OnBoard NEWS | VIEWS | REVIEWS ON INTEGRATED MARITIME SOLUTIONS
Big Interview Issue:
Featuring Jeppesen’s Jeremy Langdon, ECDIS Ltd.’s Peter Thornton and US Coast Guard’s Jeffrey G. Lantz
Solstad tells their story p. 24 Telko gets piracy data on screen p. 26 ISSUE 1 | SPRING 2011
A BOEING COMPANY
e-Navigation, so simple
When you go for ENC, go for the best ENC service ”Jeppesen Onboard offers users ease and flexibility when it comes to licensing and updating of ENC.”
Jeppesen Onboard means that you have a global chart data-base installed inside your ECDIS and you can license and use your ENCs in a matter of minutes. Easy “pay as you go” licensing means that ordering and cost control are highly optimized . Online updating means that navigators always have the latest chart editions and corrections onboard giving confidence in safety both aboard the vessel and onshore at the ship-owner. ENC from Jeppesen is guaranteed to fulfill all of the chart requirements for mandatory ECDIS. With years of experience in supplying navigational services to customers worldwide, we always ensure that your ships are up-to-date, without error or delay. Jeppesen Norway AS, tel. + 47 51 46 47 00, www.jeppesen.com/marine
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Jeppesen is a market-leading provider of vessel operations services and digital navigation solutions, based on worldwide vector chart data type approved to ISO19879, meteorological information and transmission technologies. With C-MAP and Vessel Voyage and Optimization Services, Jeppesen offers a wide range of navigation and operations products and services to serve markets from inland and coastal navigation to today’s safety-conscious commercial shipping industry. Jeppesen is chartered with the same underlying values that launched Jeppesen in 1934 – improving safety and efficiency through innovative navigation solutions.
ENC Service from Single Supplier Siem Offshore explains why it has used just Jeppesen.
10 Customer Profile
ENC Problem. Solved. Mare Maritime speeds it up with the Jeppesen solution.
Not Data, Not Information, Intelligence An interview with Jeppesen’s Jeremy Langdon gives insight into answers to some long-standing problems.
Everything is Undergoing Change
ECDIS Ltd.’s Peter Thornton talks about the ins and outs of training.
prepared for tomorrow
We explore its status, what NOT to do and what to do.
Telko utilizes Jeppesen’s piracy data in its navigation products.
Solstad Shipping shares its experience in Africa.
THE NAVIGATION AUTHORITY
US Coast Guard’s Jeffrey Lantz is a candidate for IMO Secretary General. Meet him in this one-on-one interview.
Jeppesen’s Chief Naval Architect points out the benefits of voyage optimization.
The company signs agreement to distribute China’s ENCs
What’s Up with ECDIS?
A Talk with the Next IMO SecGen?
Piracy in the Picture
prepared for tomorrow
Beyond Weather Routing
prepared for tomorrow
Fighting Piracy’s Two Fronts
Jeppesen Goes to China
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III COMMERCIAL NAVIGATION
Not Data, Not Information, Intelligence An Interview with Jeppesenâ€™s Jeremy Langdon We had a free and open discussion with the director of Jeppesenâ€™s efforts in the marine sector. He describes how the company is seeking to answer some long-standing problems facing shipowners and managers by utilizing fleet-wide systems integration.
“There are fundamental differences between what digital data can (and cannot) do, compared to paper data.” /// What are your initial impressions with respect to how the market is dealing with the upcoming ECDIS mandate? We’re getting mixed signals. Some owners are out ahead of the mandate, and others seem willing to leave it to the last minute. It’s a mixed bag of signals we’re getting at the moment.
on ships when I was a navigating officer. At that time, there weren’t serious alternatives; now there are. It will take time, I think, for people to realize that there are alternatives. The UK Hydrographic Office is not the only supplier of official ENC data; there are others, and we are one of them.
What are the trends in how shipping companies go from paper charts to electronic? Many have used Jeppesen’s Professional products for years, as a way of training their staff before the implementation of full ECDIS, while still using paper charts in the background. Other companies appear to be going straight to ECDIS from paper charts; this is going to take a lot more training, and – in my view – may be a more difficult path to go down. We’re convincing owners of the value of using Professional+, combining paper and electronic charts as an aid to navigation, then transferring over to ECDIS as the full navigational system.
Many users may feel it’s easy to continue with a relationship they already have. What would be your foremost arguments for these users to get them to consider something different? There are many factors. There are questions around cost, coverage, usability and user-friendliness. There are still holes in ENC coverage. Do all suppliers have the ability to fill in the holes in ENC coverage with other electronic data? Are the people that you are dealing with on the electronic chart side skilled and experienced in the use, manipulation and distribution of electronic data? Or is this just something they’ve come upon because of the electronic mandate? Our business was set up specifically for the creation and distribution of electronic data. We have huge experience in the development and distribution of that data.
I heard from one customer who used Admiralty paper charts and felt he had to go over to Admiralty electronic products. He thought many owners felt the same way but was happily surprised to learn there were other options. Do you think that this thinking reigns in the industry? It’s a natural phenomenon. When I was at sea, I used British Admiralty charts, and they’re excellent data sources. When I went ashore to run ships, I naturally put on my ships the sort of things I was used to seeing
What kinds of differences are going to be experienced at the user level because of Jeppesen’s digital background? There are fundamental differences between what digital data can (and cannot) do, compared to paper data. Knowing those limitations and capabilities is very important. They’re not always immediately apparent.
It can take many years to work out how to manipulate and display the data in the best way. The user will see that in terms of the usability of the interface. Take for example installation and updating, where our proprietary SENC format takes a fraction of the time that it takes to upload or update a UKHO database. Jeppesen has supplied electronic chart products for a long time. You have some sophisticated electronic navigation clients. What trends do you see among these superusers? Many of them were early adopters of electronic navigation, not necessarily ENC navigation, but electronic navigation. Many of them have been customers of ours for many years. These are the early adopters, and they will be early adopters of dual ECDIS systems and fully integrated generic and specific ECDIS training. These early adopters have already seen the benefits and advantages of electronic navigation. They also tend to see the benefits of other uses of electronic and digital integration, not just in terms of digital navigation, but also digital operation – not just the ship, but all of their assets, from a shipboard point-of-view and an office pointof-view. You’re referring to office products linking operations to the back office. How is the take-up of these kinds of products going? Take-up is steady. We are working with a number of forward-looking companies who
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III COMMERCIAL NAVIGATION
are seeking to implement solutions such as VVOS (Vessel & Voyage Optimization Solution) and Fleet Manager as an integrated system from an operational, navigational, commercial and financial aspect. It becomes not just a single stand-alone solution, but part of a broad range of products we offer to create an optimized solution for shipowners, ship managers, ship operators, charterers and so on. We also have to differentiate between weather routing and VVOS, which is asset optimization. One is intended to ensure that the vessel stays in as safe a track as possible. The other works in a slightly different way – it takes into account not only the weather, but also the sea-keeping qualities of the particular hull form itself to create not only a safe passage but an optimally efficient passage, where fuel is minimized and dynamic criteria such as roll, pitch and acceleration can be kept within tightly specified parameters. We can’t make the mistake of linking VVOS and weather routing to be the same thing; they’re not. Weather routing has a place, but I believe solutions like VVOS have a developing role within the industry as companies see how these things ensure ETA integrity, cargo security and also save fuel, especially with bunkers as expensive as they are right now.
Jeppesen has always been very associated with products. Now you’re going more over to services. Obviously, that involves change for Jeppesen. How is Jeppesen tackling this? We’ve set up a new division within the marine division of Jeppesen, called Professional Services. This division is specifically tasked with interfacing with customers, finding out what their problems are and coming up with one-off solutions, as well as solutions that the whole industry might be interested You said there were things you’ll be add- in. The Professional Services team has been ing on. What kinds of things do you fore- working with a number of our key clients to see adding on? develop one-off solutions and others we can We’re currently developing a performance integrate into our total offering. module together with an oil company and They have the ability to do rapid protomajor shipowner. The module will measure typing and to consult on how to integrate the performance of the vessel, in absolute various products (ours and others’). For exterms and as a trend. That company and ample, we’re looking at data tracking. With others utilizing the module will be able to see better and more cost-effective links from how the performance of their vessel chang- ship to shore, it enables better data transies over time and be able to make decisions tion. That allows us to provide a more intebased on those trends – decisions related to grated and broader solution. hull cleaning, fuel usage, dry-docking, propeller polishing and all sorts of things. There’s serious competition to be the shipowners’ trusted operational partner. What’s your take on the competition in this consulting space? The industry is significant and there is room, I’m sure, for a number of players. Are charterers seeking to drive fuel effiHowever, our offering is unique. Our adciency products like VVOS? Do the forvantage is on the operational side of things ward-looking clients experience this? -– we’re coming from the navigational side Yes, we are talking to a number of charterwhere safety is paramount and we considers at the moment, and we have significant er the quality of our products as second to interest from them in using something like none. VVOS and/or Fleet Manager to monitor fuel Other development areas include trim We’re hoping to leverage the long history usage, to ensure charter party compliance analysis programs to optimize trim and and the extensive knowledge and experience and so on. minimize fuel usage. We’re looking at a tank of our aviation colleagues, where we have an sloshing module to ensure sloshing inside a enviable market share, and utilize it in our There’s a lot of excitement around Fleet partially-filled LNG tank is kept within oper- division to help us to be a market leader in Manager. What is Jeppesen eager to fill ating parameters. This links our VVOS mod- the marine space. that whole space with? ule with the tank sloshing module. Knowing Fleet Manager was launched at SMM last the sea state and the wind and swell, we can How much impact do you think the eSeptember, and was very well received by monitor the amount of tank sloshing that is Navigation developments will have in the customers and by potential partners in the taking place and that is likely to take place in short to medium term? industry. It will form the core of an inte- a future sea state. Then we can help officers Potentially, e-Navigation is a huge step forgrated suite of products that we have either either avoid that or modify the vessel’s char- ward. But again there will be early adopters already developed or are currently develop- acteristics in terms of speed, course, draft and more conservative players who will coning. Together they will allow a far more in- and trim to stay within specified parameters. tinue to do what they’ve been doing for the
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tegrated and optimized operation. This will affect operational aspects of the vessel and commercial, navigational and financial aspects of fleet management. At the moment, there are very few integrated systems for monitoring a ship’s operational characteristics, controlling and ensuring that the vessel complies with all the relevant regulations, optimizing asset utilization, and which also integrate with back-office financial, commercial and communication systems.
“Data organized in a sensible form can be described as information and you can do something with that. The next stage is intelligent information...”
and quadruple checked from a safety pointof-view. We have an admirable safety record on the aviation side, and nothing we do on the marine side will be allowed to jeopardize that. In return for that, the experience and the knowledge that has been gained on the aviation side filters through to us in Marine and we’re hoping to develop the marine side with closer ties to the aviation side of the business.
“Our business was set up specifically for the creation and distribution of electronic data.We have huge experience in the development and distribution of that data.” What would you describe as Jeppesen’s big goal in the marine business? When I was at sea, I thought the ship was the centre of the universe. When I started working ashore, I discovered a whole other area of the industry: ship operators, managers, charterers, brokers, crew management and more. I realized that many of the problems these people face aren’t being addressed. It is our goal to address those problems. An integrated solution, allowing data and information to be distributed throughout the company and the industry, would be very beneficial. I’m talking about intelligent information – radically transforming global transportation using intelligent information and integrated solutions. Data is all very well, but a whole lot of data is very difficult last 30 or 40 years. e-Navigation has the po- experience in this area. We believe that we to do anything with. Data organized in a tential of making navigation safer, by offer- have a lot to offer the industry and we are sensible form can be described as informaing more timely updates, reducing workload involved in discussions with industry players tion and you can do something with that. and creating more consistent and timely on the future of e-Navigation. The next stage is intelligent information data distribution. – information that has already been sifted, How has Jeppesen’s aviation connection filtered and organized in such a way that deTo what extent will Jeppesen try to influ- had an impact on the marine side? cisions are so much easier to make, not only ence or take an active role in the developIt certainly has in terms of the way we better decisions but quicker decisions, and ment of e-Navigation concepts? think, and the culture within the company is this data can then be integrated with other We see ourselves as thought leaders within very much a safety-oriented culture. Noth- data and applications in other parts of the the industry; we have a lot of expertise and ing is produced until it’s been double, triple business, the industry, the world. ///
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III CUSTOMER PROFILE
ENC Service from Single Supplier Siem Offshore recently celebrated a newbuilding in its Brazilian operations. This ship, its Brazilian siblings and its two dozen Norwegian cousins all run on charts from Jeppesen. We asked them why a single supplier and why Jeppesen. /// In mid-February, a representative from the top echelons of Petrobras and Norway’s Minister of Trade and Industry attended the christening of a modestly sized crewboat built in Brazil called the Siem Pendotiba. It was the fifth ship in a fleet that will soon number ten for Brazilian offshore supply company Siem Consub. The significance of this christening is tied to the increasingly strong ties between the
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Norwegian and Brazilian economies. It’s a tie-up being felt by everyone related to the offshore and shipping segments in either Norway or Brazil, including offshore companies like Siem Offshore (Siem Consub’s Norwegian mother company) and their key suppliers, such as Jeppesen. “We’re all about growth. Siem Offshore has only existed since 2005, when we had effectively zero ships. Today, we have 40+ ships,
if we include ships on the orderbook,” says Siem Offshore’s Chief Commercial Officer Christian Berg. It is understood that Siem Offshore chooses partners with the same attitude towards growth. Single supplIER “From day one, we’ve been a customer of Jeppesen. Why? Jeppesen’s the market leader and they can provide us with a single source for all of our electronic chart needs. They can provide the same, familiar system on all of our vessels, with truly worldwide coverage. They’re also renowned as the best, far and away, in the North Sea,” says Berg. Siem Offshore’s ships use both Telchart and TECDIS, both produced by Telko. From Jeppesen, Siem Offshore uses both Professional+ commercial charts and ENCs from Jeppesen. Specifically, 10 of its most modern vessels trading in the North Sea and Brazil operate paperless with ENCs from Jeppesen. As Siem Offshore’s vessels trade all over the world (Black Sea, West Africa, Gulf of Mexico, Brazil and the North Sea), the company needs a charts supplier with global coverage. “The Siem Consub ships will also use charts from Jeppesen, and we have faith in their ability to serve us also in Brazil,” says Berg.
Challenges Asked about challenges that Siem Offshore has seen related to electronic navigation, Berg answered: “I’ve got a background as a master mariner, and I’ve seen this technology grow up. Unfortunately, some officers tend to use the ECDIS or ECS as the only means of navigation. That’s wrong. “The electronic chart system should be seen as a new tool, not a replacement for other means of navigation. We’re talking about radar, dead reckoning and, perhaps most importantly, your eyes,” he says. Asked if there were any tricks or shortcuts Siem Offshore used to force seafarers to use multiple means of navigation, Berg says no. “It’s something you train and train and train. It’s a mindset thing. There’s no way around it.”
He describes the choice of a single supplier for ECDIS and for charts as a shortcut, in terms of crew capability. “It’s much easier here to have one supplier. By using only one partner, we have a far easier time creating familiarity, routines and safety management systems. These systems work very well,” he says.
Benefits of electronic navigation “First of all, you’re talking about different routines. The bridge officers immediately get a far better overview of the situation when they are operating with the ECDIS. They can get a relatively complete picture in a single glance. We’re combining a number of signals and information in a single screen, which provides greater situational awareness,” says Berg. Another major benefit cited by Berg is costsavings and time-savings associated with the much more rapid chart updating process. “We free up time for the second and third officers to focus on other important priorities, which again improves safety. They can attend to important issues, instead of spending time bent – Christian Berg, Siem Offshore’s Chief Commercial Officer over a chart making minor corrections.” Lastly, he likes the fact that providers like Training and crew capabilities Jeppesen provide data overlays to their chart Berg confirms that Siem Offshore is doing information. Particularly, he reports that extensive training of its seafarers on their Siem Offshore appreciates Jeppesen’s piracy ECDIS capabilities. “We have our own simu- overlay. “It’s a very good tool. We currently lators for the charts and the DP here in Nor- don’t have any vessels operating in or transway. In addition, we will use a training simu- iting piracy-afflicted areas, but when we do lator in Brazil to serve our people there.” we’ll use this tool,” he says. ///
“By using only one partner, we have a far easier time creating familiarity, routines and safety management systems.”
III quick facts about siem offshore
11PSVs 4 MRSVs 8 AHTS +1 AHTS 1Newbuilding 2Subsidiaries Oldest built in 1996
Oldest built in 2007
Oldest built in 2009
Operated for partner
Owned by partner and operated by Siem
Siem Consub (Brazilian operations) and Siem WIS (offshore technology and solutions)
Home office in Kristiansand, Norway Operations in North Sea, Brazil, West Africa, Black Sea and Gulf of Mexico Founded in 2005, listed on Oslo Stock Exchange same year Market cap NOK 4+ billion
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III CUSTOMER PROFILE
ENC Problem. Solved. Mare Maritime’s officers spent a full day uploading and updating ENCs on dual ECDIS. “We just didn’t know there was any alternative,” said Capt. Charis Kanellopoulos. Now they know, and officers spend only 15 minutes on the same task.
/// Here’s the math. Mare Maritime runs eight type 2 chemical tankers for Empire Chemical Tankers. Each ship has dual ECDIS. Updating each ECDIS required nine base CDs of S-57 data. This took up to eight hours per ECDIS. This was a monthly process. We’re talking about as many as 120 hours per month for the fleet – only for uploading navigational data. “This has been a major problem. We simply spent far too much time updating the ECDIS. And, because it required the ECDIS CD/DVD player to run continuously, we feared the equipment would fail far too quickly,” says Mare Maritime’s Capt. Charis Kanellopoulos. “We took it for granted that there was no other way. We just figured that this was the time that it took,” says Capt. Kanellopoulos. “But seafarers who had served on other ships using C-MAP were certainly frustrated with our system.” Then in mid-2010 Jeppesen visited Mare Maritime and introduced an ENC distribution system that would change the equation for him and his seafarers. “Personally, I found it easier. I simply liked the idea. For three months, we used this on one of our ships on a trial basis. The officers loved it – only 10-15 minutes to upload a DVD, and they’re done. We decided in a short amount of time to implement the solution across the fleet,” he says. Under the hood What’s going on here is common knowledge within the electronic chart community, but less well known among shipowners and technical superintendents. Suppliers that are able to pre-format data for users can
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provide a radically better service than those suppliers who push raw S-57 data. The technology is called SENC distribution. Jeppesen can offer this technology only because it has worked with ECDIS hardware makers since their inception; the capability is wired into these ECDIS terminals. As a result, there are two different paths to installing an ENC catalog in ECDIS: 1) Many companies provide a stack of CDs full of S-57 data. These need to be installed sequentially in an ECDIS over many hours. The ECDIS slowly converts the raw S-57 data into the format an ECDIS can manipulate (called SENC, for System ENC). 2) Jeppesen is one of very few suppliers who distribute data directly in the SENC format, which goes straight into the ECDIS like milk into a baby. The DVD that arrives at the ship takes about 10 minutes to update the ship’s entire ENC catalog. The process is typeapproved and used by many, many fleets. Today, most makes of ECDIS are capable of accepting ENC chart data from Jeppesen packaged as SENC. For those with a technical bent, SENC distribution involves sending the entire chart database on DVD, which takes 10-15 minutes to fully update ECDIS. Online+ updating from Jeppesen uses delta files to bridge an old version with a new one.
He feels like many of his peers in the Greek maritime community may be falling in the same pattern. “We all pretty much use the same paper chart supplier; we simply thought that the only choice was to continue with them when we went paperless.
“The Jeppesen solution is marginally more expensive than the competitor that we were using before. However, considering the time and trouble we save,as well as the reduced wear and tear on the ECDIS drives, it’s easily worth it.” – Capt. Charis Kanellopoulos
“I think we, and many of our peers, need to open the door to new options and possibilities. You simply need to open your ears to hear about new offers.” The company is sending DVDs to its ships once per month, and updating on a weekly basis (or as necessary) via email on a fleet broadband connection. Says Capt. Kanellopoulos: “Another advantage is the ability to continue updating charts even when we’re unable to send anyThe experience of a buyer thing to the ship. For example, if the ship is Capt. Kanellopoulos speaks with the fervor trading in Nigeria, we can’t get a DVD there. of a convert. “The Jeppesen solution is mar- Forget about it. But we can update charts ginally more expensive than the competitor (even if an entirely new ENC has been isthat we were using before. However, consid- sued) via email. This is very useful.” ering the time and trouble we save, as well All in all, Capt. Kanellopoulos is very hapas the reduced wear and tear on the ECDIS py that his company has gone paperless. He drives, it’s easily worth it.” confirms that the costs are roughly the same
as with paper chart operations. Savings include time for updates, integrated navigational warnings (with a link from NAVTEX to the ECDIS) and a close tie-up between safety contours and the fleet’s safety management system. “We decided to go over to ECDIS far earlier than required to get familiar with the equipment and the concept of electronic navigation and to have time to train our seafarers. I think it’s safer and easier, but you have to be careful not to over-rely on ECDIS, of course,” he concludes. ///
III Details of Mare Maritime and Jeppesen • Mare Maritime operates eight chemical tankers for Empire Chemical Tankers. • Six of the tankers use dual ECDIS from JRC; two have dual ECDIS from Furuno. • Mare Maritime began a trial of Jeppesen’s ENC service summer 2010 on one ship. • Three months later, Mare Maritime decided to implement Jeppesen’s ENC service on six more ships. • All ships run practically paperless, with only 100 generic planning paper charts. • Mare Maritime manages updates and corrections via email, and it updates its ENC library monthly with one DVD. • Mare Maritime’s tankers operate globally.
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ECDIS’ Biggest Challenge:
Everything Is Undergoing Change Among the biggest topics related to mandatory ECDIS for shipowners is training. We talked to an expert, ECDIS Ltd.’s Peter Thornton, about the ins and outs of ECDIS training today.
/// First of all, how many people is ECDIS Ltd. training on ECDIS? What kind of volume are you doing? It’s a difficult question; the volume has varied. We do two main types of full IMO 1.27 training: mobile training internationally, which takes place onboard or ashore utilizing various ECDIS software installed on laptops and full ‘marinized’ ECDIS console and bridge simulator training (again on a variety of manufacturers) at our dedicated e-Navigation center in the UK. We’re averaging about two mobile courses per month, and the training centre has been occupied about three weeks every month in 2011. We’ve seen a noticeable increase in training and in inquiries over the last six months. Previously, there were many owners simply studying their need and the market. The guidance was relatively unclear prior to the Manila Amendments to STCW last year. And there was little consistency from flag state to flag state. We’ve seen a definite spike in interest during the first two months of 2011 and it’s not
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just shipping companies – pilots, auditors for the generic IMO 1.27 is questionable. It is also important to note that the UK’s and investigators as well. Maritime Coastguard Agency recently made In what area of ECDIS training is owners’ it very clear that trickle-down training, insecurity the greatest? where an OEM teaches one or more officers Up until the Manila Amendments were on a ship, and those officers train the rest, agreed last summer, their biggest question does not meet the requirements for generic and concern was this: Do I need to do on- or type-specific ECDIS training. shore ECDIS training? Another major quesThe general consensus for core generic tion has been whether seafarers need only IMO 1.27 ECDIS training is that it should be generic training, or do they also need type- shore-based, instructor-led and involve real specific training. time simulation. Bottom line: if you’re unIt’s been a case-by-case matter. If a ship sure, check with your flag state and if poswanted to go over to digital navigation, then sible obtain clear written instructions. they needed to enter into discussions and establish a tight liaison with the flag state sur- What are the greatest misunderstandings veyor, their original equipment manufactur- of ECDIS training? The greatest misunderstanding or confuers (OEMs) and a training provider like us. It takes a lot of communications to deter- sion is simply what constitutes an acceptable mine the best approach to training as it will generic ECDIS training course. There are often depend on the ship and its operations. clearly different standards of training – all supposedly meeting the IMO 1.27 course reWhat is computer-based training’s role? quirement. Computer-based training (CBT) using Also, there is a lot of misunderstanding ECDIS technology may be considered ade- around who can give and/or the importance quate for type-specific training but sole CBT of type-specific training, what will be accept-
III peter thornton Director of Development at ECDIS Ltd., Peter Thornton is an MCA Class One Master Mariner Unlimited, RYA Yachtmaster and AYF Coastal Skipper. Having had a successful 15 years serving in the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary coupled with a love for yachting, he has navigated ships and yachts both on paper and digitally across the world. He was the first RFA navigator to gain digital accreditation through ECDIS and navigate paperless.
ed by flag state and port state authorities. What flags will accept generic ECDIS training alone? And whether port state inspectors will or will not accept it? Where does the IMO 1.27 model course fall short? This course was created in 2000 and ECDIS has evolved considerably since then. Performance standards changed effective from January 2009, too. A trainer needs to be aware of the changes in software and the performance standard. For example, there is now more emphasis on being able to do a visual or radar fix on your position. Also, the model course probably doesn’t put enough emphasis on the importance of the interface with radar, AIS and other sensors. It’s important for users to understand the use of overlays and integrated sensors, which are not part of the core performance standards but commonly found onboard. Everything is undergoing change. No one will know everything after simply attending an ECDIS course. Ask anyone who has con-
aren’t cross-checking well enough. The conscientious mariner will compare the situation from many different sources, just to confirm his own perception. Now, some systems may have lower usability of the tools that allow a mariner to crosscheck range and bearing. If it’s cumbersome to do these things, he just won’t do it. In principle, this should be faster in digital navigation. If it isn’t, we introduce risk. Also, in terms of route checking and scanning, some systems let you see the route in different ENC scales. If a mariner is looking at a route in too small a scale, he may remain ignorant of a danger. Another usability issue is alarm fatigue. It’s possible to encounter up to 2-300 warnings in a typical passage of 200 nautical miles. You run the risk that mariners will not follow up warnings. Many systems allow the user to intelligently disable some alarms, but then one really needs to know what one is doing. Are there considerable differences in the Finally, it’s important to note that the perusability of different ECDIS makes? formance standards can be interpreted difYes. Usability makes a big difference in ferently in terms of safety depth and safety terms of safety, especially for users that contour. Looking only at the five-meter lines ducted a course, and I’d bet that they will say it was invaluable and they didn’t realize the complexities involved in adopting paperless navigation. Two-three day courses are way too short and CBT simply does not allow for adequate learning or appreciation of such a critical piece of equipment.
“No one will know everything after simply attending an ECDIS course. Ask anyone who has conducted a course, and I’d bet that they will say it was invaluable and they didn’t realize the complexities involved in adopting paperless navigation.”
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III E-NAVIGATION COMMUNITY
of safety contours won’t be accurate enough for ships needing more accurate under-keel clearance in some circumstances. How is the introduction of ECDIS creating cultural challenges in shipping companies? People who have been masters for 20+ years have witnessed the transition to digital navigation, but they may not be trained on it. They often find it unnerving and difficult to start using new chart data. They prefer using paper charts or raster projections. A master may feel the need to ask a junior officer for help, which is difficult itself, and more so when compounded with cultural or language differences. On the other hand, a combination of the junior officers’ technical proficiency coupled with a senior officers’ skepticism and expe- tight quarters when this is not wanted. You rience very often makes for a very effective can very quickly end up in a lot of trouble. This kind of danger is only a part of the difteam – provided they work together! fering risks involved in this new digital naviMany mariners report problems with an gation era – all of which need to be realized ECDIS misjudging position. How do you in order to manage the ‘what if’s’. Training in relate to these issues? this just so happens to be the most effective A GPS can always fail, and a GPS failure way of reducing such risk – not simply for can be more critical when you’re navigating an individual to know what to do but also to with an ECDIS compared to a paper chart. It develop robust bridge team safety managecomes down to experience. ment systems. Ironically, it seems that GPS disturbances happen often in built-up port areas, exactly ECDIS is a hot area for the supplier inwhen officers need to be precise. So imagine dustry, which sees big profits driven by the GPS suddenly shows your position 200 mandatory ECDIS. At the same time, inmeters inland. If it’s only for a second, no stituting this new technology may lead to problem. If it lasts longer and the operator a series of ECDIS-assisted accidents. Is is unable to disengage the GPS signal and ECDIS headed for trouble? Here’s how I see this: If ECDIS is causing manually enter a position, then he will be operating without the ability to see or refer- problems, the reasons will be investigated and this will drive better ECDIS products. ence the chart of where the ship is! It’s particularly precarious if a ship is us- You have to expect some problems with a ing automatic track control and autopilot. newly implemented technology, but this A prolonged GPS failure may lead the ship’s highlights how important a role ECDIS plays automation system to apply lots of helm in in decision-making on the bridge.
“If ECDIS is causing problems, the reasons will be investigated and this will drive better ECDIS products. You have to expect some problems with a newly implemented technology…”
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I hope any incidents get investigated well and result in tough feedback to the OEMs and the IMO. As a result, I think we’ll see that only those suppliers that are large enough or committed enough to steadily update their technology will stick around. I don’t think that there’s any value in placing too stringent restrictions on ECDIS as you then lose the ability to tailor it to your own specific needs. Competition needs to be a driver for development. Will shipping companies be ready for mandatory ECDIS? If you ask some of the big shipping companies, they’ll tell you that ECDIS isn’t even on the list of their top 10 priorities. It’s down somewhere in the pile of things that need to be done. At the moment, even after the Manila Amendments to STCW created clarity around ECDIS training, there’s a misperception in the industry that unless you operate paperless you don’t need any special ECDIS training. They need to know that simply by fitting an ECDIS (or even an ECS) the bridge team will use it. And with the significant capabilities it offers, human nature causes it to be used for decision-making. The complexities increase the risk of misunderstanding and so with it risk. So, very appropriately in my mind, and luckily in accordance with the Manila Amendments, if an ECDIS is fitted, be it mandated or not, be it used as a replacement for paper or not, they will need to meet their flag state ECDIS training rules. ///
Whatâ€™s up with ECDIS? We look at the status of the transition to ECDIS, Bogerd Martin tells us about the current situation on page 16.
what not to do
JĂśrgen Strandberg tells us what we should avoid on page 17.
and what to do.
and Jan Spilleth explains the best practice on page 18.
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What’s up with ECDIS? The status of ECDIS
The State of ECDIS One chart supplier describes the slow, and sometimes painful, process of ships going over to ECDIS operation. Relief is at hand... /// Chart agents today are noticing the tidal shift. Their paper chart customers are slowly becoming electronic chart and ENC customers as they invest in ECDIS before the IMO deadline. Bogerd Martin is one such supplier. Says Managing Director Michael Martin, “We see a gentle, gentle move transition. We’ve been offering ENCs for probably seven or eight years, and still only ten percent of ships we supply use them.” Where we’re at today Martin draws a pretty clear picture of a market under slow change: • Many, even most, shipping companies are using ECDIS now only as a gradual learning process. “You can count on one hand the number of ships we supply that are paperless,” says Martin. • Owner-operators of ships are quicker to invest in ECDIS and electronic charts. Managers put off the investment. • Few owners today keep close track of their chart expenditures as they are not using electronic charts, or ENCs, comprehensively. • As many as 20 percent of seafarers struggle to load charts into an ECDIS the first time; half of these incidents are due to failure to follow instructions given by the ECDIS manufacturer or ENC supplier. • Many ECDIS are delivered without extensive documentation and instructions; users struggle with limited information. • The biggest challenge is training officers in use of ECDIS. They are accustomed to addressing separate, specific sources of information (chart, radar, AIS, etc.) and feel overwhelmed when all of this information is presented in one screen.
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Remedies and learning curves As adoption of ECDIS is driven by an international convention with no real loopholes, the take-up of the technology and knowledge in how to use it are only going to gain in significance. The training challenge is one that will get more perilous as ECDIS deadlines close in. Martin explains that a common solution to the training challenge is running dual-fuel: “Owners combine paper charts with ENCs and/or electronic charts, which gives them experience both in using electronic navigation and administering it.” A frequent path taken by owners and managers, and recommended by Bogerd Martin, has been to use Jeppesen’s C-MAP Professional(+) electronic charts as a cost-efficient training option. “It’s a very low-cost way to train up your staff using the ECDIS without investing in costly or patchy ENC data,” says Martin. “Existing users will be used to how the system works, then you can replace your data with official ENCs and the processes remain the same.” Limited time The slow migration of Bogerd Martin’s customers from paper to electronic charts will soon accelerate. While Michael Martin expects tools to crop up to help owners and users manage ENC licenses, the race is on to train deck officers. “Give them a few months, and they’ll grow acquainted. But for the first few months, it’s a frightening piece of kit actually.” Bogerd Martin’s tips for managing ENC licenses 1. Few ENC buyers change suppliers after making their initial choice. Be advised of lock-in.
2. Given free rein, an officer may order far more ENC licenses than necessary. You, or your supplier, will need to monitor these orders. 3. Study your trading pattern. Trampers will traffic primarily in 3-month licenses. Liners, 12-month licenses. Order only what you need. New licenses can often be obtained rapidly on-demand. 4. Around 20 percent of officers first installing ENCs on an ECDIS encounter troubles. Half of these fail to read the instructions. 5. Get started with ECDIS. Administrative tools to ease ordering and managing ENC licenses are on the way. ///
III BOGERD MARTIN’S ELECTRONIC CHARTING TRENDS
Client Chart Usage
Paper charts Electronic charts ENCs
Problems Uploading ENCs (1st time)
Problem-free Failure to read manual(s) Technical issue
What’s up with ECDIS? What NOT to do
Some Shipowners Set to Self-Destruct? Scientific and anecdotal evidence speaks for the safety of ECDIS; however, owners that cut corners risk putting their ships and officers in danger, says Jörgen Strandberg of Rickmers Reederei. /// Rules have a way of becoming requisitions with many shipping companies. If it’s required, they buy it, as cheaply as possible, and with little thought of its use. Jörgen Strandberg of Rickmers Reederei has personally worked with two companies to implement ECDIS. He drove technical discussions all the way up to top management to ensure good ECDIS procurement decisions. But he has seen the kind of bare bones, rules-based procurement second-hand. “Many shipping companies will see this only from a cost perspective. Unfortunately, there are a number of products associated with ECDIS that are not required by rules but without which officers can barely do their job,” says Strandberg. The specific kinds of needs he refers to are route planning tools, touchless ordering of new ENC licenses and user-friendly hardware and software. Strandberg explains, “We require masters to have oversight of their chart holdings, but mandatory ECDIS regulations do not include the kinds of tools that give them this oversight. Without them, officers rely on third-parties, more or less blindly.” Chart oversight In the paper chart paradigm, folio management was easy; an officer had his Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications (NP131) and his pile of charts, which required steady updating. An ocean-going ship often carried a full portfolio of the seven seas. In the ENC age, ships don’t carry world coverage. For the time being, full world coverage does not exist, requiring paper charts to patch coverage holes. Also, ENC licenses are so expensive that companies only maintain those they need. “An officer needs to know which ENCs he needs, which paper charts and where these overlap, preferably in both a text and graphic interface. There are products that provide
this overview, but they are not required by today’s ECDIS regulations. So many owners and managers will not get them,” says Strandberg. Many shipowners and managers today are still unfamiliar with the capabilities and limitations of the basic ECDIS in terms of ordering and managing the chart data that the ECDIS uses. With the basic installation, the master has no immediate way to order charts. And the task of planning a route within the ECDIS display is challenging, to say the least. “It often falls upon the superintendent to figure out how to order the ENCs for the ship, and this task he simply turns over to a supplier or agent. At the end of this chain, the master gets a number of products, but he is not likely to have a good oversight over the charts he has and doesn’t have,” says Strandberg. Updates in minutes, or days... ”Good cost control will mean owners instruct ENC buyers to get only those licenses they need for the voyage. This makes sense, but then you need to enable touchless ordering of new licenses,” says Strandberg. “Touchless” ordering refers to automated requisition of new ENC licenses. If the officer discovers that he needs to change course or obtain another ENC, he can send an email to his supplier and get the license for the ENC in minutes, through an automated process. This is in stark contrast to the conventional pathway, in which he goes to his superintendent, who goes to the supplier, which can take as long as 48 hours. Cost-driven ECDIS procurement Strandberg fears that many owners will see procurement of ECDIS only from a cost perspective and not an operational perspective. “There are a number of ECDIS manufacturers that will be eager to make big earnings
on mandatory ECDIS but whose products are difficult to use, impossible to find training for and poorly maintained globally,” says Strandberg. “The complexity of training for ECDIS and the safety management structure around this argues for a single supplier. And in order to make a good decision, organizations need buy-in from management on the technical level,” says Strandberg. Learning curve Many of the problems Strandberg discusses here are, he concedes, only transitory. After many companies get into the groove of working with ECDIS, the lessons will be learned. Nonetheless, an ongoing struggle will be that of giving deck officers both the tools and the competence necessary to fully understand and manage the charts and licenses that they require. “There’s a very real risk that this process remains fully outsourced to suppliers, which could put vessels at risk,” he concludes. ///
III INDUSTRY RACE TO MEET DEMAND As owners run up against challenges, suppliers are racing to meet them. One chart supplier, Jeppesen, has offered a PC-based route planning tool for back-of-bridge and office use called OceanView for over a decade. “We’re working to make this kind of oversight better for both officers and managers, giving perfect transparency between the ship and shore. This gives officers autonomy, but with support and review from shore superintendents,” says Jeppesen Marketing Manager Willy Zeiler. He also points to the company’s ordering and updating solutions, which enable the kinds of touchless ENC license ordering and updates Strandberg describes. “We can get data to the ship in many ways, including using a class-approved compression format that cuts communications costs,” says Zeiler.
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What’s up with ECDIS? What to do
ENC Best Practice Jeppesen’s local expert on everything ENC shares his tips and advice for how shipping companies can do ENCs with best practice. /// Note first of all that many ships and many shipowners have lots of time to arrange ordering of ENCs. Many people confuse the rush to train seafarers on use of ECDIS (as required by the IMO) with a rush to equip ships with ENC. “Many shipowners won’t need to ensure their ships are equipped with ENCs until 2016. By then, the market and the technology might look quite different,” says Spilleth. In the meantime, however, training is time-consuming and relatively scarce. Spilleth advises owners who have gotten ECDIS onboard to use ENC alternatives (better coverage at a lower price) to facilitate training. “Professional+ is an excellent bridge for crews from paper to ENC. It has the same feel as an ENC, but at similar scales as paper charts,” says Spilleth.
to get the data onboard, and how to update it. Spilleth urges owners to consider a silver bullet that solves many problems that trip up people ordering ENCs. “When ENCs are distributed in their native S-57 format, it requires a conversion process within the ECDIS. This process is time-consuming and risky. SENC is far better.” What Spilleth is describing, SENC distribution, is pre-packaging of chart data, so that it slides into the ECDIS immediately, no conversion required. ENC’s native S-57 files are far larger than the SENC files, and take time and effort to install in the ECDIS. Few chart suppliers today are able to distribute chart data in SENC format. Jeppesen’s SENC distribution format has gotten type-approval from DNV and has been in use by shipping companies for up to a decade.
enough. Jeppesen recommends ships to update their ENCs weekly (Notices to Mariners – NtMs) and to renew their entire ENC database monthly. “Unfortunately, many officers and managers believe that it is enough to install updates – that this process effectively renews their chart database. It doesn’t. Hydrographic authorities are regularly issuing new ENCs and reissuing ENCs. It is not just a matter of updates,” says Spilleth. Spilleth describes how a ship may then sail with an out-of-date database of ENCs. Thus, when planning a new route, the officer may request a license for an ENC that is no longer valid. “We’re then faced with a conundrum. Do we deliver a license for an out-of-date ENC? Do we tell a ship in transit that, no, they can’t have a chart, even if they can’t renew Distribution and updates Updates, licenses and databases their database until they’re in port again? Digital music is a fair comparison to ENCs. Because Jeppesen has delivered more chart Both options are sub-optimal,” says Spilleth. While you are paying for the content (say, the data than any other company, guys like Spil- The answer to this problem is, of course, latest single from Coldplay), it is distribution leth understand where users run into trou- good routines. Spilleth says that the compathat decides how you get the content, iTunes, ble. One such area is with licenses. ny strives to combine user-friendly services Spotify or Amazon, for example. Ship managThe trouble arises when ships fail to re- with good advice on routines to ensure these ers ordering ENCs are going to focus on how new their onboard chart databases frequently kinds of problems don’t arise. ///
This chart describes best practice for accessing chart data and making updates, based on Jeppesen's two choices for connectivity: Updating technology
Obtaining chart database
Updating ENC charts (weekly)
Renewing chart database (monthly)
DVD delivered to the ship
DVD delivered to the ship (but impractical)
DVD delivered to the ship
Downloading updates (NtMs) online or via email
DVD delivered to the ship
Downloading updates online or via email
Downloading bridge (delta) file online
Online (requires at least e-mail communication)
Online + (requires broadband access)
III DUAL FUEL Prior to ECDIS mandation, Jeppesen recommends a dual fuel approach to chart data. 1. Start with Professional+ chart data. These work just like ENCs and provide an excellent training choice, with global coverage and at a fraction of the cost of ENCs. Paper charts remain the primary navigational tool. 2. When the mandate kicks in, you simply switch out the DVD from Professional+ to ENCs from Jeppesen (C-MAP ENC or Jeppesen Primar ECDIS Service). It’s as simple as that!
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III PREPARED FOR TOMORROW
One OEM, Telko, has implemented Jeppesen’s piracy data directly into their ECS, with ECDIS to come next.
Piracy in the Picture /// The facts: Owners of Telko’s Telchart ECS can now update their systems to get piracy data directly on their display, for planning and navigation. Telko’s Pål Hansen confirms that customers are already using it, and more are in line to start. “We’re big fans of Jeppesen’s functionality, and lead the market in terms of incorporating this kind of technology in our navigation products. We are now including this data in presentations on Telchart ECS, with TECDIS to be included at a later date,” says Hansen. Effectively, new and existing users of Telchart ECS can request the piracy feature from their Furuno equipment supplier or Furuno Norway (the international distributor of TELchart ECS and TECDIS). Once installed, users can see piracy data on their screen, combined with real time vessel data if connected to the vessels navigational sensors. Existing TECDIS custom-
ers can easily link a TELchart ECS to the bridge systems. For those unfamiliar with Jeppesen’s Piracy Service, it provides users with the most reliable piracy data (location, nature of attack, outcome) in the business and plots it on planning and/or navigation charts. Telko takes the functionality further: 1. See piracy activity month-by-month: This allows users to see long-term trends (such as the impact of the monsoon season on piracy attacks). 2. See a timeline of incidents: Going to hang around a specific location? See how many attacks have taken place there, and how recent they were. For new Telchart ECS customers, Telko can provide the piracy information feature pre-installed. A specific release date for the feature in TECDIS has not been announced. “It depends on the type-approval process,” says Hansen. ///
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III PREPARED FOR TOMORROW
© AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED DAHIR / SCANPIX
Fighting Piracy’s Two Fronts
20 Jeppesen onboard /// spring 2011
Solstad’s been there. They’ve turned down business because the company felt security wasn’t good enough for its seafarers. Their experience dealing with pirates in West Africa may help those dealing with piracy east of Africa. /// This story has two stories: one of a shipping company operating in an area plagued by piracy (West Africa), and another of a shipping company that crosses another area afflicted by piracy (Horn of Africa). Solstad Shipping has been operating in the west of Africa for many years; thus, they’ve seen the scourge of piracy off the coast of Nigeria develop, flourish and subside. Piracy was a problem there long before it picked up in the Indian Ocean/Horn of Africa. “We’ve had to deal with both. Our first and foremost concern is the West Africa basin because that’s a theatre of operations for us. However, we send the occasional vessel to and from Asia and Europe. The approach to piracy in each place is different, but the concerns are the same,” says Solstad’s Jakob Høines. Factors that play into Solstad Shipping’s security equations include discussion and negotiation with the charterers and their oil company customers, chats with seafarers and their union representatives, third-party intelligence services, physical anti-piracy measures and routines and training. The West of Africa story Solstad’s supply and construction vessels are chartered out to some of the biggest offshore service contractors active in West Africa and via them serve the big oil companies. Solstad remains responsible for the staff on the vessels, and thus works with the contractors to ensure security. “We regularly go down together with our clients to meet the oil companies to discuss the security arrangements around our operations. We need to hear how they plan to ensure the security of our people during operations,” says Høines. Høines describes how Solstad receives security information and then compares it with independent, third-party risk assessments. “We’ve worked with Bergen Risk Solutions for the past three years. We take these two sources and compare them. Over time, we’ve learned what to expect from what we hear.” He adds, “After a risk assessment, crew numbers sometimes need to be raised so that there are more lookouts, engineers and officers on watch at all times.” Solstad’s seafarers are at the liberty to turn down any assignment where they don’t feel
security arrangements are sufficient. Given the challenges of getting replacement workers there quickly with an appropriate visa, Solstad is hard-pressed to ensure that its management of security is a success. “We regularly meet with the seafarers and their union representatives. In these instances, we have frequently used people from Bergen Risk Solutions who can provide an independent third-party verification of the situation. They’re in a better position to answer some questions, and we’ve found this to be very effective,” says Høines. The Horn of Africa story Though seldom, Solstad occasionally sends one of its offshore vessels from the Asian area of operations to Europe, or vice-versa. The company does not underestimate the risks of traversing the Indian Ocean and Suez Canal. “We used a security advisor, who boarded – Jakob Høines, Solstad Offshore a vessel that was to traverse the Suez Canal from Singapore. He worked with the crew to install physical barriers, run drills and disIII The Value of Certainty cuss the situation with the officers before the Asked why Solstad invested in premium vessel sailed from Singapore,” says Høines. piracy information services when so Following a few drills, it took less than two much information is available for free minutes from the time an unannounced on the internet, Solstad’s Jakob Høines alarm sounded and all elements were in replies: place. Physical barriers included oil drums “When it comes to detailed operations, installed in gangways, razor wire on the back you need to go further than what you receive on the internet. There is a and sides of the ship and both emergency tremendous amount of information on pumps and fire hoses ready to repel boardthe net, but it’s not easy to assess how ers at a moment’s notice. The crew was ingood that information is, how recent structed and trained to retreat to a citadel if or how reliable. When we’re selling the vessel faced the impending danger of bea picture of the situation to the crew, ing taken over by pirates. we need support to assure them that Again, Solstad employed Bergen Risk Soluthis is a correct picture. We need to tions to assess the relative danger of crossing convince them that we’ve done good the area and the status of recent attacks. In research. It’s much easier to do that with addition, they employed Jeppesen’s Piracy a premium service like that from Bergen Update, which presents accurate data on Risk Solutions and Jeppesen Piracy Update.” recent attacks directly on the navigational chart. “We used the piracy map and found it very beneficial. It’s nice to be able to act on real data. We actually changed the sailing route given data that we received through the system. In addition, the operations and management teams ashore were able to see the same piracy chart as personnel on the ship. That’s great for creating a shared understanding of the situation,” says Høines. ///
“We used the piracy map and found it very beneficial. It’s nice to be able to act on real data.”
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III THE NAVIGATION AUTHORITY
A Talk With the Next IMO SecGen? We met up with Mr. Jeffrey G. Lantz, Director of Commercial Regulations and Standards, US Coast Guard. Lantz is one of a handful of names in the running to take over as Secretary-General at IMO this summer. /// National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a US federal agency, is the only hydrographic authority worldwide to make its ENCs effectively free to mariners. Is this a model you’d like to see adopted elsewhere? I think you need to look at NOAA and the reasons why they do it free. NOAA is the only authority in the world that’s required to make the data publicly available. They’re only allowed to sell the data for a minimal amount and then to just recover their costs. In the end, any monies they collect go directly to the US Treasury, not to the agency itself. Other agencies in other countries aren’t under this constraint. Therefore, to conclude that it should be adopted elsewhere is not necessarily realistic. With that said, NOAA’s reason for making ENCs free was that they think that it would
22 Jeppesen onboard /// spring 2011
help with implementation, adoption and use of ENCs. I think we’ve made about 67.3 million of these available in 2010, which is, by far, the largest amount made available by any country. The United States is seen as a leader in terms of maritime security. What kinds of new initiatives do you expect to see coming in terms of security and the maritime industry? First of all, I’d like to say that the US considers the maritime security regime as quite robust. We had a large hand in developing the international ship and port facility security (ISPS) code in the IMO with many countries helping out, so we were quite satisfied with the end result. One of the things we are looking at is supply chain security. And there’s certainly a
maritime component when you consider that 90 percent of the world’s cargo is carried on ships at one time or another. What we’re talking about there is ensuring that cargo is safe from the point of origin to the final point of destination. Another aspect of this is resilience or restoration of maritime trade, should there be a security incident. I think it’s to a large degree accepted that if there is a security incident in the maritime world, one of the biggest effects is the disruption to maritime trade as the world tries to sort it out, and figure out what risks are being presented. If, internationally, you could develop some kinds of process whereby communications are exchanged and trade can be resumed quickly, I think that would be great benefit to the world. These are some of the things that the US is looking at, but it’s a bit prema-
ture at this point in time to say that we have some guidelines with regard to onboard vesany concrete proposals in either of these re- sel security teams in order to help out vesgards. sel owners and other countries should they decide that it’s the appropriate measure to take. And I think it’s also important to note that ITF and ICS recently changed their position with regard to armed security teams. As for specific measures that the USCG might take with regard to US-flagged ships, I can’t really comment on many of those. We have put out guidance that’s available to the public on our web-site.
“I think my background working for the US Coast Guard for as long as I have has given me the positive leadership and the management skills to successfully lead IMO in the future.”
What makes you the best candidate as IMO Secretary-General? I think my background working for the Piracy is estimated to cost USD 7-12 bil- US Coast Guard for as long as I have has lion per year. What’s not being done that given me the positive leadership and the should be done, to stem this high toll? Is management skills to successfully lead IMO the USCG working to extend the role of in the future. I’ve worked in the regulatory Sea Marshall beyond US waters to the program with the US Coast Guard; which Horn of Africa? is a large regulatory program. And I’ve had First of all, you’re absolutely right. Piracy many years of experience leading US delegais exacting a high toll on the industry. And tions at IMO. the loss of four lives on S/V Quest, if it’s not a game-changer, has certainly heightened our What would you characterize as the sinconcern for piracy. At this point, I’m not sure gle greatest achievement of outgoing the question is what should be done that IMO Secretary-General Efthimios Mitroisn’t being done now. The industry, along poulos? And what would you describe as with many countries’ navies, is together do- the most pressing challenge facing the ing a lot of things to prevent acts of piracy. IMO in the short-term future? And we need to make sure that pirates, when The one that sticks out in my mind is how they’re captured, are prosecuted to the full- he has heightened awareness within the inest extent of the law. ternational community and IMO over the It starts with the industry, via the shipown- seafarer: safety, working conditions, the seaers: they need to make sure that they have farer-shortage, the threat to seafarers from done a risk analysis, and that they have tak- piracy. This has really helped IMO focus on en the appropriate measures to address the the seafarer. risks posed by piracy. It’s also important to note that, under his In our view, the US, the maritime security watch, IMO has completed the comprehenregime and the ISPS code along with the sive review of the STCW convention. You vessel security plan, give an exact frame- know, we’ve adopted the 2010 amendments work for shipowners to do this. And we also in Manila, and some of the provisions in think that shipowners, in full participation there reflect his concerns for the seafarer. of their flag state, need to consider the use of I think the most pressing challenge to the armed security guards, as one measure for maritime industry, meaning IMO, in the closing those risks. short term is piracy. It sounds like a contrite And I think it’s important to note that or short answer but that really is the most Working Group 3 of the contact group for significant issue facing the maritime induspiracy off the coast of Somalia just con- try. Piracy has a potential to have a huge imcluded a meeting in Washington on the 28th pact, as you can imagine, by upsetting interof February. They have decided to develop national trade.
That said, IMO has a limited ability to directly affect the outcome of piracy. IMO has no ability to send forces, to prosecute pirates, or board and protect ships. To take other issues more germane to IMO’s world of work, I think the environmental issues, which are coming forward, are the most difficult for IMO to deal with. Look at air emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, MARPOL Annex V on garbage emissions; we just did a convention on ship recycling which really was an environmental convention. The environment is where the world is looking for the biggest improvements from shipping.
“Regulators have a role to play with the industry to promote seafaring as a viable career choice for both young men and women, and to focus on the contributions to shipping, how vital it is to today’s globalized society.”
The shipping industry is facing a clear shortage of seafarers in the coming years. Since this may have a significant impact on maritime safety, how do you propose regulators contribute to solving this problem? As you know, seafaring is actually a pretty difficult life. Lots of travel, time away from family, the work is demanding, there’s increasing demands on how much they need to know, their competency. Regulators absolutely need to keep this in mind when they’re developing new requirements. We need to keep in mind the impact on the seafarer when considering design and operational requirements for ships. And I think that’s beginning to happen. I draw your attention to the STCW Convention, which was amended in 2010 in Manila. There, countries were able to push through requirements that provided a minimum amount of continuous hours of rest for
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III THE NAVIGATION AUTHORITY
all seafarers and that’s an important provision. Regulators have a role to play with the industry to promote seafaring as a viable career choice for both young men and women, and to focus on the contributions to shipping, how vital it is to today’s globalized society. If we do a good job of designing regulatory standards, seafarers will be better off and happier, and that will lead to safer shipping. What are your greatest concerns regarding the ongoing development and implementation of e-Navigation within IMO’s working groups? First off, I don’t have any concerns with what’s going on at IMO. I know there are different groups looking at it. But I think that there’s a great deal of coordination going on. It’s due in no small part to John Erik Hagen from Norway, who’s doing a great job. One of the big challenges to e-Navigation is the effort by many groups to turn the concept into a commercial vehicle, a specific technology or a way of doing things. ENavigation is none of those. It’s an attempt to harmonize and align efforts so that the technology and possible developments in 24 Jeppesen onboard /// spring 2011
When it comes to the navigation improvements that you cited (VTS, ENCs), it is a real problem for many countries to spend the money necessary to put those in place. Some don’t have the money. For some, it just isn’t a priority. There are examples where countries have come together and been able to affect a region. The Marine Electronic Highway in the Singapore Straits is one example. The world community came together to rebuild the aids to navigation in Indonesia after the tsunami. shipboard navigation equipment and shoreI think that developed countries need to be side operations will be harmonized and thus encouraged to share their technology with cohesive and coordinated and ultimately developing countries and look for opportuprovide for safer shipboard operations. nities to help them in a capacity-building way. The voluntary member audit scheme In terms of safety of maritime navigation, is one way to raise awareness and identify there is a tremendous range from nation areas where assistance could be needed. to nation, in regards to the resources and Even when there are shortcomings in some commitment to producing ENCs and pro- countries, we need to identify how IMO and viding navigational support (VTSs, etc.). developed countries can contribute to develHow can this situation be improved? oping countries and bring them along. It’s You highlighted a problem on the naviga- an issue, and all countries need to come totion side, but it’s an issue that exists across gether to try to solve it. /// the spectrum as developing countries seek to implement some of these requirements.
“One of the big challenges to e-Navigation is the effort by many groups to turn the concept into a commercial vehicle, a specific technology or a way of doing things. E-Navigation is none of those.”
III PREPARED FOR TOMORROW
Beyond Weather Routing
Decades of “hit and miss” weather routing approaches can be much improved with today’s technology. Voyage optimization offers great benefits to the ship operator, explains Jeppesen’s Chief Naval Architect, Dr. Henry Chen. /// Nobody disagrees with the idea that weather routing advisory service is beneficial. But few can establish just how much. Add to this picture the highly volatile fuel price and the push to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and it is very easy to understand the increased interest in optimizing ship performance. The “art” of weather routing has evolved into the “science” of voyage optimization in order to bring added benefits for ship operations and environmental performance.
Dr. Chen’s white paper “Benefits of Voyage Optimization over Weather Routing” provides a helpful guide. He explores the differences between traditional weather routing practices and state-of-the-art technologies for voyage optimization, carefully explaining the safety and efficiency advantages of the latter. “Ship operators and owners should be aware that voyage optimization will result not only in very high return on investment (ROI) through increased operating safety and ef-
ficiency, but also in the reduction of greenhouse gases to protect the environment, a true indisputable win-win strategy,” he says. To achieve such benefits, the key ingredients are: • Quality-controlled ocean wind and wave predictions with additional Super Ensemble forecasts to quantify the uncertainties • High-resolution tidal currents and global circulation currents • State-of-the-art full ship modeling of speedkeeping and seakeeping capabilities
Jeppesen onboard /// spring 2011 25
III Prepared for tomorrow
for actual drafts, GM and loading conditions during the voyage • A powerful optimization algorithm to find the optimal route with minimum fuel consumption for a desired arrival time while not exceeding the safe operating limits • Global wind and wave hindcast/ nowcast database for voyage simulations to establish benchmarks for voyage efficiency and CO2 index • A method for estimating the probability of on-time arrival taking into account weather forecast uncertainties and ship capabilities. • An integrated fleet management tool to display key performance indicators (KPIs) and alert shipping company managers when safety and efficiency issues are anticipated. • Computer-based training to transfer the scientific knowledge of using decision support aids effectively • Shore-based expert support centers to assist ships at sea at any time
Download Dr. Chen’s full white paper can be downloaded at www.e-navigation.com. The contents include: • All weather routing services are not equal • Weather routing does not take into account ship responses • Weather routing does not take into account engine overload • All optimization algorithms are not equal • Ship motion versus limiting wave height based routing criteria • All weather forecasts are not equal • Jeppesen navigation service + vessel and voyage optimization solution • Jeppesen professional service adds value • Benchmarking methodology • Benefit of voyage optimization ///
III Jeppesen’s Integrated e-Navigation Solution Jeppesen has taken advantage of its extensive marine engineering experience, combined with the resources of parent company Boeing to offer a top-notch solution. Our vessel and voyage optimization system (VVOS) can be used onboard or onshore to plan a voyage and includes shipboard decision support tools, a real-time performance monitoring system that alerts the user and provides reports for the shore-side management. A server-based Fleet Manager application tracks the vessel position and key performance indicators. A third important element is Jeppesen’s Marine Professional Services, staffed by naval architects, engineers and experienced captains who provide expert advice on route recommendation, ship deployment simulations and vessel performance analysis. Our shore-side routing team also has access to multiple forecast products and professional meteorologists to provide safe and efficient route recommendation to the ship via email. Once the route is finalized by the captain and safety-checked on the C-Map digital navigation chart in VVOS, it can then be exported to the ship’s ECDIS for execution.
III Dr. Henry Chen As the Chief Naval Architect for Jeppesen Marine, Dr. Chen oversees the development of vessel and voyage optimization tools for both commercial and military customers. He received his naval architecture training from University of Newcastle Upon Tyne in the UK, followed by master degrees in Ocean Engineering, Shipbuilding and Shipping Management, as well as a Ph.D. in Marine Systems from MIT. During the past three decades prior to joining Jeppesen, he held various engineering management positions for maritime consulting firms, offshore construction companies and an international oil company Dr. Chen recently received the prestigious honor of being chosen as a Boeing Associate Technology Fellow. Established in 1989, the highly selective Boeing Technical Fellowship allows select engineers and scientists to continue their professional growth by applying their expertise to the many technical challenges in the industry, thereby adding value to the company.
26 Jeppesen onboard /// spring 2011
Jeppesen’s Shore-side Optimum Routing Center operates 24/7/365 and is manned by former ship captains with extensive experience sailing a wide range of commercial ships worldwide. Unlike most weather routing companies, which employ meteorologists most of whom have limited ship knowledge, our captains quickly develop mutual trust and respect with the working ship captains. As a result, the voyages that they plan together are safe and efficient, as shown by the great feedback we have received from ship captains and marine superintendents. Here is a small sampling: • “Many thanks for your kind and so valuable assistance which has helped to avoid bad weather and made last passage almost pleasant. I am going on vacation but I will advise new captain about all the advantages which he can get using your high quality service backed by experience of real seamen.” • “Once again thanks to your valuable advice and guidance we managed to dodge the hurricanes. Keep up the splendid job!! It was most reassuring to know that someone was “with us” all the way and it is much appreciated.” • “We want our new Masters to get into the routine of developing their initial route and then asking the shore side planner at Jeppesen for their feedback on this plan. Our view is that this is a team effort where the Master develops a route and Jeppesen can then further simulate and advise their view.”
Jeppesen Goes to China Just this past October, Jeppesen signed an agreement with China’s hydrographic office to distribute ENCs. /// The agreement is with the Navigation Guarantee Department of the Chinese Navy Headquarters that establishes Jeppesen as an official value-added reseller (VAR) of recently produced ENCs that cover the entire coast of China. Jeppesen will distribute China’s ENCs as part of Jeppesen’s official ENC Service. “The addition of these new and updated ENCs of Chinese waters brings us a big step closer to our goal of providing an efficient and user-friendly global ENC service,” said Tor Svanes, Managing Director for Jeppesen Commercial Navigation. “This agreement includes access to all ENCs that are the result of very recent surveys undertaken by the Chinese Navy. Now Jeppesen can offer complete ENC coverage of this vital maritime nation’s waters and support mandatory ECDIS for ships operating there. Adding the Chinese ENCs to the Jeppesen chart service and making them available through Jeppesen Dynamic Licensing will be a huge benefit and enable more shipowners to consider paperless navigation “
Today Jeppesen has agreements with Hydrographic Offices worldwide to distribute ENC chart data as a value-added reseller. Jeppesen contributes to efforts to meet the IMO’s mandatory ECDIS implementation timeline by working to provide shipowners and operators with a global ENC service. The company is also working with hydrographic authorities in countries where ENCs do not yet exist to produce and quality control ENCs of their territorial waters. With the agreement, ships navigating in Chinese waters with Jeppesen’s ENC Service will meet the ENC-related requirements to mandatory ECDIS. This applies also to customers who receive and upload ENC chart data and updates in Jeppesen’s ECDIS-ready SENC distribution format, which is type-approved by DNV and ratified by authorities in IMO and IHO. ///
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