greater news is that change is already happening in many schools and districts across our state. Spotlighting and replicating that change is our goal. This issue of Palmetto Administrator shines a light on many successful points of transformation in our state. Read about these places. Visit the schools and districts. Make plans to attend the Innovative Ideas Institute (i3) in June and meet these progressive leaders as they present their ideas. SCASA will continue to propose needed changes in legislation and regulations to make innovation easier. More ÁH[LELOLW\IRUDOOVFKRROVDQGGLVWULFWVWRWUDQVIRUPWKHGHOLYHU\ of a personalized education system for all students must be accomplished. SCASA will support partnerships like the New Carolina project of school innovation. This effort will unfold in 2013 and is the result of education and business leaders supporting transformational change to better prepare the 21st Century graduate. ,WLVDYHU\H[FLWLQJWLPHWREHSDUWRISXEOLFHGXFDWLRQLQ South Carolina. SCASA will do our best to make sure that our members are informed, well-trained, and “at the table” when decisions are made that impact students and school leaders. 2XUPHPEHUVDUHGHGLFDWHGH[SHUWVZKRKDYHWKHSDVVLRQ and knowledge to lead this change in South Carolina! SCASA is committed to supporting you as we move forward together!

Denise Khaalid named 2012 NASSP/Virco National Principal of the Year!

Denise Khaalid receiving award from NASSP and Virco.

Dr. Lynn Moody, Superintendent of York District Three; Al Leonard, Principal of South Pointe High School; Denise Khaalid, 2012 NASSP/Virco National Assistant Principal of the Year; and Molly Spearman, SCASA Executive Director

Denise Khaalid, Assistant Principal of South Pointe High School in York District Three, was named the 2012 NASSP/Virco National Assistant Principal of the Year. She was recognized in Washington D.C. and at the 2012 NASSP National Convention by NASSP and Virco. We are very proud that a SCASA member is the 2012 NASSP/Virco National Assistant Principal of the Year!

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A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT

SC Public Schools, On the Move By Connie Long “There is a place in America to take a stand: it is public education. It is the underpinning of our cultural and political system. It is the great common ground. Public education after all is the engine that moves us as a society toward a common destiny‌ it is in public education that the American dream begins to take place.â€? —Tom Brokaw, former TV news anchor and author

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elcome to another great year at SCASA! We EHJDQRXUMRXUQH\LQ-XQHZLWKWKHĂ€UVWHYHU Innovative Ideas Institute. The name change and theme “Transforming Education,â€? breathed a life of renewed anticipation into the conference. South Carolina educators were invigorated by the vast networking opportunities and informative sessions. What a pleasure it was to have over one thousand educators sharing WKHLUNQRZOHGJHDQGH[SHUWLVHZLWKFROOHDJXHV,EHOLHYH that the momentum we’ve captured at the conference continues despite the challenges we face. As educators, we are often bombarded with reports that label our schools as failing. Although there is a need for restructuring education, educators know that this cannot be done over the span of a year or two. In seeking answers for our vision for education, it was TXLWHHQOLJKWHQLQJIRUPHWRH[DPLQHWKHHGXFDWLRQDO systems of South Korea and Finland, touted as two of the most successful in the world. The South Korean system, which is highly structured, requires students to spend an inordinate amount of time on core content and even incorporates the use of nocturnal school. Needless to say, the suicide rate of students in this culture is fairly high when they do not achieve. On the other hand, the Finnish system, which is considerably less structured, has a strong focus on the arts and sciences. Its program DOVRKLUHVWKHYHU\EHVWWHDFKHUVWUHDWLQJWKHPDVH[SHUWV LQWKHĂ€HOG%RWKJURXSVRIVWXGHQWVVFRUHKLJKHVWRQWKH (Program for) International Student Assessment, also NQRZQDV3,6$ZKLFKZDVĂ€UVWDGPLQLVWHUHGLQWKH year 2000. Both systems, South Korean and Finnish, are very homogenous. In both cultures, students who DUHQRWDFDGHPLFDOO\JLIWHGDUHUHGLUHFWHGWRRWKHUĂ€HOGV Although the data suggest that American students score higher only in creativity, self-promotion, and problem solving, we need to be mindful that here in the United States, we are educating all students and instructing them academically regardless of race, creed,

4

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color, national origin, socio-economic status, or disability. We are adept at meeting the challenges that accompany educational diversity. As educators, we are also dedicated to promoting and defending our profession, one of the most labor intensive professions WKDWH[LVWVZKHUHVRPDQ\ variables can determine our fate. Understanding the obstacles we face, there are three points I’d like to make: x First, we should seek to develop our students using “success tenets.â€? Our students need to be healthy, actively engaged in personalized learning and challenged academically by caring professionals in a safe environment. These tenets, adopted by ASCD, which I have combined for convenience and brevity, are what we should strive for with every student every day. x Second, we should investigate and promote evaluation solutions that are fair, consensus-based, and focused on improvement. Public schools do not have the option of selecting our students; we accept them as they are. We know that we are not working with “blueberriesâ€?, as Jamie Volmer reminded us in his presentation last summer. In addition, we develop our students in many, many ways that cannot be measured by assessments. x 7KLUGZHQHHGWRVWDQGXQLWHGDQGĂ€UPLQRXUTXHVWWR invest in the future of public education. We must be on one accord and have one voice. SCASA, in concert with other public education-focused organizations, is our voice. This year, the number of SCASA memberships is at an all-time high. We have more than 3100 members. Thank you for your continued support in such a worthy endeavor. Please remember that it is imperative that we keep this momentum going. As educators, we can change and LQĂ XHQFHRXUGHVWLQ\,WLVYLWDOO\LPSRUWDQWWKDWZHGRVR With so many leaders within our SCASA membership and team, the odds are in our favor. In closing, please know that I am very honored to serve as your president this year.


Pursuing Balance Between Work and Home Practical Strategies for Busy Administrators By Chris Gardner

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re thoughts of adequate family time, enjoying a KREE\RUH[HUFLVLQJUHJXODUO\MXVWWKDWPHUH KRSHIXOWKRXJKWV",IVRUHDGRQDVZHH[SORUHWKH importance of “balance� between work and home, cautions to help avoid stress or sickness, and simple suggestions for reclaiming a sense of passion and purpose in both areas.

,WZDVVSULQJRIWKH\HDUDQGP\Ă€IWK\HDUDV an assistant principal at Northwestern High School in Rock Hill. My wife and I had just welcomed our third child into our lives, so we were now the proud yet busy parents of children ages 4 years, 3 years, and 1 month. The demands of a job I had pursued and thoroughly enjoyed now seemed to dictate more time away from my growing family than I was content in giving. My fellow administrators were incredibly understanding and supportive of my need to be home more now than in the past; however, deep within me was the lingering question of whether or not I could successfully balance this treasured job with enough time at home among those I loved. Maybe you have faced such a question or dilemma in your career. Situations such as these are seldom easy and often require honest assessment, a redetermination of priorities, and an intentional decision to adjust or change if feasible. No two situations are the same, and no single option is unilaterally right for the unique individuals involved. Personally, my afforded and chosen transition was not a change of vocation but a change of location. 'XHWRVRPHSUHYLRXVHOHPHQWDU\H[SHULHQFH,ZDV GXDOO\FHUWLĂ€HGIRUERWKKLJKVFKRRODQGHOHPHQWDU\ administration, and this led to an interview and subsequent hiring in a neighboring district as an elementary assistant principal as the school year

ended. This is certainly not the only alternative or career path for any administrator who was or is in a similar situation, but for me and my family, it was an XQH[SHFWHGRSSRUWXQLW\DQGEOHVVLQJ7KLVFDUHHUPRYH DQGVLJQLĂ€FDQWFKDQJHDIIRUGHGPHPRUHQLJKWVDWKRPH each week, more support for my wife and children, and a greater balance between my job and my family responsibilities based on my personal values and “season of life.â€? What your work/home “balanceâ€? looks like may be very different from mine, yet I am sure we all can agree that a certain degree of balance between work and home is vital. It is vital for our physical, mental, and emotional health and well-being. Today, in fact, more than 1 in 4 Americans describe themselves as super-stressed (Mental Health America, 2007). Additionally, nearly 70% of $PHULFDQVDUHGLVVDWLVĂ€HGWRVRPHOHYHOLQWKHLUMREV This data then begs the question: Is it our job-related responsibilities and work environments that promote such dissatisfaction, or have many lost the ability to successfully balance work and home? At the core of an effective work/home balance are two key components daily achievement and enjoyment (Worklifebalance.com 2003). Spend more time at work than at home, and you miss out on a rewarding personal life. Then again, when you face challenges in your personal life, such as caring for an aging parent or coping with marital problems, FRQFHQWUDWLQJRQ\RXUMREFDQEHGLIĂ€FXOW Whether the problem is too much focus on work or too little, when your work life and your personal life feel out of balance, stress — along with its harmful effects — is the result. (Mayo Clinic 2008)

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Balance is often a challenge, no matter the environment. To remain physically, mentally, and HPRWLRQDOO\VWHDG\DPRQJOLIH¡VH[WUHPHVFHUWDLQO\WDNHV wisdom and maturity, but it also requires a willful and strategic choice. To be quite honest, we all make time for what is important to us; seemingly important stuff is only neglected or undone by choice. ,QRXUĂ€HOGRIHGXFDWLRQWKHFROODERUDWLRQEHWZHHQWKH school and its families, the community, human service agencies, law enforcement, government, as well as the demands of school safety, liability concerns, instructional innovation, new technology, athletics, the arts, and fundraising have served to blur the lines between home and school. Many administrators feel “on callâ€? around the clock for consultation or problem solving. If you chase two rabbits, both will escape!

Life certainly may lack the harmony of balance when the following warning signs frequently surface: x A consistently short temper x Health problems q Any administrators here with work-induced high blood pressure like I once had? x Suffering relationships with those to whom you are the closest x Consistent turmoil at home x Lost friendships x Constant phone or computer use at and away from the RIÀFH x Surprising anger outbursts x An attitude of self-worth based on accomplishments or achievement (Minamide, 1999) ,QRXUUXVKWR´JHWLWDOOGRQH¾DWWKHRIÀFHDQGDW home, it’s easy to forget that as our stress levels spike, our productivity plummets. Stress can zap our concentration, make us irritable or depressed, and harm our personal and professional relationships.

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Over time, stress also weakens our immune systems, and makes us susceptible to a variety of ailments from colds to backaches to heart disease. The newest research shows that chronic stress can actually double our risk of having a heart attack. That statistic alone is enough to raise your blood pressure! While we all need a certain amount of stress to spur us on and help us perform at our best, the key to managing stress lies in that one magic word: balance. Not only is achieving a healthy work/life balance an attainable goal but workers and businesses alike see the rewards. When workers are balanced and happy, they are more productive, take fewer sick days, and are more likely to stay in their jobs.

(Mental Health America 2007)

Now that we understand the issue of balance, its importance, and what a lack of it can do in our lives, let’s H[SORUHVRPHVLPSOHVROXWLRQVIRUZRUNLQJWRZDUGDQ inner peace and harmony with regard to both our work and home responsibilities. The suggestive points that follow are a collection of recommendations from research and my twenty four years RI6&SXEOLFVFKRROH[SHULHQFHV$VDKXVEDQGIDWKHU teacher, coach, guidance counselor, and time as both a high school and elementary school administrator, I have done a few things right along the way while making many mistakes. I hope these simple yet collectively profound WLSVLQVSLUH\RXWRUHà HFWDQGHYDOXDWH\RXUZRUNKRPH balance while serving to promote impactful change or validation.

Strategic Tips to Maintain Balance Ć” 5HFRJQL]HWKHSRWHQWLDOIRULPEDODQFHRUH[WUHPHV Ĺź %RWKH[WUHPHVKDYHFRQVHTXHQFHV Ć”

- 7KHNH\LVĂ€QGLQJWKHEDODQFHWKDWLVULJKWIRU you, your family, your well-being, etc. Use a written or electronic calendar or day-planner. Ĺź Provides effective feedback on our priorities. Ĺź Allows for reserving hours/days for important


activities, both work-related and non-work-related. - Am I the only “throwback administratorâ€? in SC who still uses a written calendar? Ć” Keep life simple and focused Ĺź These generally have a reciprocal relationship: - The simpler we can keep life, the better our focus will be. - The more focused we are, the clearer (and simpler) life can be. Ć” Set manageable goals each day. (Mental Health America, 2007) Ĺź Hire talented people and share the workload.  Delegate, collaborate, and trust. Ć” Establish your personal life mission statement (or priorities) Ĺź Write it down; keep it visible as a clear and constant reminder.  For many, this reminder may align with their value system or faith beliefs. Ĺź This will free your conscience when you must work overtime.  Making your priorities known to your loved ones will promote trust during those times when work responsibilities must take precedence. Ĺź The often chaotic rush/busyness of our jobs can be an assault on today’s family. Ĺź Remember, our children grow up fast and leave home.  Attend conferences with their teachers; volunteer at their school; be on time for concerts, plays, or games; coach their teams, chaperone some trips, and use those personal or annual leave days when important needs arise. Ć” Avoid physical, mental, and emotional clutter. Ĺź Train yourself to be comfortable in “second gearâ€? sometimes. Ĺź “Don’t major in the minors!â€? (Earl Lovelace, 1995) Ć” “Sharpen the Sawâ€? Ĺź ([HUFLVH  Clear your mind; Energize your body; Relieve stress! Ĺź Get adequate rest (sleep).  Proper rest can increase productivity and assist in avoiding costly mistakes. Ĺź Enjoy a hobby. Ĺź Take a vacation over the summer, during holidays, or as your contract allows. Ć” Learn to say NO! Ĺź Even to worthwhile/impactful tasks or opportunities Ĺź Volunteering for too many tasks doesn’t make you a saint, it makes you a work-a-holic! (Beasely 2008)

Ĺź Pause and put on your long-term vision goggles. Ĺź 2QHH[DPSOHRIKRZWRVD\NO:  “I think that is a great idea and thank you for thinking of me, but I will have to respectfully decline at this time due to my current commitments to my family and my primary job responsibilities.â€? Ć” Protect your days off Ĺź 2XUIDPLOLHVH[SHFWWKDWRIXVDQGWKH\GHVHUYHLWDV well. Ĺź Get some needed rest, catch up with family or chores, and/or have some fun! Ć” Communicate clearly Ĺź Limit time-consuming misunderstandings by communicating clearly and listening carefully – taking notes if necessary (Mayo Clinic Staff 2008). Ć” Keep meetings on topic and brief if at all possible. Ĺź Avoid the tendency of the “process outweighing the productâ€?, so to speak. Ĺź Facilitate meetings with the end or outcome in mind and as the primary objective.  Gently redirect or limit overly verbose colleagues as necessary to maintain the mission of the meeting and respect the time of all involved. Ĺź Instead of generally asking “Are there any questions?â€? ask the following instead: “Are there any purposeful questions relevant to all in attendance?â€? Ć” Seek peace with others (Beasley 2008) Ĺź At work and at home Ć” Be Accountable Ĺź Give honest answers to questions about your schedule to a trusted friend. Ĺź Hear and heed what your family members are saying about your schedule. Ć” Leave work at work, or at least be willing to put it away Ĺź There will likely be no boundary between work and home unless you create it (Mayo Clinic 2008). Ć” Work to live, rather than living to work Ĺź None of us are irreplaceable  I’m not and you’re not. More talented and LQWHOOLJHQWHGXFDWRUVZLOOĂ€OORXUUROHVDGPLUDEO\ one day. We all see it happen every new school year. Ć” Don’t worry Ĺź Research generally supports that less than 8% of what we worry about actually warrants the stress. Ĺź :RUU\KDVEHHQGHĂ€QHGDVZDVWLQJWRGD\¡VWLPH DQ[LRXVDERXWWRPRUURZ¡VRSSRUWXQLWLHVEHFDXVHRI yesterday’s struggles.

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Ĺź Forgive yourself and forget.  If you feel you have failed with regard to balance in the past, let go of that guilt. Tomorrow, however, is a new opportunity to make some necessary changes or improvements.

I took a school counseling class once in which the teacher’s question captivated me. He inquired, “How are you treating life?� rather than asking, “How is life treating you?� I took from that spin on Reality Therapy that my outlook, attitude, and actions had more to do with me than my circumstances.

There are no perfect jobs and no perfect people, but in WKHPLGVWRIVXFKLPSHUIHFWLRQVRXUGDLO\OLYHVDUHĂ€OOHG with many choices, one of which is how we will balance work and home. A critical point here is that our best work/home balance will vary over time based on our circumstances, our “season of life.â€? Those of you with young children are in a different season than those empty nesters; those single or single-again are in a unique VHDVRQ7KHNH\LVWRĂ€QGWKHULJKWEDODQFHWKDWZRUNV for you and/or your family based on your personality, your family chemistry, your personal value system, and your “season of life.â€? No matter what category you fall into, balance is crucial. Intentional and strategic balance can offer a career of both enjoyment and achievement over time. Our jobs as educators are not easy; they are a calling, but with that calling comes the responsibility and need to take care of ourselves, our families, and our careers. It just takes some balance!

References Beasley, Sabrina (2008). FamilyLife. 10 Ways to Reduce Stress. Retrieved September 2008 from http://familylife.com/articles/article. Lovelace, Earl (1995). Northwestern High School, Rock Hill SC. Direct quote recorded November 1995. Mayo Clinic Staff (2008). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. Retrieved September 2008 from http://www.mayo clinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D. Mental Health America (2007). Coping with Stress Checklist. Retrieved 6HSWHPEHUIURPKWWSZZZQPKDRUJLQGH[ Minamide, Elaine (1999). Focus on the Family. Workaholism. Retrieved September 2008 from http://www.family.org/lifechallenges/ A000000820.cfm. WorkLifeBalance.com (2003). :RUN/LIH%DODQFH'HĂ€QHG:KDWLWUHDOO\ means. Retrieved September 2008 from http://www.worklifebalance. FRPZRUNOLIHEDODQFHGHĂ€QHGKWPO

About the Author x Chris Gardner x Assistant Principal x Gold Hill Elementary School, 1000 Dave Gibson Blvd., Fort Mill, SC 29708 x 803-548-8250 In 24 years I have served three SC school districts as a math teacher, coach, vocational school counselor, alternative school director, high school assistant principal, and/or elementary assistant principal. I reside in Rock Hill where my wife is a part-time teacher, and we have three children ages 17, 16, and 12.



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Reframing Professional Development: Self Initiated Personal & Emotional Growth

By Edward Cox, Ed. D. and Sandra Lindsay, Ph.D.

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t’s time for every current and aspiring school leader to take responsibility for their professional development. It’s time for every school leader to organize and articulate their own thoughts regarding who they are and how they see themselves as a leader. It is no longer necessary or wise to wait and rely on the traditional sources of professional development, namely school districts, professional organizations, and universities to access the organizing tools necessary to gather your SHUVRQDODVVHVVPHQWGDWD(DUO\FDUHHULGHQWLÀFDWLRQRI emotional intelligence strengths, personality preferences, and leadership skills allow for the magic of compounding RYHUWLPHDQGDQLPSURYHGRSSRUWXQLW\WRPD[LPL]H LQGLYLGXDOOHDGHUVKLSFDSDFLW\DVRQWKHMREH[SHULHQFHLV accumulated. Reframing professional growth as self initiated ongoing personal development makes the time invested seem more worthwhile and strengthens the motivation to continue. /HDUQLQJDERXW\RXUVHOILVJHQHUDOO\PRUHH[FLWLQJDQG stimulating than learning about an organization and administrative roles and responsibilities. 7KHEHQHÀWV stay with you regardless of your leadership position, and it carries over more into your personal life.

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One aspect of leadership that links comfortably to the personal growth approach is emotional intelligence (EQ). The primary tenants of emotional intelligence were LQLWLDOO\LQWURGXFHGWKURXJKWKHÀHOGRISV\FKRORJ\LQ the early 1990’s by J.D. Mayer and Peter Salovey (2007). Daniel Goleman popularized the subject in 1995 with the publication of Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ (1995) and linked it to leadership success in his later work, Primal Leadership (2002). Over the last WZHQW\ÀYH\HDUVDYDULHW\RIQHZLQVWUXPHQWVKDYHEHHQ developed to measure EQ, personality preferences, and VSHFLÀFOHDGHUVKLSVNLOOV,QWUDSHUVRQDOLQWHOOLJHQFHRU self awareness, has emerged as a fundamental leadership attribute. Some critics may argue that claims regarding the importance of self reported emotional intelligence data go well beyond available empirical evidence. However, IHZH[SHULHQFHGOHDGHUVZRXOGGLVUHJDUGWKHLPSRUWDQFH of effectively recognizing emotions, accurately assessing strengths and limitations, and demonstrating the self FRQÀGHQFHWKDWJRHVZLWKWKDWDELOLW\4XDOLW\OHDGHUVKLS begins with a deep understanding of self and others; school leaders with a high level of self awareness are well positioned to bring that quality to the schools they lead.


A brief review of some of the personality, and leadership, and emotional intelligence assessments readily available will illustrate the possibilities for those willing to initiate or accelerate their personal growth and fast forward their leadership development.

Emotional Intelligence Inventories Several general emotional intelligence inventories are now available online or in booklet form ($50$250). Each provides feedback via a report generated from the respondent’s answers to a series of questions which assess the fundamental components of EQ. Each assessment takes 30-40 minutes to complete. The Hay Group publishes the Mayer/Salovey/Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT 2.0). The MSCEIT measures your ability to perceive, facilitate, understand and manage your emotions. MHS publishes two instruments, the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ECSI) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-2.0). These two instruments measure emotional intelligence mental abilities, and also incorporate some personality traits like warmth, outgoingness, and motivation. For those leaders interested in better understanding how they view their emotional strengths and limitations, this is a good starting point.

Personality Inventories Personality drives our leadership, particularly during WLPHVRIFRQà LFWDQGVWUHVV:HUHO\RQRXUSHUVRQDOLWLHVWR PRWLYDWHRWKHUVDQGKHOSPDNHGLIÀFXOWGHFLVLRQV6FKRRO administration is a high stress job encompassing many FRQà LFWVVRRXUSHUVRQDOLWLHVDUHFRQVWDQWO\RQGLVSOD\ to students, parents, and staff. While no particular personality is best for a school leader, a high level of self awareness can help predict how we will respond and help us modify that response when necessary. For those interested in personality preferences rather than general cognitive emotional attributes associated with leadership, two widely used and helpful assessments are available. Both are available online or in booklet form at a modest cost ($19.00-$39.00) and take about twenty minutes to complete. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is the most widely used personality inventory with over 1 million administrations. It divides people into one of two categories in each of four different personality GLPHQVLRQV0RVWUHFRJQL]DEOHLVWKHLQWURYHUWH[WURYHUW dimension. More internal are the intuitor/sensor, thinker/ feeler and judger/perceiver dimensions. The Strength Development Inventory (SDI) group’s responses into one of four personality preference

categories and allows for blended rather than mutually H[FOXVLYHSUHIHUHQFHV7KRVHIRXUSUHIHUHQFHVDUHWKH DVVHUWLYHQXUWXULQJDQDO\WLFDQGà H[LEOHSHUVRQDOLW\ types. The SDI also acknowledges the importance of GHDOLQJZLWKFRQà LFWE\SURYLGLQJDFRQà LFWSHUVRQDOLW\ preference. Personality affects leadership success and school leaders need to be able to articulate their particular personality attributes in a detailed, organized and easily understood manner. Personality assessments will help accomplish that task, improve self-awareness, and help us better understand others’ preferences as well.

Leadership Skills Inventories Several inventories have recently been developed that DVVHVVVSHFLÀFOHDGHUVKLSDWWULEXWHV&RVWVUDQJHIURP $15.00- $30.00 per inventory, and all are available online or in booklet form. None take more than twenty minutes to complete. Here is a sampling of what’s available. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) assesses the frequency of engagement in a variety of leader behaviors XWLOL]LQJDWHQSRLQWVFDOH5HVXOWVDUHJURXSHGLQWRÀYH leadership categories: modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, challenging the process, enabling others, and encouraging the heart. The LPI is often used in a 360° format allowing leaders to compare their self reported results with the observations of subordinates, superiors, and colleagues, sometimes an eye opening H[SHULHQFH The Personal Coaching Style Inventory utilizes eighty different possible descriptors to assess a leader’s most dominant coaching style. Results are grouped into four different styles: director, presenter, mediator, and strategizer. Considering the emphasis placed on developing coaching skills in many school districts, a detailed knowledge of your preference in this leadership area is particularly valuable. The Change Style Indicator (CSI) uses a forced choice paired statement format to measure a leaders change preferences. Results are scaled on a continuum ranging from conservative (resistant to change) to originators YHU\DFFHSWLQJRIFKDQJH ([SHFWDWLRQVUHJDUGLQJ leading and implementing change are very high these days in most school leadership positions. Leaders are well served by a deeper understanding of their change preferences. 7KH,Qà XHQFH6W\OH,QGLFDWRU ,6, XVHVDIRUW\LWHP forced choice paired statement format to measure a OHDGHU¡VSUHIHUUHGLQà XHQFLQJVW\OH5HVSRQVHVDUH JURXSHGLQWRWKHIROORZLQJÀYHFDWHJRULHVDVVHUWLQJ rationalizing, negotiating, inspiring, and bridging. School

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and assets, and they can call on the right emotional OHDGHUVDUHLQFUHDVLQJO\H[SHFWHGWRXVHLQà XHQFHUDWKHU intelligence attribute, the right personality preference, than positional power to achieve their goals. Knowing and the right leadership skills at the right time. Leaders \RXUSUHIHUUHGLQà XHQFHVW\OHDQGUHFRJQL]LQJZKHUHDQG with high self-awareness are well positioned to bring when it works best is an important leadership asset. that quality to the organization they lead. An individual The Portrait of Personal Strengths (PPS) requires incapable of honest self-appraisal however, is unlikely to the prioritization sorting of forty potential strengths. It be an effective school leader (Guthrie and Schuermann, SURYLGHVDQLQGLYLGXDOL]HGSURÀOHRIWKHVWUHQJWKVDOHDGHU 2010). These attributes and skills can generally be is relying on to accomplish tasks and build relationships. learned, but the ultimate responsibility for the collection Equally revealing is the picture it presents of the RIGDWDWKHUHTXLUHGUHà HFWLRQDQGWKHQHFHVVDU\SUDFWLFH potential strengths not being utilized. No administrator lies with the leader. should be charged with assessing the strengths of others Dilbert intoned after reading a leadership book that XQWLOWKH\KDYHWKRXJKWIXOO\LQYHVWLJDWHGDQGSURÀOHG he realized he didn’t do many of the things suggested their own and this inventory can help accomplish that but was surprised that a book with so many errors could task. get published. Ann Landers has suggested not accepting Strength Finder 2.0 is available through the book, your dog’s devotion as conclusive evidence that you are as Strengths Based Leadership. Respondent inventory wonderful as you might think. They are both right, and UHVXOWVDUHXVHGWRLGHQWLI\WKHÀYHVLJQDWXUHVWUHQJWKV it is in a leader’s best interest to learn the truth about PRVWXWLOL]HGE\WKHOHDGHU7KLVOHDGHUVKLSVSHFLÀF their leadership preferences, including those not initially version of the original Clifton Strength Finder provides self-evident, but sometimes painfully apparent to others. feedback regarding the advantages and limitations of Table I provides all the information needed to get started leading from each of the preferred strengths. Strength ZLWKWKLVQH[WEHVWSUDFWLFH based inventories can provide a better understanding of self but also help in identifying and developing the strengths of others. Educational leaders regularly encounter many emotionally based challenges. Not Assessment :HEVLWH taking disagreements personally, delegating Mayer/Salovey/Caruso decisions to others, and dealing with unfair Emotional Intelligence Test http://www.eiconsortium.org criticism are common, sometimes daily 06&(,7

occurrences for many practicing school Emotional & Social http://www.mhs.com leaders. Making controversial public decisions &RPSHWHQF\,QYHQWRU\ (&6,

takes a heavy emotional toll on even the most Emotional Quotient Inventory FRQÀGHQWDQGVHFXUHOHDGHU,W¡VQRORQJHU http://www.mhs.com (4

VXIĂ€FLHQWWRVD\\RXDUH´JRRGZLWKSHRSOHÂľ Myers Briggs Type Indicator or that you possess the necessary “people http://www.myersbriggs.org 0%7,

VNLOOVÂľ/HDGHUVZKRKDYHJDWKHUHGVSHFLĂ€F Strength Development data regarding their emotional intelligence, http://www.personalstrengths.us ,QYHQWRU\ 6',

personality, and leadership skills have an important advantage over those making more JHQHUDOL]HGFODLPVRIH[SHUWLVHDQGLQVLJKW It signals to others an appreciation of the intrapersonal component of leadership and a personal commitment to continuous learning. Successful leaders play to their strengths, but that requires a very accurate assessment of strengths and limitations. The process of deepening intrapersonal knowledge is not always easy but the effects can be profound (Donaldson, 2009). Effective school leaders recognize both liabilities

Leadership Practice Inventory /3,

http://www.lpionline.com

Personal Coaching Style ,QYHQWRU\ 3&6,

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References Donaldson, G. (2009). How leaders learn. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee,A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Guthrie, J., Schuermann J. (2010). Successful school leadership. Boston MA: Pearson Publishing. Salovey, P., Brackett, M. & Mayer, J. (2007). Emotional intelligence. Port Chester, NY: Dudd Publishing.

Dr. Sandra Lindsay is a clinical professor in the department of Educational Leadership and Policies at the University of South Carolina. She has previously served as an assistant superintendent in K-12 schools and as deputy state superintendent in South Carolina.

J. Brodie Bricker, PhD Educational Consulting, LLC

About the Authors

Training Leaders for the 21st Century

(GZDUG&R[(G' College of Education Wardlaw Hall University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 803-777-3089 Associate Professor University of South Carolina 'U(GZDUG&R[LVDQ$VVRFLDWH Professor in the department of Educational Leadership and Policies at the University of South Carolina. He has previously served as a superintendent of schools and high school principal. Sandra Lindsay, Ph.D. College of Education Wardlaw Hall University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 803-777-1503 Clinical Professor University of South Carolina

Safe School Management *Site and Facility Assessment *School Climate Assessment *School Crisis Plan Assessment

Leadership Training * First Year Principals Seminar * Team Building * Conflict Resolution * Management and Supervision

Interim Administrative Services *Short Term Administrative Support *District Level *School Level

________________________________________________________________________

J. Brodie Bricker, PhD 1 Bobby Jones Court, Greenville, SC 29609 Home (864) 292-1501 Cell ( 864) 436-7087 jbrodiebricker@bellsouth.net

www.brodiebrickerconsulting.com

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Innovation Now, From Best Practices to Next Practices By Michelle Aiken Wilson

I

DPDÀUPEHOLHYHUWKDWWKHUHLVQRWKLQJQHZXQGHU the sun. We in education continue to recycle prior practices, strategies, programs, and innovations decade after decade. We give it a new name but the same practice. One good thing about this: we continue to grow each time the practice goes around. Hind sight is always 20/20, so each time we go through the recycling process, ZHUHÀQHDQGPDNHWKHSUDFWLFHVDOLWWOHPRUHULJLGDQGD little more meaningful. Through research, we have learned over the years more and more about how children learn. We have utilized phonics, whole language, reading recovery, thematic units, cooperative learning, and the use of manipulatives. Those of you who are around my age, 51, probably remember that when we were students going through grammar school, our teachers divided all the students in the classroom into groups. Let’s see, there were the blue jays, the red robins, and the group needing the most help: the yellow jackets. Now, we have become a little more

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sophisticated with what we call these groups. Response to Intervention refers to these groups as Tier 1, 2, or 3. From past to present, the practices, thoughts, and ideas remain the same. We are providing small group instruction based on student’s instructional level. We call it a different name, but the strategies and purpose are still the same. The innovation that I am focusing on in this article is one that has also been important since the beginning of time. However, sometimes we as leaders completely fail to notice what can really make or break our success. I remember something told to me by my father, Harry Aiken Sr., when I was appointed a principalship in 1998. My father was a man who only had a 9th grade education but worked as a laborer for 44 years and was able to SXWVL[FKLOGUHQWKURXJKFROOHJH:KHQ,Ă€UVWUHFHLYHG WKHSRVLWLRQRI3ULQFLSDOKHH[SUHVVHGWKDWKHZDVso proud of me. He also said to me, “Baby, remember, even though you may now be powerful, remember to be


mercifulâ€?. That is one thought that I continue to keep in the forefront of my mind on a daily basis. I try to base my decisions daily around this premise. So the innovation that I am referring to is not a teaching strategy, a new program, a way to assess students, technology or a new way of scheduling. The innovative practice I am referring to is care. This is a simple word that has such a deep meaning. &DUHZKHQH[HFXWHGZLWKSXUSRVHDQGZLWKUHDVRQZLOO make any school successful. We as educators may be well versed in all the strategies to instruct and assess students. We may have master degrees in education, a 3K'LQFXUULFXOXPDQGLQVWUXFWLRQDQGPDQ\FHUWLĂ€FDWHV in all the great programs of the world dealing with instructing students. We may be the best speaker, manager, supervisor, planner, scheduler, disciplinarian, etc. But if the people with whom we work, and the people with whom we serve do not know that we care and have a vested interested in their success and well being, I can truly say that there will be a struggle with establishing a SUDFWLFHRIH[FHOOHQFHLQRXUVFKRROV I realized that my most valuable resource was not with curriculum, instruction, or assessment. My most valuable resource was the people with whom I worked. These individuals form three groups that needed to know I cared and that I had their best interest at heart. The groups I am referring to are as follows: 1. Parent and community 2. Faculty and staff 3. Students /HWPHH[SODLQWKHLPSRUWDQFHRIVKRZLQJFDUHIRUHDFK group. 7KHĂ€UVWJURXS,ZDQWWRIRFXVRQDUHWKHSDUHQWVDQG community. When I became the principal of St. JamesGaillard Elementary School 15 years ago, I was a new comer to the community. Being a “Berkeley Countyâ€? girl was obvious. I was raised in Berkeley County, had gone to school in Berkeley County, and started my career as a teacher and assistant principal in Berkeley County. But here it was, I was appointed a principalship in Orangeburg County Consolidated School District Three. I was leaving a district of over 40 schools to come to a district with a total of only seven schools. I was going to be working in a small community where everyone was related‌.everyone but me! It concerned me how I would be able to “become a part of this community,â€? a part to the point that I would be accepted. I remember receiving three phone calls one Sunday evening after working at St. James-Gaillard for a week.

First, I had a teacher’s aide who called and said her grandmother died that evening. She was requesting the day off. An hour later a teacher called with the same request. She stated that her mother-in-law died. Then DVXEVWLWXWHFDOOHGDQGH[SODLQHGWKDWVKHFRXOGQRW substitute the following day. She said a female family member died. I was dumbfounded. I remember telling my husband, “Wow, three women died in Eutawville today!â€? Guess what, it was just one lady who had passed on. I was on my way to learning the family connections. 'XULQJP\Ă€UVW\HDUDVSULQFLSDO,ZRUNHGH[WUDKDUG I worked hard learning the culture of this community. I worked hard at learning the family connections, the church connections, the school connections, and the ways in which things were done. I did not try to bring my big district mindset into this small district. I wanted to belong. It was important to me that I did belong. I learned the key players in the community. I learned the key players at my school. I learned! I changed my shopping habits and made sure that I got most of my groceries from the one grocery store in the town of Eutawville, IGA. I frequented Bill’s Dollar Store. When they went out of business, I shopped at the Family 'ROODUDQG'ROODU*HQHUDO,KDGP\SUHVFULSWLRQVĂ€OOHG at the one pharmacy in town, Delta Pharmacy. I did P\SHUVRQDOPDLOLQJVDWWKHORFDOSRVWRIĂ€FH3DUHQWV students and the community saw me around town; a town that did not even have a stop light. I visited the local churches, held a Minister’s Breakfast to help me bond with the religious community, which I learned was GHĂ€QLWHO\WKHKXERIWKLVVPDOOFRPPXQLW\ I soon felt as though I belonged. I became “one of the community.â€? The community saw that I cared enough to be a part of them. If I wanted to be successful in working with their children, they had to feel that I cared. I was accepted! I can now call a parent and talk from a personal level. I can suspend or discipline a child and the parents have my back (most of the time). When I call, the majority of the parents are there to support me, the teacher, and the school. I now know most of my parents by name, or at least can link them to their connection in the community. I speak, hug and laugh with them any time we meet. I take the time when I’m in IGA to discuss a child’s progress or lack thereof. I soon came to realize that the cost of caring was nothing! We all had a common goal; that goal being the success of each child that comes through St. James-Gaillard Elementary School. Oh, I won’t dare to say that I have not had “roughâ€? parent conferences, discrepancies at IEP meetings, disagreements with car riders, and other obstacles that

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come, but I can accurately say that when these times are over, I still have the same concern and care for all involved. The second group of individuals who needed to know I cared was my faculty and staff. These people are my backbone. I realized that they could either make me or break me when it came to the success of my school. At St. James-Gaillard Elementary School we share leadership. We have assigned grade level chairs who meet with me on a consistent basis. These meetings are not just to listen to what I have to say, but every member’s suggestions, ideas, and thoughts are valued. Each grade level also meets weekly to discuss instruction and curriculum. The same premise is prominent - their thoughts count. Many times I simply ask, “What do you think we should do?” Although my thoughts may sometimes be the one we go with, my team knows that they have the opportunity to give input. They know their thoughts are of value. They know that I thought enough of them to ask their opinion and suggestions. Being the principal does not mean that I have all the answers. Educationally, my teachers are there with the children all day, everyday. They have the most valuable job. It is basically up to them to ensure our students success.

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I also try my best to know the family framework of my faculty and staff. I randomly ask about their children, grand children, ill parents and their health. They know WKH\FDQFRPHWRPHLQFRQÀGHQFHDQGVKDUH7KH\NQRZ my care is genuine. My teachers know it is my goal to supply them with what ever they need to be successful in the classroom. If they want something that will advance the education of the students, they know I will go above and beyond to get it for them. To establish this family type atmosphere at St. JamesGaillard, it had to begin with me. The faculty and staff at SJG are indeed a family. Each morning, I make it a point to greet everyone from the custodians and cafeteria workers to the teachers and students. We care about each other, and it shows through the successes we’ve H[SHULHQFHGRYHUWKH\HDUV There was a period in my personal life where I felt the bottom had fallen out from under me. Within four years I lost both parents to natural causes, my husband was killed in a car accident (by the husband of one of my counselors), my best friend died, and my son was murdered. This family at St. James-Gaillard Elementary School had my back. With each loss in my life, I had to take some time off. But each time I was away from


school, I was assured that my staff was working and FDUU\LQJRXWWKHH[SHFWDWLRQVWKDWZHKDGZRUNHGVR hard to establish. Our school did not miss a beat! For H[DPSOHP\KXVEDQGGLHGGXULQJWKHWLPHZKHQRXU school was preparing for a visitation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). I remember (all so well) my guidance counselor and speech teacher coming to my home and guaranteeing me that everything would be ready and perfect for the visit, and for me not to worry. This staff knew I cared, therefore they cared. The last group and most important group that has to feel I care are the students. From the honor students to the special needs students; from child development VWXGHQWVFU\LQJWKHÀUVWPRQWKRIVFKRROWRWKHÀIWK graders who feel they are in middle school already: they know I care. While watching the breakfast line I talk to students about football, basketball and other interest they may have. I attend their community little league games. I make sure they see me in the stands. I yell their names during the game. After visiting classrooms, I talk to students in the cafeteria about what they were doing in class and check their true understanding of what was taught. We celebrate the success of students daily. I have even been seen doing a little dancing if an entire class reached a special goal. The students have taught me KRZWRGRWKHZREEOHWKHELNHUVVKXIà HWKHFXSLGVKXIà H and more. We dance to celebrate success. They are my students; I feel like their mother. They know I care. I fuss when they misbehave. I call parents when students do not do well. I tie shoes and wipe noses. They know I love them and want them to be successful. I call students E\QDPH,PDNHVXUHP\WHDFKHUVSODQÀHOGWULSVWKDW are relevant to the curriculum, with the purpose being WRH[SRVHRXUVWXGHQWVWRWKHZRUOGDURXQGWKHP:H UHZDUGRXUVWXGHQWVLQLQWULQVLFZD\VDVZHOODVH[WULQVLF ways. I try to teach them good work ethics and proper manners. I try my best to know where my students are coming from (home, family unit, economic background) in order to know where we need to take them. They know I care! So when we look for the new innovations to implement with our students, when we look for best practices and QH[WSUDFWLFHVOHW¡VQRWIRUJHWZKDWUHDOO\PDWWHUVWR ensure the success of our students: show them you care. Care for the community in which you serve. Care for your faculty and staff. Most importantly, care for your students. Let your new innovations and best practices this year focus on the people. Establish a special relationship with the parents and community. Value your teachers input and love and care about your students. What works is not always what you

buy or what you know, sometimes it’s just what you do! Care!!!

About the Author Michelle Aiken Wilson is an elementary school principal. She began her career as a teacher at Cross Elementary School in Cross, South Carolina. After nine years she became the Assistant Principal of Devon Forest Elementary School located in Goose Creek, South Carolina. In 1998, Wilson was appointed principal of St. JamesGaillard Elementary School located in Eutawville, South Carolina (Orangeburg County Consolidated School District Three). She continues to serve this community today. She grew up in Moncks Corner, South Carolina and graduated from Berkeley High School, as well as Charleston Southern University, where she obtained a B.S. Degree in Elementary Education and a minor in Psychology. She received a Masters in Education Degree with an emphasis in Elementary Administration and Supervision from The Citadel Military College in Charleston, South Carolina. Michelle has presented at many education conferences and was named the 2008 Elementary School Principal of the Year (National Distinguished Principal) for the state of South Carolina. Under her leadership, St. JamesGaillard Elementary School was named a “Dispelling The Myth School� by the Education Trust. Her new found passion now is to share the word that through tragedy there is still hope. Michelle is now the author of a very inspirational book, “Anything Can Happen: My Journey from Despair to Healing and then to Wholeness.� This book describes Michelle’s journey through the lost of a brother, parents, spouse, best friend and the murder of her oldest son. She is the mother of three surviving children, Nicole, Carlton and Melissa and one deceased child, Isaac. She is also the very proud Mimi of one grandson Corinthian. Website: www.michellebyfaith.com Or www.anything-can-happen.com

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Fostering Department Chair Instructional Leadership Capacity: Implications for South Carolina’s Principals

By Hans Klar, Ph.D., Virginia Metts and Lori Corley

I

n this article, we present the results of a twoyear study of principals in three high schools who developed their department chairs’ instructional OHDGHUVKLSFDSDFLWLHV7KHÀQGLQJVVKRZHGWKDWWKH SULQFLSDOVXVHGÀYHPDLQVWUDWHJLHVWRGRWKLVFXOWLYDWH a shared understanding of distributed instructional leadership; provide opportunities to develop instructional leadership capacity; provide opportunities to be instructional leaders; monitor chairs’ needs, and provide support as required; and demonstrate a long-term commitment to distributed instructional leadership. The ÀQGLQJVFRQWULEXWHWRWKHOLPLWHGUHVHDUFKRQGHYHORSLQJ high school department chair instructional leadership capacity as a strategy for improving instruction in high schools. They also serve as a basis for future research in the area of leadership development, and the building of school-wide instructional capacity. In this article we begin by providing a brief overview of the relevant literature. :HWKHQGHVFULEHRXUUHVHDUFKPHWKRGVDQGÀQGLQJV )LQDOO\ZHGLVFXVVWKHLPSOLFDWLRQVRIWKHÀQGLQJVIRU educators in South Carolina.

Background Research on instructional leadership has emphasized WKHVLJQLĂ€FDQWWKRXJKLQGLUHFWHIIHFWWKDWVFKRROOHDGHUV can have on student achievement (Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005). While principals are often thought of as the sole instructional leaders in schools, the responsibility of improving a school’s instructional capacity is simply WRRFRPSOH[DQGRYHUZKHOPLQJDMREIRUDVLQJOHOHDGHU (Copland & Boatright, 2006; Fullan, 2002; Lambert, 2002). The relatively recent research on teacher leadership (Barth, 2007; Murphy, 2005; York-Barr & Duke, 2004) and distributed leadership (Leithwood, Mascall & Strauss, 2009; Harris, Leithwood, Day, Sammons, & Hopkins, 2007; Spillane, 2006) suggest avoiding the idea that school leadership requires the heroics of “charismatic individuals,â€? (Portin, et al., 2009, p. 8) and adopting a more inclusive view. After conducting a study of leadership in English schools, MacBeath (2005) suggested that distributing leadership is a three-staged,

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GHYHORSPHQWDOSURFHVV+HIRXQGWKDWLQWKHĂ€UVWVWDJH principals observed the school’s formal structures, culture DQGKLVWRU\,QWKHVHFRQGVWDJHWKH\LGHQWLĂ€HGSRWHQWLDO leaders and nurtured them, providing them with training or activities that “stretched their capacityâ€? (p.364). In this stage, the principals developed a creative environment that encouraged input, established a shared vision, and involved staff in making decisions. In the third phase, principals focused on facilitating and supporting the work of other leaders. Despite the work of MacBeath and other scholars, OLPLWHGDWWHQWLRQKDVVSHFLĂ€FDOO\IRFXVHGRQKRZWRIRVWHU the capacities of potential co-leaders, like department chairs, to become instructional leaders (Wahlstrom & Louis, 2008; Spillane & Louis, 2005). Though high school instructional improvement efforts tend not to involve department chairs (Harris, 2001; Siskin & Little, 1995), there is good reason to develop their leadership capabilities as a way to enhance instruction. This rationale is based on both the strong connection teachers have with their departments and the potential of chairs WRLQĂ XHQFHLQVWUXFWLRQLQWKHLUGHSDUWPHQWV 6LVNLQ  Little, 1995; Weiler, 2001; Wetterson, 1992).

Research Design and Methods Sample selection. Three comprehensive, urban high schools from one Wisconsin school district provided the background for this study. The high schools ranged LQVL]HIURPWRVWXGHQWVDQGKDGVLJQLÀFDQW achievement gaps. In 2008, each school received a grant from the US Department of Education to develop small learning communities, and a grant from the Wallace Foundation to support leadership development. The schools were primarily selected for this study due to their principals’ strong commitments to fostering department chairs’ instructional leadership capacities. The schools also provided a good opportunity to study the development of instructional leadership as the chairs traditionally had little responsibility for instructional practices within their departments. Data collection. Data was collected from each of the schools using observations, document analyses, and two rounds of semi-structured interviews. In total,


43 interviews were conducted with principals, grant coordinators, and department chairs from the high schools. Analysis of the interview transcripts and relevant documents, combined with participant observations, led to the development of three cases. The cases were then compared and contrasted, resulting in a multi-site case study.

Findings In this section, we describe how the principals attempted to foster the instructional leadership capacities RIWKHLUGHSDUWPHQWFKDLUVXVLQJWKHÀYHPDLQVWUDWHJLHV WKDWHPHUJHGIURPWKHÀQGLQJV Cultivate a shared understanding of distributed instructional leadership. Each principal used the grants as catalysts for initiating this change in department chairs’ leadership roles. The principals used data to demonstrate a need for change in their schools. They provided a vision for a new model of leadership in which the traditional role of department chair was transformed from administrative tasks to instructional OHDGHU(DFKSULQFLSDODOVRFODULÀHGWKHQHZUROHDQG their role in fostering the department chairs’ leadership capabilities. Provide opportunities to develop instructional leadership capacity. To provide their department chairs opportunities to develop instructional leadership capacity each principal used individual and team leadership activities to model the collaborative leadership and learning approaches they hoped the chairs would employ when engaging teachers in their departments. They also used these opportunities to provide department chairs with the knowledge and skills the chairs themselves requested. Provide opportunities to be instructional leaders. Principals at each of the schools performed similar actions to provide department chairs with opportunities to be instructional leaders. This included providing the chairs with the necessary resources and structures to work with teachers in their departments, and enabling them to PDNHRULQà XHQFHFULWLFDOGHFLVLRQVUHODWHGWRVFKRROZLGH or departmental improvement efforts. Monitor chairs’ needs and adjust required levels of support. Each of the principals went to considerable lengths to determine the on-going needs of their department chairs, and to respond with commensurate levels of support. To maintain an understanding of chairs’ requirements, the principals and grant coordinators from each school collected formal and informal feedback from chairs. In all cases, the feedback was used to alter the

pace or scope of change as required. Demonstrate a long-term commitment to distributed instructional leadership. Each principal also demonstrated a long-term commitment to distributed instructional leadership. This was achieved by maintaining a persistent focus on the work in leadership WHDPPHHWLQJVDQGUHWUHDWVSURYLGLQJVXIĂ€FLHQWUHVRXUFHV to support leadership development activities, holding chairs accountable for completing initiatives agreed to by the leadership teams, and by fully participating in all leadership team activities “alongsideâ€? rather than “aboveâ€? the department chairs.

Discussion The critical actions performed by the principals in these three high schools closely align with other research on developing leadership capacity. For instance, Stoll and Bolam (2005) suggested that there are three main processes in building capacity: “creating and maintaining the necessary conditions, culture and structures; IDFLOLWDWLQJOHDUQLQJDQGVNLOORULHQWHGH[SHULHQFHV and opportunities; and ensuring interrelationships and synergy between all the component partsâ€? (p. 52). 7KHĂ€QGLQJVDOVRUHVRQDWHZLWKWKRVHRI/HLWKZRRGHW DO  ZKRVXJJHVWHGSURYLGLQJWLPHWRH[HUFLVH leadership, acknowledging the importance of leadership, and creating opportunities to develop leadership skills DUHNH\DVSHFWVRIGLVWULEXWHGOHDGHUVKLS7KHĂ€QGLQJV also illustrate the critical role the principals played at the outset of the initiative in clarifying what distributed instructional leadership would look like in each of the schools and in providing direction and support throughout the process. The majority of the principals’ efforts to foster the instructional leadership capacities of their department chairs occurred through the work of the leadership team. According to West-Burnham (2004), teams are the most powerful way to develop leadership capacity. Working within the leadership teams allowed all participants to JDLQDGHHSHUXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIVWXGHQWV¡H[SHULHQFHV across the school as well as the successes and challenges RIWKHLUFROOHDJXHV¡H[SHULHQFHV,QHDFKRIWKHVFKRROVWKH leadership team evolved into a professional community (Louis & Marks, 1996; McLaughlin & Talbert, 2001). While much of the research focused on professional community centers on teacher learning, this study illustrates how leadership teams can be transformed into effective learning environments for department chairs while providing them with models for professional collaboration within their departments.

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Implications for practice. 7KLVVWXG\H[DPLQHGWKH development of department chair capacity to participate in a distributed model of instructional leadership. 3DUDGR[LFDOO\LWWRRNOHDGHUVKLSIURPWKHSULQFLSDOVWR initiate this long-term approach to school improvement. Clarifying what the roles of the chairs, leadership teams, and principals would and would not be was critical at the outset. Principals encountered obstacles which slowed the progress of their initiatives, the largest being a lack of time. Though the principals tried to reduce some of the routine and administrative functions of the chairs, WKH\VWLOOH[SHULHQFHGDQLQFUHDVHGZRUNORDGDVDUHVXOW of their new responsibilities. An additional implication for practice is simply the large amount of time and effort required to change the chairs’ roles and school culture. Study Conclusion. In this multisite case study, we have shown that urban high school principals can indeed foster the instructional leadership capacities of their department chairs. The principals achieved WKLVWKURXJKDFRPELQDWLRQRIÀYHSULPDU\VWUDWHJLHV (1) cultivating a shared understanding of distributed instructional leadership, (2) providing opportunities to develop instructional leadership capacity, (3) providing opportunities to be instructional leaders, (4) monitoring chairs’ needs and adjusting required levels of support, and (5) demonstrating a long-term commitment to distributed instructional leadership. Despite initial hesitation on the part of some department chairs, all of the chairs demonstrated that they understood and were in the process of developing their roles as instructional leaders. When provided with the requisite levels of support, skill training, and opportunities to practice being leaders, chairs were able to use their organizational and departmentVSHFLÀFNQRZOHGJHWRFRQWULEXWHWRWKHGHYHORSPHQW of new processes and practices. While the principals demonstrated that fostering department chair instructional leadership could result in enhanced processes and procedures that support high-quality instruction, given the relatively short duration of this study, major changes in school-wide instructional capacity were not observed. Instead, the growth of department chairs’ instructional leadership capacities should be seen as laying the groundwork for them to lead schoolwide instructional improvements. Further research is still required to better understand how leadership can be developed to support student achievement. It is FULWLFDOWKDWWKLVDUHDLVIXUWKHUH[SORUHGIRUDVRQHJUDQW FRRUGLQDWRUÀWWLQJO\QRWHG´$OORIWKLVZRUNLVLUUHOHYDQW unless it impacts what teachers do for kids.� Perspectives from South Carolina. At all levels

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of P-12 education, department and grade level teams delve into common state standards, focus on instructional practices, and use data to plan for student learning. Using this team structure provides opportunities for leadership and teamwork. Although the concept of professional learning communities is not new, many districts in South Carolina are encouraging this structure in order to make data-driven decisions about student instruction. Even at the earliest levels of primary grade instruction, teachers are encouraged to collaborate to improve learning outcomes through their own instructional decisionmaking. Based on the implications of this study, as principals initiate grade level meetings and structures to promote the growth of professional learning communities, FDUHIXODQDO\VLVLVQHHGHGWRJDXJHWKHH[LVWLQJOHDGHUVKLS capacity of teachers, decide who will serve as teacher leaders, and implement a plan for how this capacity for leadership will be facilitated from the elementary to the high school level. Virginia Metts, an elementary school principal in Greenwood School District 50, works to develop grade level chairs into team leaders. As a principal who spent many years at a single elementary school and has recently changed schools, she has had the opportunity to see 0DF%HDWK¡V  WD[RQRP\RIOHDGHUVKLSGLVWULEXWLRQ WKURXJKHDFKRILWVVWDJHV6KHÀUVWZRUNVWRJHWWRNQRZ the school and staff, and identify informal leaders through meetings with individual staff members as well as grade level teams. Initial tasks are then designed to build teams and give chairs opportunities for leadership. One H[DPSOHLVGHYHORSLQJWKHORQJUDQJHFXUULFXODUSODQVIRU each grade level. Time for professional learning community meetings is scheduled into the workweek. Initial meeting agendas are set and led by the administrative staff, and gradually turned over to the team leaders. Teams and team leaders are trained to use data to make decisions about the curriculum and student learning. The principal meets with team leaders at least once a month to discuss progress, make decisions concerning school activities, and identify needs for staff development. As an instructional coach in the Saluda School district, Lori Corley has a unique perspective on the process of building leadership capacity in elementary schools. As a teacher-leader functioning outside the traditional classroom setting, she observes teachers, provides professional development, and facilitates groups of teachers as they meet to discuss student learning. Her vantage point allows her to observe how groups of teachers work together and to analyze what supports are QHHGHGWRKHOSWKHPEHFRPHSURÀFLHQWXVLQJGDWDWRPDNH


decisions for improving student learning. Through these activities, Corley performs the role of an instructional leader. She also helps her principal understand how her colleagues in the classrooms are developing their own leadership capacities. Corley sees collaboration between coaches and principals necessary to grow teacher leadership, rather than relying primarily on the leadership of the instructional coach as “the chosenâ€? teacher leader. From this perspective, instructional coaches serve as middle level leaders, similar to the high school department chairs in the study described in this article. Both department chairs and instructional coaches are then seen to have a key role in developing teacher leadership and increasing school-wide instructional capacity. In order for coaches to contribute to the instructional leadership of their schools, they need to feel trust between themselves and the principal, and to be an integral part of a consistent instructional framework. Coaches also need to be given the time and opportunity to grow as leaders themselves so they can help teachers become leaders. :KHQSULQFLSDOVYRLFHDQH[SHFWDWLRQDQGWKHH[SHFWDWLRQ changes repeatedly, instructional coaches can lose the trust and respect of teachers as they lead. This lack of consistency damages the relationship between principal and instructional coach and affects the performance of coaches and the teachers with whom they collaborate. Principals must remember that building leadership capacity is a process, not an instantaneous undertaking DQGPXVWXVHUHĂ HFWLYHFROODERUDWLRQZLWKFRDFKHVWRSODQ accordingly. If teacher leaders feel valued and trusted LQVFKRROVZKHUHULJRURXVH[SHFWDWLRQVDUHFRQVLVWHQWO\ maintained, teachers can be more successful in doing what is best for the students they teach. As a follow up to this study, we interviewed two high school principals in South Carolina to better understand how, if at all, they develop the instructional leadership capacities of their department chairs. Shelia Hilton, principal of T.L. Hanna High School in Anderson School District Five, includes department chairs as part of her leadership team. Principal Hilton noted that they are involved in making many decisions, including those related to curriculum, instruction, and sometimes discipline. She stated: To me, the building of leadership must include teaching him or her to see a broader picture of issues and problems. Normally, a department head would only want to see the curricular or instructional side of an issue. However, by EULQJLQJKHULQWRWKHPL[DVGHFLVLRQPDNHUZH are able to teach her to see the other aspects of

the problem that make it a different problem altogether. Principal Hilton summed up the value of developing department chairs’ leadership abilities as follows: I like to think of department heads as straddling the line between administrator and teacher. They actually have an advantage here because they are still in the real world of the classroom, while being asked to make administrative decisions. This perspective always helps because they bring the teachers’ perspectives with them to the decision table. Dr. Beth L. Taylor, principal of Greenwood High School in Greenwood School District 50, gives department chairs a voice in making many types of decisions as well. These decisions relate to the master schedule, curriculum and instruction, and student matters. She meets with the department chairs as a group each month. She also meets with the chairs individually to discuss issues concerning their individual departments. Principals at all levels are responsible for deciding how and how much they will distribute instructional leadership responsibilities. Depending on the structure of the school, principals may have additional human UHVRXUFHVWRIXOÀOOOHDGHUVKLSUROHVRUWKH\PD\UHO\RQ grade level teachers or department chairs as teacher leaders. As principals at all levels of P-12 instruction initiate structures to promote critical thinking and collaborative problem solving in schools, facilitating leadership capacity in teachers must be top priority as they work together to help students learn.

References Barth, R. (2007). The teacher leader. In R. Ackerman & S. Mackenzie (Eds.), Uncovering Teacher Leaders (pp. 9-36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Copland, M. A., & Boatright, E. (2006). Leadership for Transforming High Schools. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Fullan, M. (2002, May). The change leader. Educational Leadership. 16-20. Harris, A. (2001). Department improvement and school improvement: A missing link? British Educational Research Journal. 27(4), 477- 486. Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Day, C., Sammons, P., & Hopkins, D. (2007). Distributed leadership and organizational change: Reviewing the evidence. Journal of Educational Change, 8, 337-347. Lambert, L. (2002) Beyond instructional leadership: A framework for shared leadership. Educational Leadership, 58(80) 37-40. Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How OHDGHUVKLSLQĂ XHQFHVVWXGHQWOHDUQLQJ. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation. Leithwood, K., & Mascall, B., & Strauss, T., Sacks, R., Memon, N., & Yashkina, A. (2009). Distributing leadership to make schools

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smarter: Taking the ego out of the system. In K. Leithwood, B. Mascall, & T. Strauss (Eds.), Distributed leadership according to the evidence (pp. 61-86). New York: Routledge. Louis, K. S., & Marks, H. (1996, April). Does professional community affect the classroom? Teachers’ work and student experiences in restructuring schools. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY. MacBeath, J. (2005). Leadership as distributed: A matter of practice. School Leadership and Management, 25(4), 349-366. Marzano, R., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Aurora, CO: Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning. McLaughlin, M. W., & Talbert, J. E. (2001). Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Murphy, J. (2005). Connecting teacher leadership and school improvement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Portin, B., Knapp, M., Dareff, S., Feldman, S., Russell, F., Samuelson, C., & Yeh, T.L. (2009). Leadership for Learning Improvement in Urban Schools. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Siskin, L., & Little, J. (1995). The subject department: Continuities and critiques. In L. Siskin, & J. Little (Eds.), The subjects in question: departmental organization and the high school (pp. 1-22). New York: Teachers College Press. Spillane, J. P. (2006). Distributed leadership. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Spillane, J. P., & Louis, K. S. (2005). School improvement processes and practices: Professional learning for building instructional capacity. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 101(1), 83-104. Stoll, L., & Bolam, R. (2005). Developing leadership for learning communities. In M. Coles & G. Southworth (Eds.), Developing leadership: Creating the schools of tomorrow. Maidenhead: Open University Press. :DKOVWURP./ /RXLV.6  +RZWHDFKHUVH[SHULHQFH principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, HIÀFDF\DQGVKDUHGUHVSRQVLELOLW\ Weiler, L. (2001). Department heads: The most underutilized leadership position. NASSP Bulletin, 85, 73-81. West-Burnham, J. (2004). Building leadership capacity- helping leaders learn. Nottingham: National College of School Leadership. Retrieved on October 12, 2008, from www.ncsl.org.uk/mediastore/image2/randdbuilding-lead-capacity.pdf. Wetterson, J. (1992, April). High school department chairs as instructional leaders: Four case studies. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. York-Barr, J., & Duke, K. (2004). What do we know about teacher leadership? Findings from two decades of scholarship. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 255-316.

About the Authors Hans W. Klar, PhD Assistant Professor Eugene T. Moore School of Education Clemson University 416 Tillman Hall, Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29634 Dr. Klar’s research and teaching is focused on instructional leadership and school improvement. His dissertation, on which this article is based, won the 2011 American Educational Research Association (AERA) Leadership for School Improvement Special Interest Group Dissertation of the Year award. Dr. Klar is also the principal investigator of the South Carolina Successful School Principals’ Project, a study he is conducting along with several colleagues at Clemson University.

Virginia Metts 3ULQFLSDO:RRGÀHOGV(OHPHQWDU\6FKRRO Greenwood School District 50 1032 Emerald Road Greenwood, South Carolina 29646 0UV0HWWVLVFXUUHQWO\LQKHUÀUVW\HDUDVSULQFLSDORI :RRGÀHOGV(OHPHQWDU\6FKRROLQ*UHHQZRRG6FKRRO District 50. She was a principal at Lakeview Elementary School for 14 years. She previously served as a teacher, curriculum coordinator, and assistant principal. She holds a master’s degree in Educational Leadership from the University of South Carolina and is currently a doctoral student at Clemson University.

Lori Corley Instructional Coach, Saluda Primary School, Saluda, SC 200 Matthews Drive Saluda, SC 29138 Ms. Corley has served students with special needs from pre-school to eighth grade. She has been assisting teachers as an instructional coach for the past four years. She serves on the District Leadership Team in Saluda County School District.

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Countering the Negative Effects of Poverty Through Innovation By Betty T. Bagley, Nikki Hawthorne and Dr. Sonia Cunningham Leverette

Description of the Problem Do you know how it feels to be hungry for hours, or even days? Have you ever tried concentrating or participating in a classroom when your last meal was at school either the day before or prior to the weekend? On top of that, how well do you sleep when your stomach growls incessantly? While poverty has always plagued Anderson County, an increasing number of children in Anderson School District Five are attending school without having their basic needs met. Most educators are introduced to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs during their teacher education preparation programs. Thus, we are all aware that physiological needs are at the forefront of all other needs. Though we may take these needs for granted personally, we must remember that many of the students we educate are less fortunate. Because of the achievements and accomplishments of Anderson School District Five, neighbors are often surprised by our high level of poverty. Mirroring those

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in our state and nation, families in our county face an increasing number of hardships, including poverty, unemployment, and growing incidences of homelessness. Located in the City of Anderson—an urban area with a poverty rate double the national average—Anderson 6FKRRO'LVWULFW)LYHKDVVL[W\WKUHHSHUFHQWRIHOHPHQWDU\ students living at the poverty level, with clusters of poverty in four Title One schools that have free and reduced lunch rates above 73% (SC DOE, 2011). Three of these schools have poverty rates above 90%, ranging from 92.7% to 97.3%. The unemployment rate in Anderson County reached 14% in 2010 and remains above the national average (SC Department of Employment and Workforce, 2012). A lack of education contributes to unemployment and poverty: in Anderson County, nearly 20% of adults did not graduate high school, compared to the national average of 15% (Census, 2010). In the City of Anderson, the per capita income is 26% below the state average and 47% below the national average (Census, 2010). According to Lisa Hall, Homeless Liaison for


Anderson School District Five, at the end of the 2011VFKRRO\HDUWKHGLVWULFWKDGLGHQWLĂ€HGKRPHOHVV students, up from 273 the prior year. To bring life to these numbers, counselors report that some students live in storage units or tents in the woods EHKLQGWKHVFKRROSURSHUW\7KHGLIĂ€FXOW\IRUVWXGHQWV living in homes without heat, electricity or running water to adjust normally at school is often realized. A few years ago, a Nutrition Services employee shared the story of DPLGGOHVFKRROHUZKRURGHKLVELF\FOHQHDUO\Ă€YHPLOHV one-way to summer school. The irony in this story is that this student successfully completed the prior year academically. After being questioned repeatedly, this \RXQJPDQĂ€QDOO\EURNHGRZQDQGVKDUHGWKDWKHZDV attending in order to stuff his pockets with biscuits for his younger siblings. These children were left at home daily without food, as their mother worked and struggled to pay the rent and utilities. This is just one of numerous stories. Knowing the importance of children having proper nutrition in order to be successful in the classroom and to circumvent the harmful effects of poverty on many children in our district, we have incorporated several innovative programs through our nutrition services.

Strategies of Innovation Breakfast in the classroom Breakfast in the classroom is practiced at four out RIRXUĂ€YHPLGGOHVFKRROVLQ$QGHUVRQ6FKRRO'LVWULFW )LYH7KHEHQHĂ€WVRIWKHSURJUDPDUHHQGOHVV2QH EHQHĂ€WLVWKHQXPEHURIVWXGHQWVZKRSDUWLFLSDWH2I our four schools participating, 87.5% of these students are consuming breakfast. The current national average of students eligible for free or reduced breakfast is less than half. Breakfast in the classroom removes the typical cafeteria breakfast barriers, such as lack of time to eat, bus schedules, and stigmas. We all know that students who skip breakfast cannot learn at the optimal level, thus potentially impacting concentration, alertness, comprehension, memory and learning (Vaisman, 1996). Research associates students consuming school breakfast with improved math grades, attendance and punctuality (Murphy, 1998) (Powell, 1998). Principals have provided positive feedback for this program in our district. Jacky Stamps, principal at McCants International Baccalaureate World Candidate School, stated, “Breakfast in the classroom gives every student the opportunity to have a meal prior to beginning the school day. With the busy schedule of many of our parents, it helps them and us know that students are nutritionally prepared

for each day.â€? Additionally, Martha Hanwell, principal at Lakeside Middle School of Inquiry & Innovation, A Stem School, said, “It is wonderful that all children can eat. This removes the stigma that was associated with eating breakfast. The perception was that only low income children ate breakfast at school. That has FKDQJHGZLWKEUHDNIDVWLQWKHFODVVURRPÂľ7KHEHQHĂ€WVRI breakfast in the classroom outweigh the challenges, and the challenges can be overcome with careful planning and implementation.

Fresh fruits and vegetables Our school district currently has four schools that receive the fresh fruit and vegetable grant. This program allows students to consume fresh fruits and vegetables at some point during the school day most days of the week WKURXJKRXWWKH\HDU7KLVH[SRVHVRXUVWXGHQWVWRQHZ fruits and vegetables they would not normally encounter. One student last year stated that she requested her mom to buy “ugly� fruit at the grocery store because she liked it so much when she tried it at school. Principals take this one step further by turning the new fruits and vegetables LQWRDQHGXFDWLRQDOH[SHULHQFH7KH\W\SLFDOO\WDONDERXW the origin of the fruit or vegetable on the morning news shows; they also send information home in the school newsletter or even have parent night with taste-testing and highlight the fresh items our students get to enjoy weekly. This program not only allows students to meet their daily fruit and vegetable intake, but it educates them as well. Under this program, we have been able to create multiple community partnerships. These partnerships have allowed us to receive locally grown SURGXFHDQGH[SRVHRXUVWXGHQWVWRKHDOWK\IRRGJURZQ at our back door. We can truly say “Nothing Fresher, Nothing Finer Grown in South Carolina.�

Gardens Two of our schools received the Farm-to-School Grant during the 2011-2012 school year which allowed us to plant gardens that provide outdoor classrooms. This closed the circle for our students and brought “farm-totableâ€? to life. When they are educated on where their foods come from and how our foods get to the serving OLQHVWXGHQWVDUHPRUHH[FLWHGDQGPRUHOLNHO\WRWU\ new produce. Our gardens provide reinforcement to our students on the importance of consuming fresh fruits and vegetables during lunch time. South Carolina produce was served twice a month last year in all of our schools. Using produce from local farmers while increasing our VWXGHQWV¡H[SRVXUHSURYLGHVDZLQZLQ2XUVFKRRO

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2012 Summer Data

JDUGHQVDOORZRXUVWXGHQWVWRH[SHULHQFHWKHIXOOOLIHF\FOH of a variety of herbs, fruits and vegetables, while bringing WKHWH[WERRNWROLIHSURYLGLQJVWXGHQWVDPRUHHQJDJLQJ H[SHULHQFHDQGSRVLWLYHO\LPSDFWLQJWKHLUKHDOWK Leonard Galloway, principal of Varennes Academy of Communications & Technology said, “The garden at Varennes Academy has sparked great conversations amongst our students. Not only do the students feel proud about the work which has been put into tending to the garden, they are also beginning to understand the food pyramid and why it is important to eat healthy. The many food service initiatives our district offers have a positive daily impact on the academic success of our students, and I’m sure this impact will create long-lasting effects on the future success of our students.�

Summer nutrition program The Seamless Summer Nutrition Program, created to ensure that low income children continue to receive nutritious meals when school is not in session, is funded by the US Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrition Service through the South Carolina Department of Social Services. This past summer was a recordbreaker, including a WRWDORIQRQSURÀWRUJDQL]DWLRQV signing up to take meals to their summer programs at FKXUFKHVFDPSVFKLOGFDUHFHQWHUVDQGRWKHUQRQSURÀWV from June through August.

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Breakfasts served



Lunches served



Snacks served



Total meals served

228,211

This program provides key nutrition to an age group where nutritional intake is vital to their growth and development. A decline in their nutritional status over the summer months could otherwise result. Food service operatives observed some family members who arrived full of perspiration from having walked two plus miles to ensure meals for their children. One grandmother made two trips during a lunch shift, bringing three JUDQGFKLOGUHQDWDWLPHEHFDXVHVKHFRXOGQRWĂ€WWKHP all in her car simultaneously. She stated that her grandchildren would not have eaten if it were not for this program. Food and Nutrition Services has received multiple thank- you notes from parents, churches and FRPPXQLW\SDUWQHUVH[SUHVVLQJWKHLUJUDWLWXGHWRWKH school district for providing these meals to our students.

Backpack program According to Kurt Stutler, Community Impact Associate with United Way of Anderson, SC, over 1100 VWXGHQWVLQ$QGHUVRQ&RXQW\KDYHEHHQLGHQWLĂ€HGDVQRW having food on the weekends. 453 belong to Anderson School District Five. This constitutes 10-13% of students receiving free and reduced meals. As a result, the United Way of Anderson is teaming with other community organizations to ensure that students without food on the weekends leave on Fridays with healthy foods they can HDVLO\FRQVXPH7KHVHVWXGHQWVDUHEHLQJLGHQWLĂ€HGLQD FRQĂ€GHQWLDOPDQQHUDQGWKHLUEDFNSDFNVZLOOEHVWRFNHG LQDGLVFUHHWPDQQHUDVZHOOSRVVLEO\LQWKHRIĂ€FHRID nurse or guidance counselor. The Golden Harvest Food Bank will serve as the distributor of the special food that is appropriately packaged and nutritionally balanced. Brian Gallagher, who became President and Chief ([HFXWLYH2IĂ€FHURI8QLWHG:D\RI$PHULFDLQDQG then of United Way Worldwide in 2009, visited Anderson on October 2, ZKHQWKHRIĂ€FLDONLFNRIIRIWKH Backpack Program was unveiled. “Many organizations are willing to give because no one wants to see a hungry child and not meet the need,â€? Stutler said. While the Labor Department recently announced that 46.37 million Americans are receiving the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), that does not guarantee that the children of these families will eat.


An adult must complete the process to qualify and be UHVSRQVLEOHZLWKWKHEHQHĂ€WV,IWKHDGXOWFKRRVHVWR PDNHDWUDGHRUVHOOWKHEHQHĂ€WWKHUHLVOLWWOHWRQRWKLQJ a child can do. In addition, the adult must be willing to shop for groceries and to supply the home with nutritious foods. For those children who still fall between the cracks, the backpack program may provide that missing, yet essential link.

Positive Outcomes A telephone survey conducted by Gerstein/Agen Communications (2010) revealed that most Americans believe our country has a responsibility to make sure all kids in our schools are not going hungry through the day. Anderson School District Five puts this belief into action DQGZLOOFRQWLQXHWRSURYLGHLQQRYDWLYHH[SHULHQFHVIRU our students to succeed. Innovative nutrition programs SURYLGHRSSRUWXQLWLHVDQGH[SRVXUHWRVWXGHQWVWKH\ ZRXOGRWKHUZLVHQRWH[SHULHQFH2XULQQRYDWLRQFRQWLQXHV to break down barriers that could potentially prevent H[FHSWLRQDOOHDUQLQJ:HDUHFRPPLWWHGWRUHVSRQGLQJWR our students’ needs and providing them with programs to promote wellness while teaching them to value the importance of healthy eating habits.

References Murphy J., Pagano M., Nachmani J., Sperling P., Kane S., Kleinman R. (1998). “The Relationship of school breakfast to psychosocial and academic functioning: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in an inner-city sample.� Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 1998; 152:899-907. Powell C., Walker S., Chang S., Grantham-McGregor S. (1998). “Nutrition and education; a randomized trial of the effects of breakfast in rural primary school children.� American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68,873-9. Vaisman N., Voet H., Akivis A., Vakil E. (1996).“Effects of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students.� Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150:1089-1092.(2012, March 15). Retrieved from http://dew.sc.gov (2012, March 15). Retrieved from http://ed.sc.gov/agency/programsservices/177 (2012, March 15). Retrieved from http://2010. census.gov/2010census/data

About the Authors Betty T. Bagley Betty T. Bagley has served as Superintendent of Anderson School District Five since 2000. She currently serves as President of the Superintendents’ Division of SCASA and she represents the Superintendents’ Division on the SCASA Board. She holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Psychology from Southern Wesleyan University, a Masters of Education from Clemson University in Personnel Services, a Masters of Education from The Citadel in Administration, an Education Specialist Degree from The Citadel in School Psychology, and she completed graduate studies at the University of South Carolina. She is currently a Ph. D. Candidate in Educational Leadership at Clemson University. Nikki Hawthorne Nikki Hawthorne joined Anderson School District Five as Director of Food and Nutrition Services in 2010. She is a graduate of the University of Georgia with a Bachelor of Science in Dietetics and Master of Science in Food and Nutrition. She is a registered dietitian DQGFHUWLÀHGGLDEHWHVHGXFDWRU Dr. Sonia Cunningham Leverette Dr. Sonia Cunningham Leverette, Assistant Superintendent for Management and Testing, joined Anderson School District Five in 2004 as Director of Personnel Services. She holds a Bachelor of Arts and Masters of Education from Clemson University, both in Secondary Education (English), and a Doctorate in Educational Leadership from South Carolina State University. Dr. Leverette serves as an adjunct professor for Anderson University’s College of Education. She has been a member of SCASA since 2001 and currently serves on the Innovation Conference Committee.

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Superintendents’ Longevity, Board Relationships, and Student Achievement By Betty Bagley

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common scenario: the school board purposefully hires a change-oriented superintendent to improve schools and prepare them for the 21st century. School employees tend to resist change. Community debate rages over the types of changes that should not occur. When the school board realizes the superintendent LVXQDEOHWRPDNHFKDQJHVZLWKRXWFRQà LFWFRQIXVLRQ and hard feelings, the honeymoon is over. Board members who supported the superintendent are defeated. Discord LQWHQVLÀHVDVHYHU\RQHVSDUVZLWKWKHVXSHULQWHQGHQW 7KHVXSHULQWHQGHQWLVHLWKHUHQFRXUDJHGWROHDYHRUÀUHG The schools return to the status quo, and the act is then repeated with an even more skeptical cast with which the new star will work (Carter & Cunningham, 1997, p.73). While this scenario may have been typical 20 years DJRWKHÀUVWGHFDGHRIWKHst century has not shown any change in how these scenarios are playing out in the present. As unfortunate as this may be, this scenario is repeated over and over in school districts around the FRXQWU\%RDUGURRPHQWUDQFHVDQGH[LWVDUHDQGKDYH been, revolving doors for hundreds of superintendents across America. The continuous changes in school district leadership leave little opportunity for establishing reform or gaining momentum toward programs that can make a difference. Frequent turnover of superintendents is too common in school districts across the nation, and with every change in leadership comes a new direction and change in goals and priorities. Alsbury (2008) wrote that school board and superintendent turnover creates a disruption to the educational progress of schools during periods of educational reform or systemic change. Other authors have reported this disruption for more than 23 years (Alsbury, 2008; Cunningham & Carter, 1997; Fullan & Miles, 1992; Grady & Bryant, 1989: Kowalski, 1995; Olson, 1995). In addition, frequent administrative turnover may adversely affect a school’s ability to provide staff with a feeling of stability and continuity of purpose and vision (Alsbury, 2003; Fullan & Miles, 1992)

Research on Tenure Research varies on whether superintendent turnover leads to measurable negative change in a school district, although recent studies indicate that superintendents

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H[HUFLVHDQLQGLUHFWEXWVLJQLĂ€FDQWLQĂ XHQFHRQ instructional effectiveness (Alsbury, 2008; Petersen, 2002; Bredeson, 1996; Bredeson & Kose, 2005; Morgan & Petersen, 2002; Petersen & Barnett, 2005). Researchers show in seven studies conducted between 1986 and 2002 that superintendents in high-performing schools engaged in activities that could be indirectly linked to improved student achievement. Activities include: (a) collaboratively developing goals with administrators and boards; (b) evaluating instructional effectiveness; (c) selecting personnel; (d) developing principals as instructional leaders; (e) valuing professional development; (f) developing a vision for instruction, and evaluating instructional programs (Alsbury, 2008; Petersen & Barnett, 2005). A district is as stable and grounded as its superintendent, according to a recent special report on tenure. Findings in a recent study by the Council of the Great City Schools indicates that the average tenure of urban superintendents increased from 2.3 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2010 (Pascopella, 2011). Other reports indicate that the average tenure across our nation is three years. For many, this has been cause for great celebration and a claim that the length of tenure is increasing. +RZHYHU'DQ'RPHQHFKH[HFXWLYHGLUHFWRURIWKH American Association of School Administrators (AASA), stated that the upward trend of tenure is good, but a three-year period of time is still an inadequate time frame in which to make positive changes (Pascopella, 2011). The American school superintendency is over 150 years ROG$JUHDWGHDORILQIRUPDWLRQH[LVWVWKDWFDQEHDSSOLHG to tenure patterns. Digital Research located at Fordham University created a survey instrument, Superintendent Longevity and Time Study (SLATS), and surveyed a UDQGRPVWUDWLĂ€HGVDPSOHRIVFKRROGLVWULFWVDFURVVWKH nation concerning district and board characteristics, superintendent characteristics, and the era in which the superintendent served (Alborano, 2002) These characteristics depicted the tenure patterns RI$PHULFDQVXSHULQWHQGHQWVVLQFH6L[SUHGLFWRU variables were calculated in relation to the survival of school superintendents during the last 25 year period of the study. These variables included the following: (a) support for school construction and bonds; (b) level of board


intrusiveness into the domain of the superintendent; (c) whether the district was recently merged or not; (d) the socioeconomic level of the district; (e) the ethnicity of the superintendent; and (f) whether the district hired an insider or an outsider as superintendent. The study UHYHDOHGWKDWVL[\HDUVZDVWKHPHGLDQOHQJWKRIVHUYLFH This result suggested that superintendent survival has become a greater problem in the last decade, but QRWWRWKHH[WHQWWKDWPDQ\IRUHFDVWHG7KHYDOXHRI Fordham’s survival model is that it demonstrates certain characteristics of districts and personal characteristics of VXSHULQWHQGHQWVUHODWHGVLJQLÀFDQWO\WRERWKWXUQRYHUDQG longevity (Alborano, 2002).

Factors that Affect Superintendent Turnover There are a number of factors that play into the revolving door illustration. Shand (2010) pointed to VFKRROERDUGFRQĂ LFWVERDUGSROLWLFVDQGFRPPXQLW\ VXSSRUWDVKLJKO\VLJQLĂ€FDQWFRQWULEXWRUVWRVWUHVV and success in a district (Brower & Balch, 2006). The juggling of tasks such as teacher quality issues, student achievement, equity for all students regardless of income, race or ethnicity, new federal guidelines on funding and programs, and accountability systems all play a role in the stress of superintendents (Shand, 2010; Castallo & Natalle, 2005). The economic downturn has created JUHDWHUFRQĂ LFWEHWZHHQVXSHULQWHQGHQWVWKHLUERDUGV and/or their communities. School board members PD\VHOHFWD´TXLFNĂ€[ÂľDSSURDFKZKLFKFDQOHDGWR the removal of the superintendent. In hindsight, the country’s economic situation is not a one-year blip or poor management by the superintendent, but a new norm in funding and support. “School boards feel intense pressure to recruit superheroes that will improve student achievement, reduce the employee count, implement accountability measures, and guarantee safe haven schools in dangerous neighborhoodsâ€? (Shand, 2010 p. 2; Jernigan, 1997). An Atlanta-based superintendent recruiter was quoted in the New York Times as saying “School boards are looking for God— on a good dayâ€? (Hill, 2003, p. 2). Domenech added that superintendent criticism is not limited to the board PHHWLQJVEXWKDVEHHQH[SDQGHGGXHWRWHFKQRORJ\ZLWK detractors being able to criticize superintendents via blogs DQGRWKHUVRFLDOPHGLDRXWOHWVXQGHUĂ€FWLWLRXVQDPHV (Pascopella, 2011). 7KHLGHDWKDWDQHZSHUVRQFDQ´À[LWÂľRUDQHZERDUG with a different agenda can cause more positive results may also create the notion that the superintendency may be evolving into a temporary position (Clark, 2001). Leadership turnover in America’s largest school districts

has increased so rapidly that superintendent tenure is DSSUR[LPDWHO\WZR\HDUVLQOHQJWK7KLVW\SHRIF\FOH creates a class of superintendents who leap around the country from job to job with no ties to the communities they serve (Buchanan, 2006). When superintendents lose their jobs or quit, all levels of the district feel the consequences (Beralu, 2011; Renchler, 1992). This is RQHRIWKHPRVWVLJQLÀFDQWHYHQWVLQWKHOLIHRIDVFKRRO district when it undergoes a change in leadership (Hargreaves, 2009). However, the trend around the country seems to be that superintendents are spending OHVVWLPHLQRQHVFKRROGLVWULFWDQGZLWKLQWKHQH[WÀYH years, many current superintendents are looking to UHWLUH %DUODX%D[WHU 7KHQHHGWRNQRZ WKHH[WHQWWRZKLFKVFKRROVXSHULQWHQGHQWV¡ORQJHYLW\ impacts accountability will not decrease, and at the same time, the need to educate children to work, play, and live in the 21st century will increase. The job will not get any easier, and the demands of the job will continue to grow. Research in this area is critical so that school districts can make informed decisions based on this information. Though educators throughout the world know that change is imperative if countries are to improve or maintain their status in the world community, unfortunately in 1999, United States Secretary of Education William Bennett claimed that schools were full of people and organizations dedicated to protecting the status quo (Waters & Marzano, 2007). This makes any superintendent job one in which superpowers are indeed needed.

The Superintendent’s Effect on Student Achievement Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL), a Denver-based education research organization, conducted a meta-analysis of research WRGHWHUPLQHWKHLQà XHQFHRIVFKRROGLVWULFWOHDGHUV on student performance. This meta-analysis was conducted over the past several years to determine the characteristics of effective schools, leaders, and WHDFKHUV7KLVUHFHQWUHVHDUFKH[DPLQHVÀQGLQJVIURP 27 studies conducted since 1970 that used rigorous, TXDQWLWDWLYHPHWKRGVWRVWXG\WKHLQà XHQFHRIVFKRRO district leaders on student achievement. These studies involved 2,817 districts and the achievement scores of PLOOLRQVWXGHQWV$PDMRUÀQGLQJIURPWKHVWXG\ ZDVDVWDWLVWLFDOO\VLJQLÀFDQWUHODWLRQVKLS DSRVLWLYH correlation of .24) between district leadership and student DFKLHYHPHQW7KLVVWXG\DIÀUPHGWKHORQJKHOGEXW previously undocumented, belief that sound leadership at the district level adds value to an education (Waters & Marzano, 2007).

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)URPWKLVPHWDDQDO\VLVDQDGGLWLRQDOÀQGLQJHPHUJHG 7ZRVWXGLHVWKDWZHUHH[DPLQHGUHSRUWHGFRUUHODWLRQV between a superintendent’s tenure and student academic improvement. The weighted average correlation was VWDWLVWLFDOO\VLJQLÀFDQW  ZKLFKVXJJHVWVWKDWWKH length of a superintendent’s tenure in a district positively correlates to student achievement. Positive effects may be manifested within two years into a superintendent’s WHQXUH7KLVSRVLWLYHFRUUHODWLRQDIÀUPVWKHYDOXHRI leadership stability and a superintendent remaining in a district long enough to realize the positive impact on student achievement (Waters & Marzano, 2007).

Conclusion In the 170 years that the position of superintendent KDVEHHQLQH[LVWHQFHWKHUROHVDQGGXWLHVRIWKDW position have fundamentally changed. Initially, the duties mainly focused on serving as a clerk for the board of education and taking care of day-to-day operations of the school. Now the superintendent’s position plays a pivotal part in the continuation of our democracy by LQĂ XHQFLQJKRZZHHGXFDWHRXUFKLOGUHQ 0\HUV Carter & Cunningham, 1997; Grogan & Andrews, 2002). In addition, the success and failure of schools within the district ultimately fall on the shoulders of the superintendent (Myers, 2010; Rammer, 2007). ([WHQVLYHUHVHDUFKKDVEHHQFRQGXFWHGRQWKHLPSDFW of the classroom and the building-level administrator, but research is now beginning in earnest to focus on WKHLQĂ XHQFHWKDWWKHGLVWULFWVXSHULQWHQGHQWKDVRQ student achievement (Myers, 2010). School reform has to happen in the classroom, but the odds that spontaneous improvement in the classroom will happen without changing the broader, regulatory district is low (Hill, 2003). “Classrooms are the way they are in large part because of what happens at the district levelâ€? (Hill, 2003, p. 2). 7KHUHDUHVLJQLĂ€FDQWLPSOLFDWLRQVIRUVFKRROERDUGV in that they determine the length of superintendent tenure in their districts (Waters & Marzano, 2007). 7KLVDUWLFOHKDVH[SORUHGWKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKH tenure of superintendents and its effect on student learning. There is evidence that too much turnover would hinder students’ learning. Additional research needs WREHGRQHWRIXUWKHUH[SORUHWKHUHODWLRQVKLSVEHWZHHQ superintendents’ tenure, board members, and student academic performance.

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References Alborano, J. A. (2002). American superintendent longevity and time study. Collection for Fordham University. Paper AA13040390. Retrieved from http://fordham.bepress.com/dissertations/AA13040390 Alsbury, T. L. (2008). School board member and superintendent turnover DQGWKHLQĂ XHQFHRQVWXGHQWDFKLHYHPHQW$QDSSOLFDWLRQRIWKH dissatisfaction theory. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 2(7), 202229. Alsbury, T. L. (2003). Superintendent and school board member turnover: Political versus apolitical turnover as a critical variable in the application of the dissatisfaction theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 5(39), 667-698. Berlau, D. C. (2011). Superintendent longevity and its relationship to student performance (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from: http:// escholarshare,drake.edu/bitstream/handle/2092/1632/dd2011DCB. pdf?sequence-1 Buchanan, B. (2006). Turnover at the top. Maryland: Rowman and /LWWOHĂ€HOG(GXFDWLRQ Carter, G., & Cunningham, W. (1997). The American school superintendent: Leading in an age of pressure. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Clark, R. J. (2001). The superintendent as a temp. The School Administrator, 4(58), 40-41. Hargreaves, A. (2009). Leadership succession and sustainable improvement. The School Administrator, 11(66). Retrieved from KWWSZZZDDVDRUJ6FKRRO$GPLQLVWUDWRU$UWLFOHDVS["LG Hill, P. (2003). Effective superintendents, effective boards: Finding WKHULJKWĂ€W>6SHFLDO,VVXH@Education Writers Association Special Report. Myers, S. (2010). Superintendent length of tenure and student achievement. Administrative Issues Journal: Education, Practice, and Research, 2(1), 43-53. Pascopella, A. (2011). Superintendent staying power. District Administration. Retrieved from http://www.districtadministration. com/search/node/superintendent%20staying%20power Shand, C. H. (2010). Stay the course: Superintendent longevity in Indiana school district (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http:// scholars.indstate.edu/bitstream/10484/1169/1/Herrell-Shand,%20 Celia%20Alic Walker, Reagan, (1987). Bennett: Test gains at ‘dead stall.’ Education Week, Retrieved from www.edweek.org/ew/ articles/1987/03/02/07470041.ho7.html Waters, T. J. & Marzano, Robert J. (2007). The primacy of superintendent leadership. The School Administrator, 3(64), Retrieved from http://www/aasa/org/SchoolAdministratorArticle. DVS["LG

About the Author Betty T. Bagley has served as Superintendent of Anderson School District Five since 2000. She currently serves as President of the Superintendents’ Division of SCASA and she represents the Superintendents’ Division on the SCASA Board. She holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Psychology from Southern Wesleyan University, a Masters of Education from Clemson University in Personnel Services, a Masters of Education from The Citadel in Administration, an Education Specialist Degree from The Citadel in School Psychology, and she completed graduate studies at the University of South Carolina. She is currently a Ph. D. Candidate in Educational Leadership at Clemson University.


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For Real! Professional Development for Athletic Coaches Now Available By Bill Utsey

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rofessional development courses created by the National Federation of High Schools (NFHS) for coaches at all levels and all sports are now being administered through the South Carolina Athletic Administrators Association. These courses can be accessed by individual coaches or schools and even districts can arrange for groups of coaches to take elective DQGVSRUWVSHFLÀFFRXUVHV Although coaching education courses are required in a number of states, the SC High School League has only two mandatory requirements: 1. All coaches at all levels, paid and volunteer, must take the NFHS Learning Center’s courses Concussion in Sports—What You Need to Know and A Guide to Heat Acclimatization and Heat Illness Prevention. These courses are free of charge and can be accessed at www.nfhslearn. com. 2. All adjunct head coaches (coaches that are not regular employees in your school district) of any sport at any level in high school or middle school are required to take the Fundamentals of Coaching course through the High School League. These adjunct head coaches must attend the FRXUVHDWWKH/HDJXHRIÀFHSULRUWRZRUNLQJZLWK student-athletes, and then complete the course on-line within one year. This course requires a fee paid to the League. Contact the League at 803798-0120 to arrange for your adjunct coaches to take this course. All other NFHS Learning Center Courses are elective. Although there are some free courses designed for both coaches and parents, the bulk of these professional development courses require a nominal fee. Visit www. nfhslearn.com to view the wide variety of professional development courses offered by the NFHS Learning Center. The NFHS Learning Center now offers a &RDFKHV&HUWLÀFDWLRQ3URJUDP (three required FRXUVHVDQGRQHVSRUWVSHFLÀFFRXUVHZLWKDIHH WKDW any coach would be proud to have on his or her resume. Why should you consider having your coaches take DQ\RIWKHVHFRXUVHVRUVHHN1)+6FHUWLÀFDWLRQ":KDW can your coaches possibly get from engaging in a regular

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professional development program over a period of time through the NFHS coaches education program? Part of why you should promote and initiate such a program in your schools is the basic precept WKDWLQWHUVFKRODVWLFVSRUWVDUHĂ€UVWDQGIRUHPRVWDQ educational endeavor. Historically, all state high school interscholastic athletic associations were started by their respective state supported university—by the academia, not athletic departments! Our own South Carolina High School League was started by the University of 6RXWK&DUROLQDDQGXSXQWLOWKHRIĂ€FHZDVORFDWHG on the campus of the USC. The reason interscholastic athletic programs were initiated by the academia at these universities is that they saw how their collegiate athletic programs enhanced the learning environment and the real life lessons their own students were learning through WKHLUWHDPH[SHULHQFHVRQĂ€HOGVDQGFRXUWV 7RGD\KRZHYHUZHDUHH[SHULHQFLQJDparadigm shift like no other in the history of youth sports. School athletic directors are now leading programs that are LQFRQĂ LFWZLWKFOXEVSRUWVWKURXJKRXWWKHVWDWHDQG QDWLRQ7KHFRQĂ LFWLVRQHRIFRUHYDOXHVEHOLHIVDQGLQ the pedagogy and philosophies of their coaches. Because of this growing change in the youth athletic landscape, it has become more important than ever for school administrators to be made aware of the main differences in our educationally based athletic programs and those of club sports. The differences: interscholastic sports began as an educational endeavor and still has as its main core mission the teaching of life sustaining skills and enlightening values—teamwork, discipline, personal leadership, the hard work ethic, the value of preparation, etc.. Unlike club sports, we in interscholastic sports see our main objectives of our athletic program as an H[WHQVLRQRIVFKRROFODVVURRPVDQGDQLQWHJUDOSDUWRIWKH mission and purposes of our schools. Indeed, we are‌ “Educational Athletics!â€? As the leader of your schools’ total educational program you have a legal obligation to provide your employees and, in this case coaches, with professional development opportunities. Your coaches have fourteen legal duties WKH\DUHREOLJDWHGWRIXOĂ€OOZLWKLQWKHLUFRDFKLQJ endeavors. Enabling coaches to become quintessential professionals demands their constant participation in learning the why’s and how’s of their coaching duties. The


NFHS has invested hundreds of thousands of dollars into GHYHORSLQJDÀUVWFODVVSURIHVVLRQDOGHYHORSPHQWSURJUDP that has been endorsed by AASA (American Association of School Administrators), NSBA (National School Boards Association), NMSA (National Middle School Association), and the NIAAA (National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association). With a relatively low cost (from $20 to $75 per course), the NFHS Learning Center offers a wide variety of instructional courses and seminars that a cutting-edge school administrator can access for his/her coaches’ professional development opportunities. Other reasons for initiating a structured professional development program for your coaches include, but are not limited to: ¾ Keeping the main focus of coaching on ALL of your student-athletes. Only 3% of our student-athletes go on to play sports at the collegiate level, coaches must focus on the other 97% with life building skills and H[SHULHQFHV1)+6/HDUQLQJ&HQWHUFRXUVHVGRWKLV and more. The Fundamentals of Coaching course will provide coaches with the basics of educational athletics. Not only are the “How’s” and “Why’s” discussed, the core values we all believe in are promoted throughout. ¾ Meeting the need to change the public perception of a coach. In South Carolina, a hairdresser has to go WKURXJKPRUHHGXFDWLRQDQGFHUWLÀFDWLRQSURFHGXUHV than do coaches who work daily with young people. As a school administrator who may want to be looked upon as the educational leader in the school community, it would behoove you to strongly consider getting your coaches involved in the NFHS Learning Center’s coach education program. Through these courses, coaches not only build their resumes, they FDQDOVRDWWDLQFRDFKLQJFHUWLÀFDWLRQ,I\RXDUH looking to make a lasting impact in your school’s learning environment and perhaps enhance your standing in the eyes of your community’s educational participants—parents and school board members— you can do so by getting the Coaches Education program started in your schools. ¾ 5DLVLQJWKHH[SHFWDWLRQVRI\RXUFRDFKHVHVSHFLDOO\ in view of liability issues. Although no one can avoid every instance of inappropriate actions of coaches that may lead to litigation, continued education and learning opportunities can certainly make your coaches more informed and more attuned to proper professional standards in all areas of coaching. ¾ Adding value to your athletic program and, at the same time, doing good for your students. When you

consider adding anything to your schools’ programs, whether it is the latest technology or a change in policies, you should always ask these two questions: Is it good for kids? Will it add value to our programs? As much as NFHS Learning Center believes these coach education courses are good for your coaches, XOWLPDWHO\WKH\ZLOOEHQHÀWWKHVWXGHQWDWKOHWHV DQGZLOODGGYDOXHWR\RXURYHUDOOH[WUDFXUULFXODU programs. There is a quote we like to use all the time when speaking to teachers and coaches alike, “Kids won’t care unless they know you care.” Coach education courses from the NFHS Learning Center will enhance this time-honored teaching principle within your coaches. When your student-athletes know your coaches care about them, they will be knocking the doors down to be in their programs and, most of all, your parents will support you and your coaches wholeheartedly. One might think that these courses are great for new and beginning coaches and this is true. However, please DOORZXVWRVKDUHWKLVH[FHUSWIURPDQDUWLFOHRQWKH NFHSLearn.com website: “Let me relate one quick story about a coach education participant. I am fortunate to have one of the best high school head football coaches in the state here at Lake High School (Ohio). Jeff Durbin was hesitant about WHY he had to take a class like this after 20+ years of high school coaching DQGÀYH\HDUVRIFROOHJHFRDFKLQJ-HIIWRRNWKH course anyway. About two months after taking the course, he stopped me one day and offered this, totally unsolicited, comment: ‘I didn’t think I’d gain much from this course. But, I gotta tell you, after completing the course, I found myself reenergized by reminding myself as to WHY I got into this business to begin with. The class really got me to refocus upon WHY we do what we do, and HOW we should be teaching our kids.’” (“The WHY and HOW of Coach Education,” Bruce Brown, CMAA, Athletic Director, Lake High School, Uniontown, Ohio) The SC Athletic Administrators Association ( www. SCAAA.org ) is now the administrative arm for the NFHS Learning Center courses in our state. Please consider starting a professional development program at your school with the NFHS Learning Center courses. Visit NFHSLearn.com to learn more about this online professional development program. Remember, we are… “Educational Athletics!”

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Bullying to the Core By Karis Clarke, Ed.D.

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XOO\LQJLVDYHU\FRPSOH[DQGGLUW\IHDWXUHRI VRFLHWLHVZRUOGZLGHDQGLWH[LVWVLQVHYHUDOIRUPV It is an element of elementary and secondary education, the work place, collegiate education (re: the Florida A&M University hazing-related murder), and bullying politicians (yes, politicians bully). Closely related to bullying incidences are stalking, indirect and direct retaliation by bullies and victims,, and violence IURPPLOGWRH[WUHPHFDVHV UHIHUWRWKH&ROXPELQH &ROXPELQH and Jonesboro, Arkansas incidents). There here are other cases found on several websites. Tragedies directly tied to bullying results in increased attention to the issue of school bullying. According to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (2011), an estimated 160,000 U.S students refuse to go to school because they dread the physical and verbal aggression of peers. 30% of United States students in grades 6 through 10 are involved in bullying as bullies, victims, or both. 1 out of 4 kids are bullied in this country every month, nts more than 43% of middle schools students (grade 6-8) have threatened to harm another student, children who bully by age 8 are 4 times as likely to have a criminal record by age 30, and it is estimated 160,000 American children miss school every day due to fear of bullying. 0DQ\FKLOGUHQDUHDQ[LRXVDQGGHSUHVVHGEHFDXVHRIWKLV ,QH[WUHPHFDVHVFKLOGUHQZKRDUHWDUJHWVRIEXOO\LQJ commit acts of school shootings, suicide, or other acts of desperation. Bullying is thought of as a male-dominated activity; however, female bullying appears to be on the rise. This type of bullying can be worse. Types of bullying such cyberbullying are often used by girls to verbally attack their peers. Harsh words, lies, and rumors can be just as devastating to a child as being physically attacked. Female bullying includes: physical bullying and hazing, cyberbullying and verbal bullying, and indirect bullying and social isolation. Physical bullying and hazing is common when girls gang up on one another. This can include hitting,

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punching, kicking, or otherwise injuring another person. It can also include stealing from another person or damaging their personal property. Forcing others to do something embarrassing or harmful to themselves or others is also another type of physical bullying (Bullyingstatistics.org, 2012). Cyberbullying and verbal bullying is the most common form of female bul bullying. Verbal bullying is also a type of bullying tthat almost everyone is guilty of at some point poi in time of another. Name calling may n not be considered a big deal, but it is still a type of bullying. Any type of verbal bullying (face-to-face, behind someone’s bu back, or over the internet) can be ba devastating to those who are targeted. d Indirect bullying and social alienation are bullying types typically enacted by females. Indirect bullying takes place when a person or group of people spreads rumors and stories about a person behind their back. These attacks can be both false and malicious. Indirect bullying accounts m for fo more than 18 percent of all cases of bullying. Cyberbullying also comes into bul play with this type of bullying because lies about abo individuals may be spread via the Internet. Social alienation usually consists of a group of girls who may decide to deliberately shun another girl from the group because they are mad at her RUÀQGLWIXQQ\WRKXUWDQRWKHUSHUVRQVLPSO\EHFDXVH they are different (Bullyingstatistics.org, 2012).

What can be done to alleviate the school bullying epidemic? School bullying can be addressed by involving key people who can help aggressors learn more appropriate behaviors. In turn, the victims learn options for responding to aggressors. Schools and families need to be ÀUVWUHVSRQGHUVLQWKHHIIRUWWRDOOHYLDWHVFKRROEXOO\LQJ Staff members also should receive training in response procedures, and then teachers can implement procedures in their classrooms via instructional means. Parents can support the schools’ efforts at home. Feinberg (2003) suggests many successful bullying


prevention programs are based on an approach that WDUJHWVWKHFRQWH[WLQZKLFKEXOO\LQJRFFXUVDQG the behavior of victims and bullies. Therefore, all stakeholders must be brought together in order to successfully alleviate the school bullying epidemic. Toward these ends, Garrity (2006) suggests the following groups should be involved in the process: 1. School Personnel. All school personnel need to be informed of standard procedures and be willing to act. Students, including both bullies and victims, must know that teachers and staff will respond to deviant school matters. 2. Caring majority. The caring majority are students who neither bully nor are bullied. These students know that bullying is occurring in their midst but often do not know how to respond to it. 3. Bullies. Bullying needs to be addressed in ways that alter their aggressive behavior toward others, and they must be thoroughly taught to direct their need for power into more positive directions. Bullies act out aggressive behavior as a means to compensate things that they lack in their development. 4. Victims. Victims must protect and support, but they also need the social and interpersonal skills critical for personal problem-solving. 5. Parents. Parents should be made aware of school policies and procedures that impact discipline. Informed parents will feel more secure about sending their children to school and know the types of response that will occur when a child is either the bully or the victim. Further, according to Garrity, the following procedures must be incorporated into instructional and social interactions in schools: 1. Staff training. All school personnel must be involved in personnel training on school bullying, including bus drivers, after-school workers, media specialists, and cafeteria employees. During staff training, faculty members learn about the different aspects of bullying (e.g., physical aggression, name calling, gossiping, intimidating phone calls, verbal threats, and locking in FRQĂ€QHGVSDFHV H[SORULQJZD\VWRGHDOZLWKYLFWLPV DQGEXOOLHVUROHSOD\LQJZLWKFRQĂ LFWUHVROXWLRQ SDUWLFXODUO\RQKRZWRVSHDNWREXOOLHVLQĂ€UP non-threatening manner; creating an anti-bullying curricula, such as selecting literature on bullies and victims; creating skits or artwork with similar themes; and developing an all-inclusive school plans for addressing bullying.

2. Classroom intervention. Within the classroom, students are taught rules to alleviate bullying, strategies for reacting to bullying, and steps to follow if they see bullying occurring. Victims of school bullying must be procedurally empowered to defend themselves and protect their human rights. They must be taught to make friends with some of their adversaries. But they especially need to know that people should not hurt each other. Bullying victims need help, too, in boosting their self-esteem. Victims of bullying tactics have low self-esteem levels. A philosophy for bullies and their victims to heed is a philosophy espoused by Professor Bessie W. Clarke of Lady’s Island, South Carolina. She says, “If you love yourself, you will not let other people hurt you. When you treat yourself and others with respect, bullying tactics will QRWEHH[SHFWHGQRUWROHUDWHGÂľ7KLVPHVVDJH LVVRVLPSOHEXWLWLVYHU\GLIĂ€FXOWWRFDUU\RXWZLWKRXW patience and practice as dual commitments to its impact.

References American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (2011). Retrieved from http://www.americanspcc.com/education/bullying/ (B. Clarke, personal communication, December 8, 2011). Bullying Statistics (2012). Retrieved from http://www.bullyingstatistics. org/content/female-bullying.html Feinberg, T. (2003, September). Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Principal Leadership Magazine, 4 (1) Retrieved January 9, 2012 from http://www.nassp.org/portals/0/content/46912.pdf Garrity, C., Jens, K., Porter, W., Sager, N., and Short-Camilli, C. (2006, 0DUFK %XOO\SURRĂ€QJ\RXUVFKRRO&UHDWLQJDSRVLWLYHFOLPDWH Intervention in School and Clinic, 32 (4), 235-243.

About the Author Karis L. Clarke, Ed.D. Mailing Address: 1029 Crawford Road, Rock Hill, South Carolina 29730 Telephone Number: (803) 327-7402 Present Position: Associate professor of education and program Chairperson, Early Childhood Education, Clinton Junior College, Rock Hill, South Carolina; University Supervisor and Adjunct professor, Early Childhood Education, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Education Consultant Background: Former Early Childhood Educator, &HUWLĂ€FDWLRQV (DUO\&KLOGKRRG(GXFDWLRQ(OHPHQWDU\ Supervisor, Elementary Principal), 2011 State Farm Companies Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Award Nominee

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Poverty is Not a Predictor of Potential By Mike Waiksnis and Latoya Dixon

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an all students learn at high levels? If you ask this question to your colleagues in education, would they all answer with a resounding yes? Are their teachers and principals in our schools who feel all students do not have the ability to learn at high levels? If VRZKDWFDQZHH[SHFWWRKDSSHQLQRXUVFKRROVIRURXU VWUXJJOLQJVWXGHQWV"&DQVWXGHQWVOLYLQJLQSRYHUW\H[FHO in school? We believe all students can learn at high levels. We know many students living in poverty might require additional and focused support, but we know they can achieve. However, before you can begin to address real VFKRROLPSURYHPHQWDVFKRROFXOWXUHPXVWH[XGHWKH belief that all kids can learn. Without this belief in place, it will be a mighty struggle to get students to realize their capabilities. This must be the starting point if you want to provide a school culture of success for all. :HKDYHVHHQĂ€UVWKDQGWKHVWUXJJOHVDQG opportunities of our students living in poverty. We have developed a variety of ways to provide needed supports in our schools. It is never easy, but we know it is worth

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it. It is our moral calling to do all we can to support our students living in poverty. We have been fortunate enough to present on this topic several times across the state. Our strategies are able to be implemented in any school, in any situation. We know it is possible, and we see it in schools every day. Carol Dweck is the author of the book MindSet. In WKLVERRNWKHZD\\RXWKLQNDERXWVXFFHVVLVH[DPLQHG It gives educators and students an opportunity to think about how they think. Essentially, a person has either DJURZWKPLQGVHWRUDÀ[HGPLQGVHW$SHUVRQZLWKD À[HGPLQGVHWEHOLHYHVWKHLULQWHOOLJHQFHLVGHWHUPLQHG at birth and it does not change throughout life. They believe you may be able to learn new things, but your basic intelligence is determined before birth. A person with a growth mind set believes your intelligence can grow throughout your life. Your intelligence is not set at birth and each person has the ability to change their intelligence as they move through life. This frame of thinking has powerful implications in education. I know many of us have encountered students


who feel they are simply “not good at schoolâ€? and have JLYHQXS7KH\KDYHQHYHUH[SHULHQFHGVXFFHVVDWVFKRRO DQGWKHLUĂ€[HGPLQGVHWWHOOVWKHPLWZLOODOZD\VEHWKDW way. They do not feel they have the ability to improve. Unfortunately, we see this more and more each day. If we can shift their thinking to a growth mindset, they will start to believe they can achieve, and their worth is not based on their past performance. We need our students to believe they have the ability to learn and grow. I have developed a presentation that I teach to every FODVVLQRXUVFKRRO7KHĂ€UVW\HDUZHGLGWKLV,WDXJKW every student in the entire school. Now we teach it to our 6th graders. I have been fortunate to be able to coteach with our Instructional Coach and/or the grade level assistant principal. This is something that could easily EHGXSOLFDWHGLQHYHU\VFKRRO7KHUHDUHPDQ\H[DPSOHV of people from all walks of life who demonstrate a growth PLQGVHW:LOO6PLWKLVDJUHDWH[DPSOH+HLVVRPHRQH students can relate to and he consistently talks about the value of hard work and determination. Using the book MindSetE\&DURO'ZHFNZHFUHDWHGDFODVVWKDWH[SRVHV our students to the power of a growth mindset. In his book, Teaching With Poverty In Mind: What Being Poor Does to Kids’ Brains and What Schools Can Do About It, Eric Jensen (2009) provides a clear description of how poverty affects the brain. Students of SRYHUW\DUHĂ€YHWLPHVPRUHOLNHO\WRH[SHULHQFHFKURQLF stress and have a greater likelihood to struggle with receiving proper nutrition, appropriate medical care, and changing residences on a frequent basis. According to Jensen (2009), these students have a greater tendency to respond to stress emotionally, and they often have to work harder to progress to the rational and logical stages of decision-making. There is good news. Educators can remove some of the barriers that students of poverty often face. We must be sure to engage students of poverty in the school. Students of poverty need to have a meaningful relationship with an adult in the school building and need to be involved in school activities. In our school, we do this through our breakfast club program, our boys’ and girls’ clubs for 4th and 5th grade students (Knights of the Roundtable and Gallant Girls), and our relationships with students. Students in breakfast club receive direct instruction on VWXG\VNLOOVH[WUDSUDFWLFHZLWKVNLOOVWKH\KDYH\HWWR master, and are accountable for completing and producing H[FHOOHQWZRUN/RFDOFKXUFKHVDQGUHWDLOVWRUHVGRQDWH school supplies to our students each year. Our students do not have to carry the burden of not having materials. Our clubs focus on providing direct social skills instruction

and leadership skills. Students learn how to set goals and monitor their own progress. Poverty is not a predictor of potential. I know that mostly because I was a student of poverty. Educators must acknowledge that students of SRYHUW\PD\EULQJDGLIIHUHQWVHWRIH[SHULHQFHVWRVFKRRO We must be strategic about the ways in which we meet their needs. They can do it. I did it. Providing the needed supports for our students living in poverty must be a priority for all educators. In order to EHJLQWKLVSURFHVVWKHDGXOWVLQWKHEXLOGLQJPXVWĂ€UPO\ believe all students can learn at high levels. Without this belief in place, it will be a struggle to reach your students. Using the work of Carol Dweck can help school leaders begin the conversation. Once these beliefs are in place, educators have the opportunity to place strategic support structures in place. As professional educators, can we afford to wait?

About the Authors Michael Waiksnis, Principal of Sullivan Middle School 1825 Eden Terrace Rock Hill, S.C. 29730 803-981-1450 /DWR\D'L[RQSULQFLSDORI0W*DOODQW(OHPHQWDU\ Mt. Gallant Road Rock Hill, S.C. 29732 803-981-1360 Both authors have presented at several conferences on working with students of poverty. Presentations include SCASA SLI , SCASA Innovative Ideas Institute, SCMSA conference and the Rock Hill Student Engagement &RQIHUHQFH/DWR\D'L[RQKDVEHHQDIHDWXUHGVSHDNHUDW many conferences throughout South Carolina. /DWR\D'L[RQLVWKHSULQFLSDORI0W*DOODQW(OHPHQWDU\ in Rock Hill, S.C. Under her leadership, the students at KHUVFKRRODUHDFKLHYLQJDWKLJKOHYHOV0UV'L[RQLVD passionate speaker on a variety of topics in education. <RXFDQIROORZKHURQWZLWWHU#ODWR\VGL[RQ Michael Waiksnis is the principal of Sullivan Middle School in Rock Hill, S.C. During his tenure at Sullivan student achievement has increased and the school has DGGHGPDQ\RSSRUWXQLWLHVIRUDOOVWXGHQWVWRH[FHO<RX can follow him on twitter @mwaiksnis.

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Religion in the Public School: Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Up in South Carolina? By Thomas McDaniel, Ph.D.

The Historical Context Religion in the public school has been a controversial school law topic for many years, dating back at least as far US Supreme Court rulings outlawing school-sponsored prayer (Engel v. Vitale, 1962), Bible reading (Abington School District v. Schempp, 1963), posting of the Ten Commandments (Stone v.. Graham, 1981), teaching of â&#x20AC;&#x153;creation scienceâ&#x20AC;? ( McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education, 1982), graduation prayers (Lee v. Weisman, 1992), and formal over-the-loudspeaker prayers at football games (Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe, 2000). These and a host of other court rulings have attempted to create not a â&#x20AC;&#x153;wall of separationâ&#x20AC;? between church and state but rather First Amendment protections against government â&#x20AC;&#x153;establishmentâ&#x20AC;? of religion that could LQWHUIHUHZLWKDQLQGLYLGXDO¡V´IUHHH[HUFLVHÂľRIUHOLJLRQ JXDUDQWHHGE\WKHĂ&#x20AC;UVWLWHPLQWKH&RQVWLWXWLRQ¡V%LOORI Rights. In short, courts interpreting the First Amendment to the US Constitution attempt to keep schoolsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;trustees, superintendents, principals, teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;from promoting religious worship while making room for individual students to pray, say grace before meals, read their Bibles or other religious literature, or meditate as they wish so long as this is not disruptive in the school setting. The academic study of religion, including the Bible as literature, the history of religion, and comparative religions, is perfectly acceptable in public schools from a legal perspective.

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Like other states, South Carolina schools can, under the federal Equal Access Act (passed by Congress in 1984), allow for non-curricular, student-initiated groups to meet on school grounds, primarily in before-school and after-school clubs, but schools must provide â&#x20AC;&#x153;equal accessâ&#x20AC;? to all clubs if they comply with established federal guidelines, including no school sponsorship, no SDUWLFLSDWLRQE\VFKRROHPSOR\HHV H[FHSWWRPRQLWRU DQG no regular attendance or direction by outside individuals. Instead of a â&#x20AC;&#x153;wall of separationâ&#x20AC;? between church DQGVWDWHKLVWRULFDOGHYHORSPHQWVUHĂ HFWHGLQFRXUW decisions have produced a â&#x20AC;&#x153;semi-permeable membraneâ&#x20AC;? with religion in public schools approved if it promotes educational practices and protects the individual VWXGHQW¡V´IUHHH[HUFLVHÂľRIUHOLJLRQEXWGLVDSSURYHGLILW â&#x20AC;&#x153;establishesâ&#x20AC;? or endorses school-sponsored worship.

Closer to Home By state statute Act 331 (2002), the South Carolina Student-Led Messages Act, the General Assembly granted school boards or districts the power to adopt a policy permitting graduating students, selected by objective FULWHULD VXFKDVDFDGHPLFVWDQGLQJRUVWXGHQWRIĂ&#x20AC;FH  â&#x20AC;&#x153;to deliver a brief opening or closing message, or both, of two minutes or less at the high schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s graduation H[HUFLVHVÂľVRORQJDVWKHPHVVDJHLV´QRQREVFHQHQRQ profane, or non-vulgar,â&#x20AC;? which follows a principle of First $PHQGPHQWVWXGHQWH[SUHVVLRQHVWDEOLVKHGE\WKH86 Supreme Court in Bethel School District #403 v. Fraser


 $QRWKHUVHFWLRQRI$FWH[WHQGVWKLVVWXGHQW IUHHGRPRIH[SUHVVLRQULJKWWRDWKOHWLFFRQWHVWV6RIDU VXFKSURYLVLRQVÂłZKLFKFDUYHRXWH[FHSWLRQVWRWKHEngel and Santa Fe rulings aboveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;have not been overturned, even though they are seen by some critics to be motivated E\DWWHPSWVWRSURPRWHUHOLJLRXVH[SUHVVLRQDVD´IUHH H[HUFLVHÂľULJKW More recently, South Carolina has successfully tested the concept of academic credit for off-campus Bible courses after passing a law in 2006, the South Carolina Released Time Credit Act, that says, â&#x20AC;&#x153;a school district board of trustees may award high school students no more than two elective Carnegie units for the completion of released time classes in religious instruction.â&#x20AC;? The act stipulates that these classes â&#x20AC;&#x153;must be evaluated on the basis of purely secular criteria.â&#x20AC;? Released time for UHOLJLRXVVWXG\ZDVĂ&#x20AC;UVWIRUPDOO\DSSURYHGE\WKH86 Supreme Court in Zorach v. Clauson (1952), but the concept of credit for such courses has become a court LVVXHIRUWKHĂ&#x20AC;UVWWLPHLQDUHFHQWFDVHEURXJKWE\SDUHQW plaintiffs against Spartanburg County District 7 and UXOHGRQĂ&#x20AC;UVWE\WKH)HGHUDO'LVWULFW&RXUWLQ$SULORI 2011 and then on appeal by the Fourth US Circuit Court in July, 2012. It is to that case that we now turn our attention.

Background of the Case In 2007, one year after the new Released Time Credit Act became law, Spartanburg District 7 developed its policy granting elective transfer credit for a Bible education course provided in a nearby church and taught by Spartanburg County Bible Education in School Time (SCBEST). The district accepted course credit by transfer from Oakbrook Preparatory School, an accredited private school in Spartanburg. Plaintiffs Robert Moss and Ellen Tillett, whose children attended Spartanburg High, sued; these plaintiffs alleged that the course, with its imprimatur of academic credit, violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment because it was, in effect, an endorsement of religion and entangled church and state impermissibly under the Constitution, violating the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lemon Testâ&#x20AC;? articulated by the US Supreme Court in the case of Lemon v. Kurtzman in 1971. According to newspaper reports, only seven Spartanburg students had received elective transfer credit between 2007 and 2011 when the Federal District Court heard the case, and according to District 7 Superintendent Dr. Russell Booker, no high school students were enrolled in 2011-12 and only three had VLJQHGXSIRUWKHQH[W\HDU,WVKRXOGEHQRWHGWKDWDIWHU

the state increased graduation credits from 20 to 24, participation in non-credit off-campus Bible courses had dwindled, but following the 2006 enactment of the South Carolina Released Time Credit Act, about 7,500 students across South Carolina participated in off-campus courses in 2010-11 according to the co-founder of BEST, while only Spartanburg, Greenville, and Myrtle Beach offered credit for such classes.

Court Rulings In April of 2011, The Federal District Court granted summary judgment to the defendant, Spartanburg District 7, holding that the plaintiffs had failed to establish that the released time policy of the district â&#x20AC;&#x153;has the principal effect of advancing religion,â&#x20AC;? one of the other â&#x20AC;&#x153;testsâ&#x20AC;? established in the Lemon case. The Court then drew this conclusion: Viewed from the perspective of an objective observer, the School District policy does no more than merely accommodate studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; desire to partake in religious instruction. The School District, therefore, has remained faithful to the Establishment Clause throughout the adoption and implementation of its released time policy. Finding that the school district did not attempt to advance religion, prohibit religion, or entangle church and state by its policy and practice of accepting transfer credit from an accredited private school ( thus complying with the three prongs of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lemon Testâ&#x20AC;?), the District Court determined that there appeared to be â&#x20AC;&#x153;no secret religious motive on the part of the School Districtâ&#x20AC;? and concluded â&#x20AC;&#x153;the School Districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stated purpose for its released time program, the accommodation of religion, is plausible and therefore must be accepted.â&#x20AC;? $IĂ&#x20AC;UPLQJWKH'LVWULFW&RXUW¡VUXOLQJ7KH)RXUWK Circuit Court of Appeals in its July 3, 2012 ruling said there had been no evidence that either of the plaintiff students had been harassed (nor did they claim to have been) for not participating in the off-campus Bible course, and their grades were not negatively affected by any DVSHFWRIWKHLUH[SHULHQFH The judges wrote that â&#x20AC;&#x153;private religious education is an integral part of the American school system. It would be strange and unfair to penalize studentsâ&#x20AC;Śby refusing to honor the grades they earned in their religious courses.â&#x20AC;? The judges indicated that the policy seemed reasonable and in keeping with precedent rulings in this area of school law. The state law called for evaluation by secular

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criteria, and both the District Court and the Appeals Court concluded that the Districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policy to accept transfer credit only from accredited schools indicated that the District had taken steps to remove itself from making judgments about the quality of the course, treating such WUDQVIHUFUHGLWDVLWGRHVDOOVXFKFRXUVHV3ODLQWLIIVĂ&#x20AC;OHG a petition for a rehearing en banc so that the full panel of judges could reconsider the ruling, but that request was denied. The last opportunity for a reversal of the Fourth Court ruling is the US Supreme Court.

Questions for School Leaders While contemplating the consequences of the legal events described above, school administrators in South Carolina should consider such questions as these: x Do your teachers make the proper distinctions between religion as academic study and religion as worship? One of the objections raised in the Spartanburg District 7 case by the plaintiffs was their concern that the SCBEST course went beyond a study of the Bible to promote student religious practices that looked a lot like worship. Of course, on-campus instruction by public school teachers requires much stricter scrutiny and limitations than off-campus religious instruction. The line between â&#x20AC;&#x153;accommodatingâ&#x20AC;? religion and ´HQGRUVLQJÂľUHOLJLRQLVDĂ&#x20AC;QHRQH x If your school accepts transfer credit for off-campus graduate courses, does it adhere to the legal requirement for evaluation â&#x20AC;&#x153;on the basis of purely secular criteria?â&#x20AC;? By insisting that such course credit be handled just like other transfer courses and that it come from an accredited institution, Spartanburg District 7 demonstrated a level of neutrality and objectivity that contributed to legal approval of its policy by the Federal District Court and the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. x When considering student messages at graduation exercises or before athletic contests, do your administrators and coaches follow the explicit restrictions outlined in South Carolinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Act 331? That means students must be selected by objective FULWHULD VXFKDVDFDGHPLFVWDQGLQJVWXGHQWRIĂ&#x20AC;FH or team captain) and limit remarks to no more than two minutes. Adult supervisors may not discipline or UHSULPDQGWKLVVWXGHQWH[SUHVVLRQLILWLVQRWREVFHQH profane, or vulgar. School authorities should avoid the impression that the school sponsors or endorses such student speech, nor should it attempt to control or censor it.

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x If a student group requests permission to use school facilities for meetings or related activities that involve religious or other â&#x20AC;&#x153;values relatedâ&#x20AC;? content, do your administrators know the requirements established by the federal Equal Access Act? When schools allow some groups, they must be open to all groups (gay/ straight clubs have sometimes been controversial in South Carolina schools and elsewhere); however, disruptive groups and groups that discriminate or have secret memberships may be banned. Of particular interest is the determination of what is â&#x20AC;&#x153;curricularâ&#x20AC;? or â&#x20AC;&#x153;nonFXUULFXODUÂľDQGZKDWWKHH[DFWOLPLWVRIVFKRROGLVWULFW personnel as â&#x20AC;&#x153;monitorsâ&#x20AC;? should entail. These are not always simple questions in practice. At this writing we do not know, following further review, if the US Supreme Court will accept an appeal request. This High Court accepts less than 2% of cases appealed to it for review. Nor do we know if there will be challenges in the future to the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Act 331 provisions DOORZLQJFHUWDLQDXWKRUL]HGVWXGHQWH[SUHVVLRQÂł especially when it relates to religious topics or faith proclamationsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in commencement or athletic settings. What we do know is that there will always be tensions DQGFRQĂ LFWVZKHQLWFRPHVWRUHOLJLRQLQWKHSXEOLF school. Wise administrators and trustees will be well served by careful attention to issues that emerge in this dimension of school policy and practice. That should include seeking adviceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;where possible in advanceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;from the school districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attorney.

About the Author Thomas R. McDaniel, Ph.D. Converse College Spartanburg, SC 29302 (864) 596-9015 Tom.mcdaniel@converse.edu Dr. McDaniel is Senior Vice President and Professor of Education. He is former chairman of the Spartanburg County Board of Education and former chair of the Policy Board of CERRA. Specializing in school discipline and law, he has over 200 publications in education, the KXPDQLWLHVDQGWKHVRFLDOVFLHQFHVDQGLV([HFXWLYH Editor of The Clearing House, a journal for secondary school educators. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The latest of his eight books is School Law for South Carolina Educators (2013) available from www.createspace.com/3565709.â&#x20AC;? He presents workshops regionally and nationally on such topics as law, discipline, motivation and instruction.


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Transforming South Carolina Schools into 21st Century Learning Centers By Shawn Suber, Ph.D. and Diane Harwell, Ph.D.

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ecently, my wife and I traveled to our son’s new school for his kindergarten screening. He was VRH[FLWHGDQGDVNHGXVVRPDQ\TXHVWLRQVDERXW school. As we sat outside waiting for his teacher to return with him, several thoughts and questions ran through my mind. Just thirty years ago, I went through the same H[SHULHQFHRIHQWHULQJWKH.SXEOLFVFKRROV\VWHP Have schools really changed in regard to educating our students within the past thirty years? In fact, has the system really changed from when my mother and father HQWHUHGVHJUHJDWHGVFKRROVVL[W\\HDUVDJR",I,KDG the autonomy to create South Carolina schools to meet the needs of 21st Century learners, what would it look like? Will my son be provided with the education and the opportunities that will prepare him to be successful for the technological, ever-changing, globalized society of the future? 6RXWK&DUROLQDKDVDORQJKLVWRU\RIVLJQLÀFDQWHYHQWV WKDWKDYHVKDSHGHGXFDWLRQ7KHPRVWVLJQLÀFDQWHYHQW is the integration of schools during the civil rights period. The Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) ended segregation in schools across the United States. The

44 3$/0(772$'0,1,675$725‡:,17(5

most recent event that has changed the landscape of education within South Carolina is the Abbeville v. The State of South Carolina court decision concerning school funding equity, which brought inequalities of schools to the forefront. Federal mandates such as the Education Accountability Act of 1998, No Child Left Behind (2001), and most recently Race to the Top (2012) have also strongly impacted education in South Carolina. After the implementation of NCLB, we took pride in having the third most rigorous standards in the nation. As a state and nation, we are trying to raise test scores; we have cut out art, music, and other electives that are not considered core subjects. Ten years after the implementation of NCLB our educational system in South Carolina currently ranks 50th in the nation in regard to performance rank and 28th in regard to educational policy according to the $PHULFDQ/HJLVODWLYH([FKDQJH&RXQFLO6RXWK&DUROLQD has long ranked at the bottom in education. Even the United States is not ranked in the top ten countries anymore when it comes to education in the world. Students in today’s South Carolina schools are separated by socioeconomic status rather than separated by race as during the separate but equal period. African


American and Hispanic students are three times more likely to live in poverty than white students according to the Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Defense Fund. The South Carolina graduation rate in 2011 was 73.6 percent. Students on free and reduced price lunch have a 67 percent graduation rate. Whites graduate at 76.8 percent in comparison to African Americans at 69.2 percent and Hispanics at 68.2 percent. Students from low-income backgrounds usually parallel conditions of their parents and either secure lowstatus and low paying jobs or were unemployed and on welfare. Jencks (1972) concluded that â&#x20AC;&#x153;public schools not only did not help alleviate inequality in the United States but also, in fact, contributed to such inequalityâ&#x20AC;? (p. 109). The school year is designed around the agricultural age of planting and harvesting while the design of the school day is based on the factory model from the industrial age. Globalization and technology, however, have changed our society forever. Our society is no longer in the industrial age nor are we in the agricultural age. The 21st Century is the age of knowledge and information. Technology and communication are changing so fast that our current educational system can no longer keep pace. We have long been depending on the reforming of our schools to achieve success. South Carolina must now transform our schools for the 21st Century. Creativity and innovation are now needed in our schools in order to prepare our students for the future. In order for this to occur, we must think systemically and creatively in regard to student learning, instructional practices and assessments, and leadership in schools.

Student Learning In our current system, learning occurs by gaining NQRZOHGJHVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FDOO\IURPWKHWHDFKHU7KHWHDFKHU instructs the student who sits quietly and listens. Teachers use South Carolina standards as a guideline to provide content to students. Students are then tested on the content that is taught by the teacher. The teachers have to cover the content because that is going to be presented on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards test. Rote memorization is vital to student success using WKLVSURFHVV%ORRP¡VWD[RQRP\KDVVL[OHYHOVRIOHDUQLQJ that consist of remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. Rote memorization DQGH[SOLFLWOHDUQLQJRFFXULQWKHORZHUOHYHOVRIOHDUQLQJ RI%ORRP¡VWD[RQRP\7RZRUNLQIDFWRULHVRULQDQ\ type of manual labor position, the lower levels were all that were needed to be an effective worker. Factory line workers and those who worked in agriculture simply performed the same routines every day in their work.

Upon graduation, in the last two centuries, students had jobs waiting for them in factories or mills upon graduation; this is no longer the case in the 21st Century. In this age of globalization, innovation, and creativity, WKHKLJKHUOHYHOVRI%ORRP¡VWD[RQRP\DUHZKDWRXU students need to be successful. Our students need to be able to analyze and evaluate problems in order to solve them in their future jobs. They need to be given the freedom to create and innovate in order to improve our society. In order to prepare our students in 21st Century learning centers, we as educators need to focus less on H[SOLFLWOHDUQLQJDQGPRUHRQWDFLWOHDUQLQJ([SOLFLW OHDUQLQJLVZKDWLVVWDWHGLQWKHWH[WERRNVLWLVZKDW is known and what has always been known. According to Thomas and Brown (2011), â&#x20AC;&#x153;It can be articulated, transferred, and testable. Tacit learning knows what is assumed, unsaid, and understood as a product of H[SHULHQFHDQGLQWHUDFWLRQÂľ S 2XUVWXGHQWVQHHGWR GUDZIURPGLIIHUHQWNQRZOHGJHDQGH[SHULHQFHVLQRUGHU to be successful in the 21st Century. Howard Gardner gained notoriety for identifying multiple intelligences that changed the way we view intelligence. In most cases, intelligence was only recognized in the logical-mathematical and linguistic areas. He argued that intelligence can come from bodilykinesthetic, spatial, music, interpersonal, intrapersonal, QDWXUDOLVWLFDQGH[LVWHQWLDOVWUHQJWKV,QVFKRROV,4 tests measure knowledge gained at a particular moment in time; they can only provide a brief snapshot of present knowledge. IQ tests cannot assess or predict a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to learn, to integrate new information, or to solve problems. Gardner argues that students will be better served by a broader view of education wherein teachers XVHGLIIHUHQWPHWKRGRORJLHVVWUDWHJLHVH[HUFLVHVDQG activities to help all students and not just those who H[FHOLQOLQJXLVWLFDQGORJLFDOPDWKHPDWLFDOLQWHOOLJHQFHV It challenges educators to focus on student learning to improve their teaching. Gardner has now created the Five Minds of the Future  $FFRUGLQJWR*DUGQHUWKHVHDUHWKHĂ&#x20AC;YHVNLOOVWKDW one will need to be successful in the 21st Century. The three cognitive minds include the disciplined mind, the synthesizing mind, and the creating mind. The two minds that deal with human interaction include the respectful PLQGDQGWKHHWKLFDOPLQG7KHVHĂ&#x20AC;YHPLQGVVKRXOGEH considered as one of the goals for the future education of South Carolina students. 7KHĂ&#x20AC;UVWRIWKHFRJQLWLYHPLQGVPHQWLRQHGE\*DUGQHU is the disciplined mind. This is the continuation of mastery of domains such as the arts, crafts, professions, and scholarly work. The disciplined mind leads

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to pursuits such as being doctors, nurses, lawyers, educators, engineers, and businessmen. It takes a FRQVLGHUDEOHGLVFLSOLQHHIIRUWDQGWLPHWRUHDFKH[SHUWLVH in these types of professions. Gardner states, â&#x20AC;&#x153;In most cases, individuals acquire such mastery through some kind of tutelage: either formally, in a school, or less formally, through some combination of apprenticeship and self-instructionâ&#x20AC;? (p. 11). In the past these individuals could rest assured that they had achieved such mastery. 7KLVKDVQRZFKDQJHGVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWO\GXHWRWKHHYROXWLRQ and change to the discipline which the individual pursues. 0DVWHU\LVQRZDPRYLQJĂ&#x20AC;QLVKOLQHWKHUHIRUHWKHVH individuals must continue to gain more knowledge within their discipline. The synthesizing mind is considered the most valuable mind for the future of learning for our students in 21st Century. Our students today have overwhelming amounts of information, and it is right at the end of the Ă&#x20AC;QJHUWLSV6ROXWLRQVWRSUREOHPVWKDWZRXOGXVXDOO\ WDNHKRXUVWRĂ&#x20AC;QGQRZWDNHPLQXWHVRUVHFRQGVGXHWR technology. The synthesizing mind allows these students to have access to a wide array of this information, to decipher what is of most importance, and to utilize this information so that it makes sense to themselves and others. The synthesizing mind must be able to search for new information that can be found useful or discarded if it found not useful. The creating mind is one that focuses on thinking RXWVLGHWKHER[7KHUHLVDQDWLRQDOSXVKIRUFUHDWLYLW\LQ the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics 67(0 Ă&#x20AC;HOGV,Q&UHDWLQJ,QQRYDWRUVE\7RP:DJQHU he discusses the importance of STEM innovators but also social innovators (2012). The creating mind discovers groundbreaking ideas and innovations that bring about disruption and sustainable change to the past and even the current systems in our society. This mind will be needed to solve present environmental, social, economic, and educational issues in the near future. Creative minds of the 21st Century will create new technologies and social ideas to improve our state, nation, and world. The respectful and ethical minds are needed for our studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interactions and morality. The respectful mind is needed to have a respect for others in our society. Technology has socially connected millions of people all over the world. We live in a diverse world as well as in a country that consists of different ethnic groups. Our students need to be able to accept differences in culture as they come in contact with people from diverse backgrounds through technology or physical interaction. Gardner states, â&#x20AC;&#x153;A person possessed of a respectful mind

46 3$/0(772$'0,1,675$725Â&#x2021;:,17(5

ZHOFRPHVWKLVH[SRVXUHWRGLYHUVHSHUVRQVDQGJURXSV Such a person wants to meet, get to know, and come to like individuals from remote quartersâ&#x20AC;? (p. 20). The ethical mind causes an individual to look at himself and assess his character. It will cause students to self-assess their character in relation to their work ethic and citizenship. In order to prepare South Carolina students for the future, we have to shift our thinking from just teaching the content to student learning. We have to teach our students how to think and how they learn best. Student learning should not occur from rote memorization alone but by tacit learning that is relevant to the student. Standards are needed to guide student learning, but we must transform our schools into student-centered institutions. We must continue to use multiple intelligences to know our studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strengths. The Five Minds should be considered to provide direction for 21st Century student learning.

Instructional Practices and Different Types of Assessments Teachers provide the foundation for students that impacts their future positively or negatively in regard to their education. The goal of every teacher leader, whether elementary or secondary, should be to improve instruction. Effective instruction is the teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to use various approaches of teaching to a range of learning goals and diverse learning styles of students. New strategies in teaching, learning, questioning, and technology integration are vital to student success in the 21st Century. Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s teaching should include more H[SHULPHQWDOLQGXFWLYHLQTXLU\EDVHGDQGKDQGV on learning; it should also include more interactive learning, more emphasis on higher order thinking, more responsibility transferred to students for their work, and more cooperative, collaborative activities. In order to distinguish improvement in instruction, teachers need to minimize whole-class, teacher directed instruction and have fewer students just sitting and listening. Students in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s schools need fewer instances of lecturing (teacher to student). Quality teaching customizes instruction instead of using worksheets, workbooks, desk work, WH[WERRNUHDGLQJDQGPHPRUL]DWLRQRIIDFWVDQGGHWDLOV Due to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, teachers must ensure that content standards are covered and instruction is aligned to the state mandated tests of PASS and HSAP. This leads to a larger issue to be addressed about what should be taught by teachers. Gordon and Reese stated in their study that â&#x20AC;&#x153;most teachers were required to relate their daily lesson plans to the test, and


taught to the test through drill and kill teaching methodsâ&#x20AC;? (p. 347). These teachers reported that customization does not occur for the high ability students, and these students were bored with going over information they already had mastered. Lower-ability students had become demoralized by test failure and remedial assignments. Darling-Hammond and McClosky stated, â&#x20AC;&#x153;On the Program in International Student Assessment (PISA) tests in 2006, the U.S. ranked 35th among the top 40 countries in mathematics and 31st in science, a decline in both raw scores and rankings from three years earlier. Furthermore, in each disciplinary area tested, U.S. students scored lowest on the problem-solving itemsâ&#x20AC;? (p. 264). In order to assess student learning, teachers should use performance-based assessments. Assessments such as student projects, presentations, rubrics, and portfolios containing samples of student work collected over a period of time can be used as a review of content. Portfolios are useful to teachers and students. They provide a means for the teacher to differentiate students through FROOHFWLRQDQGH[DPLQDWLRQRYHUWLPH7HDFKHUVPXVW EUDQFKRXWIURPVWULFWO\XVLQJWH[WERRNVDQGZRUNERRNV to drive instruction. We have to move from summative assessments to formative assessments. The whole purpose of assessing students is to evaluate their grasp RQWKHFRQWHQW6XPPDWLYHDVVHVVPHQWVDUHĂ&#x20AC;QDOZKLOH formative assessments bring about continuous learning DQGUHĂ HFWLRQRYHUWLPH)RUPDWLYHDVVHVVPHQWVVKRXOG be the direction in which we move in the future because OHDUQLQJLVQHYHUĂ&#x20AC;QDO According to A New Culture of Learning by Thomas and Brown (2011), 21st Century students learn through knowing, making, and playing through the use of technology as a tool. In order to teach these students, WHDFKHUVPXVWH[SDQGNQRZOHGJHFDSDFLW\LQWHFKQRORJ\ content, and pedagogy. According to http://www.tpck.org/, Technological Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (TPACK) is a framework to understand and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a 21st Century learning environment. Teachers have to use technology knowledge to engage the digital learner through devices such as notebooks, computers, social networks, and even smartphones. Content knowledge is the command of the subject and pedagogical knowledge is (1) knowing how their students learn, (2) teaching strategies, (3) assessments, and (4) different theories about learning. Teacher skills with the aide of technology are needed to prepare our learners for the future.

Transformational and Innovative Leadership Educational leaders are the key to the implementation of a culture of a shared vision, mission, and goals. In order for the transformation from the current system to a system of innovation to occur, leaders must think creatively and systemically. When I speak of the educational leaders who are vital to this transformation, WKH\LQFOXGHJRYHUQPHQWRIĂ&#x20AC;FLDOVVFKRROERDUGPHPEHUV VXSHULQWHQGHQWVGLVWULFWRIĂ&#x20AC;FHSHUVRQQHOSULQFLSDOV university faculty, teachers, parents, community leaders, and even our students. This transformation must occur at all levels. As leaders, we cannot continue to ignore that our current system is not effective for all students, especially those who live in poverty. This is evident by our stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 67% graduation rate of students on free and reduced price lunch. Finland is ranked number one in education in the world because its focus is on student learning and not on test scores. The United Statesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; system is based on competition using test scores. According to Hancock, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;â&#x20AC;&#x153;Race to the Topâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; invites states to compete for federal dollars using test methods to measure teachers, a philosophy that would not work in Finlandâ&#x20AC;? (p. 1). Finland transformed its public education system in 1963 because it was the best option for economic recovery. We are in a similar situation with our economy and education. Transformation and innovation are the best options to improve our educational system that will result in a better economy. Transformational leaders are creative and systemic thinkers. They think about the end result and each memberâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role of achieving it. As educational leaders, we must identify our vision to transform and bring about innovation for 21st Century Learning Centers, foster acceptance of goals, follow the appropriate models set forth by countries such as Finland, convey new H[SHFWDWLRQVIRUVWXGHQWOHDUQLQJDQGSURYLGHVXSSRUW for our new direction. Liethwood made two assertions concerning transformational leadership in schools (1994). First, transformational leadership in schools directly affects such school outcomes as teacher perceptions of student goal achievement and student learning. Second, transformational leadership indirectly affects these perceptions of school characteristics, teacher commitment to change, and organizational learning which in turn impacts the outcomes. Transformational leaders motivate followers by raising awareness of organizational goals and by inspiring them to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the school. Transformational leaders are needed to

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change the cultural and structural system of education LQ6RXWK&DUROLQD(GXFDWLRQDOLQVWLWXWLRQVDUHGLIĂ&#x20AC;FXOW to change due to bureaucratic rules and regulations. We have to move from bureaucratic restraints on education to a system wide learning organization. In Finland, politicians on the right and left support the educational system. According to Hancock, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Government agencies KDYHHGXFDWRUVUXQQLQJWKHPIURPQDWLRQDORIĂ&#x20AC;FLDOVWR local authorities, not business people, military leaders or career politiciansâ&#x20AC;? (p. 2). Leaders have to have the courage to be innovative in education. As leaders, we have to promote creativity and innovation within our schools. Innovative leaders must have the vision, imagination, and creativity that would bring these ideas into practice. Such creativity and innovation must be modeled so that others within the organization follow. Leaders must have the capacity to lead others without thinking with a single-mindedness that restrains others within the organization from sharing ideas. People within organizations are the most valuable component; they bring different backgrounds, perceptions, opinions, and motivation. Robinson states that â&#x20AC;&#x153;creating a culture of innovation will only work if the initiative is led from the top of the organization. The endorsement and involvement of leaders means everything, if the environment is to changeâ&#x20AC;? (p. 219). The most important task of an innovative leader in the 21st Century is to facilitate a resilient relationship between RXWVLGHLQĂ XHQFHVDQGWKHRUJDQL]DWLRQ¡VLQWHUQDOFXOWXUH When this relationship occurs, innovation and sustainable change occur. South Carolinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history reveals that the state is slow to change, especially in regard to education. We are in an economic and educational situation that is in need of an immediate and sustainable change. When Sputnik launch occurred in 1957 by the former Soviet Union, we quickly responded to turn around our educational system to produce scientists and mathematicians who could put our nation ahead in the space race. South Carolina SURGXFHGĂ&#x20AC;YHDVWURQDXWVVLQFHWKHODXQFKRI6SXQLN,0\ hope is that when my son walks into a South Carolina 21st Century Learning Center with his own child, he will have an education that prepares him with skills that will make him successful in that future. This should be the case for all students in South Carolina regardless of race, socioeconomic status, or geographical location within our state.

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References Darling-Hammond, L., & McCloskey, L. (2007). Assessment for learning around the world: What would it mean to intentionally competitive?, Phi Delta Kappan, 90 (4), 263-272. Gardner, H. (2007). Five minds for the future. 21st Century Skills: Rethinking how students learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Gordon, S. P., & Reese, M. (1997). High-stakes testing: Worth the price? Journal of School Leadership, 7, 345-368. Hancock, L. (2011). Why are Finlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s schools successful? Retrieved August 21, 2012, from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/ Why-Are-Finlands-Schools-Successful.html?c=y&page=2 Jencks, C. (1972). Inequality: A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America. New York: Basic Books. Liethwood, K. (1994). Leadership for school restructuring. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30, 498-518. Robinson, K. (2011). Out of our minds: Learning to be creative. Westford, MA: Capstone Publishing. Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). A new culture of learning: &XOWLYDWLQJWKHLPDJLQDWLRQRIDZRUOGRIFRQVWDQWFKDQJH/H[LQJWRQ Kentucky: Create Space Independent Publishing Platform. Technological Pedagogy and Content Knowledge, Retrieved on August 22, 2012, from http://www.tpck.org/ Wagner, T. (2012). Creating innovators: The making of young people who will change the world. New York: Scribner.

About the Authors Shawn Suber, PhD, Assistant Principal Lake Carolina Elementary 1151 Kelly Mill Rd. Blythewood, SC 29016 (803) 714-1300 Shawn Suber is an assistant principal at Lake Carolina Elementary in Richland Two. He has been published in the International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation and the National Association of Professional Development Schools Journal. Diane Harwell, PhD, Clinical Professor University of South Carolina 308 Wardlaw Dept. of Educational Leadership & Policies (803) 777-1969 Diane Harwell is a Clinical Professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policies, College of Education, University of South Carolina. She has coauthored two books and one manual related to effective, evidenced-based instructional strategies.


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“Am I really that special?”

A Look at School-Based Enterprises for Special Education Students By Dr. G. Cleve Pilot

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or years, students across the country with special needs were subject to people’s perception about their ability to successfully transition from high school to post-high school activities. Special education students are sometimes viewed as possibly never achieving the “success” as their so-called “regular” counterparts. A school-district in Columbia, SC has developed a program for special education students that provide training and skills to assist with their transition to the workforce, outside agencies, or even adult education. In 2005, the Richland One Works (ROW) Program was established at Heyward Career and Technology Center in Richland School District One to seamlessly integrate DFDGHPLFVDQGUHDOZRUOGH[SHULHQFHVWKURXJKKDQGVRQ classroom activities. This systematic approach addresses transition services for students with special needs who will not receive a high school diploma due to the academic requirements needed for a state high school diploma. The school-based enterprise program that has been established will allow students to put into practice what they’ve learned in the classroom by producing products and making services available to the public. Students who attend this program are very enthusiastic about the opportunities that are available for them at the school. One student who was interviewed was asked, “what do you like about the program?” He responded, “I like working every day. I feel good when I see someone buy a picnic table I made.” Students who are enrolled in this program seem to like coming to school because of the activities that are in place for them. The ROW program has also produced Skills USA state winners for the past four years. One of the greatest EHQHÀWVRIWKHSURJUDPLVWKDWWKHVWXGHQWVVLPXODWHWKH work environment by punching in and out on a time clock, holding classroom positions such as foreman/manager, completing job duties assigned, and reporting to class daily. They also earn ROW Bucks, which are equivalent to a paycheck, as an incentive for completing their jobs and showing up for work (class) daily. The ROW Bucks will be used to purchase items from The ROW Store (in house store) on a monthly basis to help motivate the students and give them a sense of accomplishment. Even though the classes are set up like businesses, the students

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must meet performance standards set by their IEP and classroom teachers. The program is in its seventh year and currently serves over 320 special education students in the district. This SURJUDPLVEHQHÀFLDOQRWRQO\WRWKHVWXGHQWVDQGVFKRROV they serve, but to the community as well. The ROW program encourages students to make positive decisions, assist with plans to achieve goals and aspirations, and improve post-school employment prospects for the special HGXFDWLRQVWXGHQWV2YHUWKHSDVWVL[\HDUVVWXGHQWV have been placed on jobs with the district’s food service department, school cafeterias within several elementary schools in the district, local businesses, and just this past year several students obtained their GED and were DFFHSWHGLQWRRQHRIWKHORFDOWHFKQLFDOFROOHJH·VFHUWLÀFDWH programs.


Students who participate in this program practice positive work habits, positive attitudes towards work, OHDUQWKHH[SHFWDWLRQVRIWKHZRUNSODFHDQGHVWDEOLVK professional contacts for employment. The community EHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVIURPWKH52:SURJUDPE\FUHDWLQJDQ environment of collaboration and cooperation between the school and the community to increase the relationship of all stakeholders. This unique collaborative relationship EXLOGVFRQĂ&#x20AC;GHQFHLQWKHVFKRROV\VWHPDVSUDFWLFDOUHVXOWV are clearly observable through the success of students. The ROW program also builds the foundation for a more productive economy for the surrounding community due to the pool of skilled applicants that are receiving job training and SCAN skills in the school-based enterprise programs. The impact the ROW program has on students is tremendous. The program teaches the students about real world situations and life after high school. The students are learning skills and positive work habits that will better prepare them for future employment. Students who attend this program will have a better chance to be gainfully employed when they graduate high school. It LVGLIĂ&#x20AC;FXOWWRPDLQWDLQWKRVHVWXGHQWVLQVFKRROZKRDUH not receiving a high school diploma because they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t see the relevance or the connection to the real world. One question you hear quiet often directed towards students is, â&#x20AC;&#x153;what are you going to do when you get out of school?â&#x20AC;? With school-based enterprise programs, students are connecting school with the real world and are motivated to stay in school to gain relevant, needed and necessary skills to become a productive citizen once they complete high school. Ultimately, the program affords students the opportunity to become independent productive citizens with meaningful job skills to improve their chances to having a better adult life. Research has shown that the dropout rate among special education students in South Carolina is very high. The ROW program promotes and encourages students to complete high school because now their hands on, engaging, and meaningful schoolwork is relevant to their needs and life after high school.

About the Author Dr. G. Cleve Pilot, Director The Technology Center Orangeburg Consolidated School District 5 Contact Number: 803-533-6400

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Wellness programs bolster health of employees and bottom line Healthy faculty and staff better positioned to help students succeed By Mike Linebaugh

Rising health care costs and the subsequent increase in RYHUKHDGIURPEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVDUHWRSRIPLQGIRUPRVWHPSOR\HUV in school systems working with shrinking budgets. The good news is that trimming costs doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to result in FXWWLQJEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVIRUHPSOR\HHV One way to save money is by creating a workplace wellness program. Wellness is more than just a buzzZRUGLW¡VDEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WWRHPSOR\HHVLQRQHRILWVSXUHVWIRUPV WKDWFDQDOVRKHOSHPSOR\HUVUHDOL]HVRPHVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWFRVW savings. Wellness initiatives can take on many forms, ranging from health risk assessments and self-help educational materials to employer-subsidized gym memberships and nutritional counseling. Companies of all sizes have already begun to take advantage of this opportunity. In fact, 77 percent offer some sort of wellness information or resources, according to a 2012 SHRM report.1 Some of the most common resources offered include: x x x x

Wellness publications (61 percent) 2QVLWHĂ XYDFFLQDWLRQV SHUFHQW

24-hour nurse lines (54 percent) &35Ă&#x20AC;UVWDLGWUDLQLQJ SHUFHQW

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x x x

Health screening programs (45 percent) Health fairs (38 percent) Weight loss programs (32 percent)

The proof is in the savings. Wellness programs are popular components of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s EHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVSODQVDQGIRUJRRGUHDVRQ,QDUHFHQWVXUYH\ RIJRYHUQPHQWĂ&#x20AC;QDQFHRIĂ&#x20AC;FHUVQHDUO\SHUFHQWVDLG WKH\KDYHDGGHGZHOOQHVVLQLWLDWLYHVWRWKHLUEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WV programs, and 90 percent of them would recommend this cost-savings strategy to others.2 With an estimated return on investment of $6 for every dollar invested, wellness programs are a great way to save money long term while JLYLQJHPSOR\HHVDQDGGLWLRQDOEHQHĂ&#x20AC;W3 Wellness initiatives work, and the results can be measured through fewer sick days, reduced preventable chronic conditions, increased employee productivity and a more positive work environment that leads to better morale and employee retention. Furthermore, for schools, wellness programs can directly affect studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; learning HQYLURQPHQWVVLQFHKHDOWK\VDWLVĂ&#x20AC;HGWHDFKHUVDUHSUHVHQW more often and better prepared to help children learn.


'HVLJQDZRUNSODFHZHOOQHVVSURJUDPWKDWĂ&#x20AC;WV What matters most when it comes to implementing ZRUNSODFHZHOOQHVVSURJUDPVLVWKDWWKHSURJUDPĂ&#x20AC;WVWKH employeesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs and desires. Research shows employees ZDQWWREHĂ&#x20AC;WDQGWDNHFRQWURORIWKHLUKHDOWKVR employers already have a receptive audience. According to a recent survey by Watson Wyatt Worldwide,4 a leading JOREDOFRQVXOWLQJĂ&#x20AC;UPPRVWZRUNHUVVD\WKH\¡UHZLOOLQJWR improve their own health to help control future costs and prepare themselves for a more enjoyable retirement. $OWKRXJKZHOOQHVVSURJUDPVYDU\VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWO\DFURVV employers, the most popular programs often focus on the low-hanging fruit: assessing risks, and then implementing initiatives such as smoking cessation and weight management designed to reduce the risk for, or better manage, chronic disease. 3UHYHQWLRQ3DUWQHUVLVDVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FUHVRXUFHDYDLODEOH as a part of the Employee Insurance Program in South Carolina. It was implemented to help improve and maintain the health of state employees, retirees and their covered dependents. $VDEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WRI\RXUKHDOWKSODQ3UHYHQWLRQ3DUWQHUV offers a variety of resources to help state employees lead healthier lives. It provides activities, programs and services in four areas: x x x x

Disease prevention programs Preventive workplace screenings Disease education workshops Lifestyle change programs

Weight loss is a common element among many successful wellness programs and for good reason. Nearly two-thirds of adults today are overweight, according to the U.S. Surgeon General. This health issue alone results in 36 percent higher spending on health care and 77 percent higher spending on medications than on employees with a healthy weight.5 Overweight, unhealthy workers tend to be absent more than their colleagues, too, according to a 2011 Gallup poll. Workers with above-normal weight who have three or more chronic health conditions report an average of 3.5 unhealthy days a month, translating into 42 days per year.6 Absenteeism among unhealthy workers costs our economy $153 billion annually.7 Coming to work while unwell will also negatively affect employee productivity and morale. School districts across the Southeast region have already gotten on board with wellness. Olde Providence in Charlotte, N.C., is generating some

impressive participation results in its school and now touts itself as â&#x20AC;&#x153;the healthy place to be.â&#x20AC;? Led by the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s physical education teacher, a council was convened to identify the best way to encourage wellness among students and teachers. Employees and students received pedometers from the local health department and started a competitive step challenge. From that, other initiatives began to emerge, including a healthy recipe website and consultations with a registered dietitian on site. Even the parents got involved and one of them volunteered to teach an after-school Pilates class.8 In Marathon, Fla., a school worked with community partners to turn a break room that was once lined with vending machines full of unhealthy snacks into a gym that is available to employees.

Make your program successful Whichever direction you decide to take in designing your wellness program, communication is critical. Employees canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t participate in wellness activities if they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know about them. Focus on communicating HPSOR\HHEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVDVDZKROHWRJHQHUDWHHPSOR\HH LQWHUHVW6WURQJEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVFRPPXQLFDWLRQFDQGULYHXS participation rates and generate the enthusiasm needed for the programâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s success. 2QHWRRQHEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVHGXFDWLRQDQGFRXQVHOLQJLVD low-cost and underused communication tool with proven value, especially when communicating wellness offerings. Not everyone needs the same thing. Younger people often KDYHGLIIHUHQWKHDOWKQHHGVWKDQROGHUPRUHH[SHULHQFHG HPSOR\HHVDQGWKHUHIRUHYLHZWKHLUEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVGLIIHUHQWO\ ,QGLYLGXDOSHUVRQDOL]HGEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVHGXFDWLRQDQGFRQVLVWHQW wellness messaging go a long way in helping employees understand the importance of wellness and how it can improve their lives. 6WUHQJWKHQLQJ\RXUEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVFRPPXQLFDWLRQHIIRUWV doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to cost more money or resources. Colonial Life offers these services at no charge as part of the enrollment process, so be sure youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re taking advantage of it.

Start saving today Wellness programs offer a proven way to save money at a time when educational institutions and companies QHHGLWPRVW,I\RXKDYHQ¡WH[SORUHGWKHEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVRI offering wellness initiatives to your employees, thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no better time than now. Contact me any time for more information.

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:HOOQHVVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVPD\EHSDUWRI\RXU insurance coverage Some insurance plans, including Colonial Lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s FDQFHUSROLFLHVLQFOXGHDZHOOQHVVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WWKDWSD\V the policyholder for certain screening tests, such as mammograms and colonoscopies. This type of preventive care has proven very popular: Colonial Life averages about 18,500 new wellness claims per month under its new cancer plans. Sources: 1

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7KH(PSOR\HH%HQHĂ&#x20AC;WV/DQGVFDSHLQD5HFRYHULQJ(FRQRP\ Society for Human Resources Management, 2012. *RYHUQPHQW)LQDQFH2IĂ&#x20AC;FHUV$VVRFLDWLRQ´&RQWDLQLQJ+HDOWK Care Costs,â&#x20AC;? 2011. Edington, D.W., 2010 Health Management Research Center, University of Michigan, Zero Trends Business Case: 2010 Cost%HQHĂ&#x20AC;W$QDO\VLVDQG5HSRUW:RUNSODFHDQG:RUNIRUFH+HDOWK and Wellness. 2007 Watson Wyatt Employee Perspectives on Health Care study. 7KH2IĂ&#x20AC;FHRIWKH6XUJHRQ*HQHUDO7KH6XUJHRQ*HQHUDO¡V Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation Sheet, January 2010. *DOOXS+HDOWKZD\V:HOO%HLQJ,QGH[-DQ2FW Gallup, Unhealthy U.S. Workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Absenteeism Costs $153 Billion, October 2011. Alliance for a Healthier Generation. https://schools. healthiergeneration.org/

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About the Author Mike Linebaugh, CLU, is a public sector DFFRXQWH[HFXWLYHIRU&RORQLDO/LIHLQ South Carolina, which provides some of the personal insurance plans offered to state employees. He can be reached at (803) 4229847 or Michael.Linebaugh@ColonialLife. com. To download a free copy of Colonial Lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s white paper on workplace wellness entitled Well on the Way: Engaging Employees in Workplace Wellness, visit www. coloniallife.com and click on Latest News and then White Papers. Colonial Life & Accident Insurance Company is a market OHDGHULQSURYLGLQJLQVXUDQFHEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WVIRUHPSOR\HHVDQGWKHLU IDPLOLHVWKURXJKWKHZRUNSODFHDORQJZLWKLQGLYLGXDOEHQHĂ&#x20AC;WV education, advanced yet simple-to-use enrollment technology and quality personal service. Colonial Life offers disability, life and supplemental accident and health insurance policies in 49 states and the District of Columbia. Similar policies, if approved, DUHXQGHUZULWWHQLQ1HZ<RUNE\D&RORQLDO/LIHDIĂ&#x20AC;OLDWH The Paul Revere Life Insurance Company, Worcester, Mass. Colonial Life is based in Columbia, S.C., and is a subsidiary of Unum Group, one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading providers of employee EHQHĂ&#x20AC;WV&RORQLDO/LIHRIIHUVH[FHSWLRQDORSSRUWXQLWLHVWRMRLQLWV H[SDQGLQJVDOHVIRUFHRIPRUHWKDQFDUHHUDJHQWVLQRQH of the fastest growing segments of the insurance industry. The company provides award-winning training that has received QDWLRQDOUHFRJQLWLRQIRUH[FHOOHQFH)RUPRUHLQIRUPDWLRQFDOO (803) 798-7000 or visit www.ColonialLife.com.


Molly found out Alisa is learning how to be a single mom. Just like her.

Learning everything we can about your employees is part of the job description. At Colonial Life, our highly trained benefits counselors meet with every employee 1-to-1â&#x20AC;&#x201D; to discuss their needs and educate them on the best protection possible. That way, your employees have a voluntary insurance benefits plan that works just as hard as they do. Mike Linebaugh [ 803.422.9847 [ michael.linebaugh@coloniallife.com Kirk Cox [ 803.467.5836 [ kirk.cox@coloniallife.com Bobby Parker [ 803-320-1152 [ Bobby.Parker@coloniallife.com Š 2011 Colonial Life & Accident Insurance Company. Colonial Life products are underwritten by Colonial Life & Accident Insurance Company, for which Colonial Life is the marketing brand. Products may vary by state and may not be available in all states.


Educating Black and Latino Males Striving for Educational Excellence and Equity

Jane Hileman, James Jerry Clark and Dr. Anthony Hicks

Introduction

A Way Forward: 5 Touchstones

Scholars, educators, and thought leaders from across the country gathered at the offices of American Reading Company in the spring of 2012 for a day-long conference and action planning session centered on how to best educate Black and Latino boys and young men. The sharing of research findings, best educational practices, and personal stories shaped a day that “captured, inspired, and instructed” (Stephen Peters) more than 250 school district, organizational, and business leaders, and established the foundation for this white paper. The paper seeks to harness the energy of the day by articulating a set of Touchstones and Implications for Practice as a contribution to the ongoing dialogue about how to overcome the challenges posed by this everyday matter of life and death for many of our children and young men.

The following Touchstones, as well as the Implications for Practice they suggest, have emerged as we continue to think through how best to accelerate the school engagement and academic achievement of males of color—and in the process, undermine the too-often accepted norm of their disengagement and underachievement. This “way forward” is informed in large part by Pedro Noguera’s Six Essentials for Educating Black and Latino Students and Stephen Peters’ Do You Know Enough About Me to Teach Me?. It is also informed by the emerging research on successful practice, as well as broad educational principles expressed over the centuries by engaged thinkers from Plato to Piaget.

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Touchstone #1: Unconscious biases, fears, and assumptions are obstacles to school success. Key Implications for Practice: t &YQFDUUIFEJTDPNGPSUBOESFTJTUBODF GSPNBMMTUBLFIPMEFST  that always precedes the disruption of deeply held beliefs. As Dr. Cathy Taschner, Deputy Superintendent of the Susquehanna, PA Public Schools, notes, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Moving a system out of equilibrium into the pursuit of excellence is no small task. People resist initially, addressing the nay-sayers takes energy.â&#x20AC;? Give principals and other school leaders the tools to manage the change process; hold them accountable for using those tools. t 3FDSVJUBOESFUBJONPSF#MBDLBOE-BUJOPNBMFTBT administrators, teachers and mentors. t &OTVSFUIBUBMMBENJOJTUSBUPST UFBDIFSTBOENFOUPSTBSF culturally competent; actually believe, and are able to demonstrate explicit and sincere aďŹ&#x192;rmations of the academic abilities of Black and Latino males; and have established bias- and stereotype threat-free classrooms and school communities through systematic, embedded staďŹ&#x20AC; development for district administrators, principals, teachers, and support staďŹ&#x20AC;. Dr. Deborah Jewell-Sherman, Senior Lecturer at )BSWBSE6OJWFSTJUZT4DIPPMPG&EVDBUJPOBOEUIFGPSNFS superintendent of the Richmond, VA Public Schools reminds us, however, that until such time that everyone changes his or her beliefs (which the principal or other educators cannot control), teachers and other adults who are most instrumental in the education of our youth must act as if they believed. t $SFBUFBDPNNVOJUZPGQSBDUJDFJOXIJDITDIPPMMFBEFST  teachers, and support personnel are challenged to respect and empathize with students and families and the communities in which they live. t 3PVUJOFMZXPSLXJUIUFBDIFSTPOUIFVTFPGJOTJHIUTGSPN theories of development (cognitive, socio-cultural, emotional, moral, racial and ethnic identity, gender identity, sexual orientation, constructions of masculinity) to better understand student behaviors and as evidence in instruction and scaďŹ&#x20AC;olding. Many student behaviors, when viewed in isolation from their developmental context, can reinforce unconscious bias and stereotypes. t 4VQQPSUUIFFOHBHFNFOUPGUFBDIFSTBOETUVEFOUTJOJOGPSNBM  spontaneous interactions as well as formal classroom activities such as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;authors in the classroomâ&#x20AC;? process through which both teachers and students share important information about themselves. Positive relations between teachers and students bolster student empowerment and engagement; this is especially true for students of color. (Ada and Campoy, 2004). t &TUBCMJTIBOETVQQPSUTDIPPMPSHBOJ[JOHTZTUFNTBOEBDUJWJUJFT that build authentic, caring relationships between teachers and

students beyond the formal classroom., e.g., chess clubs, adult and peer mentoring systems, internships in the community, showcases for student and teacher talent and areas of expertise, etc. t &TUBCMJTIDMBTTSPPNSPVUJOFT , SFRVJSJOHUFBDIFSTUPTQFOE some time each day using systematic formative assessment frameworks to work one-on-one with their students. This is the quickest way for teachers to establish academic friendships, locate areas of strength and need, and surrender assumptions and stereotypes. As Stephen Peters says, â&#x20AC;&#x153;You canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t teach a child you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know.â&#x20AC;? t 3FRVJSFUFBDIFSTUPQSPWJEFFWJEFODFUIBUUIFNBMFTPG color (and all other students) in their classroom are making adequate or accelerated progress. Insist that administrators check on this progress using meaningful monitoring systems. As teachers see that some teachers are more successful with students than they are, they will confront the reasons for this variation and re-think their deeply entrenched assumptions and the practices on which they are based. t 4FUVQTDIFEVMFTBOEMFBSOJOHUFBNTUIBUSFRVJSFUFBDIFSTUP open their classrooms to their peers. Touchstone #2: Entrenched institutional practices limit opportunities for male students of color. Key Implications for Practice: t %FUSBDLTDIPPMT FTQFDJBMMZJOUIFQSJNBSZHSBEFT"CJMJUZ tracking often reďŹ&#x201A;ects teacher and institutional evaluations based on factors other than intellectual ability. t .BJOTUSFBNTUVEFOUTXJUIEJTBCJMJUJFT4QFDJBMFEVDBUJPOJT notoriously unsuccessful across all racial and ethnic groups. Male students of color are traditionally overrepresented in special education classes. Often the only disability these students possess is ABT, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Been Taught.â&#x20AC;? t i0OFTJ[FmUTBMMwQSPHSBNTNVTUCFSFQMBDFEXJUINVMUJ source, multi-level curricula and teachers who know how to use and support the diversity in their classrooms to improve teaching and learning for everyone. t 5BDLMFIFBEPOUIFOFHBUJWFFÄ&#x2030;FDUTPGVODPOTDJPVTCJBTJOIPX males of color are taught and disciplined through a systematic review of all operating systems, especially those that sort, track, punish, or reward students. t $FOUFSCFIBWJPSNBOBHFNFOUBQQSPBDIFTBSPVOEDPOOFDUJOH males of color to the learning environment. Center discipline policies around restoring that connectedness when it is broken. Do not further disrupt the connection through policies of humiliation, recrimination, and exclusion. t $SFBUFDPNQSFIFOTJWFTZTUFNTJOXIJDINVMUJQMFTPVSDFTPG data are used and shared, making it possible for schools to intervene early and eďŹ&#x20AC;ectively when challenges arise.

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t 1SPWJEFQFSTPOBMJ[FEMFBSOJOHFOWJSPONFOUTXJUINFOUPST  counseling, and other supports from the neighborhoods and communities in which students live. Touchstone #3: School is often an inhospitable environment for many male students, including males of color. Key Implications for Practice: t %JTUSJDUMFBEFSTNVTUPXOUIFDIBMMFOHFBOEQSPCMFNTPMWF with schools to improve the achievement of Black and Latino males. Dr. Alberto Calvalho, Superintendent of the MiamiDade County Public Schools, reminds us that district leaders must be prepared to provide strategic resources to that end. Sustained district leadership for the expansion of magnet schools, initiatives to ensure technological equity regardless of zip code, and innovative ways of engaging students beyond the traditional trappings of Carnegie Units, walls and textbooks has led to school environments of high expectations and a constant raising of the bar. The results are impressive, including sustained improvement in student performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in Reading, Mathematics and Writing, as well as record numbers of Latino and Black students taking AP exams and scoring three or higher. t *ODSFBTFUIFDBQBDJUZPGUFBDIFSTUPEFMJWFSEJÄ&#x2030;FSFOUJBUFE pedagogical practice that meets the needs of all students and oďŹ&#x20AC;ers opportunities for engagement for children from diďŹ&#x20AC;erent backgrounds and genders â&#x20AC;&#x201C; beginning with high quality early childhood programs and extending through 12th grade. These include active learning strategies that channel and make positive use of the diverse levels of physical and emotional energy that children bring with them to school. They also include cooperative learning strategies that capitalize on the strengths of all learners. t *ODSFBTFUIFDBQBDJUZPGUFBDIFSTUPQBZDBSFGVMBUUFOUJPO to student engagement throughout the school day, create structures that reďŹ&#x201A;ect changing levels of energy and engagement throughout the day, and take the time to engage students in critical conversations and thought exercises. t &OTVSFUIBUFWFSZTUVEFOUIBTBUMFBTUPOFBEVMUJOIJTMJGFXIP takes an active interest in that studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s academic success. Ideally, that is a parent or other family member. For any student for whom that is not true, ďŹ nd that student a Surrogate Coach immediately. (Hupfeld, 2007). t 1SPWJEFTUVEFOUTXJUIPQQPSUVOJUJFTUPCFDBNFJODSFBTJOHMZ engaged in and responsible for their own learning through higher levels of choice about what they read; to discuss what they read with their peers, to write about what they read, and to discuss what they have written with their peers; and to come to understand the assessment of their work and engage

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in conversation about what they need to make progress (and in the process, to become more responsible for and connected to their academic performance). t &OHBHFCPZTBOEZPVOHNFOPGDPMPSUIFNTFMWFTJOUIF discourse about â&#x20AC;&#x153;what works,â&#x20AC;? not only those who have been school-successful, but, as Dr. Jewell-Sherman reminds us, also those students who were not successful in school. So many of our brightest young leaders have detoured into the juvenile justice system and the most fortunate among them make it back. Their examples and testimonies are critical elements to this discourse and in ongoing professional development for educators. Touchstone #4: Multigenerational, hyper-segregated poverty brings additional challenges for many Black and Latino males. Key Implications for Practice: t &TUBCMJTIBSFBEJOHDVMUVSFJOXIJDIFWFSZTUVEFOUJTFYQFDUFE to be an avid reader, reading for his own purposes, from books he can read and wants to read, for at least an hour every day. t %FUFSNJOFUIFIJHIFTUSFBEJOHMFWFMBUXIJDIFBDITUVEFOUJT currently able to read and understand text. Share the results with the student. t 3FRVJSFFWFSZTUVEFOUUPEPDVNFOUNJOVUFTPGSFBEJOH practice every day in school from books s/he can read and chooses to read. t 3FRVJSFFWFSZTUVEFOUUPEPDVNFOUNJOVUFTPGSFBEJOH practice at home, and if this is not completed, ensure this home reading time is completed in school. t 5SBDLUIFBNPVOUPGEPDVNFOUFEUJNFTQFOUSFBEJOH FÄ&#x2030;PSU  and the rate of reading progress (achievement) of every student, classroom, and school. t 3FRVJSFUFBDIFSTBOEQSJODJQBMTUPQVUJOQMBDFXIBUFWFS organizational supports are required to ensure that 100% (every single one) of their students document this amount of reading practice. This includes those who hate to read, who canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t read, who miss many days of school, whose ďŹ rst MBOHVBHFJTOU&OHMJTI XIPBSFPGUFOPOTVTQFOTJPO XIP wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t cooperate, whose parents wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t help them. This includes everyone. This requires that every single student to decide to â&#x20AC;&#x153;buy inâ&#x20AC;? to school. t 6OEFSTUBOEUIBUJOPSEFSUPNFFUUIJTDIBMMFOHF DMBTTSPPNT and schools must reorganize many of their systems and rethink many of their assumptions. As they learn to do this, they will learn to do much of what we need to do to succeed with all of our students, including and especially Black and Latino boys and young men.


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approach to learning, rather than mindlessly applying rules and algorithms that donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t make sense to them. &NCFEEFEJOFWFSZMFTTPONVTUCFUIFOPUJPOUIBUTUVEFOUT are entitled to expect their work to make sense and to matter to them, personally. Principals should evaluate classrooms from the earliest years by asking students the simple questions â&#x20AC;&#x153;What are you doing? Why are you doing it?â&#x20AC;? ÍłFDVSSJDVMVNTIPVMEGPSNBMMZUFBDIUIFTLJMMTOFDFTTBSZ for all students, particularly males of color, to navigate the â&#x20AC;&#x153;worldsâ&#x20AC;? in which they live and travel. Teachers should be forthright in acknowledging the complexities and challenges inherent in doing so successfully. &OTVSFUIBUUFBDIFSTTVSSFOEFSUIFJSSFMJBODFPOUIFiTUBOEBSE curriculumâ&#x20AC;? as protection from taking responsibility for the success of individual students. Dr. Nikolai Vitti, Chief Academic OďŹ&#x192;ce, OďŹ&#x192;ce of Academics and Transformation for the Miami-Dade County Public Schools, reminds us of the importance of creating multiple, rigorous pathways for student success. College exposure and preparation, military programs, career technical education with extended internships, and other alternative pathways can help serve the needs of a wide range of students, including Black and Latino boys, and position them in a pipeline for success. "MMDVSSJDVMVNBOEJOTUSVDUJPOBMQSBDUJDFTIPVMECFHSPVOEFE in the principle â&#x20AC;&#x153;Smart is not something you are. Smart is something you become.â&#x20AC;?

Conclusion

Touchstone #5: The curriculum and instructional practices that deliver it often fail to engage males of color. Key Implications for Practice: tÍłFDVSSJDVMBBOENBUFSJBMTJOFWFSZTVCKFDUBSFBSFnFDUUIF multicultural nature of our shared history, science, and arts. t %FMJWFSJOTUSVDUJPOBMQSBDUJDFTUIBUDVMUJWBUFBHFODZ OPU mere compliance. Students (and teachers) must learn to take responsibility for their own learning, their own success, their own lives. t 1SPWJEFPQQPSUVOJUJFTGPSCPZTPGDPMPSUPHFUUPLOPXUPLOPX in depth the thoughts, creations, eďŹ&#x20AC;orts, and achievements of a diverse range of Black and Latino men and to participate with them in meaningful rites of passage into manhood (Reveles, 2000). t #FHJOOJOHJOQSF,JOEFSHBSUFO TUVEFOUTTIPVMEMFBSOUP be creative and critical thinkers, using a problem-solving

The promise of educational excellence and equity is undermined by the ongoing disengagement and underachievement of Black and Latino males. This crisis cannot be met by re-deploying under diďŹ&#x20AC;erent names the assumptions and strategies that have contributed to the achievement gap. Nor can it be met by paralysis or the casting of blame. It can only be met by ongoing identiďŹ cation of the attitudes, policies, and practices that are shown to nurture the school success of African American and Latino males, honest reďŹ&#x201A;ection about how to replicate and extend the reach of what we know works, and the marshaling of resources necessary to ensure that replication and extension. It is our hope that the Touchstones and Implications for Practice presented here constitute a contribution to this important work.

About the Authors Jane Hileman,'PVOEFSBOE$IJFG&YFDVUJWF0Ä&#x160;DFS "NFSJDBO Reading Company James Jerry Clark, Academic Research and Communications Specialist, American Reading Company Dr. Anthony Hicks, Chief Strategic OďŹ&#x192;cer, American Reading Company

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Educators as Salespeople By Marcus Benjamin

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n a recent meeting with a retired district superintendent, who had spent the bulk of his professional career in at-risk districts, this 40-year veteran made the following observation: â&#x20AC;&#x153;There isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t any teacher who would have considered himself or herself a salesperson. Yet, after hearing your presentation, there isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t any successful teacher who isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a salesperson.â&#x20AC;? If the observation made by this veteran is accurate, H[DFWO\ZKDWLVVHOOLQJLQWKHDFDGHPLFFRQWH[W"7KLV question will be succinctly addressed momentarily. For QRZOHW¡VĂ&#x20AC;UVWFRQVLGHUWKDWPDQ\GHHPVHOOLQJDVDQ uncomfortable wordâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;seeing how most have had negative H[SHULHQFHVZLWKYDULRXVVDOHVSHRSOH,QOLHXRIWKLVZH propose selling is an essential function within society DWODUJH,W¡VDOVRSURSRVHGWKDWLQDQ\VSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FVHFWRURI society where growth and stakeholder value is evident, the vast treasure of authentic selling is being mined. Arguably, selling isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t manipulating. Some possess a sales role in society and have used manipulation to meet their aims; however, this isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t selling. Manipulation, which is rooted in deception, occurs when one party takes advantage of the perceived ignorance or emotional gullibility of another in order to gain a personal outcome. Concisely, manipulating is manipulating and selling is selling. Selling is and has always been the practice of LQĂ XHQFLQJDQRWKHUWRWDNHDSDUWLFXODUFRXUVHRIDFWLRQ WKDWLVEHQHĂ&#x20AC;FLDOWRERWKSDUWLHV%RWKSDUWLHVEULQJ valuable consideration to the table and selling produces

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WKHH[FKDQJHRIWKLVFRQVLGHUDWLRQ7KHSUHVHQWRUIXWXUH value derived from acquiring what was sold should be far greater than the consideration the buyer paid in the H[FKDQJH x Remember the engagement or wedding ring chosen for your spouse? x 5HPHPEHU\RXUĂ&#x20AC;UVWKRPH" x 5HPHPEHU\RXUZHGGLQJGUHVVRUWX[HGR" x 5HPHPEHU\RXUĂ&#x20AC;UVWIDPLO\YDFDWLRQ" x 5HPHPEHU\RXUĂ&#x20AC;UVWFKLOG¡VXOWUDVRXQGSKRWRJUDSK" Selling is ubiquitous and rightfully so. We rapidly moved from the Agricultural Era into the Industrial Revolution, and then, from the Industrial Revolution into the Age of 7HFKQRORJ\6HOOLQJIDFLOLWDWHGWKLVH[FKDQJHDQGKRZ has the quality of our lives improved! We correspond on HVVHQWLDODQGVXSHUĂ XRXVPDWWHUVLQVHFRQGV:HDUHDEOH to travel across the world in hours and prepare gourmet meals in mere minutes. Each of these and thousands of other innovations in various sectors of society all transpired through the pervasive vehicle of selling. 1RZZKDWDERXWVHOOLQJLQWKHDFDGHPLFFRQWH[W"$W Selling Better Futures, LLC our collaborative beliefs, ZKLFKVKDSHRXUĂ DJVKLSSURIHVVLRQDOGHYHORSPHQWDUH succinctly listed below. x A high-quality education is one of the greatest products of a childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future and it must be sold to them x A considerable number of children attend school daily that havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been sold a better future or the


future value of education. x Educators are salespeople of a high-quality education irrespective to compensation or geography x The school and classroom is the marketplace where WKLVSURGXFWLVLQLWLDOO\H[FKDQJHG x Each student is rich in E.A.T.ÂŽ Currency, which determines what ideas they purchase Educators as SalespeopleÂŽ is the innovative and thoughtprovoking professional development offered by Selling %HWWHU)XWXUHV//&&RPELQLQJDFDGHPLFH[SHULHQFH intelligence, and inspiration educators are sharpened and shaped to sell better futures and academic achievement to WKHVWXGHQWVZKRJUDFHWKHLUVFKRRORUFODVV6SHFLĂ&#x20AC;FDOO\ GHVLJQHGWRLQĂ XHQFHVFKRROFXOWXUHFOLPDWHVWXGHQW engagement, and personalized learning this professional development brings measurable academic outcomes. 7DNHDPRPHQWDQGUHĂ HFWRQWKHHGXFDWRUZKRPRVW LQĂ XHQFHG\RX&RQVLGHUIXUWKHUWKHVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FDWWLWXGHV and actions he or she regularly conveyed toward you. As an insistently failing student who became an honors

graduate, college graduate, District Title I Parent Coordinator and founder of Selling Better Futures, LLC, Marcus Benjamin did just that. He discovered salespeople altered his academic life. These were educational salespeople who sold him a better future where academic SURĂ&#x20AC;FLHQF\ZDVLQGLVSHQVLEOH

About the Author ´)DLOLQJJUDGHVDQGVFKRROĂ&#x20AC;JKWVZHUH common place in Marcus Benjaminâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life until one event after another OHGKLPWRVHHDFDGHPLFSURĂ&#x20AC;FLHQF\ and his future from a different perspective. Marcus had to be sold a better future of which academic achievement was essential. Marcus Benjamin is a former banker and District-wide, Title I Parent Coordinator who is the founder of Selling Better Futures.

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Graduating All Students Innovation-Ready By Tony Wagner, Featured Keynote Speaker at the 2013 SCASA Innovative Ideas Institute

I

mproving student achievement through innovation is the latest buzz in education. New test-prep programs, RQOLQHOHDUQLQJSODWIRUPVHWH[WVFKDUWHUVFKRRO hybrids, and so on are proliferating, but they are only changing the nature of how we deliver the same old FRQWHQW1RRQHVHHPVWRTXHVWLRQH[DFWO\ZKDWVWXGHQWV should be achieving beyond better test scores. What matters today, however, is not how much our students know, but what they can do with what they know. None of these innovations addresses this fundamental shift in what our studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and our nationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;will need to succeed in the 21st century. Knowledge today is a free commodity and growing H[SRQHQWLDOO\.KDQ$FDGHP\FXUUHQWO\RIIHUVPRUH than 3,300 K-12 video lessons for free, and more than 6 million students are logging on every month. And now, growing numbers of our elite private and state universities are offering no-cost online courses for anyone who is interested. Because opportunities for learning are ubiquitous and accessible on every Internet-connected device, students who know more than others no longer have a competitive advantage. Our students now compete for jobs with talented students around the world who will work for far less. As a result, the high school and college graduates who will get and keep good jobs in the new global economy and contribute solutions to the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most pressing problems are those who can bring what the author and New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman calls â&#x20AC;&#x153;a spark of imaginationâ&#x20AC;? to whatever they do. They will be creative problem-solvers who will generate improvements

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LQH[LVWLQJSURGXFWVSURFHVVHVDQGVHUYLFHVDVZHOO as invent new ones. Rather than worry so much about graduating all students college-ready, I have come to understand that the most essential to education challenge today is to graduate all students innovation ready. What does it take to create an innovator? Research for my new book, Creating Innovators: The Making of Young People Who Will Change The World, has turned up some surprising answers to this question. The assumption of many business leaders is that we need more science, technology, engineering, and math education. But the scores of young STEM innovators and social entrepreneurs whom I interviewed learned to innovate most often in spite of their â&#x20AC;&#x153;goodâ&#x20AC;? schoolingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;not because of it. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is [the] combination of play, passion, and purpose that best develops the discipline and perseverance required to be a successful innovator.â&#x20AC;? Some argue that innovators like Steve Jobs are born and not made, and so the schooling they get doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t matter. However, I have come to understand that most young people can be taught to innovate in whatever they do. We are all born curious, creative, and imaginative. And the best schoolsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;from pre-K to graduate schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; continue to develop these capabilities in students. They do so not by delivering more-of-the-same education, but rather a very different education. Schools like High Tech High or the New Technology High Schools have


established reputations for producing highly innovative graduates. But what and how these schools teach are radically at odds with conventional education. These schools focus primarily on teaching students skills and not merely academic content, including critical thinking and problem-solving, effective oral and written communication, and many of the other survival skills, such as collaboration and initiative, which I described in my last book, The Global Achievement Gap. They do so by engaging students in rich and challenging academic contentâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and yet, content mastery is not the primary objective of their courses. In all of the classes, students must use academic content to pose and solve problems DQGJHQHUDWHRUDQVZHUFRPSOH[TXHVWLRQV6WXGHQWVDUH required to apply what they have learned and show what they know. Frequently, they do this work in teams. )RUH[DPSOHWKJUDGHUVDW+LJK7HFK+LJKZRUNLQ teams to imagine a new business, and then develop a detailed business plan that they present to local venture capitalists in San Diego. Some of their ideas, in fact, get funded. And all HTH seniors must complete a semesterlong team-based service-learning project in which a group works to solve a real problem in the community. One team I interviewed discovered that the local food pantry was not able to store the food it was collecting for needy families. So the students used a computer-aided-design program at their school to create a storage system. They then installed it at the pantry. What is unique about these schools is the learning culture they have created. All of them require collaboration in the classroom because they understand that innovation is a team sport. Most courses are interdisciplinary because, as Googleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s IRUPHUGLUHFWRURIWDOHQW-XG\*LOEHUWH[SODLQHGZKHQ, interviewed her in 2011: â&#x20AC;&#x153;A more interdisciplinary approach to learning will better prepare people for the kind of problems theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll be confronting.â&#x20AC;? 8QGHUVWDQGLQJWKDWLQQRYDWLRQDQGVHOIFRQĂ&#x20AC;GHQFH come from taking risks and learning from mistakes, teachers at the schools Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve named encourage trial and error. Rather than talk about failure, they emphasize the importance of â&#x20AC;&#x153;iterationâ&#x20AC;? in student work. Perhaps P\PRVWVXUSULVLQJUHVHDUFKĂ&#x20AC;QGLQJLVWKHH[WHQWWR which young innovatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;from both advantaged and disadvantaged backgroundsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;are much more motivated E\LQWULQVLFUDWKHUWKDQH[WULQVLFLQFHQWLYHV7KHLU SDUHQWVWHDFKHUVDQGPHQWRUVHQFRXUDJHH[SORUDWRU\ SOD\WKHĂ&#x20AC;QGLQJDQGSXUVXLWRIDSDVVLRQDQGWKHLGHDRI giving back. All of the innovators that I interviewed want

to make a difference in the world. It is this combination of play, passion, and purposeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;rather than the carrotand-stick motivation of most classroomsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that best develops the discipline and perseverance required to be a successful innovator. To graduate all students innovation-ready will require very different thinking from whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s currently being touted in education. First, I believe the U.S. Department of Education and state education departments need to develop ways to assess essential skills with digital portfolios that follow students through school, and encourage the use of better tests like the College and Work Readiness Assessment. Administered by the Council for Aid to Education, the CWRA is an online test RISUREOHPVROYLQJFRPSOH[WKLQNLQJDQGZULWLQJVNLOOV used by a growing number of independent schools, public school districts, and colleges around the country. Second, we need to learn how to assess teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effectiveness by analysis of their studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work, rather than on the basis of a test score. Teachers and administrators should also build digital portfolios, which their principals and superintendents should assess periodically. Third, to push educational innovation, districts need to partner with one DQRWKHUEXVLQHVVHVDQGQRQSURĂ&#x20AC;WVWRHVWDEOLVKWUXH5 ' labsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;schools of choice that are developing 21st-century approaches to learning. Finally, we need to incorporate a better understanding of how students are motivated to do their best work into our course and school designs. Google has a 20 percent rule, whereby all employees have the equivalent of one day a week to work on any project they choose. These projects have produced many of Googleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most important innovations. I would like to see this same rule applied to every classroom in America, as a way to create time for students to pursue their own interests and continue to develop their sense of play, passion, and purpose. Our students want to become innovators. Our economy needs them to become innovators. The question is: As educators, do we have the courage to disrupt conventional wisdom and pursue the innovations that matter most? Tony Wagner is currently the innovation education fellow at the Technology & Entrepreneurship Center at Harvard University. Previously, he was the founder and co-director of the Change Leadership Group at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This Commentary was adapted by Mr. Wagner for Education Week from his recently published book, Creating Innovators: The Making of Young People Who Will Change The World (Scribner, 2012). His website is www.tonywagner.com.

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A coalition of school boards, superintendents, principals, teachers, parents, students, non-profit organizations, and business leaders have come together under the leadership of New Carolina, South Carolina’s Council on Competitiveness, to form a public/private partnership to catalyze and support innovation that transforms the delivery of public education by leveraging and supporting the information, manufacturing and global economy we all now live in. Specifically the coalition will: t Identify Essential Student Knowledge, Skills and Dispositions to create new and more effective measures of student achievement and

more personalized student learning for the 21st century learner. t Create a Grassroots Innovation Network of innovative superintendents, school board members and educators committed to bringing

effective learning approaches and system to scale and increasing dramatically the number of career-college-citizenship ready students. t Support an Innovation Pipeline which is comparable to a company’s research and development function. To transform the system,

schools will need a “safe” place to experiment with new curriculum, individualized instruction models, measuring in real-time student engagement and academic growth, etc.


Instant insight into student learning Reteach, repeat or move on – you’ll know with SMART Response™ interactive response systems. smarttech.com/response

© 2012 SMART Technologies. All rights reserved. SMART Response, smarttech, the SMART logo and all SMART taglines are trademarks or registered trademarks of SMART Technologies in the U.S. and/or other countries.


Photo Contest

Photographed & Submitted by Julie Putnam, Kershaw County School District

Lugoff Elementary teacher Amanda Hicks uses technology and gumballs to get her kindergarten students excited about mathematics.

Baron DeKalb Elementary teacher Donna Farnum mixes a special “Leprechaun dust” FRQFRFWLRQIRUKHUÀUVWJUDGHVWXGHQWVGXULQJDGD\RI6W3DWULFN·V'D\DFWLYLWLHVZKLFK included designing, building and writing about their Leprechaun traps.

Blaney Elementary teacher Tammy Duszynski laughs as she reads a limerick written by her second grade student.

Principal Ed Yount always has a smile and a handshake ready for his Camden Elementary School students. Yount was the Kershaw County School District’s Principal of the Year for the 2011-12 School Year.

Midway Elementary School reading teacher Molly Lane has an infectious love of reading that she spreads to her students

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Photo Contest

SC Educators at Hanban Headquarters in China, Submitted by Peggy Prescott

Ida Rwirangira, 4-H Instructor at Baron DeKalb Elementary, Kershaw County Schools, and students discovered a gigantic hornetsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; nest, in a tree near the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s outdoor classroom. Ms. Rwirangira and students (Samantha Lucas and Daequon Evans) take a closer look at the nest. Submitted by Betty Turner

Mabry Middle School Science teacher, Carole McBride, assists students with exacting liquid measurements in the lab. When successfully completed this experiment had the students holding their noses against the â&#x20AC;&#x153;smelly resultsâ&#x20AC;?. (Mabry Middle School in Spartanburg County District One Schools) Submitted by Paula Brooks

2nd graders compete in â&#x20AC;&#x153;Connect the Dotsâ&#x20AC;? game during related arts, Dobyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Mill Elementary School, Kershaw County Schools, Submitted by Vicky Norton

Using Photography as her method of expression, student artist Chynna Harris, captures her younger sister Moriahâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impish personality. Both Chynna and Moriah are students in Spartanburg District One Schools. ( For the 2011-2012 school year Moriah attended Holly Springs-Motlow Elementary and Chynna attended Chapman High School) Submitted by Paula Brooks

6WXGHQWVDW6XOOLYDQ0LGGOH6FKRROLQ5RFN+LOOZKRKDYHEHHQVWXG\LQJFRQĂ LFWVDURXQGWKH world and the importance of peace, observed International Day of Peace on September 21 by creating an impressive â&#x20AC;&#x153;humanâ&#x20AC;? peace sign. Submitted by Michael Waiksnis

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Photo Contest

Nicholas Moss, student at Dutch Fork High School is Lexington District 5 is an aspiring photographer trying to capture the beauty of South Carolina through his eyes. This was photo was taken of a former primary school located in Greenwood, SC. Even though the school is now closed, learning is still taking place through photography.

District One Orchestra students follow the tempo set by Mrs. Tammy King, Chapman High School Orchestra Director and Co-Director of the Spartanburg District One Orchestra. Mrs. King, along with Landrum High School Orchestra Director and District One Orchestra Co-Director Henry Anderson bring their respective groups together in a collaborative program to give their students the opportunity to play in a much larger group with fellow student musicians within the school district. These high school musicians perform together at schools, colleges, and special events throughout Spartanburg County. (Photo features students from Chapman and Landrum High Schools in Spartanburg County District One) Submitted by Paula Brooks

Chapman High School students joined efforts with Subway and the South Carolina Highway Patrol pledging their support to not text and drive. Chapman High School was one of only two high schools in the state to have 100% participation which earned them the Region Winners title in the ÀUVWDQQXDO:DLWWR7H[W3URJUDPVSRQVRUHGE\6XEZD\6XEPLWWHGE\3DXOD%URRNV

Students in Ryan Settle’s Agriculture Science and Technology Class learn a variety of skills including how to cut lumber to create garden borders, fencing, and for landscaping projects. This student is learning to use a Miter Saw. (Landrum High School in Spartanburg County District One Schools) Submitted by Paula Brooks

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Photo Contest

Sometimes Innovative Learning is as simple as a summer baseball camp with high school coaches and players teaching the basics of America’s Favorite Pastime to aspiring young athletes. (The photo was taken at Chapman High School in Spartanburg District One.) Submitted by Paula Brooks

As members of Landrum High School’s Marching band, these students know the importance of learning the music while sitting GRZQEHIRUHWKH\DGGWKHLUIDQF\IRRWZRUNRQWKHÀHOGGXULQJ half-time at the Friday night football game.(Landrum High School in Spartanburg District One Schools) Submitted by Paula Brooks

In an effort to teach her Excel students about the Principles of Flight, thrust, motion, lift, and drag, Campobello-Gramling School teacher Ms. Trish Cobourn invited local businessman and pilot Bob Seawright to bring his ultralite plane to the school. This was an innovative way to ensure that a unit of study would be remembered by her students. (This photo features students from CampobelloGramling School in Spartanburg District One.) Submitted by Paula Brooks

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Help Move Education Forward! There are many dedicated elected officials who stand up for public education. We need to stand behind them with our voices and financial support. Donate to the LEAP Action Committee by going to and click Donate or mail your check made payable to LEAP to 121 Westpark Boulevard, Columbia, SC 29210.

Thank you for supporting public education!


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NON-PROFIT US POSTAGE

PAID COLUMBIA, SC 3(50,712

SC Foundation for Educational Adminstration 121 Westpark Boulevard Columbia, South Carolina 29210

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Palmetto Administrator Winter 2013  

The Palmetto Administrator magazine is sent to all SCASA members and Business Affiliate Members. The magazine is published once a year and...

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