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What is this religion?

ພຣະອາຈານ ຋ຣ.ເຄ.ສຣີ.ທັມມະນ ັນທະ ຂຽນ ພຣະອາຈານ ໄຉຊະເ຋຋ ວ ົງໂສພາ ແປ


lkltƒkoUgxaoco;.fL What is this religion? Ven.Dr.K.Sri.Dhammananda

ພຣະອາຈານ ຋ຣ.ເຄ.ສຣີ.ທັມມະນ ັນທະ ຂຽນ ພຣະອາຈານ ໄຉຊະເ຋຋ ວ ົງໂສພາ ແປ


lkltƒkoUgxaoco;.fL What is this religion? Ven.Dr.K.Sri.Dhammananda ພຣະຬາ຅າຌ ຈຣ.ເ຃.ສຣີ.຋ັມມະຌ ັຌ຋ະ ຂຽຌ ພຣະຬາ຅າຌ ໄຆງະເຈຈ ວ ຺ຄໂສພາ ແຎ ຍ ັຌຌາ຋ິກາຌ : ພຣະ຃ຣູເຌືຬຄພິລ ັກ ໂຆຉິ຋ຬຌ ້ ຌ ຂໍມ ູ ຋າຄຍ ັຌຌາຌຸກ ຺ມຂຬຄຫໍສະໝຸຈແຫຄ່ ຆາຈ ເ຃.ສຣີ.຋ັມມະຌ ັຌ຋ະ, ພຣະຬາ຅າຌ ຈຣ. ສາສະໜາຌີເ້ ຎັຌແຌວໃຈ? = What is this religion?/ເ຃.ສຣີ.຋ັມມະຌ ັຌ຋ະ, ພຣະຬາ຅າຌ ຈຣ. ແຎເຎັຌພາສາລາວໂຈງ ໄຆງະເຈຈ ວ ຺ຄໂສພາ, ພຣະຬາ຅າຌ.--ວຽຄ຅ ັຌ: ວ ັຈຬ ຺ຄຉື້ມະຫາວິຫາຌ ອວ ັ ງາ, 2012 ່ ມກ ັຍສ ໍາຌ ັກພິມໂຆຉິຎຌ 70 ໜາ້ ; 18 ຆມ 1. ພຸຈ຋ະສາສະໜາ. I. ຆື່ ເລື່ ຬຄ 294.305—dc21 ISBN: 978-9932-00-017-3

ພິມແ຅ກເຎັຌ຋ັມມະ຋າຌ ອູຍໜາ້ ຎ຺ກ : ອູຍແຉມ ້ ພຸຈ຋ະຎະຫວ ັຈໂຈງ ເຫມເວຈຆະກຬຌ ຬຬກແຍຍຎ຺ກ: ພຣະໄຆງະເຈຈ ວ ຺ຄໂສພາ ້ ະຫາວິຫາຌ ອວ ຅ ັຈພິມໂຈງ: ວ ັຈຬ ຺ຄຉືມ ັ ງາ ່ ມກ ັຍສ ໍາຌ ັກພິມໂຆຉິຎຌ ພິມ຃ຄ຋ີ 1: ກຸມພາ 2012 ັ້ ຅າຌວຌພິ ມ: 5,000 ຫ ຺ວ ໍ ຂະໜາຈ: B6 (5 X 7") ພິມ຋ີ່ : ຎະລິຌຈາ ກາຌພິມ, ເຂຈຍາຄເຂຌ, ກຸຄເ຋ຍມະຫາຌະ຃ຬຌ ຉາມ຋ະຍຽຌພິມ: 046ພ຅08022012 ຬຸຎະຊາໂຈງ: ສິຈສາຌຸສຈ ໍ ິ ຂຬຄພຣະຬາ຅າຌ ຈຣ.ເ຃.ສຣີ ຋ັມມະຌ ັຌ຋ະ © ສະຫຄວຌລິຂະສິຈໂຈງ: ພຣະຬາ຅າຌ ໄຆງະເຈຈ ວ ຺ຄໂສພາ


ພິມ຾຅ກຽປັນທັມມະທານ ຽນື່ ຬຄເນ຿ຬກາດຄານບຸນຬາຍຸວ ັດທະນະມຸຄ຃ຸນ ຂຬຄ ພຣະຬາ຅ານເຫຍ ່ ດຣ.ມະຫາຜຬ ່ ຄ ສະມາຽລີກ, ປະທານສູນກາຄຬ ຺ຄການພຸດທະສາສະໜາສາພ ັນລາວ ຃ ຺ບອຬບ 97 ປີ , 75 ພ ັນສາ ເນວ ັນທີ 10 ຽມສາ 2555 (2012) ້ ະຫາວິຫານ, ນະ຃ຬນຫົ ວຄວຼຄ຅ ັນ. ທີ່ ວ ັດຬ ຺ຄຕືມ


ສາຣະຍ ັຌ ຅າກສາຌ ັກຑິມ......................................................................i ຃າຌາຂຬຄຏູ຾ ້ ຎ..................................................................iii 1. ຽຊິຄ຋າ່ ຌຏູຬ ້ າ່ ຌ຋ີ່ ອ ັກ຾ຑຄ.................................................1 2. ມຈຆິ ັ ມາຎະຉິຎະ຋າ(຋າຄສາງກາຄ)....................................2 3. ຽອັຈສິ່ ຄໃຈໄຈສ ິ ຌ........................................................5 ັ້ ້ ່ ຄຌ 4. ຍຣ ຺ມ຃ູຏງ .່ ............................................................6 ິ ້ ູ ່ ຄໃຫງ 5. ສ ັຌຉິຑາຍ,຃ວາມຏາສຸກ ຾ລະກາຌຫົຸຈຑຌ.........................10 ຺້ 6. ຍຣ ຺ມສຸກ຾ຫຄ ່ ສວຄສະຫວ ັຌ..............................................12 ້ ໃ຅............................12 7. ຃ວາມຬ ຺ຈ຋຺ຌຬ ຺ຈກຌັ ້ ຾ລະ຃ວາມຽຂ຺າ 8. ວິຊຆ ີ ວ ີ ຈ ິ ......................................................................13 9. ມະຌຸຈສາມາຈຐຶກຐ ຺ຌຉ ຺ຌຽຬຄໄຈ.້ .....................................14 10. ຃ວາມຽຎັຌ຅ິຄ.............................................................15 11. ສາສະໜາ຋ີ່ ມີ຃ວາມຬິຈສະຫົະ.......................................15 12. ງຬມອ ັຍ຃ວາມສາມາຈຂຬຄມະຌຸຈ..................................16 13. ຽຎັຌໄຎໄຈຍ ້ ?.............................................................17 14. ຽຫຈ຾ລະຎັຈໄ຅..........................................................19 15. ຽຎັຌສາສະໜາ຋ີ່ ຋ັຌສະໄໝ...........................................19 16. ຍ່ ມີກາຌ຾ຍຄ່ ຾ງກ.......................................................20 17. ຃ວາມຽຎັຌຬະຌິຈ຅ ັຄ....................................................21 18. ຋າຄ຾຋ຂ ້ ຬຄຫົ ັກສິຌ຋ັມ຋າຄຑຸຈ຋ະສາສະໜາ...................22 19. ຅ຸຈຎະສ ຺ຄຂຬຄຑວກຽອ຺າ................................................22 20. ຽຂ຺້າສູຑ ່ າກຑາສາຬ ັຄກິຈ................................................24 21. Glossary: ຃າສ ັຍໃຌຎຶ້ ມຽຫົັ ້ມຌີ.້ ......................................42 22. ກຼ່ ວກ ັຍຏູຂ ້ ຼຌ.............................................................61


຅າກ຦າຌ ັກພິມ ຎຶໄ ມ ຋ັມ ມະຌ ຨ ຺ ໄ ງໂຽວົັ ໄ ມ ຌີໄ ຽວັ ຌລ ໃາ ມີ຃ ຸ ຌ ຎະ຿ວງຈວົ າງພ ຦ ມ ຃ລຌ ຽໝາະ຾ກ ກ ຸ ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາຉືໃ ມຨີ ກ ຿ຈງ຦ະ ໃ າຌຌ າ຦ະຽໜີ ພ ຈ ຽພາະ຾ກ ໃ ຌ ັກ຦ຶກ຦າ, ຎັຌງາຆ ຺ຌ, ຾຤ະຌ ັກ຦ ຺ຄແ຦຋ັຄວົ າງ ຋ີໃ ງ ັຄມີຂ ໄ ຂຨ ໄ ຄເ຅ຍາຄຢໃາຄກຼໃ ລກ ັຍ຦າ຦ະໜາຌີ.ໄ ຌຨກ຅າກຌີໄ ຏູຂ ໄ ຼຌຎຶໄ ມຽວົັ ໄມຌີໄ ກຊືລາໃ ຽຎັຌພຣະມະວາຽຊຣະຨ ຺ຄ຦າ຃ ັຌຂຨຄລ ຺ຄກາຌພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາ ຅າກ຦ີ຤ ັຄກາ ຋ີໃ ແຈພ ຸ ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາ຿ຈງວງໄ ໄ ະງາງາມຌາ຦ະຽໜີພຈ ໄ ເຌເ຅຃ລາມ຦າ຃ ັຌຽພືໃ ຨມຨຍຽຨ຺ າແລຽໄ ຎັ ຌ຃ູມ ຾ຉແ ໃ ຈຽໄ ຌືຨ ໃ ເື ຌກາຌ຦ຶກ ຦າພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາ. ຋າຄ຦າຌ ັກພິມ຅ິໃ ຄຂຆ ຺ມຽຆີງ຾຤ະ຦ະ຾ຈຄ຃ລາມມຸ຋ິຉາ ຨະຌຸ຿ມ ຋ະຌາມາງ ັຄ຋າໃ ຌພຣະຨາ຅າຌ ແຆງະຽຈຈ ລ ຺ຄ຿຦ພາ ຋ີໃ ພະງາງາມ ຊ າໃ ງ຋ຨຈຊຨຈ຃ລາມໝາງຂຨຄພາ຦າຨ ຄັ ກິຈ ມາ຦ູໃພ າ຦າ຤າລເວໄ ພລກຽຩ຺າແຈຩ ໄ ັຍຩູ຅ ໄ າກລ ຺ຄກາຌພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາເຌຉາໃ ຄ຾ຈຌແລຌ ໄ ະ຋ີໃ ໄ ລ ຌີຈ ໄ ງ ຾຤ະງິຌຈີເວພ ໄ ິມຽຏີງ຾ຏຽໃ ພືໃ ຨຽຎັຌຎະ຿ວງຈ຾ກພ ໃ ຣະພຸຈ຋ະ ຦າ຦ະໜາ຾຤ະ຦ ັຄ຃ ຺ມ຤າລຽຩ຺າ຦ືຍຉໃ ແຎ. ຋ີໃ ລ ັຈລິ຅ຈ 2012 ິ ຋ັມມາຣາມ(ລຼຄ຅ະຽ຤ີຌ), ລ ັຌ຋ີ 29ມຄກຨຌ ັ ຉ.ຏູຨ ັ ງາ ໄ າຌລງກາຌ຦າຌ ັກພິມ຿ຆຉິຎຌ ພຣະ຃ຣູຽຌືຨຄພິ຤ ັກ ຿ຆຉິ຋ຨຌ(ຎະ຋າຌ຋ີໃ ຎຶ ກ຦າ຦າຌ ັກພິມ)

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຃າຌາຂຨຄຏູ຾ ໄ ຎ

ຎືໄ ມຌຨ ັ ຦ະໜູຌກາຌພິ ມ ໄ ງໂ຋ີໃ ຋າ ໃ ຌກາ຤ຄັ ຨາໃ ຌຢູໃຌ ີໄ ແຈຩ ໄ ັຍ຋ຶ ຌ຦ະໜຍ ຅າກຆາລມາຽ຤ຽຆງ ຽຎັ ຌ ຎຶໄ ມ ຋ີໃ ຂຼຌ຿ຈງພຣະຨາ຅າຌ ຈຣ.ຽ຃.຦ຣີ ຋ັມມະຌ ັຌ຋ະ ຽຎັຌພຣະ຦ ຺ຄຆາລ຦ີ຤ ັຄກາ ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ຦າ຃ ັຌຨ ຺ຄໜຶໃຄ ຽກີຈເຌ ຎີ 1919 ຋ີໃ ພາກເຉຂ ໄ ຨຄ຦ີ຤ ັຄກາ, ຽພິໃ ຌຽຎັຌພຣະ຋ັມມະ຋ູຈ ຦າງມາ ຽ຤ຽຆງ຾຤ະ຦ິຄກະ຿ຎ. ຽຊິຄ຾ມຌລ ໃ າໃ ຽພິໃ ຌ຅ະ຤ລ ໃ ຄ຤ ັຍຈ ັຍຂ ັຌແຎ຾຤ລ ໄ ຽມືໃ ຨ ຎີ 2006, ຾ຉ ຏ ຺ ຄາຌຂຨຄຽພິໃ ຌກ ງ ຄັ ຽຎັ ຌ ຨະມະຉະ ຽຎັ ຌ ຉ ລ ຺ ໃ ຌ ຾຋ຌ຾ວຄ ໃ ຃າ຦ຨຌຂຨຄຽພິໃ ຌ຾ກຆ ໃ າລພຸຈຢາໃ ຄຍໃ ມີລ ັຌ຅ືຈ຅າຄ. ໄ ເຌ຾ຍຍກະ຋ັຈ ຩ ັຈ ຎຶໄ ມ ຽວົັ ໄ ມ ຌີໄ ຉ ຌ ຺ໄ ຦ະຍ ຍ ັ ຽຎັ ຌ ພາ຦າຨ ຄັ ກິຈ ມີຽ ຌືຨ ກລມ຤ລມ ຽພືໃ ຨ຾ຌະຌ າເວໄ ຃ ຌ ຺ ຩູ຅ ໄ ັກພຸຈ ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາ ຿ຈງ຦ະ ໄ ໜກ ຽພາະ຾ມຌຽຌັ ຌ ັ ເ຦ຏ ໃ ໃ ຨ ໄ ູ າໃ ຌຆາລຉາໃ ຄຆາຈ. ຾ຉ຦ ໃ າ຤ ັຍ຃ ຺ຌ຤າລຽຩ຺າ ຋ີໃ ຽ຃ີງຌ ັຍຊືພຈ ຸ ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາມາຈ ຺ຌຌາຌ຾຤ລ ໄ ກງ ັຄຽວັ ຌລາໃ ຅າຽຎັຌ຋ີໃ ຃ລຌ຅ະຨາໃ ຌຢູໃ ຽພາະລາໃ ຍາຄ຋ີ ຽຩ຺າຨາຈ຅ະງ ັຄຍໃ ຋ັຌ ຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ເຌ຦າ ໄ ີຎ າຌເຈ. ຦ະຌ ຌ, ຦ະໜາ຋ີໃ ຍ ຌ ັ ພະຍຸ຤ຸຈຽຩ຺າ ຽ຃ີງຌ ັຍຊື຦ືຍກ ັຌມາຌີຈ ັໄ ຅ິໃ ຄເວຊ ື າໃ ຎືໄ ມຌຨ ື ໃ ີຌາຽຨ຺ າຽ຤ືໃ ຨຄຽກ຺ໃ າ ມາ ໄ ລ ໄ ງໂຽວົັ ໄມຌີໄ ຎຼຍຽໝືຨຌ຃ູມ ໃ ຋ ຌາ຦ະຽໜີເໝໃ ຽພືໃ ຨເວຽໄ ຂ຺ໄາເ຅ຉືໃ ມຨີກ. ຋ີໃ ຅ິຄ຾຤ ລ ໄ ຎືໄ ມຽວົັ ໄ ມຌີໄ ຨາຈ຅ະຽຎັ ຌ ຦ິໃ ຄມາຢາໄ ຽຉືຨ ຌເວໄຽ ຩ຺າ ຩູຨ ໄ ີກ ລ າໃ ພຣະພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາຌຌ ັ ໄ ຍໃ ແຈຽໄ ຎັ ຌ຤ະຍຍ ຺ ຃ລາມຽຆືໃ ຨ຾ຍຍວົ ໄາວົ ຄັ , ງ ັຄ຃ ຺ຄ຋ັຌ຦ະແໝເໝຨ ໃ ຼໃ ມຢູ຦ ໃ ະຽໝີ ຽຊິຄ຾ມຌລ ໃ າໃ ຅ະຽຎັຌ຦າ຦ະໜາ຋ີໃ ໄ ມາແຈ຦ ຽກີຈຂືຌ ໄ ຨຄພ ັຌຎາງກລາໃ ຎີ ຾຤ລ ໄ ກຉາມ. ຽມືໃ ຨຽຎັຌ຾ຌລຌີໄ ຽຩ຺າ

ii


ໃ ັ ຋ີໃ ຃ລຌພາກ ັຌວຌ ັ ມາ຦ຶກ຦າ຃ຌ຃ ຺ໄ ລ ໄ າພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາຉືໃ ມ ຽໝື ຨຌຈຄ ຎະຽ຋ຈ຋ີໃ ຅ະຽ຤ີຌ ຽຆັໃ ຌ ເຌ຋ະລີຍຨາຽມຣິກາ ຾຤ະຢູ຿ຣຍ ຽຂ຺ າຽ຅຺ໄາ ກາ຤ ັຄ຦ຶກ຦າ຾຤ະວ ັຌມາຌ ັຍຊືກ ັຌຢາໃ ຄມາກມາງ. ຌຨກ຅າກຎຶໄ ມຌີໄ ຅ະຽຎັ ຌ຃ູມ ື ຌະຌາພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາ຾຤ລ ໃ ຾ ໄ ງ ັຄຽຎັ ຌ ຎະ຿ວງຈ຾ກຌ ໃ ັກ຦ຶກ຦າ ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ຦ ຺ຌເ຅ຩຼຌພາ຦າຨ ັຄກິຈ ຿ຈງ຦ະຽພາະ ຾ມຌກ ໃ ຼໃ ລກ ັຍ຃ລາມຩູ຋ ໄ າຄພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາ ຽຆິໃ ຄເຌ຋ີໃ ຌີໄ ຂາໄ ພະຽ຅຺າໄ ກ ແຈຌ ໄ າຽຨ຺ າພາກພາ຦າຨ ັຄກິຈ຾຤ະຎະມລຌ຃າ຦ ັຍເຌຎຶໄ ມ ຾຤ະ຋ັຄວາ ມາຉືໃ ມເ຦ ຨ ູ າໃ ຌ຋ີໃ ຦ ຌ ຺ ເ຅ພາກຌີໄ ຦າ ໃ ີກ ຽຨ຺ າ ແລ ຋ ໄ ໄາ ງຽວົັ ໄ ມ ຽພືໃ ຨເວໄຏໄຨ ມາຈ຾຤ເ຦ຽໃ ພືໃ ຨຎຼຍ຋ຼຍ຃າ຾ຎເ຦ກ ໃ ັຌ. ວລ ັຄຢາໃ ຄງິໃ ຄລາໃ ຎືໄ ມຌຨ ໄ ງໂຽວົັ ໄມຌີໄ ຅ະຽຎັຌຎະ຿ວງຈ຾ກ຋ ໃ າໃ ຌຏູຨ ໄ າໃ ຌ ຽພືໃ ຨຽ຦ີມ຦າໄ ຄ຃ລາມຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ກຼໃ ລກ ັຍພຸຈ຋ະ຦າ຦ະໜາເວຈ ີ ຌ ືໄ ຉືໃ ມຨີກຍໃ ໄ ຂ ວົ າງກຌຨ ໄ ງ ຾຤ະຽຌືໃ ຨຄ຅າກລາໃ ພາ຦າຉາໃ ຄຎະຽ຋ຈຽຎັຌ຦ິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ງາກພ ຦ ຺ມ຃ລຌ ຾຤ະ຦າຌລຌ຋າຄ຋ັມມະຌຌ ັ ໄ ກຽຎັຌ຦ິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຽ຤ິກຽຆິໃ ຄ ຍາຄ຋ີ ຨາຈມີ຦ໃ ຄເຈຂາຈຉ ິ ຺ກຍ ຺ກຏຨ ໃ ຄ ຂາໄ ພະຽ຅຺າໄ ກຂຨະແພມາງ ັຄ຋າໃ ຌຏູຩ ໄ ແູໄ ລ ໄ ໄ ລ ຌະ຋ີໃ ຌີຈ ໄ ງ. ຋ີໃ ລ ັຈຨ ຺ຄຉືໄມະວາລິວາຌ,ລ ັຌ຋ີ 26 ມຄກຨຌ 2012 ັ ພຣະຨາ຅າຌ ແຆງະຽຈຈ ລ ຺ຄ຿຦ພາ

iii


ຘາຘະໜາຌີຽໄ ຎັຌ຾ຌທເຈ? ຽຊິຄ຋າໃ ຌຏູບ ໄ າໃ ຌ຋ີໃ ປ ັກ຾ຑຄ ຋ຸກ຃ ຺ຌ຅າຽຎັຌຉບ ໄ ຄຓີຘາຘະໜາ ຾ຖະຘາຘະໜາຌຌັ ໄ ຅ະຉບ ໄ ຄຽຎັ ຌຘາ ຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຘບຈ຃ບ ັ ງາ. ຊາໄ ຍຸກ຃ ຺ຌເຈ ຍໃ ປ ັກຘາຘີຌ ໃ ຄກ ັຍກາຌເຆຘ ໄ ະຉິຎຌ ເຌຘາຘະໜາເຈໜຶໃ ຄ ຍຸກ຃ ຺ຌຌຌັ ໄ ກ຅ະຽຎັຌບ ັຌຉະຖາງຉໃ ຘ ັຄ຃ ຺ຓ. ຿ຈງ ຽນຈຌີຽໄ ບຄ ຅ິໃ ຄຍໃ ຓີ຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຄແຘຽຖີງທາໃ ຽຎັຌນງ ັຄຌ ັກທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ ຾ຖະ ຌ ັກ຅ິຈຉະທິ຋ະງາ຅ິໃ ຄຽຎີ ຈກທ ໄ າຄ຿ຖກະ຋ັຈຂບຄຑທກຽປ຺າ ຾ຉຑ ໃ ທກຽຂ຺າ ຍໃ ຘາຓາຈ ຋ີໃ ຅ະຍບກກຼໃ ທກ ັຍຽຎ຺ໄາໝາງເຌຆີທິຈຂບຄຑທກຽປ຺າແຈ .ໄ ຾ຉ ໃ ໄ ຈ .ໄ ຘະຌ ຌ, ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຈີຘ າຓາຈຍບກຽຖືໃ ບຄຌີແ ັໄ ຃ຌ ຺ ຽປ຺ າ ຅ິໃ ຄຘ ຓ ຺ ຃ທຌ ຽຖື ບ ກຌ ັຍຊືຘ າຘະໜາ ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃ ທາຓໝາງ ຾ຖະນົ ກ ັ ຽນຈຏ ຌ ຺ ຉາຓຘ ຈ ັ ຋າ ຂບຄຉ ຺ຌ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌບີຄບາແຘຑຼຄ຾ຉຉ ໃ າຓ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ, ຉາຓ ຎະຽຑຌີ, ປີຈ຃ບຄ຾ຖະ຋ິຈຘະຈີເຈໂ. ກາຌຍຄັ ຃ ັຍເນ຃ ໄ ຺ຌບືໃຌ ເນໄຌ ັຍຊື ຘາຘະໜາຂບຄຉ ຺ຌ຿ຈງຘທງເຆ຃ ໄ ທາຓ຋ຸກ, ຃ທາຓຍໃ ປູໜ ໄ ັຄຘື ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓ ປູຘ ຶ ບບ ັ ໄ ຌຘິໃ ຄຍໃ ຃ທຌ.ກາຌຌ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາ຃ທຌ ໄ ກ ໃ ຌ຾ບຂບຄ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌຌຌຽຎັ ຅ະຽຎັ ຌ ແຎຉາຓຖ ກ ັ ຘະຌະຘະໝກ ັ ເ຅. ຓະຌຸຈ ຃ທຌ຅ະຓີຽ ຘຖີ ຑ າຍເຌ ກາຌຽຖືບກຌ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາຂບຄຉ ຺ຌຉາຓ຃ທາຓຓກັ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈ ຋າຄຘະຉິຎຌ ັ ງາ. ກາຌຌ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາ຾ຍຍຄ ຺ຓຄທາງ ຿ຈງຍໃ ຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ ກ ຅ະຽຎັຌກາຌຽຘືໃ ບຓຽຘງ຃ຸຌ຃າໃ ຋າຄຈາໄ ຌ຅ິຈເ຅ ຾ຖະຘູຌຽຘງກຼຈຘ ັກຘີ ຂບຄ຃ທາຓຽຎັ ຌ ຓະຌຸຈ ຂບຄຏູໄຌ ັຍຊືຘ າຘະໜາຌ ຌໂ. ຓະຌຸຈ ຓີຘ ະຉິ ັໄ ຎັຌງາ ຾ຖະຘາຓຌຘ ັ າຌຶກ຋ີໃ ຅ະປູ຅ ໄ ັກ຅າ຾ຌກທາໃ ບ ັຌເຈຊືກ ຾ຖະບ ັຌເຈ 1


ຏິຈ. ຑທກຽຂ຺າຘາຓາຈຎັຍຉ ຺ທເນຽໄ ຂ຺ໄາກ ັຍຘະຑາຍກາຌຉາໃ ຄໂແຈ.ໄ ຈທ ໄ ງ ຽນຈຌີໄ ຑທກຽຂ຺າ຅ິໃ ຄ຃ທຌ຅ະຽຖືບກຘາຘະໜາ ຋ີໃ ຽຂ຺ໄາກ ັຍຑທກຽຂ຺າແຈ ໄ ຾ຖະຉບຍຘະໜບຄກ ັຍຑູຓຎັຌງາຂບຄ຃ທາຓຽຎັຌຓະຌຸຈຂບຄຑທກຽຂ຺າ. ຑທກຽຂ຺າ຃ທຌ຅ະແຈປ ໄ ັຍກາຌ຾ຌະຌາຘໃຄັ ຘບຌດາ ໃ ຄຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄຽໝາະຘ ຺ຓ. ຃ທຌ຅ະເນ຿ ັ ຘີຌຌ ັຍຊື ຿ຈງຎາຈຘະ ໄ ບກາຈຽຂ຺ າຽ຅຺າໄ ຽນົໃ ຺ າຌຌັ ໄ ຓີຘິຈຉຈ ຅າກກາຌຌາຍຂູ຿ໃ ຈງຎະກາຌ຋ັຄຎທຄ.

ຓ ັຈຆິຓາຎະຉິຎະ຋າ(຋າຄຘາງກາຄ) ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຌາຘະຽໜີ ເຌຎຶໄ ຓຌບ ໄ ງໂຽນົັ ໄຓຌີໄ ຽຎັ ຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ກ ຼໃ ທກ ັຍຖະຍ ຍ ຺ ກາຌຘຶ ກ ຘາ ຾ຖະຑາກຎະຉິ ຍ ຈ ັ ຽຑືໃ ບກາຌຑ ຈ ັ ຋ະຌາ ຅ິຈ ເ຅ ຽຆິໃ ຄແຈ ຽໄ ຏີ ງ ຾ຏໃ຾ ກ ຿ໃ ຖກຌີຽໄ ຎັ ຌ ຽທຖາ 25 ຘະຉະທ ັຈຏໃາ ຌຓາ ຿ຈງຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓຓະ຃ູຏໄຉ ູ ັຈຘະປູໄ ຾ຖະຓີຑຕະຓະນາກະຕຸຌາ຋ິ຃ຌ ຸ ດໃາ ຄ ງິໃ ຄ. ຑຕະຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຽຎັ ຌ ຋ີໃ ປູ຅ ໄ ັກບີ ກ ຆືໃ ໜຶໃ ຄເຌຌາຓຂບຄຓ ັຈຆິ ຓ າ ຎະຉິ ຎ ະ຋າ ຽຆິໃ ຄຽຎັ ຌ ນ ຌ ຺ ຋າຄຂບຄກາຌຈ າຽຌີຌ ຆີທິຈ ດໃາ ຄຊືກ ຉ ບ ໄ ຄ, ຽຎັຌຖະຍ ຺ຍຎັຈຆະງາ຅ະຕິງະ຋ັຓ ຾ຖະຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຾ນຄ ໃ ຽຘຖີຑາຍ ຾ຖະຽນຈຏ ຺ຌ. ຿ຈງຓີ຃າຘບຌດູຘ ໃ າຓນົ ັກກາຌເນງ຃ ໃ :ື “ກາຌຄ ຺ຈຽທັ ໄຌ຅າກ ກາຌຽປັຈ຃ທາຓຆໃທ຺ ຋ັຄຎທຄ, ກາຌຘາໄ ຄ຾ຉ຃ ໃ ທາຓຈີ ຾ຖະຆາຖະ຅ິຈເ຅ ເນຏ ໄ ບ ໃ ຄເຘ.” ຃າຽທ຺ໄາຌີຽໄ ຍິໃ ຄ຃ືທາໃ ຋າຓະຈາ, ຓີ຃ທາຓໝາງຈີ, ຃ືຆຎ ິ ະຉິຍ ັຈ ຉາຓແຈ,ໄ ຾ຉທ ໃ າໃ ຃ ຺ຌຘທ ໃ ຌເນງຽໃ ນັ ຌທາໃ ງາກຑຘ ຺ຓ຃ທຌ຋ີໃ ຅ະຌາຽບ຺ າ ແຎຎະຉິ ຍຈ ັ ຉທ ຺ ຅ິຄ ຽຌືໃ ບຄ຅າກຓະຌຸຈ ຓີ຃ທາຓບ ບ ໃ ຌ຾ບຓາ຾ຉ ໃຽຈີຓ ດູໃ ຾ຖທ ໄ . ກາຌຎະຑຶຈ຋າຄຘີຖະ຋ັຓຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ ຽຎັຌຑາກຘທ ໃ ຌ຋ີໃ ຘາ຃ ັຌ຋ີໃ 2


ຘຸຈເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີ.ໄ ຑຕະຉະຊາ຃ ຺ຈຽ຃ີງຉຈ ັ ຽບ຺ າແທທ ໄ າໃ : “຃າຘບຌຂບຄ ໃ ຺ ຓາ ຽປ຺າຉະ ຊາ຃ ຺ຈ ຍໃ ແຈ ຓ ໄ ແີ ທ ຽໄ ຑືໃ ບເນຓ ໄ າຽຆືໃ ບຊື຿ຖຈ, ຾ຉເໃ ນໄ຋າ ໃ ຌ຅ຄ ຽຍິໃ ຄ ຾ຖະຎະ ຉິຍ ັຈຉາຓຽຊີຈ”. ຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຘໃຄ຺ ຽຘີຓເນ຃ ໄ ຺ຌຓາຘຶກ ຘາຉາຓ຃າຘບຌຂບຄຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະບ ຺ຄດາ ໃ ຄຽຖິກຽຆິໃ ຄ ຾ຖະຽຎີ ຈ຿ບກາຈ ເນໄຑິ ຌ ຈ ິ ຑິ ຅າຖະຌາຈ ທ ຺ ຽບຄ ຾ຖ ໄທ ຅ິໃ ຄຉ ຈ ັ ຘີຌ ເ຅ງບຓປ ັຍຌ ັຍຊື ໄ ງຉ ຌ ຉາຓ຃າຘບຌ ນົື ຅ ະຍໃ ຌ ັຍຊືກແຈ.ໄ ຍໃ ຓີເຏ຅ະຊືກຍຄັ ຃ ັຍເນໄຓາຌ ັຍຊືຘ າ ໄ າ ຘະໜາຌີດ ໃ ຄຄ ຺ຓຄທາງ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌ຋າ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ເຌ຃າ ຘບຌຽຘງກບ ໃ ຌ. ຘ າຖ ຍ ັ ປູຍ ກາຌຑິ ຋ີ ກ ັຓຉ ໃາ ຄໂ ງ ຄັ ຍໃ ຋ັຌ ຾ຓ ຌ ໃ ຃ຸຌ ຃ ໃາ ນົື ຘໃ ິ ຄ ຘາ຃ ັຌ຾຋຅ ີ າຌຽຆືໃ ບຊື຾ຍຍຄ ຺ຓຄທາງ ຾ຖະ ໄ ຄິ ຂບຄຘາຘະໜາ. ຍໃ ແຈຓ ໄ ກ ກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈ ນົື຃າຘບຌ຋ີໃ ຽຖິກຖ ັຍເຈໂ. ຋ຸກດາໃ ຄ຾ຓຌຽຎີ ຈຽຏີງ ຾ຖະ ໃ ຽຎີ ຈ ຿ບກາຈເນໄ ຏໄຎ ູ ະຉິ ຍ ຈ ັ ຉາຓ ຓີຽ ຘຖີ ຑ າຍເຌກາຌຑິ ຘ ູຈ ຃ າຘບຌ ຾ຖະຉ ຄ຃ ັ ໄ າຊາຓເຌຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຑທກຽຂ຺ າ ຽ຅຺ໄາຘ ຄ຺ ແຘ ຽຑືໃ ບ຾ກ ແໄ ຂຂ ໄຂບ ໄ ຄເ຅. ບີຄຉາຓຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓຘາຘະຈາເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີ,ໄ ຃ ຺ຌຽປ຺າຍໃ ຃ທຌ຅ະຌ ັຍຊື ຘິໃ ຄເຈໂຑຼຄ຾ຉທ ູ າ຅າຌຘາ຃ ັຌຘໃຄັ ຘບຌຓາ ນົືງບ ໃ າໃ ຓີ຃ບ ໄ ຌຓີ຃ ຺ຌຌ ັຍຊື ຘືຍໂກ ັຌຓາດາໃ ຄນົ ທຄ ນົ າງ ຾ຉ຃ ັ າຌຶກ ຾ຖະຎັຌງາ ໃ ທຌ຅ະເຆຘ ໄ າຓຌຘ ຑືໄຌຊາຌ ຾ຖະຌ ັຍຊືຽຓືໃ ບຽນັ ຌທາໃ ຃ທຌ຃າໃ ຾ກກ ໃ າຌຌ ັຍຊື. ໄ ບຌ ນົ ກ ຘາຘະໜາຌີຘ ັ ບະຕິງະຓ ັກ຃ຓ ີ ຺ຄ຾ຎຈຽຆິໃຄຎະກບຍຓີ: ໌ ບ ຘຓ ັ ຓາ຋ິ ຈ ຊິ, ຘ ຓ ັ ຓາຘ ຄັ ກ ັຍຎະ, ຘ ຓ ັ ຓາທາ຅າ, ຘ ຓ ັ ຓາກ ັຓຓ ັຌຉາ, ຘ ັຓຓາບາຆີທະ, ຘ ັຓຓາທາງະຓະ, ຘ ັຓຓາຘະຉິ ຾ຖະຘ ັຓຓາຘະຓາ຋ິ ຽຎັຌ ນຌ ຺ ຋າຄຓ ັຈຆິຓາຎະຉິຎະ຋າ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌໜຶໃ ຄຈຼທ ຽຑືໃ ບຌາແຎຘູກ ໃ າຌຈາຽຌີຌ

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ຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຎະຽຘີຈ ຾ຖະຽປັຈເນຏ ໄ ຎ ໄ ູ ະຉິຍ ັຈບືໃຌໂບີກຘາຓາຈຌາແຎຘູກ ໃ າຌຈາ ຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃ທາຓຘະນຄຍຘຸ ຺ ກແຈ.ໄ ໄຌ຋າຄ຾ນຄ ຓຈຆິ ັ ຓາຎະຉິຎະ຋າ ຍໃ ຾ຓຌ຋ັຄຽຘັ ັ ຆະງາ1 ໃ ໃ ບະຑິຎຈ ໄຌ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ຽຌັຌ ໄ ແຎ຋າຄຑິ຋ີກ ັຓ, ຍໃ ຾ຓຌຖ ຾ຖະຍໃ ຾ຓຌຽຘັ ໃ ໃ ັຈ຋ິ຃າຑີຉາງຉ ຺ທ, ຍໃ ຾ຓຌຖ າຉາຓເ຅ ິ ຈ ິ ຘາ(຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຄແຘ), ຍໃ ຾ຓຌກາຌກະ຋ ໃ ັຈ຋ິ຾ນຄ ໃ ທິ຅ກ ໃ ຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ, ຋ັຄຍໃ ຾ຓຌກາຌ຋ ຖະຓາຌຉ ຺ຌ, ຍໃ ຾ຓຌຖ ິ ັຌຈບຌຌິງ ຺ຓ, ຍໃ ໃ ໃ ັຈ຋ິຌຕ ຾ຓຌຖ ັ ຋ິ ຌ ັຈຊິຌງ ິ ຺ຓ(ຖຈ ັ ຋ິ ຽ ຆືໃ ບທາໃ ຋ຸກດໃາ ຄຘູຌຽຎ຺ໃ າ), ຍໃ ຾ຓຌຖ ັ ຋ິ ຋ໃ ີ ໃ ຈ ໃ ຈ ຽນັ ຌ ຋ຸກ ດໃ າ ຄຽຎັ ຌ ຋າຄຖ ຍ ຺ ຾ຖະ຋ັຄ ຍໃ ຾ຓ ຌ ັ ຋ິ ຋ໃ ີ ຽນັ ຌ ຋ຸກ ດໃາ ຄຽຎັ ຌ ໃ ຖຈ ຋າຄຍທກ; ຾ຉ ໃຓ ັຌ຾ຓຌນ ຺ ຋າຄຘູກ ັ ຘະປູ,ໄ ຽຎັ ຌ ທິ຋ີ຋າຄຂບຄ ໃ ຌ ໃ າຌຉຈ ກາຌນົຸ ຈຑ ຌ ຺ໄ ບບກ຅າກ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ . ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄຍໃ ຽນັ ຌ ຈີທ າໃ ຓະຌຸຈ ຋ີໃ ໄ ຈ ກາຖ ັຄ຋ຸກ຋ຖະຓາຌເຌ຿ຖກຌີຎ ັ ຅ຸຍ ັຌຌີໄ ງບ ໄ ຌຓີຽນຈຓາ຅າກຍາຍກ ັຓ຋ີໃ ຍຌ ັ ຑະຍຸຖຸຈຂບຄຉຌ ຺ ຽບຄແຈກ ໄ ະ຋າຓາ; ຾ຉເໃ ຌ຋າຄກ ຺ຄກ ັຌຂາໄ ຓ ຋ຸກ ໂ ຃ ຺ຌຓີຍຌ ຸ ຾ຖະຍາຍຽຎັຌຂບຄຘະຽຑາະຉ ຺ຌ. ຓະຌຸຈຽບຄຽ຋຺ໃ າຌຌຽຎັ ຌຏູແ ັໄ ໄ ຈໄ ປ ັຍ຃ທາຓຘຸກ ນົື຃ທາຓ຋ຸກຈທ ໄ ງຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ. ຏູຎ ັ ຓາຎະຉິຎະ຋າ ນົື຋າຄຘາງກາຄ ຃ທຌ຋ີໃ ໄ ະຉິຍ ັຈຉາຓຓຈຆິ ຅ະຘະ຾ນທຄນາຘ ຌ ັ ຉິ ຘ ຸກ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຘຸກ ຾ຖະ຃ທຌ຋ີໃ ຅ະຘາຓາຈ ຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຈີຌ຿ ີໄ ຈງຎາຈຘະ຅າກກາຌຉ ຺ກຽຎັຌ຋າຈ຾ນຄ ໃ ບາ ງະຉະ ຌະຂບຄຉ ຌ ຺ , ຅ິໃ ຄ຅ະຎະກບຍຘ ໃທ ຌຘູໃຘ ຌ ັ ຉິ ຑ າຍ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຘາຓ ັກ຃ີ ກ ຺ຓກຼທຂບຄ຿ຖກຌີແໄ ຈ.ໄ

1

A metaphysical path: ຽຘັໄຌ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌບະຑິຎຈ ູ ແຈງ ັ ຆະງາ, ຽຆິໃ ຄຽຎັຌຽຘັໄຌ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ຑິຘຈ ໄ າກ.

຃າທາໃ ບະຑິຎຈ ັ ຆະງາ ໝາງຽຊິຄຎັຈຆະງາ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຾ຖະຽຎັຌຌາຓ຋ັຓ.

4


ຽປັຈຘິໃ ຄເຈແຈຘ ິ ຌັໄ ໄ ໃ ຄຌ ຘາຘະໜາຌີແໄ ຈຓ ໄ ບຍ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅ບ ັຌຽຖິກຽຆິໃ ຄ ຾ຖະຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຾ກຓ ັ ໄ ໃ ຃ທາຓຽ຃ັໃ ຄຉຶຄທຸຌ ໃ ະຌຸຈ ຌບກ຅າກຌີໄ ງ ັຄບ ຺ຈ຋຺ຌບ ຺ຈກຌຉ ໃ ທາງເຌ ຆີທຈ ິ ຎະ຅າທ ັຌຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ, ຆທ ຺ ຑຌ ັ ກ ັຍ ໃ ງຽນົື ບຓະຌຸຈເຌກາຌຉິຈຉໃ ຑທ ຽຑືໃ ບຌຓະຌຸຈຈທ ໄ ງກ ັຌ ຌບກ຅າກຌີໄ ງ ັຄຆີໄຌາຘູຽໃ ຎ຺ໄາໝາງ຾ນຄ ໃ ກາຌຈາ ຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ . ຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຍໃ ຽປັຈເນຓ ໄ ະຌຸຈຽກີຈ຃ທາຓດໄາຌກ ຺ທ. “ຽປັຈ ຈີງບ ໃ ຓແຈຈ ໄ ,ີ ຽປັຈຆໃທ຺ ງບ ໃ ຓແຈຆ ໄ ໃທ຺ ”. “຋ຸກກາຌກະ຋າງບ ໃ ຓຓີຏ ຺ຌຉາຓຓາ”. ໄ ືກ ຺ຈຽກຌຂບຄຘາກ ຺ຌ. ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຽນັ ຌ ຈີຉ າຓນົ ກ ຌີ຃ ັ 3 ຎະກາຌຌີ,ໄ ຈທ ໄ ງຽນຈຌີໄ ຃ ຺ຌຽປ຺າງບ ໃ ຓແຈປ ໄ ັຍ “ເຌຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຉ ຺ຌຽບຄກະ຋າຖ ຺ຄແຎ”. ກ ັຓ ໄ ຅າກ ຃ທາຓ຿ຖຍ, ຃ທາຓ຿ກຈ ຾ຖະບະທິຆາ ຆໃທ຺ ງບ ໃ ຓຽກີຈກໃ ຽກີຈຂືຌ ຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ . ຘະຑາຍ຃ທາຓບ ບ ໃ ຌ຾ບຽຆັໃ ຌຌີໄ ຘາຓາຈຽບ຺ າຆະຌະແຈ ໄ ຈທ ຺ ຽບຄ. ຃ທາຓຘຸກ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓ ຋ຸກ຋ີໃ ຓະຌຸຈ ໄ ງກາຌປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄໄ ຈທ ໄ ງຉຌ ກາຖ ັຄຎະຘ ຺ຍດູເໃ ຌ຿ຖກຌີໄ ຍໃ ແຈຽໄ ກີຈຓາ຅າກບິຈ຋ິຑ ຺ຌຑາງຌບກ຾ຉດ ໃ າໃ ຄ ໄ ຅າກກາຌກະ຋າຈີ ຾ຖະຆໃທ຺ , ຃າຽທ຺ໄາ຾ຖະກາຌກະ຋າ຋ີໃ ເຈ ຾ຉຽໃ ກີຈຂືຌ ໄ ໃ ຄກ ຉຌ ຺ ຽບຄແຈ ຽໄ ປັ ຈ ຖ ຄ຺ ແຎ. ຈ ທ ຺ ຌີຽໄ ບຄ, ຘາຘະໜາຌີ຅ ິ າໃ ທທ າໃ : ໄ ງຽນຈຏ ຌ “ຑທກຽປ຺າຽຎັຌດູ຾ ໃ ຌທຌີໄ ງບ ໄ ຌຓີຏ ຺ຌຓາ຅າກບະຈີຈ,຾ຖະຽປ຺າກ຅ະແຈປ ໄ ັຍ ຏ ຺ຌເຌບະຌາ຃ ຺ຈ ຅າກຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຽປ຺າຽຎັຌເຌຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ັຌ”. ບີຄຉາຓ຃າຘບຌຌີ,ໄ ຽນຈ ຾ຖະຎັຈແ຅ ຽຎັຌຘທ ໃ ຌໜຶໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຘາ຃ ັຌນົ າງເຌ ຆີທຈ ິ ຂບຄຑທກຽປ຺າ. ເຌທ ຺ຄ຅ບຌຂບຄຽນຈ ຾ຖະຎັຈແ຅ຌີ,ໄ ຽນຈ຋ີໜໃ ຶຄ ຍໃ ຘາຓາຈດັໃ ຄຽນັ ຌແຈ ໄ ຽຑາະທາໃ ຽນຈກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈຏຌ ຺ ຾ຖະຏຌ ຺ ຎໃຼຌຽຎັ ຌ ຽນຈບີກ. 5


ຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູຏງ ິ ໄ ູ ໃ ຄເນງ ໃ ຏູໄຽ ຎັ ຌ ຑຕະຍ ຕ ຺ຓຘາຘະຈາຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຽຎັ ຌ ຽບກະຖ ກ ັ ຿ຈຈ ຽຈັໃ ຌຌີໄ ຍໃ ຾ຓຌຏູ ິ ິ ໃ ຽໄ ຖິກຖ ັຍ ຾ຉຽໃ ຎັຌຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູຏງ ໄ ູ ໃ ຄເນງ ໃ ຋ີໃ ຽ຃ີງຈາຖ ຺ຄຆີທຈ ດູໃ຅ຄິ ເຌ຿ຖກຌີ.ໄ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຍໃ ຽ຃ີງຎະກາຈຉ ຺ຌຽບຄທາໃ ຽຎັ ຌຏູໄທຽິ ຘຈ ຾ຉ ໃ ຽຎັ ຌຑຼຄຓະຌຸຈຏູໜ ິ ຾ຖະ ໄ ໃ ຶ ຄ຋ີໃ ປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄໄ ຘ ັຈ຅ະ຋ັຓ, ຎິ ຈຘະໜາຂບຄຆີທຈ ຘາຽນຈ຋ີໃ ຾຋຅ ໄ ຄິ ຂບຄ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຘຸກ. ເຌຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ັຌ ຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ ບ ຺ຄຌີໄ ຍໃ ຑຼຄ຾ຉແ ໃ ຈປ ໄ ັຍກາຌເນກ ໄ ຼຈງ ຺ກງບ ໄ ຄ຅າກຍ ັຌຈາຘາທ ຺ກ ຾ຉງ ໃ ັຄ ແຈ ໄປ ຍ ັ ກາຌງ ກ ຺ ງ ໄບ ຄ຅າກຎັຌ ງາຆ ຌ ຺ ຏູໄ຋ໃ ີ ບ ຍ ຺ ປຓ ຺ ຈີ ຾ ຖ ໄທ ເຌ຋຺ໃ ທ ຿ຖກ. ຍຸກ຃ ຺ຌຏູຎ ູ ຘ ັຄ຃ ຺ຓ, ຌ ັກຎະຆາ຋ິ ໄ ະຽຘີຈ, ຌ ັກບິຈຘະຑາຍ, ຌ ັກຎະຉິປຍ ຎະແຉ ຾ຖະ຋ັຄຽຎັຌ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅ເຌກາຌຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຋າໃ ຌ ຌີໄ ແຈຈ ິ ຑາຌແຎ຾ຖທ ໄ ັຍຂ ັຌ຋ະຎະຕິຌຍ ໄ ຉບຌບາງຸແຈ ໄ 80

ສາ,

ຽນົືບແທ຾ ໄ ຉ຅ ໃ ະຕິງະ຋ັຓບ ັຌຎະຽຘີຈ຾ກຓ ໃ ທຌຓະຌຸຈຆາຈ ຽຑືໃ ບຌາຽບ຺ າແຎ ເຆຽໄ ຎັຌທິ຋ີ຋າຄເຌກາຌກາ຅ ັຈຽຆິໃຄ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ, ຃ທາຓຂ ັຈຂບ ໄ ຄໝບຄເ຅, ຃ທາຓຉຶຄ຃ຼຈ, ຃ທາຓດາໄ ຌ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓກ ັຄທ ຺ຌເ຅຋ັຄນົ າງ, ກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈ ຃ທາຓຘຸກເຌຆີທຈ ິ ຌີໄ຾ຖະຆີທິຈເຌຑາງຑາກໜໄາ ຌາແຎຘູກ ຺ໄ ໃ າຌນົຸ ຈຑຌ ຅າກ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘຸຈຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈຆາຈ. ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູບ ຺ຄຌີໄ ຆ ຺ຄຎບຍເ຅ຍຸກ຃ ຺ຌຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ ຎະຘ ຺ຍກ ັຍ຃ທາຓຘູຌ ຽຘງ ຈທ ໄ ງຑຕະທາ຅າ຋ີໃ ບບ ໃ ຌ຿ງຌ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຆ ຺ຄຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ຃ ຺ຌ຋ຸກ຋ີໃ ຊືກ ຎໃບງຎະຖະແຖ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຆ ຺ຄເນກ ິ ຂບຄ຃ ຺ຌ຋ີໃກາຖ ັຄນົ ຺ຄ຋າຄ ຾ຖະ ໄ ຼຈຆີທຈ ຖາໄ ຄຓ ຺ຌ຋ິ ຌຆີທິຈຂບຄຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ ກາ ຖຄັ ຽຎັ ຌບາຆະງາກບຌ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຆ ຺ຄເນໄ ກ າຖ ຄັ ເ຅຾ກ ຃ ູ ຌ ຺ ຏູໄບ ບ ຺ ຋ີໃ ໃ ຌ ໃ ຌ຾ບ ຾ຖະຎະຘາຌ຃ທາຓຘາຓ ັກ຃ີ຾ ກ ຏ ໃ ໄ຃ ກາຖ ັຄ຾ຉກ຾ງກ, ເນ຾ ໄ ຘຄຘະນທາໃ ຄ຾ກຏ ໃ ຋ ໄ ູ ໃ ີກາຖ ັຄຍບຈແຍບ ໄ ະທິຈຆາ, 6


ຽຏີງ຃ທາຓກະ຅າໃ ຄ຾຅ຄໄ ຾ກຏ ໃ ຋ ໄ ູ ໃ ີກາຖ ັຄຓຶຈຓ ຺ຌ, ງ ຺ກຘູຄຖະຈ ັຍ຅ິຈເ຅຾ກ ໃ ໃ ັ ຓີ຾ຖະ຃ ຺ຌ຋ຸກ, ຋ັຄຌ ັກຍທຈ ຾ຖະບາຆະງາ ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ ຓີຉະກູຌຈີ, ຋ັຄ຃ ຺ຌປຄ ກບຌຖທ ໄ ຌ຾ຉຽໃ ຃຺າຖ ຺ຍປ ັກຉໃ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄ. ຋ັຄຑຕະຕາຆາຏູຽໄ ຎັຌ຅ບຓຏະຽຈັ ຈ ກາຌ ຾ຖະຑຕະຕາຆາຏູຆ ໄ ຺ຄ຋ັຓ, ຋ັຄຽ຅຺າໄ ຆາງຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີແຈປ ໄ ັຍ຃ທາຓຌິງ ຺ຓ຿ຈຈ ຽຈັໃ ຌ ຾ຖະຍໃ ຿ຈຈຽຈັໃ ຌ ຾ຖະຍ ຌ ັ ຈາບະຕິງະຆ ຺ຌ, ຽຘຈຊີຏເ ໄ ູ ຅ຽບືໄບ ຽຒືໄ ບ ຾ຖະຂີໄຊໃ ,ີ ຋ັຄຌ ັກຎາຈຏູ຿ ຺ , ຃ ຺ຌບະຌາຊາ ຾ຖະ ໄ ບບ ໄ ທຈ ຾ຖະຊບ ໃ ຓຉຌ ຃ ຺ຌ຅ ຺ຌ, ຋ັຄ຃ ຺ຌຽຈີຌຊະໜ ຺ຌຆບກຽຘຈບານາຌກິຌແຎທ ັຌໂ, ຃າຉະກບຌ ຏູໄຎໃ າ ຽຊືໃ ບຌ, ຌາຄຍາຽຖີຏໄຊ ູ ືກດຼຍນງາຓ ຋ຸກ຃ ຌ ຺ ຖທ ໄ ຌ຾ຉ ໃແ ຈປ ໄ ັຍຎະ ຿ນງຈ ຾ຖະຘາຓາຈຈາຽຌີຌຆີທິຈ ຋ີໃ ຘະນຄ ຺ຍຎະຽຘີຈ຅າກກາຌແຈຒ ໄ ຄັ ຃າຘບຌ຋ີໃ ຎໃຼຓຈທ ຸ ຾ຖະຓະນາກະຕຸຌາ຋ິ ຃ຌ ຸ ຂບຄ ໄ ງຑຕະຎັຌງາ຋ິ ຃ຌ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄ. ຾ຍຍດໃາຄບ ັຌຎະຽຘີຈ ຂບຄຑຕະບ ຺ຄ ຽຎັ ຌຽໝື ບ ຌຍໃ ຽກີຈຂບຄ ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅ຉໃ ຋ຸກ຃ ຺ຌ. ຑຕະຑກ ັ (ເຍໜາໄ )ບ ັຌຘະນຄ ຺ຍຽດື ບກຽດັຌ ຾ຖະຘ ຌ ັ ຉິ ຘ ຸ ກ ຂບຄຑຕະບ ຄ຺ ຽຎັ ຌ ຑາຍ຋ີໃ ກໃ ເນໄ ຽ ກີຈ ຃ທາຓຘະນຄ ຺ຍ ຏບ ໃ ຌ຃າງດາໃ ຄງິໃ ຄ຾ກຘ ໃ າງຉາຂບຄຏູຘ ໄ ັຈ຋າ຋ີໃແຈຑ ໄ ຺ຍຽນັ ຌ. ຃າຘບຌ຋ີໃ ກໃ ເນໄຽ ກີຈຘ ຌ ັ ຉິ ຑ າຍ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓບ ຺ຈ຋຺ຌ ຽຎັ ຌ ຋ີໃ ງບຓປ ັຍຉໃ ຋ຸກ຃ ຌ ຺ ຈທ ໄ ງ ຃ທາຓຘຸກ ຽໜື ບ ຑ ຌ ັ ຖະຌາ ຾ຖະ຋ັຄ ງ ຄັ ຽຎັ ຌ ຎະ຿ນງຈບ ຌ ັ ຌິຖ ຌ ັ ຈບຌ ຘາຖ ັຍ຋ຸກ຃ ຺ຌ ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີຓີ຿ບກາຈ຿ຆກຈີແຈປ ໄ ັຍຒັຄ ຾ຖະຎະຉິຍ ັຈຉາຓ. ຎະ ຌິ຋າຌບ ັຌຽຂັ ໄຓ຾ຂຄ,ຑຕະຎັຌງາບ ັຌຽຖິກຽຆິໃ ຄ຃າຑີ ຖະຑາຍ,຃ທາຓປ ັກ ບຌ ັ ຽຎັ ຌ ຘາກ ຺ຌ, ຑຕະຓະນາກະຕຸຌ າ຋ີໃ ຽຎັ ຌ ບ ຍ ັ ຎະຓ ັຌງາ(ແປ ຽໄ ຂຈ ຾ຈຌ), ກາຌເນໄ ຃ ທາຓຆ ໃທ ງຽນົື ບ ຋ີໃ ຍໃ ຽນັ ຌ຾ກ ຉ ຺ , ກາຌຘະຖະຉ ຌ ຺ ໃ ທ ບບກຍທຈ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌຽນຈກາຌຎະນທ ັຈຘາຈ, ຃ທາຓຍຖິຘຈ ຸ ຍຖິຍຌ ູ , ຓີຍກ ຸ 7


຃ະຖິກ຋ີໃ ຓີຘະນຄາຄາຓ, ຾ຍຍທິ຋ີກາຌຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌ຾ຍຍດໃາຄເຆ ໄ ໃ ເຌກາຌ຾ຌະຌ າ຃ າຘບຌຂບຄຑຕະບ ຄ຺ ຾ຖະຏຌ ຺ ຘາຽຖັ ຈ ບ ັຌຘຸຈ ຋າ ໄ ງຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ັຌ ບ ຺ຄຎະກບຍຎັຈແ຅຋ຸກດໃາຄຽນົໃ ຺ າຌີໄ ຖທ ໄ ຌ຾ຉຽໃ ຎັຌ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌ ເ຅ ເນ຾ ໄ ກໜ ໃ ໃ ຶຄຘທ ໃ ຌນາໄ ຂບຄ຅າຌທຌຎະຆາກບຌເຌ຿ຖກ ຖທ ໄ ຌຆໃ ຆບ ໄ ຄ ຘາ຋ຸກາຌຉໃ ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູບ ຺ຄຌີໄ ຾ຖະເນກ ໄ ຼຈຑຕະບ ຺ຄເຌຌາຓຽຎັຌຏູຘ ໄ ບຌ ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຎະຽຘີຈຂບຄຑທກຽຂ຺າ. ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູຏຎ ໄ ູ ະຽຘີຈຑຕະບ ຺ຄຌີໄແຈຽໄ ຘງຘະນົ ະ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຋າຄ ຿ຖກຂບຄຉຌ ຺ ຽຑືໃ ບຘະ຾ນທຄນາ຋າຄຑຌ຋ຸ ຺ໄ ກຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ ຽຑືໃ ບຆີໄ ຋າຄ຾ນຄ ຺ໄ ບບກ຅າກກບຄ຋ຸກ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄແຈແໄ ຎດໄຼຓດາຓ຃ ຺ຌ ໃ ກາຌນົຸ ຈຑຌ ຋ຸກ຅ ຺ຌຽຂັ ຌເ຅ ເຌຂະຌະ຋ີໃ ຑຕະຕາຆາ ຾ຖະຽຘຌາຕາຆຓ ຺ຌຉີຽຂ຺ໄາຽຐ຺ໄ າ ຑຕະບ ຄ຺ . ຽຎັ ຌ ຽທຖາ 45 ຑ ຌ ັ ຘາ ນົ ຄັ ຅າກຉ ຈ ັ ຘະປູ຾ ໄ ຖ ໄທ ຑຕະບ ຄ຺ ແຈ ໄ ບຸ຋ິຈຆີທິຈຽຑືໃ ບຆທ ັ ງາປູ຾ ໃ ງຽນົືບຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ ຽຑືໃ ບເນຽໄ ກີຈຘະຉິຎຌ ໄ ຅ຄໄ ໄ ຺ຌ຋າຄ຾ນຄ ຾ຖະຆ ຺ຄຆີນ ຽໃ ຑືໃ ບຌຓະຌຸຈຏູ຋ ໃ ກາຌປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄ຾ກ ໄ ໄ ໃ ີນົ ຺ຄ຋າຄ. ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ ຍໃ ແຈດ ໄ ໃບຌດໄາຌຉໃ ຏູເໄ ຈ ຾ຖະກຍໃ ຽປັຈເນໄ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌ ໄ ຓຌໜຶໃ ດໄາຌບີກ. ຌີ຾ ັ ກາຌ຋ີໃ ຃ທຌຘາໄ ຄຘ ຺ຓແທເໄ ຌ຿ຖກຂບຄຑທກ ໃ ຄເຌນົ ກ ຽປ຺າ ຋ີໃ ຽຉັ ຓແຎຈທ ໄ ງຘ ຺ຄ຃າຓ ຽຆິໃ ຄຽຎັ ຌຘະຊາຌ຋ີໃ ຋ີໃ ຓີຘໃ ິຄ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃າໃ ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈຌຌ຃ື ັ ໄ ຆີທິຈ ຋ີໃ ບຸ຋ິຈ ຍູຆາ຾ກບ ໃ າຌາຈບ າຓະນິ ຈຂບຄຘ ຄ຺ ຃າຓ ຍບ ໃ ຌ຋ີໃ ບາ ທຸຈຘ ຺ຄ຃າຓແຈກ ໄ ໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈ຃ທາຓດາໄ ຌກ ຺ທ, ຃ທາຓຽ຃ັໃ ຄ຃ຼຈ຾ຖະກຼຈຆ ັຄ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຽຎັຌຌ ັກທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ຋ີໃ ຽຖີຈ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈເຌຘາຂາຘາຈ຾ນຄ ໃ ຆີທຈ ິ ຋ັຄງ ັຄຽຎັຌຌ ັກ຅ິຈຉະທິ຋ະງາ຋ີໃ ຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ ຏູຽໄ ຆິໃ ຄຘາຓາຈທິຽ຃າະ ຋າຓະຆາຈ຋ີໃ ຾຋຅ ໄ ຄິ ຂບຄ຅ິຈແຈ ໄ ຈທ ໄ ງຽນຈຌີຽໄ ບຄ ຃າຘບຌຂບຄຑຕະບ ຺ຄ 8


຅ິໃ ຄຊືກຎະກາຈເນຽໄ ຎັຌ຋ີໃ ປ ັຍປູທ ໄ າໃ ຽຎັຌຑຼຄຘາຘະໜາຈຼທຽ຋຺ໃ າຌຌັ ໄ ຋ີໃ ຓີ ຖ ັກຘະຌະ຋າຄທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ. ຉໃ ຌ ັກຎັຈຆະງາຏູງ ິ ໄ ໃ ຄເນງ ໃ ຾ຖະຌ ັກ຃ິຈ຋ີໃ ຎາຘະ຅າກບະ຃ະຉິ, ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຽຎັຌຽໝືບຌຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ ເຌ຋ັຈຘະຌະ຋ີໃ ຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ ຂບຄ ຘະຑາທະກາຌຂບຄ຿ຖກ. ຉໃ ຌ ັກຘີຖະ຋ັຓ຾ຖທ ີ ີຖ ະ ໄ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຽຎັ ຌຏູຓ ໄ ຘ ຋ັຓບ ັຌຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຾ຖະຽຎັຌຘ ັຌງະຖ ັກຂບຄ຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ. “ຑຕະ ບ ຺ຄຽຎັ ຌ຾ຍຍດໃາຄ຋ີໃ ຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ ຉໃ ຃າຘບຌ຋ຸກດໃາຄ຋ີໃ ແຈຘ ໄ ໃຄັ ຘບຌ”. ຉໃ ຌ ັກ ຽນຈຏຌ ຺ , ຑຕະບ ຄ຺ ຽຎັ ຌຍ ຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ ຏູໄຓ ຅ ີ ຈ ິ ເ຅ນົຸ ຈຑ ຌ ຺ໄ ຾ຖ ທ ໄ ຾ຖະຽຎັ ຌ ຏູໄ຋ໃ ີ ຽຎັ ຌ຾ປຄຍຌ ັ ຈາຌເ຅ຏູໄ຃ ຺ຌ ເຌກາຌ຃ຌ຃ິ ຺ໄ ຈ ດໃາຄຽຎັ ຌບິຈຘະນົ ະ ຿ຈງ ຎາຘະ຅າກ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ ຾ຍຍຖຈ ັ ຋ິ ຃າຑີ ຉາງຉທ ຺ . ຉໃ ຃ ຺ຌ຋ີໃ ຍໃ ຽຆືໃ ບຽຖືໃ ບຄ ຑຕະຽ຅຺າໄ , ຽຂ຺າ຅ະຽນັ ຌທາໃ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຽຎັຌຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີຓີ຃ທາຓກະຕຸຌາ, ຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ ຾ຖະຽຎັຌຍ ັຌຈິຈ. ຑຕະຑຸຈ ຋ະບ ຺ຄຽຎັ ຌ ຏູໄ຋ໃ ີ ຈຶຄ ຈູຈ຃ທາຓຘ ຌ ຺ ເ຅ຉໃ ຍ ຌ ັ ຈາ຃ູຘບຌ ຘາຘະໜາ຋ັຄນົ າງດາ ິ ີກາຌ຾ຍຍ ໃ ຄຍໃ ຉບ ໄ ຄຘ ຺ຄແຘ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຍໃ ຽ຃ີງເຆທ ໄ ຋ ຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ ນົື຃ທາຓດໄາຌກ ຺ທຽຑືໃບຈຶຄຈູຈເນ຃ ໄ ຺ຌຎໃຼຌຘາຘະໜາ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄແຈ ໄ ຘະຽໜີທ຋ ິ ີ຋າຄ຾ນຄ ິ ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາຽຑືໃ ບຎທຄຆ ຺ຌ ເນໄ ໃ ກາຌຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ກາງຽຎັຌ຃ ຺ຌຊືຘາຘະໜາ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກ຃ທາຓດຶ ຈຉິຈຊືໝຌເຌຽ຃ືໃ ບຄ ັໄ ໝາງຘາຘະໜາເຈໂ. ໃ ັ ແນທ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຽຎັຌຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີປ ັຍເຆຓ ໄ ທຌຓະຌຸຈຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ ຊບ ໃ ຓຉ ຺ຌ, ຍໃ ນທຌ ໃ ັ ແນທຉໃ ຿ຕ຃າຑະງາຈ຋ີໃ ໜ ັກໜທ ຉໃ ຃າຉາຌິຉິຆ ຺ຓ, ຾ຖະຍໃ ນທຌ ໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ.

9


ໄ ຘ ັຌຉິຑາຍ, ຃ທາຓຏາຘຸກ ຾ຖະ ກາຌນົຸຈຑ຺ຌ ຑຕະຍ ຕ ຓ ູ ໃ ິ ຄເນງ ໃ຋ໃາ ຌຌີໄ ແຈ ຘ ຺ ຃ູຏໄງ ຺ ຋າຄຘູຘ ັ ຉິ ໄ ະ຾ຈຄນ ຌ ໃ ຌ ຑາຍ, ຃ທາຓຏາຘຸກ

຾ຖະ຃ທາຓນົຸ ຈຑຌ ຺ໄ . ທິ຋ີ຾ນໃຄກາຌຘບຌຂບຄ

ຑຸຈ຋ະບ ຺ຄ ຓີຖກ ັ ຘະຌະຽຎັຌແຎຽຑືໃ ບ຃ທາຓບິຈຘະນົ ະ, ຓີຽນຈຓີຏຌ ຺ , ຽຎັຌຖ ັກຘະຌະທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ ຾ຖະຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ຄາງ ຌາແຎຘູກ ໃ ໃ າຌຉ ັຈ ຘະປູ.ໄ ເຌຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ຌ ັ ຃າຘບຌ຾ນຄ ໃ ຘ ັຌຉິ ຑາຍຂບຄຑຕະຍ ຕ ຺ຓ຃ູຂບຄ ຿ຖກ຋າໃ ຌຌີໄ ງິໃ ຄຘາ຃ ັຌກທາໃ ກບ ໃ ຌ຋ີໃ ຓະຌຸຈ ຅ະນົ ຄ຺ ຓ ຺ທຽຓ຺າຈທ ໄ ງ຃ທາຓ ຿ກຈ, ຃ທາຓ຿ຖຍ, ຃ທາຓບິຈຘາ, ຃ທາຓຓີຓາຌະຊື຿ຉ ຾ຖະກາຌຓີ ຃ທາຓ຃ິຈດາກ຃ບຍ຃ບຄ຿ຖກ. ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ຋ໃາຌຌີໄ ແຈບ ຸ ຈ ັ ຂືໄຌເຌ຿ຖກຽຑືໃ ບກາ຅ ັຈຎັຈຽຎ຺ໃ າ ໄ ຍ ຃ທາຓຓືຈຍບຈ຾ນຄ ໃ ບະທິຈຆາ ຾ຖະຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ຿ຖກບບກ຅າກຘະ ຑາຍ ຋ີໃ ຿ນຈປາໄ ງຌີ.ໄ ເຌ຋຺ໃ ທ຿ຖກ ງ ັຄຓີຏ຃ ໄ ູ ຺ຌຓາກຓາງ຋ີໃບາແຘດູໃ຿ຈງຎາຘະ ຅າກກາຌຌ ັຍຊື ນົືຍໃ ຎະຉິຍ ັຈເຌປູຍ຾ຍຍຂບຄຘາຘະໜາເຈໂກຓີ. ຾ຉ ໃ ຽຊິຄ ດໃາ ຄເຈກ ຉາຓ, ຊ າໄ ນາກຑທກຽຂ຺ າ ຽນົໃ ຺ າຌ ຌ ັ ໄ ຅ະຑ ຓີຽ ທຖາ຾ຌ ຅ ໃ ັກ ຽຖັ ກໜບ ໄ ງຽຑືໃ ບຘຶກຘາ ຾ຖະຘາໄ ຄ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ຉໃ ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄແຈຘ ໄ ບຌ, ຑທກຽຂ຺ າ຃ ຄ຺ ຅ະຘາຓາຈຎ຺ຈ ຽຎືໄ ບ ຄ຃ທາຓຘ ຄ຺ ແຘຂບຄຽຂ຺ າ ຽ຅຺ໄາ ແຈ ດ ໄ ໃາ ຄ ຄາງຈາງ, ຊາໄ ນາກຑຓີ ຾ຖະຌ ັຍຊືຘ ັຈ຋າກ຅ະຽຎັຌ ຽໝືບຌຘາຘະໜາ ໃ ໄ ກູຌ຾ກ຃ ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃ຌ ຸ ຎະ຿ນງຈຽກືບ ໃ ທາຓຘຸກຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ. ຍໃ ຅າຽຎັຌທາໃ ຅ະຓີຏຌ ັ ໄ ຃າຘໃຄັ ຘບຌຂບຄ ໄ ູ ັຍຊືຑຕະບ ຺ຄນົືຍໃ ຌຌ, ຑຕະບ ຄ຺ ກງ ັຄ຅ະຓີຏຌ ຺ ຉໃ ຋ຸກ຃ ຺ຌ. ຃າຘບຌຂບຄຑຕະບ ຺ຄ຋ີໃ ແຈຓ ໄ ບຍແທ ໄ 10


຾ກ຿ໃ ຖກ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກ຃ທາຓປຸຌ຾ປຄ ນົືຑຼຄ຾ຉຽໃ ຖືບຈດາຈຈຼທກຍໃ ໄ ຘ ຽ຃ີງຓີ ເຌຌາຓຂບຄຑຕະບ ຺ຄ. ຌີ຃ ື ໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ິ ຽຎັຌຎະນທ ັຈກາຌ຋ີໃຊືກຍ ັຌ຋ຶກ ແທເໄ ຌຎະນທ ັຈຘາຈ຿ຖກ ຋ີໃ ຃ທຌ຅າຽຖິກແທຈ ໄ ທ ໄ ງໜຄັ ຘື຃າ. ຃າຘບຌຌີໄ ຽຎັຌ຾ຘຄຘະນທາໃ ຄຽງືບຄ຋າຄເນ຾ ໄ ກຓ ໃ ທຌຓະ ຌຸຈຆາຈ ຽຑືໃ ບຂາໄ ຓຏາໃ ຌ ຅າກ຿ຖກ຾ນຄ ໃ ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກຂບ ໄ ຄໝບຄເ຅ ຘູ຿ ໃ ຖກ຋ີໃ ຓີ຾ຘຄຘະນທາໃ ຄຈທຄ ເໝໃ ຋ີໃ ຎະກບຍຈທ ຸ , ຃ທາຓຏາຘຸກ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓ ໄ ງ຃ທາຓປ ັກ, ຘ ັຌຉິຘກ ຽຑິໃ ຄຑເ຅. ຃າຘບຌ຋ີໃ ຓີບາງຸກາຌງາທຌາຌຽຊິຄ 25 ຘະຉະທ ັຈຂບຄຑຕະ ຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ ຾ຂຄ຾ກ ຌ ໃ ຑຼຄຑ ຋ີໃ ຅ະຎະຽຆີຌໜໄາ ກ ັຍຘິໃຄ຋ໄາ ຋າງ຋ັຄນົ າ ງ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຎັຍ ຎໃ ຼ ຌ ນົື ກ າຌ຾ຎ຃ທາຓໝາງເໝໃ ຅າກ຃ າ ຘບຌຽຈີຓ຋ີໃ ຓີດ຾ ໃ ູ ຖທ ໄ ໃ ັ ກາໃ ທ ຍໃ ແຈຂ ຃າຘບຌຈຄ ຺ ກາຌ຃ຌ ຺ໄ ໄ ັຈຉໃ ຃ທາຓຘາຽຖັ ຈ ຾ຖະຏຌ ຃ທ ຺ ຘາຽຖັ ຈ ໄ າຂບຄຌ ັກທິ຋ະງາຘາຈຘະແໝເໝໃ ຋ີໃ ຽຎັ ຌກາຌຎະຘ ຺ຍຏຌ ເຌ຋າຄ຿ຖກ຾ຉຎ ໃ ະກາຌເຈ. ຽຊິຄ຾ຓຌທ ັ ຖຸ຃ທາຓ ໃ າໃ ຘີຌ຋ັຓ ຅ະຽຎັ ຌຘິໃ ຄ຅າຽຎັ ຌຉໃ ກາຌຍຌ ນົຸ ຈຑຌກ ຺ໄ ຉາຓ, ເຌ຿ຉຂບຄຓ ັຌຽບຄກງ ັຄຍໃ ຋ັຌຑຼຄຑຽ຋ືໃ ບ. ງ ັຄ຅ະຉບ ໄ ຄ ຎະກບຍຈທ ໄ ງຎັຌງາ. ຘີຌ ຾ຖະຎັຌງາ ຎຼຍຽໝືບຌຈທຄຉາ ຾ຖະຂາ ຂບຄ຃ ຺ຌ. ຘີຌ ຘາຓາຈກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈຽຎັຌຑານະຌະ ຋ີໃ ຅ະຌາຓະຌຸຈແຎຘູໃ ນ ຺ຌ຋າຄ຾ນຄ ຸ ຾຅ຉ ຺ທ຅ິຄ຋ີໃ ຅ະຽຎີ ຈຎະຉູຌຌັ ໄ ກ຃ືຉ ຺ທ ຺ໄ ຾ຉກ ໃ ກາຌນົຸ ຈຑຌ, ໃ ຌ ຎັຌງາ.

11


ຍຕ ຺ຓຘຸກ຾ນຄ ໃ ຘທຄຘະນທ ັຌ ຘາທ ກ ຺ ເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຍໃ ຽ຃ີ ງ ຊືຉ ຌ ຺ ຽບຄທ າ ໃ ຽຎັ ຌ ຏູໄ຋ໃ ີ ຆ ຄ຺ ຊື ກ ຽຖືບກຑຼຄຏູໄຈຼທ຋ີໃ ຅ະຓີ຿ບກາຈຽຂ຺ໄາຽຊິຄຍຕ ຺ຓຘຸກ຾ນໃຄຘທຄຘະນທ ັຌ. ຑທກຽຂ຺ າຽຆືໃ ບໝຌທ ັ ໄ າໃ ຓະຌຸຈ຋ຸກ຃ ຺ຌຘາໄ ຄຘະນທ ັຌ ຾ຖະຌະຕ ຺ກຈທ ໄ ງ ຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ ຉາຓທິ຋ີ຋າຄ ຾ນຄ ິ ຂບຄຉ ຺ຌ ຽຆິໃ ຄ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ ໃ ກາຌຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ເຌຌະຕ ຺ກ ຾ຖະກາຌປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄໄ ເຌ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຅າກຘທຄຘະນທ ັຌ ຘາຓາຈ ຘາຏຈ ັ ແຈເໄ ຌຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ັຌຆາຈຌີໄ ຾຋ຌກາຌຽຆືໃ ບຊື຾ຍຍ຋຺ໃ ທແຎທາໃ ຘະຑາຍ ຽຆັໃ ຌຌຌ຅ະຘາຓາຈຘ າຏ ັຈແຈເໄ ຌຆາຈຉໃ ແຎຑຸຌ ັໄ ໄ . ໃ ັ ກາໃ ທ, ຽຎັຌ຋ີໃ ປ ັຍປູໄ ຾ຖະຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ ຽຑືໃ ບຘບຈ຃ບ ໃ ຄຉໃ ຃າຘບຌຈຄ ໄ າຍເຈ຋ີໃ ຃ ຺ຌຌຌັ ໄ ກ ັຌທາໃ ຋ຸກ຃ ຺ຌຘາຓາຈຘາຏຈ ັ ກ ັຍ຃ທາຓຘຸກດາ ໃ ຄງິໃ ຄຌີຉ ຈາຽຌີຌຆີທິຈດູໃເຌ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ຊືກ ຉບ ໄ ຄ. ຘະນທ ັຌຍໃ ຾ຓຌຘິໃ ໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຅ະ຅ ັຍ຅ບຄ ນົື ຽຑືໃ ບຏູກຂາຈຈທ ັ ຋ິ ຌກ ິ າງຂບຄຏູຌ ໄ ງຖຈ ໄ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາເຈໜຶໃ ຄ. ຾ຉຓ ໃ ັຌ ຃ທຌ຅ະຽຎີ ຈກທ ິ ເຌ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ຎະຽຘີຈຌີ.ໄ ໄ າຄຉໃ ຋ຸກ຃ ຺ຌຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ

຃ທາຓບ ຺ຈ຋຺ຌບ ຺ຈກຌັໄ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ ຃ທາຓບ ຺ຈ຋຺ຌບ ຺ຈກຌ, ັ ໄ ຃ທາຓຑາກຑຼຌ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ ຽຎັ ຌຘີຌ ຋ັຓ ບ ຌ ັ ຘູຄ ຘໃ ຄ຺ ຋ີໃ ງ ກ ຺ ຘູຄ ຈ ທ ຺ ຌ ັຍຊືເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີ.ໄ ໄ ງຏູໄຽ ຃຺ າຖ ຍ ຃ທາຓຽຓຈຉາ, ຃ທາຓກະຕຸຌ າ, ຃ທາຓຓຸ຋ິຉ າຉໃ ຍຸກ ຃ ຌ ຺ ບືໃ ຌ ຍໃ ແຈ ຅ ໄ າ ກ ັຈຑຼຄ຾ຉຉ ັ ໄ ຾ຉ ໃງ ັຄ຾ຏໃແຑຘາຌແຎຘູຘ ັ ໃ ໃ ຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ ຽ຋຺ໃ າຌຌ ໃ ັຍຑະຘ ຈ ຋ັຄ ນົ າງ ເຌຂະຌະ຋ີໃ ກາຌ຋ າຖາງຆີ ທິ ຈ ຅ະຽຎັ ຌ ຉໃ ຓະຌຸ ຈ ນົື ຘ ຈ ັ

12


ຽຈງຕ ັຈຘາຌ ງບ ັ , ຾ຖະກຽຎັ ຌ ໃ ຓຽຎັ ຌກາຌຎໃາຽຊືໃ ບຌ ຾ຖະຍໃ ງຸຈຉິ຋ຓ ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຂ ັຈ຾ງຄໄ ຉໃ ຃າຘບຌເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີ.ໄ ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ງ ຄັ ຾ຌະຌ າຘໃຄັ ຘບຌຓະຌຸຈ ເນໄປ ຅ ູໄ ັກຽ຃຺ າ ຖ ຍ ຺ ຌ ັຍຊື

ຉໃ ຃ທາຓຽນັ ຌຂບຄ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌ ຽຑືໃ ບຽຎັຌກາຌຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ ດໃາຄຘະ

ໝາຌຘາຓກ຃ີ ັ .ີ

ທິຊຆ ີ ທ ີ ຈ ິ ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຾຅ຓ ຺ ຾ຖະ ໃ ຾຅ຄໄ ຾ຖະຓີຽນຈຏຌ ຘາຓາຈຉບຍ຃າຊາຓແຈດ ໄ ໃາຄ຃ ຺ຍຊທ ໄ ຌຘ ຺ຓຍູຌຉໃ ຋ຸກ຋ັຈຘະຌະ຋ີໃ ຘາ຃ ັຌ ຾ຖະຍຌ ັ ນາກຼໃ ທກ ັຍຆີທິຈ . ຽຎັ ຌ ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຓີຑືໄຌ ຊາຌໝຌ຃ ັ ໄ ຺ຄ ຋ີໃ ຅ະ ຆທ ິ ຋ ີ າຄຍທກ ຾ຖະ ທິຊຆ ີ ທ ີ ຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຈີກທ ໃ ງຽນົືບຓທຌຓະຌຸຈຆາຈຘູທ ໃ ຊ ໃ າຌີ.ໄ ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຍໃ ແຈ຅ ໄ າ຾ຌກຓທຌຓະຌຸຈບບກຽຎັຌກຸຓ ໃ , ທາໃ ຽຎັ ຌ ໄ ” ຾ຉງ ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ “ຊືກຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ” ນົື ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ “ຊືກຎະຊິຓ ໃ ບ ໄ ຌຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຘີ ທິແ ຖ ຾ຖະຽຂ຺ໄ າ ເ຅ ຅ິໃ ຄແຈ ຘ ູໄ ິ຋ີຐຶ ກ ຏູໄ຋ໃ ີ ຎໃ າ ຽຊືໃ ບຌ ໄ ບຌຑທກຽປ຺ າ ເນໄປ ທ ໄ . ຾ຖະຽ຅ງຖະແຌ ຏູ຋ ີ ໃ ຄຂື ິ ຌ ໄ ໃ ີຐຶກ຾ຖທ ໄ ເນຈ ໄ ງ ຏູ຋ ຺ າເຌກາຌບບ ໄ ໃ ີຌ ັຍຊືຉາຓຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຍໃ ແຈຓ ໄ ທຽຓ຺ ໄ ຌທບຌ ນົື ຂຑບຌ຾ຉຎ ັ ໄ າ຃ ັຌເຌ຃ທາຓຑາກ ໃ ະກາຌເຈ. ຾ຉຑ ໃ ທກຽຂ຺າ຅ະຽຆືໃ ບໝຌຘ ຑຼຌຂບຄຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ ຾ຖະເຌກາຌຐຶກຐຌ ຺ ຘະຓາ຋ິ ຋ໃ ີ ຑຼຄຑ ຋ີໃ ຅ະຌາຉຌ ຺ ແຎຘູກ ຺ ໃ າຌຽບ຺ າຆະຌະຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ, ກາຌ຃ທຍ຃ຸຓຉ ຺ຌຽບຄແຈ,ໄ ກາຌຐຶກຐຌ ຉ ຺ຌຽບຄເນຍ ຸ , ຍ ັຌຽ຋຺ າ຋ຸກ ຾ຖະຘູກ ໄ ຖິຘຈ ໃ າຌປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄໄ ຽຑາະທາໃ ກາຌຐຶກ ຘະຓາ຋ິຎຼຍຽໝືບຌ຋ັຄດາຆູກາຖ ັຄ຾ກ຅ ິ ຾ຖະເ຅. ໃ ຈ 13


ຓະຌຸຈຘາຓາຈຐຶກຐ຺ຌຉ ຺ຌຽບຄແຈ ໄ ໄ ື ຌ ດັຌ ທ າໃ ຅ິຈ ຾ຓ ຌ ຘາຘະໜາຌີດ ໃ ຍໃ ຽກີຈ ຑະຖ ຄັ ບ າຌາຈ຋ຸກ ດາໃ ຄ ຽຎັຌ຋ັຄຏູຘ ໄ າໄ ຄ ຾ຖະ຋າຖາງຓະຌຸຈ ຾ຖະຽຎັຌ຋ັຄຌ ັກທິຘະທະກບຌຏູໄ ກາໜ ຺ຈ຿ຆກຆະຉາຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ. ຈທ ໄ ງຽນຈຌີຽໄ ບຄ ຓະຌຸຈ຅ິໃ ຄຘ ຺ຓ຃ທຌ຋ີໃ ຅ະຘາໄ ຄ຋ຸກດາໃ ຄແຈ ໄ ຂຑຼຄ຾ຉຓ ິ ີ ຑຈ ັ ຋ະຌາ ຾ຖະຌາເຆ຅ ິ ຌີໄ ໃ ະຌຸຈປູທ ໄ ຋ ໄ ຈ ດາໃ ຄຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄຽໝາະຘ ຺ຓ. ເຌ຃ທາຓຽຎັ ຌ ຅ິຄ຾ຖທ ໄ ຘາຘະໝາຌີໄ ຽຎັ ຌຽໝື ບຌ຿຃ຓແຒ຋ີໃ ໜາໄ ຘ ັຌຖະຽຘີຌ ຋ີໃ ຽງືບຄ຋າຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈແຎຘູຘ ໃ ັຌຉິຑາຍ, ຃ທາຓຘຸກ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຏາຘຸກ ຌິຖ ຌ ັ ຈບຌ. ຓ ັຌຽຎັ ຌ ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ ຋ີໃ ທ ໃາ ຿ຖກຽປ຺ າ ຎັຈ ຅ຸຍ ຌ ັ ຌີໄ ກ າຖ ຄັ ຊືກ ກໃ ກທຌທຸຌ ໃ ທາງຈ ທ ໄ ງ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຽຂ຺ໄ າ ເ຅຋າຄຈ າໄ ຌ ໄ ຆາຈ, ກາຌຽຓືບຄ, ຘາຘະໜາ, ກຸຓ ຽຆືບ ໃ ຃ ຺ຌ ຾ຖະບຸຈ ຺ຓກາຌຍາຄດໃາຄ. ໄ ຽຑືໃ ບ຾ກແໄ ຂຍ ັຌນາ຋ີໃ ນງຸຄ ັ ຘ ຺ຌຌີ,ໄ ຓະຌຸຈ຅ະຉບ ໄ ງາກຘ ຍ ໄ ຄຓີຌາເ຅຾ນ ໃຄ ໄ ບາ຋ບຌ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓບ ຺ຈ຋຺ຌບ ຺ຈກຌຉ ຃ທາຓຽບືບ ັ ໄ ໃ ກ ັຌ ຾ຖະກ ັຌ, ຾ຖະຉໃ ຍຌ ັ ນາຌີໄ ຘາຓາຈຐຶ ກ ຐຌ ຺ ບຍ ຺ ປ ຺ຓເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຽຆິໃ ຄຘາຓາຈຎູກ ຐ ຄັ ກາຌປທ ໃ ຓຓື຋າຄຈາໄ ຌຘີຖະ຋ັຓ ຾ຖະ຅າຕິງະ຋ັຓ ຽຑືໃ ບ຃ທາຓຈີຄາຓຂບຄ ຘາກ ຺ຌ. ຓະຌຸຈ ຃ທຌ຅ະຽຂ຺ໄ າ ເ຅ຎະ຅ ັກ຾຅ ຄໄ ທາໃ ກາຌຑ ຈ ັ ຋ະຌາ຋າຄ ຈາໄ ຌ຅ິຈເ຅ ຘາ຃ ັຌງິໃຄກທ ຺ ຘາຽຖັ ຈຂບຄກາຌຑຈ ັ ຋ະຌາ຋າຄຈາໄ ຌ ໃ າຏຌ ທ ັຈຊຸຽຑືໃ ບ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຋ີໃ ຾຋຅ ໄ ຄິ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຏາຘຸກຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈຆາຈ. ໄ າງຽຎັຌ຿ຖກ຋ີໃ ໜາໄ ດູງ ໄ ກທ ຊາໄ ດາກເນ຿ ິ ຌ ໄ ຖກຌີກ ໃ ໃ ຄຂຶ ໃ າຌີໄ ຑທກຽຂ຺າ຃ທຌ ຅ະຎະຉິຍ ັຈຉາຓ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ, ຓີ຃ທາຓງຸຈຉິ຋ ັຓ, ກາຌຍຖິກາຌຽຑືໃ ບຌຓະ ຌຸຈ, ກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບຘ ຺ຄຽ຃າະ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓປ ັກ. 14


຃ທາຓຽຎັຌ຅ິຄ ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູຂບຄຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ແຈຆ ັ ຘະປູຂ ໄ ຺ຄຎະກາຈຏາ ໃ ຌກາຌຉຈ ໄ ບຄ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄທາໃ : 1. ຘີຖະ຋ັຓ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ ຉບ ໄ ຄ຾ຓຌຘີ ໃ ຖະ຋ັຓ຋ີໃ ແຈປ ໄ ັຍ຅າກກາຌ ຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ຃ທາຓປ ັກ຋ີໃຽຎັຌຘາກ ຺ຌ; 2. ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ ຾ຓຌ຃ທາຓຘຸ ກ ຋ີໃ ແຈປ ໃ ໄ ັຍ຅າກ຃ທາຓ ຘະນຄຍຑາງເຌ຅ິ ຈເ຅; ຺ 3. ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ຋ີໃ ຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ ຉບ ຄ຋ີໃ ແຈ຅ ໄ ຄ຾ຓຌ຃ທາຓ຅ິ ໃ ໄ າກ ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ເຌຽນຈ຾ນຄ ໃ ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ; 4. ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ ຉບ ຘບຌເນ຃ ໄ ຄ຾ຓຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ໃ ໄ ຺ຌ ຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາຘະຉິຎຌ ຸ ັ ງາ, ຘີຌ຋ັຓ ຾ຖະກາຌຽປັຈເນ຅ ິ ເ຅ຍຖິຘຈ ໄ ຈ ຏບ ໃ ຄເຘ; ໄ າຄຈາຽຌີຌ 5. ຎັຈຆະງາ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ ຉບ ໄ ຄ຾ຓຌຎັ ໃ ຈຆະງາ຋ີໃ ຆີ຋ ຆີທິຈ ຋ີໃ ຘາຓາຈຎະຉິຍຈ ັ ຉາຓແຈ຾ ໄ ຋ໄ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌ ບີຄບາເຘຑຼຄ຾ຉ຋ ຺ ໃ ິຈຘະຈີ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບຄຓຄທາງ.

ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃ທາຓບິຈຘະນົະ ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຍໃ ແຈກ ີ ກຌຏູ ັ ໄ ເໄ ຈ຅າກກາຌບາໃ ຌ ຾ຖະກາຌປຼຌ ໄ ຈ ປູ຃ ໄ າຘບຌເຌຘາຘະໜາບືໃ ຌ; ຽຑາະທາໃ ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຍໃ ຓີຍບ ໃ ຌເຈ຋ີໃ ຅ະ ຽຎັຌກາຌ຃ຄແ຃ ເໄ ຌຘາຘະໜາ. ຏູ຋ ັໄ ໄ ໃ ີຊືຽ຃ັໃ ຄ຅ ຺ຌຽກີຈແຎເຌຘາຘະໜາ ຅ະຍໃ ຎໃບງເນ຿ ັ ຽນຈຏຌ ຺ , ຈທ ັ ກາຌຘ ັຄຽກຈ ໄ ຉຽບຄຊືກ຾ຌະຌາຈທ ໄ ງນົ ກ ໄ ງນົ ກ 15


຾ຖະທິຽ຃າະ຋າຄທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ. ຈທ ໄ ງຽນຈຌີ,ໄ ຘາທ ຺ກເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຅ິໃ ຄ ຽຎັ ຌ຃ ຺ຌບິຈຘະນົ ະ຋ີໃ ຓີ຅ຈ ິ ເ຅ຽຎີ ຈກທ ໄ າຄ ຾ຖະກຍໃ ແຈຽໄ ຎັ ຌປບຄຉໃ ຏູໄເຈ ເຌກາຌຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ຅ິຈເ຅ຂບຄຉ ຺ຌ. ຊ ໄາ ຋ໃ າ ຌຘ ຌ ຺ ເ຅຋ີໃ ຅ະຘຶ ກ ຘາຉືໃ ຓບີ ກ ຾ຈ ໃ ຅ ັກໜໃ ບ ງກ ໃຼ ທກ ຍ ັ ຖະຍຼຍທິແຌ ນົື຅ະຕິງະ຋ັຓ ຾ຖະກາຌຐຶກບ ຺ຍປ ຺ຓ຅ິຈເ຅ເຌຘາຘະໜາ ຌີ,ໄ ຋ໃາ ຌກ ຅ະຽນັ ຌ ທ າໃ ຃ທຌ຅ະຎ຺ຈ ຽຎືໄ ບ ຄ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄ າ ເ຅ຏິ ຈ ຋ີໃ ຏໃາ ຌຓາ ຍາຄດໃາຄ ຋ີໃ ຋ໃາຌ຃ທຌ຅ະຽປັ ຈເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີ.ໄ ຍໃ ຃ທຌ຅ະຑິ ຑ າກຘາ ຃ຸຌ຃າໃ ຂບຄຘາຘະໜາເຈໜຶໃ ຄ ຑຼຄ຾ຉຏ ໃ າໃ ຌ຅າກກາຌຘ ັຄຽກຈກາຌ຅າກ ກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈເຈໜຶໃຄ ຋ີໃ ຽປັຈຓາ຿ຈງຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີຊືກ຾ຌະຌາເຌ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ຏິຈ; ຾຋ຌ ຋ີໃ ຃ທຌ຅ະຑະງາງາຓ ຋າ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ຑືໄຌຊາຌ຃າຘບຌຂບຄຘາຘະ ໜາຌຌກ ັໄ ບ ໃ ຌ.

ງບຓປ ັຍ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ ຾຋ຌ຋ີໃ ຅ະຎໃບງເນຓ ຺ ຖິຂິຈຂບຄຽຂ຺ າຉກ ຺ ດູໃຑາງ ໄ ະຌຸຈ ຾ຖະຑຓ ເຉ ໄບ າຌາຈ຃ທຍ຃ຸຓ ຂບຄບ າຌາຈ຋ີໃ ຍໃ ປູຽໄ ນັ ຌ ຑາງຌບກ ຾ຖະຽປັ ຈ ເນໄ ຓະຌຸຈບບ ັ ໄ ຘາຘະໜາຌີແໄ ຈງ ໃ ຌງບຓຉໃ ບາ ຌາຈງິໃ ຄເນງຽໃ ຆັໃ ຌຌຌ, ໄ ຺ກຊາຌະ ຍ ຺ຈຍາຈຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈຆາຈ ຾ຖະງ ຺ກຘູຄ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ ຉໃ ຃ທາຓຘະນົ າ ຈຂບຄຉ ຌ ຺ ຾ຖະງ ຄັ ຘບຌຓະຌຸຈ ເນໄ ຽ ຘີ ຓ ຘ ໄາ ຄ຃ທາຓ ຘາຓາຈຍໃ ຓ ຺ ຆບ ີ າຌຑ ຈ ັ ຋ະຌາຉືໃ ຓບີ ກ ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ໄ ຌ຋ີໃ ຓີດໃູ຾ ຖ ໄທ ເນໄຓ ກ ຘບຌຑທກຽປ຺າເນປ ູໄ ັກຆທ ຺ . ຏູໄ ໄ ຅ ໃ ງຽນົື ບ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌຈທ ໄ ງ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຽນັ ຌ຾ກຉ ໃ ທ ໄ ຅າກກາຌກະ຋າ຃ທາຓຆໃທ ຌ ັຍຊືຉາຓຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຅ະຄ ຺ຈຽທັຌ ຺ ຍໃ ຾ຓຌ ໃ ທາໃ ງບ ໄ ຌ຃ທາຓດາໄ ຌ຅າກກາຌຉບຍຘະໜບຄ຅າກບາຌາຈ຋ີໃ ຽຍິໃ ຄຍໃ ຽນັ ຌ 16


຾ຉ ໃງ ບ ຺ ຌຌ ັ ໄ ຅ະຌ າຓາຽຆິໃ ຄ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ ຾ກ ໃ ໄ ຌຎະ຅ ັກ຾຅ ຄໄ ທ າໃ ຃ທາຓຆໃ ທ ຘ ັຍຑະຘ ັຈ຋ັຄນົ າງ ຾ປຄຍຌ ັ ຈາຌເ຅ເຌກາຌຘາໄ ຄ຃ທາຓຈີຽຑືໃ ບຆທ ື ຍໃ ໃ ງຽນົືບຏູໄບໃ ຌ ຾ຓຌຽປັ ຺ ແຈ ໄ ໃ ຈຽຑືໃ ບຽບ຺ າບ ຺ກຽບ຺ າເ຅຾ກຽໃ ຋ຍຑະຽ຅຺າໄ ຏູຘ ໄ ຄູ ຘໃຄ຺ ຽຑືໃ ບນທ ັຄຏຌ ປ ັຍຉບຍ຾຋ຌ຾ຉດ ຶ ກະຖຸຌາຉໃ ຃ ຺ຌ ໃ າ ໃ ຄເຈ, ຾ຉງ ໃ ບ ໄ ຌຽກີຈ຅າກ຃ທາຓປູຘ ໄ ກ ບືໃ ຌ຾ຖະຽຑືໃ ບຎ຺ຈຎບ ກ. ັໄ ໃ ງຑທກຽຂ຺າຽ຅຺າໄ ຽນົໃ ຺ າຌຌບບກ຅າກ຃ທາຓ຋ຸ ເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຋າໃ ຌຘາຓາຈ຃ຌຽນັ ຌນ ຌ ຺ໄ ຺ ຋າຄຘູ຃ ໃ ທາຓຈີ຋ໃ ີຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ ຾ຖະ ຎັຌງາ຋ີໃ ຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບເຈໂ຅າກບາຌາຈຑາງຌບກ. ຋າ ັ ຖຸຽຊິຄຎັຌງາບ ັຌຘູຄຘໃ ຄ຺ ຏາ ໃ ຌຘາຓາຈຍຌ ໃ ຌກາຌປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄໄ (realization) ຾ຉຍ ໃ ໃ ຾ຓຌຏ ໃ ໃາຌກາຌຽຎີ ຈຽຏີ ງ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ(revelation). ຋ໃາຌຘາຓາຈແຈ ໄ ປ ັຍກາຌແຊຍ ໃ າຍ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ຅າກຏູແ ໄ ຊຍ ໃ າຍ຋ີໃ ຽຎັ ຌ ຍາຈນົ ທຄ(a vicarious redeemer). ຋າ ຺ໄ ບບກ຅າກ ໃ ຌຘາຓາຈນົຸ ຈຑຌ ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ ຑາງເຌຆາຈຌີໄ ຿ຈງຏໃາຌກາຌຎະຉິຍຈ ັ ຉາຓຂະຍທຌກາຌ ງຸຉິ຋ ັຓ຾ນຄ ໃ ກາຌຐຶກຐ ຺ຌບິຌຆີຂບຄຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຖ຃ບງ ໄ ແຈເໄ ຌຆາຈຉໃ ໂແຎຽ຋຺ໃ າຌຌ. ທາໃ ຓຌ຅ະຽກີ ຈຂືຌ ັ ັໄ

ຽຎັຌແຎແຈຍ ໄ ? 1. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຋ີໃ ຽກີຈ຅າກກາຓະຖ ຺ຓ ຆິງ ັຄຓີຆີທຈ ິ ດູໃ ແຈຍ ໄ ? 2. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບເຌ຃ທາຓຽຎັຌບະຓະຉະ(ຆີທຈ ິ ນົ ັຄ ຃ທາຓຉາງ) ຓະຌຸຈ຅ະຓີຘີຌຍ? 17


3. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ຅າກບາຌາຈຘິໃ ຄຘ ັກຘິຈຑາງ ຌບກ ຓະຌຸຈຘາຓາຈຓີ຃ທາຓກາໄ ທໜາໄ ເຌກາຌຘາໄ ຄ຃ທາຓຈີ ແຈຍ ໄ ? 4. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກຑິ຋ີກ ັຓ ຾ຖະຑິ຋ີກາຌ ຓະຌຸຈຘາຓາຈຈາຽຌີຌ ຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄແຈຍ ໄ ? 5. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຽຆືໃ ບຊືຈທ ໄ ງບາຕ ຺ຓ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ ຓະຌຸຈ຅ະຘາຓາຈຎະຉິຍ ັຈຘາຘະໜາແຈຍ ໄ ? 6. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ຋ີໃ ຽກີຈ຅າກກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈ຾ຍຍຽ຃ັໃຄ ຽ຃ັຈ(຾ຍຍຘຸຈ຿ຉຄໃ )ເຌຘາຘະໜາເຈໜຶໃ ຄ ຓະຌຸຈ຅ະຘາຓາຈ ຍ ັຌຖຸ຃ທາຓນົຸ ຈຑຌແຈ ຍ ຺ໄ ໄ ? 7. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈ຃ທາຓດາໄ ຌກ ຺ທຑາງເຌເ຅ ຓະຌຸຈ຅ະຌ ັຍຊືນົ ັກຘີຌ຋ັຓເຌຘາຘະໜາເຈໜຶໃ ຄຍ? 8. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍຂູຽໃ ຂັຌ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌ ຽປ຺າກງ ັຄ຅ະຘາຓາຈ ໃ ັ ຘບຌຘາຘະໜາດາໃ ຄຊືກຉບ ຘຄ ໄ ຄຽໝາະຘ ຺ຓຍ? 9. ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຽຆືໃ ບຊື຾ຍຍຄຓຄທາງ, ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບເຌ ຺ ຖ ັຈ຋ິ ເຌຌາຓຂບຄຘາຘະໜາ ຓຌຽຎັ ັ ຌແຎແຈຍ ໄ ຋ີໃ ຅ະຈຶຄຈູຈ ຽບ຺ າຓະນາຆ ຺ຌຽຑືໃບຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາຍ? 10. ຃ ຺ຌຽປ຺າຘາຓາຈຆືໃ ຌຆ ຺ຓ຾ຖະຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅ຘາຘະໜາເຈໜຶໃຄແຈຍ ໄ ຊາໄ ຎາຘະ຅າກ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບເຌຽຖືໃ ບຄຽຖິກຖ ັຍ, ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບຊືເຌ ຖ ັຈ຋ິຽທຈຓຌ຃າຊາ ຾ຖະຑຕະຘ ຺ຄ຋ີໃຓີຽທຈຓຌ? ຺ ຺

18


ໄ າໃ “ຽຎັຌແຈແໄ ຈ຾ ຏູກ ທ ັໄ ຺ ຌີໄ ຘາຓາຈຍ ັຌ ໄ ໃ ຉຄຘາຘະໜາຌີ ໄ ຋”ໄ , ຉໃ ກ ັຍຽນຈຏຌ ຖຸແຈ຅ ຸ , ຈທ ໄ າກກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈໜາໄ ຋ີ, ຈທ ໄ ງ຃ທາຓຍຖິຘຈ ໄ ງ຃ທາຓຓີຖະ ຍຼຍທິແຌ຾ຖະຎັຌງາ.

ຽນຈ຾ຖະຎັຈແ຅ ກາຌປູ຾ ັ ຂບຄຽນຈ ຾ຖະຏຌ ຺ ຋ີໃ ແຈບ ໄ ຅ຄໄ ເຌນົ ກ ໄ ະ຋ິຍາງເຌຘາ ຘະໜາຌີໄ, ຾຅ ຓ ັ ໃ ຾຅ ຄໄ ຾ຖະຘາຓາຈຆ ທ ໃ ງຽນົື ບ ເຌກາຌ຾ກ ແໄ ຂຍ ຌ ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ, ຃ທາຓຽຖິກຖ ັຍຂບຄ຿ຆກຆະຉາກ ັຓ ຾ຖະ ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຽຎັ ຌຖາຄຍບກຽນຈຖທ ໃ ຄໜາ ໄ ແທ຾ ໄ ຖທ ໄ , ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຘະຽໝີ ຑາຍ ຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ຋ັຄນົ າງ຋ັຄຎທຄ. ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ຉໃ ກ ຺ຈຽກຌຌີໄ ແຈຽໄ ປັຈ ເນຓ ໄ ະຌຸຈປູ຅ ໄ ັກກາຌຎບຍ຿ງຌ, ຓີ຃ທາຓນທ ັຄ, ກາຌປູ຅ ໄ ັກຽຑິໃຄຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ ຾ຖະຽຎັຌ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅຋າຄຈາໄ ຌຘີຖະ຋ັຓ.

ຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ັຌຘະແໝ ໄ ໃ ຾ຓ ຌ ຌີຍ ໃ ຽຎັ ຌ ຑຼຄ຋ິ ຈ ຘະຈີ ນົື ຘາຘະໜາ ຑຼຄຽຑືໃ ບຽຆືໃ ບຊື ຾ຉງ ີ າຄຂບຄກາຌຎະຉິຍຈ ັ ເຌກາຌຈາຽຌີຌຆີທິຈ຋ີໃ ຎະຽຘີຈ ໃ ັຄຽຎັຌທິຊ຋ ໄ ຓຌໜຶໃ ບີກຈທ ໄ ງ. ຌີ຾ ໃ ຄເຌຍ ັຌຈາຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃຽກ຺ໃ າ຾ກ຋ ໃ ໃ ີຘຸຈ ເຌຎະ ນທ ັຈ ຘາຈ຿ຖກ ຋ີໃ ຌາຓາຽຆິໃ ຄທ ັຈ຋ະຌະ຋ັຓ ຾ຖະຘະຑາຍກາຌຈາຖ ຺ຄຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຈີກ ທ ໃ າຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ ຆາຈ, ຌບກ຅າກຌີໄ ງ ຄັ ຽຎັ ຌ ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຋ັຌ ຘະແໝ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈເຌນົ າງ຋ັຈຘະຌະ, ຽຓືໃ ບ຅ະຎຼຍ຋ຼຍກ ັຍກາຌຎະຘ ຺ຍຏຌ ຺ ໃ ັ ຘບຌ ຘາຽຖັ ຈເຌກາຌ຃ຌ຃ ຺ໄ ທ ໄ າຘະແໝເໝ.ໃ ຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຾ຌະຌາຘຄ ຓະຌຸຈ ຍໃ ເນໄຉກ ຺ ຽຎັ ຌ຋າຈຂບຄບາຌາຈເຈໂ຋ີໃ ດູໃຑາງຌບກ ຾ຉ຃ ໃ ທຌ 19


຅ະຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈຍໃຓ ູ ຖທ ຺ ຆບ ໄ ຌ຋ີໃ ຓີດໃ຾ ໄ ຂບຄຉ ຺ຌ ຿ຈງກາຌຌາ ເຆ຃ ໄ ທາຓຑາກຑຼຌຑະງາງາຓຂບຄຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຘະນົ າຈຽຑືໃ ບ ຾ກແໄ ຂຍ ັຌນາຂບຄຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ. ຓຌຽຎັ ຸ ຖ ັກຘະຌະ຋ຸກດໃາຄ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ ັ ຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃ຌ ຾ນຄ ໃ ຽນຈຏ ຺ຌ ຋ີໃ ຅ະຽໝາະຘ ຺ຓຉໃ ກ ັຍ຿ຖກຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ັຌ຾ຖະບະຌາ຃ ຺ຈ. ຽຎັຌ ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຓີນົ ັກຽນຈຏ ຺ຌ, ກາໄ ທໜາໄ ຾ຖະຓີຽນຈຏ ຺ຌຈີ. ຽຎັຌ຃ທາຓຑູຓເ຅ ຂບຄ຋ຸກໂ຃ ຌ ຺ ຋ີໃ ແຈ ຘ ໄ ຶກຘາ ຾ຖະປ ັຍປູ຃ ໄ ຸຌ ຃າໃ ຘາຘະໜາຌີເໄ ຌ຿ຖກງຸກ ຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ັຌ. ຌບກຌີໄ ງ ັຄຊືທາໃ ຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຓີຖ ັກຘະຌະທິ ຋ະງາຘາຈ ງິໃ ຄກທ ໃ າທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ ຾ຖະງິໃ ຄກ າໄ ທໜໄາ ກທ ໃ າບ ຄ຺ ຎະກບຍຂບຄ຃ທາຓ ກ າໄ ທໜໄາ ຋າຄຈ າໄ ຌ຅ິຈ ເ຅. ຽຎັ ຌ ໜຶໃ ຄເຌທິ຋ີ຋ າຄ຋ີໃ ຓີຎ ະຘິຈ ຋ິ ຏ ຌ ຺ ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ ຽຑືໃ ບ຅ະຌາເຆ ຽໄ ຂ຺ໄາ ກ ັຍກາຌຈ າຖ ຄ຺ ແທ ຽໄ ຆິໃ ຄຘ ັຌຉິຑ າຍ຿ຖກ, ຃ທາຓຘາ ຓກ຃ີ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅. ັ

ຍໃ ຓີກາຌ຾ຍຄໃ ຾ງກ ຘາຘະໜາຌີຽໄ ບຄ ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌຘາຘະໜາ຋າບິຈເຌຎະນທ ັຈຘາຈຂບຄ ຿ຖກ ຋ີໃ ຎະຉິ ທ ຈ ັ ຉໃ ຉ ໄ າ ຌກ ຍ ັ ຖະຍ ຍ ຺ ຆຌ ຺ ຆ ຌທ ັໄ ຌ ັ ຌະ຋ີໃ ຉ າໃ ຉ ໄບ ງ ຾ຖະ ຘບຌ຃ທາຓຘະຽໝີຑາຍເຌຓທຌຓະຌຸຈຆາຈ ຾ຖະຽຎີ ຈ຿ບກາຈເນ຋ ຸ ໄ ກ ຃ ຺ຌຓີ຃ທາຓຘະຽໝີ ຑາຍຽ຋຺ໃ າ຋ຼຓກ ັຌຽຑືໃ ບເນກ ຺ ຽບຄເຌ຋ຸກໂຆຌ ັໄ ໄ ຼຈຉຌ ຃ ຺ຌເຌຘ ຄັ ຃ ຓ ຺ . ຾ຖະງ ຄັ ຾ຓ ຌ ໃ ຘາຘະໜາຌີຽໄ ບຄ຋ີໃ ເນ຃ ໄ ທາຓຽຎັ ຌ ບິຈ ຘະ ນົ ະ ຑາຍ຾຋ໄ຅ ຄ ູ ິ ຄ ຽຑືໃ ບຘຶກ ຘາ ຾ຖະຎະຉິ ຍ ຈ ິ ຾ກ ຏ ັ ຘາຘະໜາ ຋ີໃ ຘບຈ ໃ ໄງ ຃ບ ັ ໄ າບິຈເຌຎະນທ ັຈຘາຈ ໃ ຄກ ັຍ຃ທາຓຘະຽໝີຑາຍ຋າຄຘ ັຄ຃ ຺ຓຽຎັຌ຃ຄ຋ ຂບຄ຿ຖກ. 20


ຑຕະຍ ຕ ຓ ຺ ຃ູ ຎະກາຈທ າໃ ນ ຌ ຺ ຋າຄຘູໃ຃ ທາຓຘ າຽຖັ ຈ ຾ຖະ ຃ທາຓທ ັຈ຋ະຌະຊາທບຌ ຽຎີ ຈ ຿ບກາຈເນໄ຋ກ ຸ ຃ຌ ຺ ເຌ຋ຸກ ໂຘະຑາຍ ຽຄືໃ ບຌແຂເຌຆີທຈ ິ ຍໃ ທາໃ ຅ະຘູຄນົືຉາໃ , ຅ະຽຎັຌຌ ັກຍທຈນົືບາຈງາກບຌ, ຏູໄ຋ໃ ີ ຘ ຌ ຺ ເ຅, ຘະ຾ນທຄນາ ຾ຖະຎາຊະໜາຽຊິຄ ຃ທາຓຘ ຓ ຺ ຍູຌ ຾ຍຍ. ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຍໃ ແຈ ຍ ຺ ຽຎັ ຌ ຋າຈຉໃ ຃ າຘບຌຂບຄຑຕະບ ຄ຺ ໄ ຄັ ຃ ັຍຘາທ ຺ກ ເນໄຉກ ຾ຖະຉໃ ຑຕະບ ຺ຄຽບຄ ຾ຉເໃ ນ຿ ໄ ບກາຈ຾ກຑ ໃ ທກຽຂ຺າດໃາຄຓີບິຈ ຘະນົ ະຑາຍ ດາໃ ຄຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຋າຄຈາໄ ຌ຃ທາຓ຃ິຈ, ຃ທາຓຉຶກຉບຄ ຽຑືໃ ບກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈ຃ທາຓ ຽຆືໃ ບໝຌຘ ັ ໄ ັຈ຋າ.

຃ທາຓຽຎັຌບະຌິຈ຅ ັຄ ຍໃ ຓີຘ າຘະໜາເຈໂ຋ີໃ ຅ະ຅ າ຾ຌກຘ ຍ ັ ຑະຘ ຈ ັ ບບກຽຎັ ຌ ຘບຄ ຖ ັກຘະຌະ຃ື ປູຍ ຾ຖະຌາຓ(ທ ັຈຊຸ຾ຖະ຅ິຈເ຅) ຽຆິໃ ຄດູໃເຌຘະຑາຍຂບຄ ຃ທາຓຎໃ ຼ ຌ຾ຎຄດໃ າ ຄຽຌືໃ ບຄຌິຈ , ຍໃ ຃ ຄ຺ ຋ີໃ ຊາທບຌຽໝື ບ ຌຽຈີຓ ເຌຘບຄ ໄ ຾ຖະຽຘືໃ ບຓຘະນົ າງແຎ ຂະຌະ຋ີໃ ຉໃ ຽຌືໃ ບຄກ ັຌ. ຈທ ໄ ງຽນຈຌີໄ ຅ິໃ ຄຽກີຈຂືຌ ໃ ັ ກາໃ ທຌີກ ໄ ຘືຍຉໃ ແຎ. ຈຄ ໃ ັ ຌຌັ ໄ ຅ິໃ ຄຍໃ ຓີຘໃ ຄເຈຈ ຾ຖະທ ຺ຄ຅ບຌຈຄ າຖຄ຺ ດູໃດໃາຄ ິ ຅ີຕ ັຄ ຍໃ ຘະຽຑາະ຾ຉເໃ ຌ຿ຖກຌີໄ ນົື ຖ ະຍ ຍ ຺ ຿ຖກບືໃ ຌເຌ຋຺ໃ ທ ຅ ັກກະທາຌຌີ.ໄ ຽຑາະທາໃ ຋ຸກດໃາຄ຋ີໃ ຓີດເ ິ ໃູ ຌ຋ຸກໂຑາກຘທ ໃ ຌຂບຄ຅ ັກກະທາຌຌີໄຍໃ ຓີຘໃ ຄເຈ ຌບກ຅າກກາຌຎະກບຍຽຂ຺ໄາກ ັຌຂບຄ຋າຈ ຾ຖະຑະຖຄັ ຄາຌຉາໃ ຄໂ. ຓ ັຌ ໄ ໃ ທ ັຌເຈກທ ັຌໜຶໃຄ ຽຎັຌຖ ັກຘະຌະ຋ີໃຂບ ໄ ຌຂາໄ ຄຽຎັຌ຋າຓະຆາຈ຋ີໃ ຘິໃ ຄຽນົໃ ຺ າຌີຍ ໄ ແຎ. ຅ະຉບ ໄ ຄ຾ຉກຘະນົ າງ ຾ຖະຘ ັຄຂາຌ຋ັຄນົ າງກ຅ະຘິຌ

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຋າຈ຾຋ຂ ັ ຘີຌ຋ັຓ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ ໄ ບຄນົກ ຘີຌ຋ີໃ ແຈປ ຺ ຍ ັຌງ ັຈເຈໂ. ຿ຈງ ໄ ັກຘາເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຍໃ ຾ຓຌຍ ໃ ຈ ໄ ຅າກກາຌຂາໄ ຘ ັຈ, ຅າກກາຌຖ ັກຆ ັຍ, ຅າກ ກາຌຊືຘຌ ີ ຽຆັໃ ຌ ກາຌຄ ຺ຈຽທັຌ ກາຌຎະຑຶ ຈຏິ ຈ ເຌກາຓ, ກາຌຽທ຺ໄາ ຂີໄຉ ທ ຺ ະ ຾ຖະກາຌຽຘຍຘິໃ ຄຓຶຌ ຽຓ຺າ , ຓະຌຸຈ ຘາຓາຈຽປັ ຈ ເນໄຉ ຌ ຺ ຽບຄຍ ຖິ ຘ ຸຈ ຏໃບ ຄເຘ ຾ຖະຽຓືໃ ບ ຽປັ ຈ ຾ຌທຌີໄ ຾ຖທ ິ ດູໃດໃາຄຓີ຃ທາຓຏາ ໄ ງ ັຄຘາຓາຈຆທ ໃ ງຽນົື ບ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌ ເນຈ ໄ າຖ ຺ຄຆີທຈ ຘຸກບີກຈທ ໄ ງ.

຅ຸຈຎະຘ ຺ຄຂບຄຑທກຽປ຺າ ຅ຸຈຎະຘ ຺ຄເຌກາຌຑິຓຎືໄ ຓຌບ ບຎໃຼຌ຃ ຺ຌ ໄ ງໂຽນົັ ໄຓຌີໄ ຍໃ ຾ຓຌຽຑືໃ ໃ ບືໃ ຌເນໄນຌ ັ ຓາຌ ັຍຊືເຌ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບຂບຄຉຌ ຺ ຾ຉຽໃ ຑືໃ ບຽປັຈເນໄຽຂ຺ າຽ຅຺ໄາປູໄ ຾຅ຄຽຑືໃ ຸ ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຘຸກ ຾ຖະຽຑືໃ ບຎະຉິຍ ັຈຘາ ໄ ບຘະ຾ນທຄນາຘ ັຌຉິຘກ ຘະໜາຂບຄຑທກຽຂ຺າຉາຓ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບຊື຋ໃ ີຽຂ຺າຽ຅຺າໄ ຽຆືໃ ບຊືຘ ັຈ຋າດູໃ຾ຖທ ໄ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຌ ັຍຊືຘ ັຈ຋າ຾ຍຍຄຓຄທາງ. ຑທກຽປ຺າຘໃຄ຺ ຽຘີຓ຋ຸກ ຺ ຃ ຺ຌເນຌ ໄ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາຂບຄຉ ຺ຌດາໃ ຄຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ ຊາໄ ນາກທາໃ ຑ຋ີໃ ຅ະຘາຓາຈ ເນໄຘ ຈ ັ ຅ະ຋ັຓ , ຘ ຌ ັ ຉິ ຘ ຸກ , ຎັຌ ງາ ຾ຖະກາຌນົຸ ຈຑ ຌ ຺ໄ ບບກ຅າກ຃ທາ ຓ຋ຸກແຈ.ໄ ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຑທກຽປ຺າຉບ ໄ ຄກາຌຘາຖ ັຍຓະຌຸຈ ກ຃ືທາໃ ດາກເນຈ ໄ າຽຌີຌ ຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ ເຌ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ ຿ຈງຎາຘະ຅າກກາຌຽປັຈເນກ ໄ ຼຈຘ ັກຘີ ເຌ຃ທາຓຽຎັຌຓະຌຸຈຂບຄຉ ຺ຌຽຘືໃບຓຽຘງ. ຾ຉຽໃ ຊິຄດໃາຄເຈກຉາຓ, ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ບາຈ຅ະຽຎັ ຌ຃າຉບຍຉໃ ຃າຊາຓເຌຘາຘະໜາຂບຄ຋າໃ ຌ, ຉໃ ຍ ັຌນາ຋າຄ຅ິຈເ຅ ຾ຖະຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ 22


ນົື ຍ າຄ຋ີ ຓ ັຌບາຈ຅ະຽຎັ ຌ ຋ິ ຈ ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ເໝໃບ ຼໃ ຓຉໃ ກາຌ຃ ຌ຃ິ ຺ໄ ຈ ເຌຍ ຌ ັ ນາ ຂບຄ຋າ ໃ ຌກຼໃ ທກ ັຍ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ ຾ຖະຎັຈຆະງາກຽຎັ ຌແຈ.ໄ ຾ຖະບາຈ ຅ະຘາຓາຈຆທ ີ ີທຈ ິ ຾ຖະຓຖະຈ ຺ກ຋າຄຈາໄ ຌທ ັຈ຋ະ ໃ ງເນຽໄ ຂ຺ໄາເ຅ເຌທິຊຆ ໄ ໄ ຋ ຌະ຋າເຌບາຆີ.຋າໃ ຌບາຈຘາຓາຈ຃ຌຑ ຆ ຺ໄ ຺ຍເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີເຌຂ ີ ິຈ຾ນຄໃ ຅ິຈທິຌງາຌ຾ຖະ຋ັຄຽຎັຌ຃ທາຓຉບ ໄ ຄກາຌ຋າຄ຿ຖກຘະແໝເໝຌ ໃ ີໄ ໄ ບ ັຌເໝ຾ ຘາຘະໜາຌີໄແຈຌ ໄ າຽບ຺ າ຃ທາຓຓີຌາເ຅ ໃ ກ຿ໃ ຖກ, ຃ທາຓ ນທ ັຄເໝ,ໃ ຽຘັ ໄຌ຋າຄຘາງເໝ,ໃ ຾ຖະຘ ັຈ຅ະ຋ັຓ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ຋ີໃ ຅າຽຎັຌ຋ີໃ ຽນັ ຌ ໃ ັ ຽຓືໃ ບກບ ຾ຖະຘາຏ ັຈແຈເໄ ຌຎັຈ຅ຸຍ ັຌຽໝືບຌຈຄ ໃ ຌ. ຽຊິຄ ຾ຓ ຌ ໃ ທ າໃ ບາຈ຅ະ຾ຓ ຌ ໃ ຃ທາຓຎະຘ ຄ຺ ຂບຄ຋ໃາ ຌດູໃ຾ ຖ ທ ໄ , ຑທກຽປ຺ າຂ ຽຆີຌຆທຌ຋ໃາຌເນໄນຌ ັ ຓາຽຍິໃ ຄດໃາຄຖະບຼຈເຌຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ຾ຖະບຸຈ ຺ຓກາຌຂບຄຏູກ ັ ໄ ຑທກຽປ຺າຑໄບຓ຋ີໃ ຅ະຆທ ໄ ໃ ຉຄ. ໃ ງຽນົືບ຋າໃ ຌ. ບ ຺ຄ ກາຌຂບຄຑທກຽປ຺າ ຅ະ຾ຌະຌາ຋າໃ ຌເຌກາຌບາໃ ຌ ຾ຖະຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ຋າໃ ຌ ເນຽໄ ຂ຺ໄາຽຊິຄ຾ນົ ຄ ໃ ກາຌບາໃ ຌ຋ີໃ ຘາຓາຈຽຆືໃ ບຊືແຈ.ໄ ໄ ຃ື “ຑຸຈ຋ະ ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ງິໃ ຄເນງ຋ ໃ ໃ ີຑທກຽປ຺າກາໃ ທຽຊິຄເຌຎຶໄ ຓຌບ ໄ ງໂຌີກ ຘາຘະໜາ” ຾ຖະຏູຽໄ ຎັຌຑຕະຘາຘະຈາຂບຄຘາຘະໜາຌີໄ ກຍໃ ຾ຓຌເຏ ໃ ບືໃ ຌແກ ຌບກຽຘງ຅າກ “຿຃ຉະຓະຑຸຈ຋ະຽ຅຺າໄ ”.

ໄ ຅າກ຃ທາຓບະ຃ະຉິ຋າຄ ຅ຄໃ ຺ ຈາຖ຺ຄຉ຺ຌດູໃຈທ ໄ ງ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຖາບຼຄ, ນົີກຽທັຌ ຘາຘະໜາ, ຽຑືໃ ບຑະງາງາຓຘະ຾ນທຄນາຘ ັຈ຅ະ຋ັຓ.

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WHAT IS THIS RELIGION ? By Ven. Dr K Sri Dhammananda MESSAGE FOR ALL Every man must have a religion and that religion must be one which will appeal to the intellectual mind. A man failing to observe religious principles, becomes a danger to society. There is no doubt that scientist and psychologists have widened our horizon but they have not been able to tell us our purpose in life. A proper religion can do this. Man must therefore choose a rational and meaningful religion according to his conviction without depending on mere beliefs, traditions, customs and theories. No one has the right to force another person to accept any religion. No one should exploit poverty, illiteracy or arouse human emotional feelings to induce others to accept a religion. Religion should be a free choice. Man should be free to choose his own religion according to his liking and intellectual capacity. To follow a religion blindly without any understanding, would deprive the religion of its spiritual value and the follower of his human dignity. Human beings have intelligence and common sense to differentiate what is right and wrong. They can adapt themselves according to circumstances. They should therefore choose a religion that is adaptable to them 24


and one that meets with their human intelligence. They must be properly guided. Give them a chance to decide freely without any undue coercion. THE MIDDLE-WAY The religion that is being introduced in this booklet is a practical educational system for mental culture which was revealed to the world some twenty five centuries ago, by a most enlightened and compassionate Teacher. This religion is also known as the “MIDDLE-WAY, righteous way of life, ethico-philosophical system and a religion of freedom and reason.” It teaches us to do three main things: namely, “KEEP AWAY FROM BAD DEEDS, DO GOOD AND PURIFY THE MIND.” This message is very simple, meaningful and practical, yet people experience difficulties when they put them into practice due to inherent human weaknesses. The moral conduct of man plays a most important part in this religion. Its great Teacher once said, “My teaching is not to come and believe, but to come, see and practise.” It encourages people to study His teachings fully and allows them to use their own judgment to decide as to whether they should accept the teachings or otherwise. No one is asked to come and embrace this religion blindly without first having an understanding of its teachings.

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Superfluous rites and rituals have no real religious value or significance. There are no superstitious beliefs and practices or secret doctrines in this religion. Everything is open to the choice of the followers who are at liberty to investigate the teachings and ask questions whenever they want to clear their doubts. According to the founder of this religion, one should not believe anything merely because a great sage has introduced it or because it is traditionally accepted by many but one should use one’s common sense and intelligence and accept it only if it is worthwhile to do so. This religion teaches that the Noble Eight-fold Path which consists of Right Understanding, Right-thought, Right-speech, Right-action, Right-livelihood, Right-effort, Right-mindfulness and Right-concentration is the unique middle way to lead a noble life and allow others also to lead a peaceful life. The middle way is neither a metaphysical path nor a ritualistic path; neither dogmatism nor skepticism, neither self-indulgence nor self mortification; neither eternalism nor nihilism, neither pessimism nor optimism; it is a path of Enlightenment, a means of deliverance from suffering. This religion does not agree that human beings are suffering in this world today because of the sins committed by their ancestors; on the contrary every person carries his or her own merits or demerits individually. Man himself is solely responsible for his own pain or pleasure.

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One who follows the middle path or moderation should find real peace and happiness and should be able to lead a respectable life without being a slave to one’s senses, thus contributing to the peace and harmony of the world. REAP WHAT YOU SOW This religion satisfies man’s most profound and lofty aspirations and yet is able to bear the stress and strain of man’s everyday life, helping him in his contact with his fellow men, besides giving a purpose in life. It does not instill fear in people. “Good begets good and bad begets bad”. “Every action has its reaction.” These are universal laws. This religion fully agrees with these laws, hence people have to ‘reap what they sow’. Evil deeds are perpetrated by people due to their greed, anger and ignorance. Such weaknesses can only be overcome through self realization. Pleasure and pain which people experienced in this world are not due to some external influences but due to the good and bad actions, words and deeds which they themselves have committed. For this very reason, this religion says: ‘We are the results of what we were, and we will be the results of what we are.’ According to this teaching, cause and effect play a very important part in our lives. In a circle of cause and effect a first cause is inconceivable for cause ever becomes the effect and the effect in turn becomes the cause. 27


A GREAT TEACHER The founder of this unique religion is not a myth but a Great Teacher who really lived in this world. He never tried to introduce himself as a supernatural being but as a human being who realized the truth, the secret of life and the real cause of suffering and happiness. Today this Teacher is not only honoured by hundreds of millions of his followers but also by every cultured and intellectual man throughout the world. This Noble man, this Liberator, this Social Reformer, this Democrat and Inspirer into higher living, passed away at the age of eighty leaving behind a noble code for humanity to utilize as a means for the elimination of human suffering, misery, tension, fear and worry, consequently gaining happiness in this life and the life hereafter leading to ultimate liberation of all human suffering. This Great Teacher comforted the bereaved by His consoling words. He helped the poor that were neglected. He ennobled the lives of the deluded and purified the corrupted lives of criminals. He encouraged the feeble, united the divided, enlightened the ignorant, clarified the mystic, elevated the base and dignified the noble. Both rich and poor, saints and criminals loved Him alike. Despotic and righteous Kings, famous and obscure princes and nobles, generous and stingy millionaires, haughty and humble scholars, destitutes, paupers, down trodden scavengers, wicked murderers, despised courtesans – all benefited to 28


lead a peaceful noble life by His words of wisdom and compassion. His noble example was a source of inspiration to all. His serene and peaceful countenance was indeed a soothing sight to the pious eyes. His message of peace and tolerance was welcome by all with indescribable joy and was of eternal benefit to everyone who had the fortune to hear and practise it. His iron will, profound wisdom, universal love, boundless compassion, selfless service, historic renunciation, perfect purity, magnetic personality, exemplary methods employed to introduce His Teachings and His final success – all these factors have inspired about one fifth of the population of the world today to hail this teacher and to honour him as their supreme religious master. This noble Teacher sacrificed his worldly pleasures for the sake of suffering humanity to seek the Truth in order to show the path of deliverance from suffering. He visited the poor people whilst Kings and Ministers visited him. For forty five years after his enlightenment he had dedicated his life for enlightening misguided human beings. This great Teacher feared none nor did He instill fear in anyone. This is one of the principles that should be cultivated in this war-torn world of ours where the most precious thing – life – is sacrificed at the altar of brute force and where armaments are creating fear, tension and hatred. 29


He was the perfect scientist in the field of life. He was the perfect psychologist who was able to analyse the real nature of the mind – so much so that His teaching was acclaimed as the only scientific religion. To great philosophers and unbiased thinkers, he is a teacher who understood worldly conditions in its proper perspective. To moralists He has the highest code of discipline and He is the symbol of perfection. ‘He was the perfect model of all the virtues he preached’. To rationalists, he is the most liberal minded religious teacher who appreciated the vexed human problems. To free-thinkers, He is a religious teacher who encouraged people to think freely without depending on religious dogmas. To agnostics, he is a very kind, understanding and wise man. He was no doubt the most persuasive of all the religious Teachers. He never used compulsion or fear as a means of gaining converts. He has introduced a religious way of life for people to be religious even without the attachment of a religious label. He was the humble servant of humanity, unperturbed by either praise or blame, and undeterred even by the most acute illness. PEACE, HAPPINESS AND SALVATION

This Great Teacher has shown the path to Peace, 30


Happiness and Salvation. His way of teaching is liberal, rational, scientific and understandable, leading towards enlightenment. Today the message of peace of this Great Universal Teacher is more important than ever before when human beings are intoxicated with anger, greed, jealousy, pride and world domination. This Teacher was born to this world to dispel the darkness of ignorance and to save the world from its ills. Throughout the world many people lived on without believing or practicing any form of religion. However, if they would only take a little bit of trouble to study and understand what this Great Teacher had taught, they could easily clarify their doubts, if any, and be convinced as to the religion that could best contribute to man’s happiness. Whether one believes in Him or not, his teaching nevertheless has its effect on all people. His message was given to the world without any violence nor was a single drop of blood ever shed in its name. This is a remarkable record in world history which could be imprinted in letters of gold. This teaching illuminates the way by which mankind could cross from a world of unsatisfactoriness to a new world of light, love, peace, happiness and satisfaction. The twenty five centuries old teaching of this great teacher is strong enough to face any challenge without reversing or giving any new interpretation to its original teaching. 31


This teaching does not contradict the achievements and discoveries of modern scientists which are worldly achievements. Although virtue is necessary for the attainment of salvation, it in itself would not be sufficient. It must be combined with wisdom. Virtue and wisdom could also be compared to the eyes and feet of a man. Virtue can be constituted as a vehicle that brings man up to the gate of salvation, but the actual key that opens the gate is wisdom. HEAVENLY BLISS The followers of this religion never regard themselves as being the only chosen people who could get the chance to attain heavenly bliss. They believe that man creates his own hell or heaven according to his own way of life and that suffering in hell or realization of heavenly bliss can be experienced in this earthly life instead of the common belief that such conditions could be experienced only in the life hereafter. In accordance with these teachings, it is understood that anyone can enjoy heavenly bliss so long as one leads a righteous way of life. Heaven is not reserved for or to be monopolized by any one particular sect of religious community. It should be open to all – anyone who leads a noble life. 32


TOLERANCE AND UNDERSTANDING Tolerance, patience and understanding are worthy virtues upheld by the followers of this religion. Loving kindness, compassion and sympathy towards others are not limited to human beings only but extended to all living beings – as destruction of life, be it human or animal, is cruel and unjust, and is against the teaching of this religion. This religion also advises people to respect the other man’s views in order to lead a harmonious life. WAY OF LIFE This religion is clear and reasonable and it gives complete answers to all important aspects and questions about our life. It provides a solid foundation to help mankind towards a positive and a better way of life. This religion does not divide mankind into groups, the “saved” and the “lost” but as a civilized and understanding religion it teaches us how to tame the wild and refine the tamed. Followers of this religion do not indulge in petitional or intercessory prayer. They believe in the importance of selfexertion and in the efficacy of meditation that leads one to self conquest, self-control, self purification, relief and enlightenment because meditation serves as a tonic both to the heart and the mind. 33


MAN CAN MOULD HIS LIFE This religion contends that mind is the all powerful force – the creator and destroyer of man and the architect of man’s fate. Therefore, man should be capable of moulding anything if he only knows how to develop and make use of this mind properly. In fact this religion has been an admirable lighthouse for guiding mankind towards peace, happiness, and eternal bliss. It is true that the world today is riddled with racial, political, religious, communal, and ideological misunderstandings. To solve these complex problems, people must exercise the spirit of benevolence and tolerance towards each other, and this can be cultivated under the guidance of this religion, which inculcates ethical-moral co-operation for the universal good. Man must come to realize that spiritual development is more important than the attainment of material development for the real happiness and welfare of mankind. They must also practise truth, justice, service, charity and love if this world is to be turned into a better place to live in. ACTUALITY This religious teacher through his enlightenment, declared that:(1) The greatest virtue is the virtue gained in the cultivation of universal love; 34


(2) The supreme happiness is the happiness derived from mental tranquility; (3) The absolute truth is the truth acquired through the understanding of the causes of human suffering; (4) The highest religion is the religion that teaches intellectual development, morality and mental purification; (5) The greatest philosophy is the philosophy that introduces a practical way of life that can be followed without depending on theories and mere beliefs. FREE RELIGION This religion does not obstruct anyone from reading and learning the teachings of other religions; because there is no place for fanaticism in this religion. A fanatic cannot allow himself to be guided by reason or better still by the scientific principle of observation and analysis. Therefore, the follower of this religion is a free man with an open mind and is not subservient to anyone for his spiritual development. If you would care to learn a little more of the religious discipline or moral code of ethics and mental training of this religion, you will find that you would have to withdraw any previous misunderstandings you would have had about this religion. One should not merely judge the value of a religion by just observing certain practices performed by some

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misguided followers; instead one should always try to understand the fundamental teachings of that religion. CREDIT TO MAN’S INTELLIGENCE Instead of placing man and his destiny under the arbitrary control of an unknown external agency and making him subservient to such a supreme power, this religion raised the status of mankind and accorded man the credit due to him for his intelligence and also taught him how to cultivate this submerged human potential. This religion teaches us how to render selfless service to others. Followers of this religion abstain from evil not because of fear of retribution from some unseen being but because of realization that evil would bring about suffering to living beings. Their motive of doing good to help others is not to please any supreme being in expectation of a reward, but due to feelings of compassion towards others and to release them from their sufferings. Here in this religion you can find the way to perfect goodness and wisdom without any aid from any external power. You can achieve the highest wisdom through realization but not necessarily through ‘revelation’. You can attain redemption without the assistance of a vicarious redeemer. You can gain salvation within this life-time by the 36


judicious exercise of your own faculties without waiting for it to happen only in the life hereafter. IS IT POSSIBLE? 1. Without sensuous pleasures would life be endurable? 2. Without belief in immortality (life after death) can man be moral? 3. Without any aid from external agency can man advance towards righteousness? 4. Without rites and rituals can man lead a religious life? Without emotional faiths and beliefs can man practise a religion? 5. Without suffering through certain religious penances can man attain his liberation? 6. Without creating fear in the mind can man follow certain religious principles? 7. Without using force and threatening others can we introduce a proper religion? 8. Without superstitious beliefs and dogmatic ideas in the name of religion is it possible to convince the masses to lead a religious life? 9. Can a man appreciate and inspire a religion without mysticism, occultism and priest craft? “Yes�, said the founder of this religion, these ends could be attained by service, by purity, discipline and wisdom.

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CAUSE AND EFFECT The realization of the law of cause and effect as explained in this religion, clarifies and help to solve the problems of human suffering, the mystery of fate and predestination, and above all the inequality of mankind. Understanding of this law gives them consolation, hope, self-reliance and moral courage. MODERN RELIGION This is not a theory or a religion just to believe but a practical and noble way of life. This is one of the oldest religions in history that brought culture and betterment to mankind, yet most modern in every respect, when compared with modern achievements. It advises one not to become a slave to any external power but to cultivate one’s own hidden potentialities using one’s own effort and intelligence to resolve one’s problems. It has every quality required of a rational religion that will fit into the present and future world. It is rational, progressive and reasonable. It will be a pride for anyone to study and realize the value of this religion in the modern world. It is acknowledged to be more scientific than science and more progressive than all the progressive elements in the spiritual field. It is one of the most effective means to be utilised for the maintenance of world peace, harmony and understanding. 38


NO DISCRIMINATION It was this religion which for the first time in the history of the world that revolted against the degrading caste system and taught equality in mankind and accorded equal opportunities for all to distinguish themselves in every walk of life. It was also this religion that gave real freedom to the women to study and practise a religion that accorded social equalities for the first time in the history of the world. The Great Teacher declared that the gates to success and prosperity were open to all in every condition of life whether high or low, saint or criminal, who would care, seek and aspire for perfection. He did not force his followers to be slaves either to himself or his teachings but granted them complete freedom of thought and investigation for gaining confidence. IMPERMANENCE This religion classified the living being into mind and matter which are in a state of constant change, not remaining the same for two consecutive moments. Thus they arise and perish and the cycle goes on. Therefore nothing will remain permanently either in this world or in any other world system throughout the universe. Because everything which exists in any part of the universe is nothing but combination of elements and energies. It is quite natural that these things one day disintegrate and the formations disappear. 39


THE NATURE OF THE RELIGIOUS PRINCIPLES The principles observed by this religion are not commandments. By observing the precepts such as abstaining from Killing, Stealing, Sexual Misconduct, Telling Lies and Taking Intoxicating Drinks, they could purify themselves and in so doing help others to live peacefully.

OUR AIM Our aim in publishing this booklet is not to convert others into our faith but to enlighten them to seek peace and happiness and to practise their religion according to their own convictions without resorting to blind faith. We encourage every person to practise his own religion properly if he could really find truth, peace, happiness, wisdom and salvation in it. What we want is for man to lead a respectable religious life without abusing his human dignity. However, this religion may be the answer to may of your religious, spiritual and human problems or it may give fresh direction to your thinking on religious and philosophical matters. It may also help you to understand the way of life and cultural heritage of Asia. You may find in this religion the spiritual guidance the modern world needs.

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This religion brought into the world a new spirit, a new hope, a new path, the truth of which and the necessity of which is seen and felt today as of old. Whatever may be your purpose, we invite you to take a closer look at this religion and ideals of the founder. We are ready to help you. Our organization will guide you in your reading and assist you to obtain reliable reading material. The great religion referred to in this booklet is “BUDDHISM” and the founder of this religion is none other than “GOTAMA THE BUDDHA”. BE UNBIASED, AVOID RELIGIOUS PREJUDICES, TRY TO FIND THE TRUTH.

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Glossary: ຃າຘ ັຍເຌຎຶໄ ຓຽນົັໄຓຌີ:ໄ ໄ ຘະຽຑາະ຃ທາຓໝາງກຼໃ ທກ ັຍ຋ັຓຓະ ຽຑືໃ ບເນຏ ຃າຘ ັຍ຋ີໃຽບ຺າຓາຖ ຺ຄເຌຌີໄ ຅ະແຈຽໄ ຌັຌ ໄ ຘ ໄູ ຺ຌເ຅ຘຶກ ຘາ຃າຘ ັຍ຋ັຓຓະແຈປ ໄ ຼຌປູຽໄ ບ຺າແທ ໄ

຾ຖະ຃າຘ ັຍຽນົໃ ຺ າຌີໄ

ຘທ ໃ ຌເນງ຾ ໃ ຓຌຓີ ໃ ຃ທາຓໝາງ຾ຎຘະ

ຽຑາະເຌຎຶໄ ຓຽນົັໄຓຌີຽໄ ຋຺ໃ າຌຌັໄ ຘະຌຌັໄ ຊາໄ ຽນັຌເຌຍບ ໃ ຌບືໃ ຌບາຈ຅ະ຾ຎ຃ທາຓໝາງແຎຉາໃ ຄ຅າກຌີ.ໄ

Abbreviations: ຃ານງໄ adj: adjective

຃າ຃ຸຌຌາຓ

adv: adverb

຃າກາຓະທິຽຘຈ

n:

຃າຌາຓ

noun

prep: preposition

຃າຍຸຍຑະຍ ຺ຈ

v:

຃າກາຓະ

verb

A absolute (adj)ດາໃ ຄຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ absolute happiness (n)ຓີ຃ທາຓຘຸກດາໃ ຄ຾຋຅ ໄ ຄິ , ຓີ຃ທາຓຘຸກດາໃ ຄຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ absolute truth(n) ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ຋ີໃ ຘຸຈ, ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ຾຋,ໄ ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ຋ີໃ ຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ acquire(v) ແຈຓ ໄ າ adaptable (adj) ຘາຓາຈຎັຍຉ ຺ທແຈ,ໄ ຘາຓາຈຈ ັຈ຾ຎຄແຈ,ໄ ຘາຓາຈ຾ກແຂແຈ ໄ ໄ accept(v) ງບຓປ ັຍ, ປ ັຍຽບ຺າ accord (v) ຘບຈ຃ບ ໃ ຄ, according to (prep) ບີຄຉາຓ actuality (n) ຃ທາຓຽຎັຌ຅ິຄ acute illness(n) ບາກາຌຎໃທງຂຌຘານ ັໄ ັຈ, ບາກາຌຎໃທງຂຌຆບຓເ຅ ັໄ adapt (v)ຎັຍຎຼໃ ຌ, ຎັຍຉ ຺ທ admirable (a) ດາໃ ຄໜາໄ ຘ ັຌຖະຽຘີຌ, ໜາໄ ຘ ັຌຖະຽຘີຌ agnostics (n) ຃ ຺ຌຍໃ ຌ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາເຈ, ຃ ຺ຌຍໃ ຽຆືໃ ບທາໃ ຑຕະຽ຅຺າໄ ຓີ຅ຄິ aim (n) ຽຎ຺ໄາໝາງ, ຅ຸຈຎະຘ ຺ຄ

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altar (n) ປາໄ ຌຑຕະ, ຾຋ຌ ໃ altar of brute force (n) ຍບ ໃ ຌປ ັຍຘາຘະໜາ຾ຍຍຂູຽໃ ຂັຌ, ຾ຍຍຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍເນຌ ໄ ັຍຊື analysis (n) ກາຌທິຽ຃າະ anger (n) ຃ທາຓດາກປາໄ ຌ, ຃ທາຓ຿ກຈ appeal (v) ທິໃ ຄທບຌ, ປບ ໄ ຄຂ, ຈຶຄຈູຈ appreciate (v) ຆືໃ ຌຆ ຺ຓ, ງິຌຈີ arbitrary (adj) ຾ຍຍຘຄ຺ໃ ຽຈຈ, ຾ຍຍຍໃ ຓີກ ຺ຈຍໃ ຓີຽກຌ, ຉາຓຑະຖະກາຌ, ຉາຓບາຽຑີເ຅ arbitrary control (n) ກາຌ຃ທຍ຃ຸຓ຿ຈງຑະຖະກາຌ, ກາຌ຃ທາຓ຃ຸຓ຾ຍຍຘໃຄ຺ ຽຈຈ architect of man’s fate (n) ຘະຊາຎັຈຉະງະກ ັຓ຾ນຄໃ ຿ຆກຆະຉາຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ armament (n) ບາທຸຈຘ ຺ຄ຃າຓ, ກາຌຘ ຺ຄ຃າຓ arouse (v) ກະຉຸຌ ີ າຖ ັຄເ຅ ໄ , ຉຸກຽຉືບຌເ຅, ຽປັຈເນຓ ໄ ກ assistance (n) ກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ, ກາຌບຸຓ ໄ ຆູ attachment (n) ກາຌດຶຈໝຌຊື ັໄ ໝຌ, ັໄ ບຸຎາ຋າຌ attain (v) ຍ ັຌຖຸ, ແຈປ ໄ ັຍ attainment (n) ກາຌແຈຍ ັ ຂຌຘູ ັໄ ຄ, ກາຌຍ ັຌຖຸຽຎ຺ໄາໝາງ ໄ ັຌຖຸ຋ຓ attainment of material development (n) ກາຌຍ ັຈຖຸຽຊິຄ຃ທາຓຘິທແ ິ ຖ attainment of salvation (n) ກາຌຍ ັຌຖຸຽຊິຄ຃ທາຓນົຸຈຑຌ ຺ໄ

B belief (n) ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ, ກາຌຽຆືໃ ບຊືຘາຘະໜາ benevolence (n) ບ ັຈຊະ຅ະຕິງາ, ກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ຃ ຺ຌຘທ ໃ ຌເນງ ໃ betterment (n) ຃ທາຓກາໄ ທໜາໄ , ກາຌຽປັຈເນຈ ີ ຌ ືໄ , ກາຌງ ຺ກ຃ຸຌຌະຑາຍ ໄ ຂ blindly (adv) ດາໃ ຄຓືຈຓ ຺ຌ, ດາໃ ຄຄ ຺ຓຄາງ, ດາໃ ຄຄ ຺ຓຓືຈ, ດາໃ ຄຉາຍບຈ, ດາໃ ຄຍໃ ຌຶກ຃ຶຈ blame (v) ຉາຌິ, ຿ງຌ຃ທາຓຏິຈເນ ໄ booklet (n) ຎຶໄ ຓຌບ ໄ ງໂ, ຎືໄຓຽນົັໄຓຍາຄໂ boundless compassion (n) ຃ທາຓກະຕຸຌາ຾ຍຍຍໃ ຓີຂບຍຽຂຈ Buddhism (n) ຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະຘາຘະໜາ

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C capable of (adj) ຘາຓາຈ຋ີໃ ຅ະ, ຘາຓາຈ capacity (n) ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈ, ຘ ັກກະງະຑາຍ causes (n) ຘາຽນຈ, ຓູຌຽນຈ, ຽນຈ causes of human sufferings (n) ຘາຽນຈຂບຄ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ chance (n) ຿ບກາຈ, ຃ທາຓຍ ັຄຽບີຌ, ຿ຆກຆະຉາ charity (n) ກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບຘ ຺ຄຽ຃າະ, ກາຌກຸຘ ຺ຌ choice (n) ຿ບກາຈ, ຋າຄຽຖືບກ choose (v) ຽຖືບກ circumstance (n)

ຽນຈກາຌ, ຘະຊາຌະກາຌ, ກຖະຌີ

ໄ ຺ຄແຘ clarified, clarify (v) ຽປັຈເນ຾ ຄ, ໄ ຅ຓ຾຅ ໃ ໄ ຃າງ຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຄແຘ, ແຂຂຘ coercion (n) ກາຌຌາຍຂູ,ໃ ກາຌຂູຽໃ ຂັຌ, ກາຌຍີຍຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ code (n) ຖະນ ັຈ, ຎະຓທຌ, code of conduct ຅ ັຌງາຍ ັຌ common sense (n) ຘາຓ ັຌຘາຌຶກ, ຃ທາຓຘາຌຶກ, ຃ທາຓປູປ ໄ ບຍຉ ຺ທ compassionate (adj)

ຓີ຃ທາຓກະຕຸຌາ,

compassion (n) ຃ທາຓກະຕຸຌາ compulsion (n) ກາຌຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ, ກາຌຍີຍຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ confidence (n) ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບໝຌ, ັໄ ຘ ັຈ຋າ, ຃ທາຓໝຌເ຅ ັໄ conquest (v) ຽບ຺າຆະຌະ consequently(adv) ຽຎັຌຏ ຺ຌຉາຓຓາ, ຈທ ໄ ງຽນຈຌຌັໄ contradict (v) ກ ຺ຄກ ັຌຂາໄ ຓ, ຂ ັຈ຾ງຄໄ ກ ັຌ, ຂ ັຈ຾ງຄໄ contribute (v) ຓີຘທ ໃ ຌປທ ໃ ຓ, ຎະກບຍຘທ ໃ ຌ conviction(n) ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບຊື, ຘ ັຈ຋າ, ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບໝຌ, ັໄ ຃ທາຓໝຌເ຅ ັໄ convinced, convince(v) : ຽປັຈເນໝ ັໄ ໄ ຌເ຅ coercion (n) ກາຌຂູຽໃ ຂັຌ, ກາຌຍີຍຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ commandments (n) ຍ ັຌງ ັຈ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ common (adj) ຋຺ໃ ທໂແຎ, ຘາຓ ັຌ communal (adj) ຽຎັຌຂບຄຆຸຓຆ ຺ຌ, ກຼໃ ທຽຌືໃ ບຄກ ັຍຆຸຓຆ ຺ຌ complex (adj) ຘ ັຍຘ ຺ຌ, ຋ີໃ ຘ ັຍຘ ຺ຌ

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complex problems (n) ຍ ັຌນາຘ ັຍຘ ຺ຌ conduct (n) ກາຌຎະຑຶຈ, ຃ທາຓຎະຑຶຈ, ຑຶຈຉິກາ consecutive(adj) ຽຆິໃ ຄຉາຓຓາດາໃ ຄຉໃ ຽຌືໃ ບຄ, ຽຆິໃ ຄຉິຈຉໃ ກ ັຌ consecutive moments(n) ຂະຌະຽທຖາ຋ີໃ ຉິຈຉໃ ກ ັຌ contend (v) ຉໃ ຘູ,ໄ contend that…ດືຌດັຌທາໃ corrupt (v) ຏິຈຑຼໄ ຌ, ຽຘືໃ ບຓຆາຓ, ຽປັຈເນຓ ຸ , ກິຌຘິຌຍ ຺ຌ ີ ຺ຌ຋ິຌ, ຍໃ ຍຖິຘຈ ໄ ຓ credit(v) ຘ ັຌຖະຽຘີຌ, ງ ຺ກງບ ຸ , ຽຎັ ຌກຼຈ ັໄ ກຼຈຉິ຃ຌ ໄ ຄ, ຆ ຺ຓຽຆີງ, ຽປັຈເນຽໄ ຆືໃ ບໝຌ, criminals(n) ບາຈງາກບຌ cruel(adj) ຿ນຈປາໄ ງ, ດາໃ ຄ຿ນຈປາໄ ງຎາ ໃ ຽຊືໃ ບຌ cultivate (v) ຂ ັຈຽກ຺າ(ຓາຖະງາຈ), ຋ະຌຸຊະໜບຓ, ຎູກຐ ັຄ, ຘາໄ ຄ(຃ທາຓຈີ) cultivation (n) ກາຌຘາໄ ຄ຃ທາຓຈີ, ກາຌຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ, ກາຌບ ຺ຍປ ຺ຓ(຅ິຈເ຅) cultivation of universal love (n) ກາຌຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ຃ທາຓປ ັກ຋ີໃຽຎັຌຘາກ ຺ຌ culture (n) ທ ັຈ຋ະຌະ຋ັຓ, ກາຌຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ customs (n) ຎະຽຑຌີ, ປີຈ຃ບຄ

D danger(n) ບ ັຌຉະຖາງ, ຃ທາຓບ ັຌຉະຖາງ darkness of ignorance(n) ຃ທາຓຓືຈ຾ນຄໃ ບະທິຆາ, ຃ທາຓຓືຈຂບຄ຃ທາຓຍໃ ປູໄ decide(v) ຉ ັຈຘິຌເ຅ declare (v) ຎະກາຈ, ຊະ຾ນົຄ dedicate(v) ບຸ຋ິຈ deeds(n) ກ ັຓ, ກາຌກະ຋າ degrading caste system(n) ຖະຍ ຺ຍຆ ຺ຌຆຌທ ັໄ ັຌຌະ deluded, the (n) (ຓີ the ເຘຂ ໃ າໄ ຄໜາໄ )຃ ຺ຌນົ ຺ຄ຋າຄ, ຃ ຺ຌ຋ີໃຓີ຿ຓນະ຃ບຍຄາ democrat(n) ຌ ັກຎະຆາ຋ິຎະແຉ, ຏູຓ ໄ ັກຎະຆາ຋ິຎະແຉ ໄ ດູກ ໄ ກ ັຍ, ບີຄເຘ ໃ depending on(pre) ຂືຌ ໃ ັຍ, ຂືຌ deprive(v) ຑ ັຈຑາກ, ຽປັຈເນຘ ູ ຽຘງ ໄ ຌ despised courtesans (n) ຏູງ ິ ຿ຘຽຑຌີ຋ໃ ີຉາໃ ຉບ ິ ຿ຘຽຑຌີ຋ໃ ີຊືກຈູຓໃ ຌ ິ ໄ ຄ ໄ ງ, ຏູງ ໄ ຄ despotic and righteous kings (n) ຑຕະຕາຆາຏູຎ ໄ ໃາຽຊືໃ ບຌ຾ຖະຏູຓ ໄ ເີ ຅ຽຎັຌ຋ັຓ

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destiny(n) ຑ ຺ຓຖິຂຈ ິ (ຑຕ ຺ຓຕິຂຈ ິ ), ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຊືກຖິຂຈ ິ ແທ຾ ໄ ຖທ ໄ destitute (n) ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ, ຃ ຺ຌ຋ຸກ destroyer(n) ຏູ຋ ໄ າຖາງ destruction of life(n) ກາຌ຋າຖາງຆີທຈ ິ develop(v) ຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ, ຽປັຈເນຈ ີ ຌ ືໄ ໄ ຂ differentiate(v) ຅າ຾ຌກ, ຽປັຈເນຽໄ ນັ ຌ຾ຉກຉາໃ ຄ, ຾ງກ຾ງະ dignified, dignify (v) ຓີກຼຈຘ ັກຘີ dignity (n) ກຼຈຘ ັກຘີ disappear (v) ຽຘືໃ ບຓຘະນົາງແຎ, ຘູຌນາງ discoveries, discovery (n) ກາຌ຃ຌຑ ຺ໄ ຺ຍ discrimination (n) ກາຌ຅າ຾ຌກ disintegrate (v) ຽປັຈເນ຾ ໄ ຉກ຾ງກ, ຾ຍຄໃ ຾ງກ dispel (v) ຎັຈຽຎ຺ໃ າ, ກາ຅ ັຈ dispel the darkness of ignorance (n) ຎັຈຽຎ຺ໃ າ຃ທາຓຓືຈ຾ນຄໃ ບະທິຆາ distinguish (v) ຅າ຾ຌກ(຃ທາຓ຾ຉກຉາໃ ຄ) divided, the (n) ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີຊືກ຾ຍຄໃ ຾ງກ dogmatic ideas (n) ຃ທາຓ຃ິຈ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ, ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບຊື ໄ ຺ຄແຘ doubt(n) ຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຄແຘ, ຂຘ down trodden scavengers(n) ຃ ຺ຌຽຈີຌຊະໜ ຺ຌຏູຉ ໄ າໃ ຉບ ໄ ງ, ຃ ຺ຌຆບກນາຽຘຈ ບານາຌກິຌແຎທ ັຌໂ due to(prep) ຽຌືໃ ບຄ຅າກທາໃ , ຽຌືໃ ບຄ຅າກ, ຽນຈ຋ີໃ

E Educational(adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍກາຌຘຶກຘາ effect(n) ຏ ຺ຌກະ຋຺ຍ, ຏ ຺ຌຉາຓຓາ effective means, the most effective means(n) ທິ຋ີກາຌ຋ີໃ ຓີຎະຘິຈ຋ິຑາຍ efficacy (n) ກາຌເນຏ ໄ ຺ຌຈີ, ຓີຎະຘິຈ຋ິຑາຍ efficacy of meditation (n) ຏ ຺ຌຈີຂບຄກາຌຐຶກຘະຓາ຋ິ , ບາຌິຘ ຺ຄກາຌຐຶກຘະຓາ຋ິ elevated (v) ງ ຺ກຘູຄ, ງ ຺ກຖະຈ ັຍ(຅ິຈເ຅)

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elimination (n) ກາຌ຅າກ ັຈ, ກາຌຖ ຺ຍຖາໄ ຄ embrace (v) ຌ ັຍຊື(ຘາຘະໜາ), ຌາແຎຎະຉິຍ ັຈ emotional (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍບາຖ ຺ຓ, ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍ຃ທາຓປູຘ ຶ ໄ ກ emotional faith (n) ກາຌຌ ັຍຊື຾ຍຍຏິທຽຏີຌ, ກາຌຌ ັຍຊື຾ຍຍຉາຓບາຖ ຺ຓ emotional feelings (n) ຃ທາຓປູຘ ຶ ຋າຄບາຖ ຺ຓ, ຽທ຋ະຌາ ໄ ກ encouraged(past participle)ຘໃຄ຺ ຽຘີຓ, ຆຸກງູ,ໄ ເນກ ໄ າຖ ັຄເ຅ enlightened ( past participle) ຉ ັຈຘະປູ,ໄ ປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄໄ Enlightenment (n) ກາຌຉ ັຈຘະປູ,ໄ ກາຌປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄໄ ennoble (v) ຽປັຈເນຎ ໄ ະຽຘີຈ, ຐຶກເນຽໄ ຎັຌຏູຎ ໄ ະຽຘີຈ equal (adj) ຽ຋຺ໃ າ຋ຼຓ, ຽ຋຺ໃ າກ ັຌ equality (n) ຃ທາຓຘະຽໝີຑາຍກ ັຌ, ຃ທາຓຽ຋຺ໃ າ຋ຼຓກ ັຌ eternal benefit (n) ຏ ຺ຌຎະ຿ນງຈງາທຌາຌ, ຏ ຺ຌຎະ຿ນງຈຌິຖ ັຌຈບຌ eternal bliss (n) ຃ທາຓຘຸກຌິຖ ັຌຈບຌ ethico-philosophical system (n) ຖະຍ ຺ຍຎັຈຆະງາ຅ະຕິງະ຋ັຓ exploit (v) ຽປັຈເນຽໄ ຘືໃ ບຓຽຘງ, ຂູຈປີຈ, ຍີຍຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ external (adj) ຑາງຌບກ, ກຼທກ ັຍຑາງຌບກ ໃ external power (n) ບາຌາຈຑາງຌບກ(ຽຆັໃ ຌ ຽ຋ທະຈາ, ບິຌຑ ຺ຓ, ຑຕະຽ຅຺າໄ ...) evil (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຈີ, ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍ຃ທາຓຆໃທ຺ evil deeds (n) ກາຌກະ຋າ຃ທາຓຆໃທ຺ , ກາຌກະ຋າຍໃ ຈີ

F faculties, faculty ບິຌຆີ(຃ທາຓຽຎັຌເນງຂ ໃ ບຄບາງະຉະຌະ ຽຆັໃ ຌ ຉາ, ນູ, ຈ ັຄ, ຖີໄຌ, ກາງ ຾ຖະເ຅ ນົື ບິຌຆີ ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌຑະຖະນາໄ ດາໃ ຄ ຽຆັໃ ຌ : ທິຕງ ິ ະຑະຖະ ຓີ຃ທາຓຑຼຌ ຽຎັຌເນງ ໃ ຽຎັຌຉຌ) ຺ໄ ໄ ຺ກຏບ failing (n) ຃ທາຓຏິຈຑາຈ, ກາຌຑາຈ຿ບກາຈ, ຂຍ ໃ ຄ faith (n) ຘ ັຈ຋າ, ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ famous and obscure princes (n) ຽ຅຺າໄ ຆາງຏູ຿ ໄ ຈຈຽຈັໃ ຌ ຾ຖະຍໃ ຽຎັຌ຋ີໃ ປູ຅ ໄ ັກ fanaticism (n) ກາຌຽ຃ັໃ ຄຘາຘະໜາ fear (n) ຃ທາຓດາໄ ຌ, (v) ດາໄ ຌ

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feeble, the (n) ຏູບ ໄ ບ ໃ ຌ຾ບ feelings (n) ຃ທາຓປູຘ ຶ , ຽທ຋ະຌາ ໄ ກ feelings of compassion (n) ຃ທາຓປູຘ ຶ ຓີຽຓຈຉາ ໄ ກ follow (v) ຉິຈຉາຓ, ຎະຉິຍ ັຈຉາຓ force (v) ຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ, (n) ກາຌຍ ັຄ຃ ັຍ formations (n) ຘ ັຄຂາຕ(ກາຌຎຸຄ຾ຉຄໃ ຋າຄ຅ິຈ) founder (n) ຏູກ ຑຕະຘາຘະຈາ ັໄ ໄ ໃ ຉຄຘາຘະໜາ, freedom (n) ບິຈຘະນົະ, ຃ທາຓຓີບຈ ິ ຘະນົະຑາຍ freely ( adv) ດາໃ ຄຄາງຈາງ, ຉາຓຘະຍາງ ໃ free-thinker (n) ຌ ັກ຃ິຈບິຈຘະນົະ, ຏູຍ ໄ ໃ ຽຆືໃ ບຊືຘາຘະໜາເຈ fundamental teachings (n) ນົ ັກຑືໄຌຊາຌຂບຄ຃າຘບຌ

G gained ( past participle) ແຈປ ໄ ັຍ gaining confidence (n) ແຈປ ໄ ັຍກາຌຘ ັຈ຋າ gaining converts (n) ກາຌນ ັຌເນ຃ ໄ ຺ຌຓາຌ ັຍຊື(ຘາຘະໜາ) Gautama Buddha (n) ຑຕະຘະຓະຌະ຿຃ຈ ຺ຓ, ຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະ຿຃ຈ ຺ຓ generous and stingy millionaires (n) ຽຘຈຊີຏເໄູ ຅ຍຸຌ຾ຖະຽຘຈຊີຂຊ ີໄ ໃ ີ goodness (n) ຃ທາຓຈີ, ຃ຸຌຄາຓ຃ທາຓຈີ granted (past participle) ເນ,ໄ ບະຌຸງາຈ, ຽຎີ ຈ຿ບກາຈ, ບະຌຸຓ ັຈ Great Teacher, the (n) ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓຘາຈຘະຈາ, ຑຕະຉະຊາ຃ ຺ຈ, ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ Great Universal Teacher (n) ຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓ຃ູ, ຏູຽໄ ຎັຌ຃ູຂບຄ຿ຖກ greed (n) ຉ ັຌນາ, ຃ທາຓດາກ ໄ ຌະ guided ( past participle) ຾ຌະຌາ, ຆີ຾

H hail (v) ຘາ຋ຸກາຌ, ຆໃ ຆບ ໄ ຄຘາ຋ຸກາຌ, ຆືໃ ຌຆ ຺ຓງິຌຈີ happiness (n) ຃ທາຓຘຸກ

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harmonious life (n) ຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌຓີ຃ທາຓຘາຓ ັກ຃ີ, ຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຘບຈ຃ບ ໃ ຄກ ັຍ... harmony (n) ຃ທາຓຘາຓ ັກ຃ີ, haughty and humble scholars (n) ຌ ັກຎາຈ຋ີໃ຿ບບ ໄ ທຈ ຾ຖະຌ ັກຎາຈ຋ີໃຊບ ໃ ຓຉ ຺ຌ hatred (n) ຃ທາຓ຃ຼຈຆ ັຄ, ຃ທາຓ຾຃ຌ ໄ , ຽທຌ heavenly bliss (n) ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຾ນຄໃ ຘທຄຘະນທ ັຌ heart (n) ນ ຺ທເ຅ hereafter ( adv) ນົ ັຄ຅າກຌຌັໄ heritage (n) ຓຖະຈ ຺ກ hidden ( past participle) ຽຆືໃ ບຄ, ຽຆືໃ ບຄຆບຌ, ຍໃຓ ຺ ຆບ ໄ ຌ hidden potentialities (n) ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈຍໃຓ ຺ ຆບ ໄ ຌ, ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈ຋ີໃ ຓີດູໃ Him (pronoun) ຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະບ ຺ຄ, His (possessive determiner) ຂບຄຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະບ ຺ຄ (຋ັຄ ໄ ຼຌຽຎັຌ຿ຉເນງຉ ຘບຄຘ ັຍຌີຂ ໃ ະນົບຈ ໝາງຽຊິຄ຾຋ຌຌາຓຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະຽ຅຺າໄ ) historic renunciation (n) ກາຌບບກຍທຈ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌຎະນທ ັຈກາຌ(ຽຌກຂ ັຓຓະ) ໄ ຎທາໃ ຿ຖກະ຋ັຈ) horizon (n) ຽຘັໄຌຂບຍຒາ ໄ ( ເຌຍ ຺ຈຌີ຾ honour (adj), ດາໃ ຄຓີກຼຈຘ ັກຘີ, ດາໃ ຄຓີກຼຈ (n) ກຼຈຘ ັກຘີ, ກຼຈຉິງ ຺ຈ human being (n) ຓະຌຸຈ human emotional feeling (n) ບາຖ ຺ຓ຃ທາຓປູຘ ຶ ຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ ໄ ກ human dignity (n) ກຼຈຘ ັກຘີຂບຄ຃ທາຓຽຎັຌຓະຌຸຈ human intelligence (n) ຑູຓຎັຌງາຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ human suffering (n) ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ

I ignorant (adj) ບະທິຆາ, ຿ຄ,ໃ ຍໃ ປູ຅ ໄ ຄິ illuminate (v) ຘບ ໃ ຄ຾ຘຄຘະນທາໃ ຄ, ຽຎັຌ຾ຘຄຘະນທາໃ ຄ, ຎະກາງ຾ຘຄ inculcate (v) ກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈ, ຽກີຈຓີ impermanence (n) ຃ທາຓຽຎັຌບະຌິຈ຅ ັຄ, ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຋ຼໃ ຄ຾຋຾ ໄ ຌຌ ໃ ບຌ imprinted (past participle) ຅າຖຶກ, ຘະນົ ັກແທ,ໄ ຍ ັຌ຋ຶກແທ,ໄ ຘະນົ ັກເ຅ in accordance with (phrase) ຘບຈ຃ບ ໃ ຄກ ັຍ, ກ ຺ຓກຼທກ ັຌ, ຽຂ຺ໄາກ ັຍ, ຘ ຺ຓກ ັຍ indescribable joy (n) ຃ທາຓຘຸກຽໜືບຑ ັຌຖະຌາ

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inequality(n) ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຘະຽໝີຑາຍ inherent human weakness (n) ຃ທາຓບບ ໃ ຌ຾ບຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ຋ີໃ ຓີຓາ຾ຉຽໃ ກີຈ instead of (pre) ຾຋ຌ຋ີໃ , ຾຋ຌ຋ີໃ ຅ະ Intellectual capacity (n) ຃ທາຓຘາຓາຈ຋າຄຎັຌງາ, ຘ ັກກະງະຑາຍ຋າຄຑູຓຎັຌງາ intellectual man (n) ຑູຓຎັຌງາຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ intellectual mind (n) ຅ິຈເ຅຋ີໃ ຓີຎຌ ັ ງາ, ຏູຓ ີ ຌ ັ ງາ ໄ ຎ illiteracy (n) ຃ທາຓຍໃ ປູໜ ໄ ັຄຘື, ກືກໜ ັຄຘື ideological misunderstandings (n) ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ຏິຈ຋າຄບຸຈ ຺ຓກາຌ ນົື຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ induce (v) ຌາແຎຘູ,ໃ ກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈ inspiration (n) ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅, ຃ທາຓຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅ inspirer (n) ຏູຽໄ ຎັຌ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅ interpretation (n) ກາຌ຾ຎ, ກາຌຊບຈ຃ທາຓໝາງ, ກາຌ຾ຎ຃ທາຓໝາງ introduce (v) ຘະຽໜີ, ຌາຘະຽໜີ intelligence (n) ຎັຌງາ, ຃ທາຓຘະນົາຈ intercessory (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍກາຌທິໃຄທບຌ, ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍກາຌບບ ໄ ຌທບຌ instil (v) ຆາຍຆືຓ investigate (v) ກທຈຘບຍ, ແຉຉ ໃ ບຄ investigation (n) ກາຌກທຈຘບຍ, ກາຌແຉຉ ໃ ບຄ iron will (n) ຎະຌິ຋າຌຉຄໝ າໃ ຄຽຈັຈຈຼໃ ທ ັໄ ຌ, ັໄ ຃ທາຓຉຄເ຅ດ ັໄ

J Jealousy (n) ຃ທາຓບິຈຘາ judge(v) ຉ ັຈຘິຌ Judgment (n) ກາຌຉ ັຈຘິຌ judicious exercise (n) ກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈດາໃ ຄຓີຽນຈຓີຏ ຺ຌ, ກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈດາໃ ຄປບຍ຃ບຍ

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K kind (adj) ກະຕຸຌາ kindness (n) ຃ທາຓກະຕຸຌາ(຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຄຘາຌຽຓືໃບຽນັ ຌ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌຉ ຺ກ຋ຸກແຈງ ໄ າກ), ຑຕະຓະນາກະຕຸຌາ຋ິ຃ຌ ຸ

L law (n) ກ ຺ຈໝາງ liberal (adj) ບິຈຘະນົະ, ດາໃ ຄບິຈຘະນົະ liberal minded religious teacher (n) ຏູຘ ີ ຈ ິ ເ຅ກທ ໄ ບຌຘາຘະໜາຏູຓ ໄ ຅ ໄ າຄຂທາຄ liberty (n) ຃ທາຓຓີບຈ ິ ຘະນົະຑາຍ, ບິຈຘະນົະຑາຍ, ຽຘຖີຑາຍ, ຽຘຖີ຋ຓ ັ liberator (n) ຏູຓ ໄ ັກບິຈຘະນົະຑາຍ, ຌ ັກບິຈຘະນົະຑາຍ liberation (n) ຃ທາຓຓີບຈ ິ ຘະນົະຑາຍ life-time (n) ຉະນົບຈຆີທຈ ິ , ຆທ ິ ໃ ຄຆີທຈ lighthouse (n) ຎະຑາ຃າຌ, ຎບ ໄ ຓງາຓ຋ີໃ ຓີ຾ຘຄແຒປຸຄໃ ຘະນທາໃ ຄ, ນແຒ lofty(adj) ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ lofty aspirations (n) ຾ປຄຍ ັຌຈາຌເ຅ບ ັຌຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ loving-kindness(n) ຃ທາຓຽຓຈຉາ

M magnetic personality (n) ຍຸກ຃ະຖິກບ ັຌຘະນຄາຄາຓ, ຍຸກ຃ະຖິກ຋ີໃ ຓີຘະຽໜ ໃ ໃ maintenance (n) ກາຌປ ັກຘາແທ,ໄ ກາຌຊະຌຸຍາຖຸຄ man(n) ຏູຆ ໄ າງ, ຓະຌຸຈ mankind(n) ຓະຌຸຈຆາຈ, ຓະຌຸຈແຘງະຆາຈ matters(n) ຍ ັຌນາ, ຽຖືໃ ບຄຖາທຉາໃ ຄໂ meaningful(adj) ຓີ຃ທາຓໝາງຘາ຃ ັຌ means(n) ທິ຋ີກາຌ, ທິ຋ີ຋າຄ meaningful religion(n) ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃ທາຓໝາງຘາ຃ ັຌ

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means of gaining converts (n) ທິ຋ີກາຌຈຶຄ຃ ຺ຌເນນ ໄ ັຌຓາຌ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາ meditation (n) ກາຌຐຶກຘະຓາ຋ິ mental culture(n) ກາຌຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ຅ິຈເ຅ mental purification (n) ຃ທາຓຍຖິຘຈ ຸ ຋າຄ຅ິຈ mental training (n) ກາຌຐຶກ຅ິຈ mere beliefs (n) ຑຼຄ຾ຉ຃ ໃ ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ ໄ ຌ message of peace (n) ຂຓ ູ ຾ນຄໃ ຘ ັຌຉິຑາຍ, ຃າຘບຌ຾ນຄໃ ຘ ັຌຉິຑາຍ metaphysical path (n) ຽຘັໄຌ຋າຄ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ , ຽຘັໄຌ຋າຄ຾ນຄໃ ບະຑິຎຈ ັ ຆະງາ Middle way, the (n) ຓ ັຈຆິຓາຎະຉິຎະ຋າ(຋າຄຘາງກາຄ) mind (n) ຅ິຈເ຅ misery (n) ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກງາກ, ຃ທາຓຂ ັຈຂບ ໄ ຄໝບຄເ຅ misguided followers (n) ຏູຎ ໄ ະຉິຍ ັຈ຋ີໃຍໃ ຊືກ຃ບຄ, ຏູຎ ໄ ະຉິຍ ັຈ຋ີໃຏິຈຑຼໄ ຌ misguided human beings (n) ຓະຌຸຈຏູນ ໄ ົ ຺ຄຏິຈ, ຓະຌຸຈຏູຽໄ ຈີຌ຋າຄຏິຈ mould (v) ນົໃ ນົບຓ, ຽຘີຓຘາໄ ຄ monopolized (v) ຏູກຂ ັຈ, ຅າກ ັຈຘິຈ຋ິຂບຄ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌ moral code of ethics (n) ຅ ັຌງາ຋ັຓ(ນົ ັກກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈຉາຓປີຈ຃ບຄ຋ັຓ) moral conduct of man, the (n) ຘິຌ຋ັຓຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ moralist (n) ຌ ັກຘີຖະ຋ັຓ must (adv) ຅ະຉບ ໄ ຄ, ຅າຉບ ໄ ຄ, ຅າຽຎັຌຉບ ໄ ຄ mystic (adj) ຖຶກຖ ັຍ mysticism (n) ຖ ັຈ຋ິຖຶກຖ ັຍ

N necessarily (adv) ດາໃ ຄ຅າຽຎັຌ necessity (n) ຃ທາຓ຅າຽຎັຌ, ຎັຈແ຅ ໄ neglected (past participle) ຎໃບງຎະຖະແຖ, ຍໃ ຘ ຺ຌເ຅, ຍໃ ຽບ຺າເ຅ເຘ,ໃ ຎະຊິຓ nevertheless (adv) ຽຊິຄດາໃ ຄເຈກຉາຓ noble code for humanity (n) ຅ ັຌງາ຋ັຓບ ັຌຎະຽຘີຈຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ

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noble man (n) ຏູຎ ໄ ະຽຘີຈ, ບະຕິງະຆ ຺ຌ, ຃ ຺ຌຓີຉະກູຌຘູຄ Noble teacher (n) ຃ູຘບຌຏູຎ ໄ ະຽຘີຈ

O observation (n) ກາຌຘ ັຄຽກຈ, ກາຌຘະຓາ຋າຌຘິຌ obstruct (v) ຂ ັຈຂທາຄ, ກີຈກຌ, ັໄ ນ ັກນາໄ ຓ, ຘະກ ັຈກຌ, ັໄ ກີຈຂທາຄ, ຋ທ ໃ ຄຈຶຄ obtain (v) ແຈປ ໄ ັຍ occultism (n) ຖ ັຈ຋ິແຘງະຘາຈ, ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບຽຖືໃ ບຄຽທຈຓ ຺ຌກ ຺ຌ຃າຊາ original teaching (n) ຃າຘບຌຈຄຽຈີ ັໄ ຓ, ຃າຘບຌຉຌຘະຍ ຺ໄ ັຍ otherwise (adv) ຊາໄ ຍໃ ຈຄໃ ັ ຌຌັໄ

P Path of deliverance, the (n) ຽຘັໄຌ຋າຄ຾ນຄໃ ຃ທາຓນົຸຈຑຌ ຺ໄ Path to peace, the (n) ຽຘັໄຌ຋າຄຘູຘ ໃ ັຌຉິຑາຍ patience (n) ຃ທາຓຑຼຌ, ຃ທາຓຑາກຑຼຌ, ທິຕງ ິ ະ paupers (n) ງາ຅ ຺ກ, ຃ ຺ຌບະຌາຊາ, ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີ຋ຸກງາກນົາງ peaceful noble life (n) ກາຌຈາຽຌີຌຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຎະຽຘີຈ຾ຖະຘະນຄ ຺ຍຘຸກ peace (n) ຘະນຄ ຺ຍຘຸກ, ຃ທາຓຘະນຄ ຺ຍ, ຘ ັຌຉິຘກ ຸ peacefully (adv) ດາໃ ຄຘະນຄ ຺ຍຘຸກ, ດາໃ ຄຘ ັຌຉິທ຋ ິ ີ, ດາໃ ຄຄຼຍຘະນຄ ຺ຍ penance (n) ກາຌ຋ຖະຓາຌຉ ຺ຌ, ກາຌຍາຽຑັຌຉະຍະ, ກາຌ຋າ຃ທາຓຑຼຌຽຏ຺າກິຽຖຈ perfect model (n) ຾ຍຍດາໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ perfect purity (n) ຃ທາຓຍຖິຘຈ ຸ ຋ີໃ ຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ perfection (n) ຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ, ຎາຕະຓີ, ກາຌຽປັຈເນຘ ໄ ຺ຓຍູຌ perish (v) ຽຘືໃ ບຓຘະນົາງ, ຉາງແຎ, ຘາຍຘູຌ permanently (adv) ດາໃ ຄໝຌ຃ ັໄ ຺ຄຂະໜ ຺ຄ຾ກຌ ັໄ ຺ຄ, ດາໃ ຄຊາທບຌ ໃ , ດາໃ ຄໝຌ຃ persuasive (adj) ດາໃ ຄຈຶຄຈູຈເ຅ petitional (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍກາຌປບ ັຍກາຌບບ ໄ ຄຂ, ກຼທກ ໃ ໄ ຌທບຌ philosophy (n) ຎັຈຆະງາ pious eyes (n) ຘາງຉາ຾ນຄໃ ຃ທາຓຈີ, ຘາງຉາ຾ນຄໃ ຃ທາຓຽຓຈຉາ, ຘາງຉາ຃ ຺ຌເ຅ຍຸຌ

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political (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍກາຌຽຓືບຄ poverty (n) ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ ໄ ຋າຄຎະຉິຍ ັຈ practical educational system (n) ຖະຍ ຺ຍກາຌຘຶກຘາ຋ີໃ ຽຌັຌ ໄ ກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈ຃ຸຌ຃ທາຓຈີ practical way of life (n) ທິຊຆ ີ ທ ີ ຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຽຌັຌ practise (v)(British English) ຎະຉິຍ ັຈ praise (v) ຆ ຺ຓຽຆີງ, ງບ ໄ ຄງ, ຘ ັຌຖະຽຘີຌ prayer (n) ທິໃ ຄທບຌ, ແນທທ ໄ ບຌ, ບບ ໄ ຌທບຌ, ແນທຑ ໄ ຕະ practical (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍກາຌຎະຉິຍ ັຈ precepts (n) ຘິຌ, ທິແຌ prejudice (n) ຃ທາຓຖາບຼຄ, ຃ທາຓບະ຃ະຉິ pride (n) ຃ທາຓຑູຓເ຅, ຃ທາຓ຿ບບ ໄ ທຈ, ກາຌ຿ບບ ໄ ທຈ priest craft (n) ຑຕະຘ ຺ຄ຋ີໃ ໜ ັກແຎ຋າຄແຘງະຘາຈ, ຑຕະ຋ີໃ ຽກັໃ ຄແຘງະຘາຈ principle (n) ນົ ັກາຌ, ຖະຍຼຍກາຌ profound wisdom (n) ຎັຌງາ຋ີໃ ຽຖິກຽຆິໃ ຄ, ຎັຌງາ຋ີໃ ຘຸຂຓ ຸ ຃າຑີຕະຑາຍ proper (adj) ຽໝາະຘ ຺ຓ properly (adv) ດາໃ ຄຽໝາະຘ ຺ຓ prosperity (n) ຃ທາຓທ ັຈ຋ະຌະຊາທບຌ, ຃ທາຓ຅ະຽຖີຌ, ຃ທາຓປຸຄໃ ຽປືບຄ psychologist (n) ຌ ັກ຅ິຈຉະທິ຋ະງາ purpose (v) ຓີ຅ຈ ຸ ຎະຘ ຺ຄ, ຓີຽຎ຺ໄາໝາງ purified, purify (v) ຽປັຈເນຍ ຸ , ຆາປະຘະຘາຄ ໄ ຖິຘຈ

R rational (adj) ຓີຽນຈຏ ຺ຌ rationalist (n) ຌ ັກຽນຈຏ ຺ຌ rational religion (n) ຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຓີຽນຈຏ ຺ຌ reasonable (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍຽນຈຏ ຺ຌ realization (n) ຃ທາຓປູ຾ ໄ ຅ຄ, ໄ ກາຌຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅຾຅ຄໄ redemption (n) ກາຌແຊ,ໃ ກາຌຉບຍ຾຋ຌ຃ືຌ redeemer (n) ຏູແໄ ຊຍ ໃ າຍ refine(v) ຽ຅ຖະແຌ, ຂ ັຈຽກ຺າ, ຽປັຈເນ຅ ໄ ຺ຍຄາຓ

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ໄ ຌ reliable reading materials (n) ຾ນົຄໃ ຂຓ ູ ຋ີໃ ໜາໄ ຽຆືໃ ບຊືແຈ ໄ religious (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍຘາຘະໜາ religious community (n) ຆຸຓຆ ຺ຌ຃ ຺ຌຌ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາ religious discipline (n) ທິແຌ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ religious dogmas (n) ຖ ັຈ຋ິ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ religious label (n) ຽ຃ືໃ ບຄໝາງ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ(ຽຆັໃ ຌ: ຘາຘະໜາ຃ຕິຘ, ຘາຘະໜາຑຸຈ...) religious life (n) ຆີທຈ ິ ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ, ທິຊຆ ີ ທ ີ ຈ ິ ຌ ັກຍທຈ religious and philosophical matters (n) ຽຖືໃ ບຄກຼໃ ທກ ັຍຎັຈຆະງາຘາຘະໜາ religious way of life (n) ທິຊຆ ີ ທ ີ ຈ ິ ຂບຄ຃ ຺ຌຌ ັຍຊືຘາຘະໜາ, ທິຊຆ ີ ທ ີ ຈ ິ ຌ ັກຍທຈ religious principles (n) ນົ ັກກາຌ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ religion (n) ຘາຘະໜາ remarkable record (n) ຎະນທ ັຈ຋ີໃ຿ຈຈຽຈັໃ ຌ remain (v) ງ ັຄ຃ ຺ຄດູ,ໃ ງ ັຄຽນົືບ຃າໄ ຄດູໃ reserved (past participle) ປ ັກຘາແທ,ໄ ຘະນຄທຌແທ ໄ respect (v) ຽ຃຺າຖ ຺ຍ, ຌ ັຍຊື respectable religious life (n) ຆີທຈ ິ ຋າຄຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ແຈປ ໄ ັຍກາຌຽ຃຺າຖ ຺ຍຍູຆາ retribution (n) ກາຌ຅ບຄຽທຌ, ກາຌຉບຍ຾຋ຌ, ກາຌ຾ກ຾຃ ໄ ຌ ໄ revealed ( past participle) ຽຎີ ຈຽຏີງ revelation (n) ກາຌຽຎີ ຈຽຏີງ, ກາຌຘະ຾ຈຄເນຽໄ ນັ ຌ revolted against (past participle) ຉໃ ຉາໄ ຌກ ັຍ, ຎຖະຎັກກ ັຍ, ຎະຉິທ ັຈ riddled ( past participle)ຽຎັຌຎິ ຈຘະໜາ righteousness (n) ຃ທາຓຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ, ຃ທາຓຈີຄາຓ, ຃ທາຓຆບຍ຋ັຓ

S Salvation (n) ກາຌນົຸຈຑຌ຅າກຍາຍ(ຌິ ງ ຺ຓເຆເໄ ຌຘາຘະໜາ຃ຕິຈ), ຘທ ຺ໄ ໃ ຌເນງເໃ ຌຑຸຈ຋ະຘາ ຘະໜາຌິງ ຺ຓເຆ຃ ຽຖຈ, ກາຌນົຸຈຑຌ ຺ໄ ຺ໄ ໄ າທາໃ liberation ກາຌນົຸຈຑຌ຅າກກິ satisfaction (n) ຃ທາຓຽຑິໃ ຄຑເ຅, ຃ທາຓຑເ຅, ຃ທາຓຘຸກ scavenger (n) ຃ ຺ຌຽກັຍຽຘຈຂີຽໄ ນງືໃ ບຉາຓ຋າຄຊະໜ ຺ຌ scientific principle (n) ນົ ັກກາຌ຋າຄທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ scientific religion (n) ຘາຘະໜາ຾ນຄໃ ທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ

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scientist (n) ຌ ັກທິ຋ະງາຘາຈ selfless service (n) ກາຌຍຖິກາຌຽຑືໃ ບຌຓະຌຸຈ຾ຍຍຍໃ ນທ ັຄຘິໃຄຉບຍ຾຋ຌ, ກາຌຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ self-exertion (n) ກາຌຉຄ຃ທາຓຑຼຌເຌຉ ັໄ ຺ຌ self conquest (n) ກາຌຽບ຺າຆະຌະຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ self-control (n) ກາຌ຃ທຍ຃ຸຓຉ ຺ຌຽບຄ self indulgence(n) ກາຌຎບ ໃ ງຉ ຺ທຽບຄແຎຉາຓບາຖ ຺ຓ, ກາຌຎບ ໃ ງຉ ຺ທຽບຄແຎຉາຓບາຌາຈ ຂບຄກິຽຖຈ, ກາຌຊະນົາຉ ຺ທຖ ຺ຄແຎຉາຓບາຖ ຺ຓ self purification (n) ຃ທາຓຍຖິຘຈ ຸ ຾ນຄໃ ຉ ຺ຌ secret doctrines (n) ຖ ັຈ຋ິຎິຈຖ ັຍ senses(n) ບາງະຉະຌະ(ໝາງຽຊິຄຉາ, ນູ, ຈ ັຄ, ຖີໄຌ, ກາງ, ຾ຖະເ຅) serene and peaceful countenance (n) ຑາຍ຋ີໃ ກໃ ເນຽໄ ກີຈ຃ທາຓຘະນຄ ຺ຍ຾ຖະຘ ັຌຉິຘກ ຸ should (adv) ຃ທຌ຅ະ society (n) ຘ ັຄ຃ ຺ຓ social reformer (n) ຌ ັກຎະຉິປຍ ູ ຘ ັຄ຃ ຺ຓ solid foundation (n) ຘະຊາຍ ັຌ຋ີໃໝຌ຃ ັໄ ຺ຄ, ຘະຊາຍ ັຌ຋ີໃ຾ຂຄ຾ກຌ ໃ soothing sight (n) ຑາຍ຋ີໃ ຎະ຋ັຍເ຅ spiritual (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍ຅ິຈທິຌງາຌ, ກຼທກ ັຍ຅ິຈເ຅ ໃ ໄ ໄ ບາ຋ບຌ, ກາຌຓີຌາເ຅ຽຑືໃ ໄ spirit of benevolence (n) ກາຌຓີຌາເ຅ຽບື ບ ບຆທ ໃ ງຽນົືບ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌ spiritual development (n) ກາຌຑ ັຈ຋ະຌາ຋າຄ຅ິຈ ໄ າ຋າຄ຅ິຈ, ກາຌຆີຌ ໄ າ຋າຄຈາໄ ຌ຅ິຈເ຅ spiritual guide (n) ກາຌຆີຌ spiritual value (n) ຃ຸຌ຃າໃ ຋າຄ຅ິຈເ຅ ໄ spirit (n) ຅ິຈເ຅, ຌາເ຅ ໄ ຅າກ submerged (past participle) ຑຌບບກຓາ, ຑຌຂື ຺ໄ ຺ໄ ຌ subservient (adj) ຽຎັຌປບຄ, ບບ ໃ ຌຈບ ໄ ງກທາໃ suffering (n) ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ superfluous rites (n) ຑິ຋ີກ ັຓ຋ີໃຍໃ ຅າຽຎັຌ superfluous beliefs (n) ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ຋ີໃ ຽຖີງຽຊີຈ, ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ຋ີໃ ຍໃ ຅າຽຎັຌ supernatural being (n) ຘິໃ ຄຽໜືບ຋າຓະຆາຈ(ຽຆັໃ ຌ ຽ຋ທະຈາ ຽຎັຌຉຌ) ຺ໄ superstitious beliefs (n) ກາຌຽຆືໃ ບຊື຾ຍຍຄ ຺ຓຄາງ supreme (adj) ດາໃ ຄຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ , ດາໃ ຄຈູຽຖີຈ

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supreme being (n) ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ (ຽຆັໃ ຌ ຽ຋ທະຈາ, ຽ຋ຍຑະຽ຅຺າໄ ຽຎັຌຉຌ) ຺ໄ supreme power (n) ບາຌາຈ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ supreme religious master (n) ຏູຘ ໄ ບຌຘາຘະໜາ຋ີໃ ຘູຄຘໃຄ຺ symbol of perfection (n) ຘ ັຌງະຖ ັກຂບຄ຃ທາຓຘ ຺ຓຍູຌ຾ຍຍ sympathy (n) ຓຸ຋ິຉາ (຃ທາຓຎາຈຊະໜາຈີຽຓືໃ ບຽນັ ຌ຃ ຺ຌບືໃຌແຈຈ ໄ )ີ

T tame (v) ຐຶກຐ ຺ຌ the tamed (n) ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີຐຶກຈີ຾ຖທ ໄ tension (n) ຃ທາຓຉຶຄ຃ຼຈ therefore (adv) ຈຄໃ ັ ຌຌ, ັໄ ຈທ ໄ ງຽນຈຌີໄ theories (n) ຋ິຈຘະຈີ theories and mere beliefs (n) ຋ິຈຘະຈີ຾ຖະ຃ທາຓຽຆືໃ ບ຋າຓະຈາ through (prep) ຏາໃ ຌ, ຿ຈງຏາໃ ຌ tolerance (n) ຃ທາຓບ ຺ຈ຋຺ຌບ ຺ຈກຌ, ັໄ ຃ທາຓຓີເ຅ກທ ໄ າຄ tonic (n) ດາຆູກາຖ ັຄ, ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຽຎັຌກາຖ ັຄເ຅ tradition (n) ຎະຽຑຌີ traditionally (adv) ດາໃ ຄຈຄຽຈີ ັໄ ຓ, ດາໃ ຄຎະຊ ຺ຓຎະຊາຌ tranquillity(n) ຘະຓະຊະ, ຃ທາຓຘະນຄຍ຺ trodden (past participle) ງາໃ ຄ, ງາໃ ຄແຎຽຖືໄບງໂ truth (n) ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ the Truth (n) ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄ, ຘ ັຈ຅ະ຋ັຓ towards (prep) ຘູ,ໃ ຓຸຄຘູ ໄ ໃ

U ultimate liberation of all human suffering (n) ກາຌນົຸຈຑຌບ ຺ໄ ັຌຘູຄຘຸຈ຅າກ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ ຂບຄຓທຌຓະຌຸຈ(຅ະໝາງຽຊິຄກາຌຽຂ຺ໄາຘູຌ ິ ຑາຌກແຈ)ໄ ໃ ຍ unbiased (past participle) ຍໃ ຖາບຼຄ, ຍໃ ຓີບະ຃ະຉິ unbiased thinker (n) ຌ ັກ຃ິຈ຋ີໃ ຍໃ ຓີບະ຃ະຉິ

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understandable (adj) ດາໃ ຄຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ຄາງ ໃ understanding(n) ຃ທາຓຽຂ຺ໄາເ຅ undeterred (past participle) ຍໃ ຊືກກີຈຂທາຄ, ຍໃ ຊືກຂ ັຈຂທາຄ, ຍໃ ຊືກກີຈກຌັໄ undue (adj) ຍໃ ຘ ຺ຓຈູຌ, ຍໃ ຽໝາະຘ ຺ຓ universal (adj) ກຼໃ ທກ ັຍຘາກ ຺ຌ universal love (n) ຃ທາຓປ ັກ຋ີໃຽຎັຌຘາກ ຺ຌ, ຃ທາຓຽຓຈຉາ universe (n) ຘາກ ຺ຌ, ຅ ັກກະທາຌ unjust(adj) ຍໃ ງຸຈຉິ຋ຓ ັ unknown external agency (n) ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ດູຌ ໃ ບກຉ ຺ທ຋ີໃຍໃ ຓີຉ ຺ທຉ ຺ຌ ໃ ັ ແນທ unperturbed (past participle) ຍໃ ຊືກຖ ຺ຍກທຌ, ຍໃ ຘະ຋຺ກຘະ຋າໄ ຌ, ຍໃ ນທຌ unsatisfactoriness (n) ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ, ຃ທາຓຍໃ ຑບ ຺ກຍໃ ຑເ຅ unseen being (n) ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຾ຌຓຍໃ ຽນັ ຌ, ຘິໃ ຄ຋ີໃ ຉາຍໃ ຽນັ ຌ utilize (v) ຆ ຺ຓເຆ,ໄ ເຆ ໄ

V value (n) ຃ຸຌ຃າໃ vicarious redeemer (n) ຏູແໄ ຊຍ ໃ າຍ, ຍາຈນົທຄຏູແໄ ຊຍ ໃ າຍ vex (v) ຽປັຈເນດ ໄ າກປາໄ ງ, ຖ ຺ຍກທຌ, ກທຌເ຅ vexed human problems (n) ຍ ັຌນາ຋ີໃນງຸຄໄ ງາກຂບຄຓະຌຸຈ virtue (n) ຘີຖະ຋ັຓ, ຃ຸຌ຃ທາຓຈີ

W war torn world (n) ຿ຖກ຋ີໃ ຊືກນງາໃ ງີຈທ ໄ ງຘ ຺ຄ຃ທາຓ, ຿ຖກ຋ີໃ ຽຉັຓແຎຈທ ໄ ງຘ ຺ຄ຃າຓ welfare of mankind (n) ຃ທາຓຘະນທ ັຈຈີຑາຍຂບຄຓະຌຸຈຆາຈ whilst ( adv) ຂະຌະ຋ີໃ , ຖະນທາໃ ຄ wicked murderers (n) ຃າຉະກບຌຏູ຿ ໄ ນຈນຼໄ ຓ widened (past participle) ຽປັຈເນກ ໄ ທ ໄ າຄຂທາຄ, ຽຎີ ຈກທ ໄ າຄ wise man (n) ຍ ັຌຈິຈ, ຃ ຺ຌຘະນົາຈ wisdom (n) ຎັຌງາ

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without (prep) ຎາຘະ຅າກ worldly achievements (n) ກາຌຎະຘ ຺ຍຏ ຺ຌຘາຽຖັຈ຋າຄ຿ຖກ world domination (n) ກາຌ຃ບຍ຃ບຄ຿ຖກ world peace (n) ຘ ັຌຉິຑາຍ຿ຖກ worldly pleasure (n) ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຋າຄ຿ຖກ, ຃ທາຓຘຸກ຋າຄ຿ຖກີ worry (n) ຃ທາຓກ ັຄທ ຺ຌ, ທິຉ ຺ກ worthwhile (adj) ຓີ຃າໃ , ຓີ຃ທາຓຘາ຃ ັຌ, ຃ຸຓ ຸໄ ຃າໃ

ບະຕິງະຓກ຃ ັ ຓ ີ ຺ຄ຾ຎຈ: ຋າຄຎະຽຘີຈຘູ຃ ຺ໄ ກ ໌ ບ ໃ ທາຓຑຌ຋ຸ The Noble Eightfold Path the middle way : ຓ ັຈຆິຓາຎະຉິຎະ຋າ(຋າຄຘາງກາຄ) the Noble Eightfold Path : ບະຕິງະຓ ັກ຃ຓ ີ ຺ຄ຾ຎຈ(ຽຘັໄຌ຋າຄຎະຽຘີຈ຾ຎຈຽຘັໄຌ) ໌ ບ Right understanding : ຘ ັຓຓາ຋ິຈຊິ(຃ທາຓຽນັ ຌ຋ີໃ ຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ) Right thought : ຘ ັຓຓາຘ ັຄກ ັຍຎະ(຃ທາຓຖະຌຶກຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ) Right speech : ຘ ັຓຓາຘ ັຄກ ັຍຎະ(ກາຌຽທ຺ໄາ຅າຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ) Right action : ຘ ັຓຓາກ ັຓຓ ັຌຉາ(ກາຌຽປັຈໜາໄ ຋ີໃ ກາຌຄາຌຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ) Right livelihood : ຘ ັຓຓາບາຆີທະ(ກາຌຖຼໄ ຄຆີທຈ ິ ຋ີໃ ຊືກຉບ ໄ ຄ) Right effort : ຘ ັຓຓາທາງະຓະ(ກາຌຉຄ຃ທາຓຑຼຌຊື ກຉບ ັໄ ໄ ຄ) Right mindfulness :ຘ ັຓຓາຘະຉິ(ກາຌຓີຘະຉິຊກ ື ຉບ ໄ ຄ) Right concentration : ຘ ັຓຓະຘະຓາ຋ິ(ກາຌຓີຘະຓາ຋ິຊກ ື ຉບ ໄ ຄ)

ບະຕິງະຘ ັ຅຅ະ 4 : ຃ທາຓ຅ິຄບ ັຌຎະຽຘີຈຘີໃ ຎະກາຌ The Four Noble Truths 1. Dukkha: Suffering: unsatisfactoriness: ຋ຸກຂະ : ຋ຸກ 2. Dukkha-samudaya: The cause of suffering; the origin of suffering ຋ຸກຂະຘະຓຸ຋ະ ງະ : ຽນຈ຾ນຄໃ ຋ຸກ, ຘາຽນຈ຋ີໃ ເນ຋ ຸ ຽກີຈ ແຈ຾ ໄ ກ ໄ ກຉ ໃ ັຌນາ຋ັຄ 3 ຃ື: ກາຓະຉ ັຌນາ, ຑາທະ ຉ ັຌນາ ຾ຖະທິຑາທະຉ ັຌນາ.

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3. Dukkha-nirodha: The cessation of suffering; ຌິ຿ຕ຋ະ຃າຓິຌຎ ີ ະຉິຎະ຋າ : ຑາທະ຋ີໃ ໄ ແຎ, ນົຸຈຑຌ. ຉ ັຌນາຈ ັຍຘິຌ ຺ໄ 4. Dukkha-nirodha-gāminī paṭipadā :The path leading to the extinction of suffering: ຓ ັກ຃ະ : ນ ຺ຌ຋າຄຘູ຃ ັໄ ຃ື ບະຕິງະຓ ັກ຃ຓ ີ ຺ຄ຾ຎຈ ຈຄໃ ັ ຋ີໃ ກາໃ ທແທຂ ໃ ທາຓຈ ັຍ຋ຸກ ຌຌກ ໌ ບ ໄ າໄ ຄຽ຋ິຄ.

ຘິຌນາໄ : The Five Precepts ໄ ຅າກກາຌຂາໄ ຘ ັຈ Abstaining from killing ກາຌຄ ຺ຈຽທັຌ ໄ ຅າກກາຌຂີຖ ໄ ັກ Abstaining from stealing ກາຌຄ ຺ຈຽທັຌ ໄ ຅າກກາຌຎະຑຶຈຏິຈເຌກາຓ Abstaining from sexual misconduct ກາຌຄ ຺ຈຽທັຌ ໄ ຅າກກາຌຉ ຺ທະງ ຺ທະນົບກຖທຄ Abstaining from telling lies ກາຌຄ ຺ຈຽທັຌ ໄ ຅າກກາຌຈືໃ ຓຽນົ຺ໄາຽຓ຺າຘຸຕາ Abstaining from taking intoxicating drinks ກາຌຄ ຺ຈຽທັຌ

ແຉົຘະຕະຌະ຃ ຺ຓ : ຾ກທ ໄ ຘາຓຎະກາຌ The Triple Gems 1. Buddha : ຑຕະຑຸຈ 2. Dhamma : ຑຕະ຋ັຓ 3. Sangha : ຑຕະຘ ຺ຄ ຑຕະຑຸຈ ໝາງຽຊິຄຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະຽ຅຺າໄ , ຽຎັຌຏູປ ື ຏູຽໄ ຍີກຍາຌ, ຽຎັຌຑຕະຍຕ ຺ຓຘາຘະຈາ ໄ ,ູໄ ຏູຉ ໄ ໃ ຌ, ຾ນຄ ໃ ຑຸຈ຋ະຘາຘະໜາ ຉ ັຈຘະປູຆ ໄ ບຍແຈຈ ໄ ທ ໄ ງຑຕະບ ຺ຄຽບຄ, ຽກີຈຽຓືໃ ບຎີ 543 ກບ ໃ ຌ ຃.ຘ. ຋ີໃ ກຸຄ ກະຍິ ຌ ຖະຑ ຈ ັ ຎັຈ ຅ຸຍ ຌ ັ ຽຎັ ຌ ຆາງ຾ຈຌຖະນທ ໃາ ຄຎະຽ຋ຈຽຌຎາຌ ກ ຍ ັ ບິ ຌ ຽຈງ. ໄ຺ ຍ ຑຕະ຋ັຓ ໝາງຽຊິຄ຋ັຓຓະ຃າຘໃຄັ ຘບຌ຋ີໃ ຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະບ ຺ຄແຈຆ ຺ ຾ຖທ ໄ ຺ຄຉ ັຈຘະປູໄ ນົື຃ຌຑ ໄ ຌາ ຓາຽຏີງ຾ຏຽໃ ຑືໃ ບຽຏີຈຘ ັຍຑຕະຘ ັຈ຋ັຄນົ າງເນນ ຺ໄ ບບກ຅າກ຃ທາຓ຋ຸກ ເຌທ ັຈຉະຘ ຺ຄຘາຌ. ໄ ຸ ົ ຈຑ ຌ ຑຕະຘ ຺ຄ ໝາງຽຊິຄ ຑິກຂຸ(຃ູຍາ), ຑິກຂຸຌ(ີ ຃ູຍາຏູງ ຑໃ ຂາທ ິ ), ຘາຓະຽຌຌ(຅ ຺ທ), ຾ຓຂາທ, ໄ ຄ ໃ ຾ຖະຘ ຄ຺ ຌີໄກ ຓີ 2 ຅ າຑທກ ຃ື : ຑຕະຘ ຄ຺ ຋຺ໃ ທແຎ຋ີໃ ງ ຄັ ຍໃ ຋ັຌ ແຈ ຽໄ ຎັ ຌ ຑຕະບ ຕະນ ຌ ັ ຽບີໄຌ ທ ໃາ ໄ ທາໃ ບະຕິງະຘ ຺ຄ. ຽຎັຌຏູຘ ຘ ຺ຓຓຸຈຉິຘ ຺ຄ, ຏູ຋ ໄ ໃ ີແຈຽໄ ຎັຌຑຕະບຕະນ ັຌ຾ຖທ ໄ ຽບີຌ ໄ ືຍ຋ບຈຑຕະຑຸຈ ໃ ັ ຘບຌຂບຄຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະຽ຅຺າໄ ບບກຽຏີງ຾ຏ຾ ຋ະຘາຘະໜາ ຌາຽບ຺າ຋ັຓຓະ຃າຘຄ ໃ ກຎ ໃ ະຆາຆ ຺ຌ. ຋ີໃ ໄ ທາໃ ຾ກທ ຽບີຌ ໄ ຘາຓຎະກາຌຽຑາະທາໃ ຎະຽຘີຈຽໝືບຌ຾ກທ ໄ ຋ີໃ ຓີ຃າໃ ຘູຄ ຘະຕະຌະ຃ ຺ຓ ໝາງຽຊິຄ຋ີໃ ຽຑິໃ ຄ. ຘະຌຌ, ັໄ ຽຓືໃ ບຑທກຽປ຺າຽຎັຌຆາທຑຸຈ຅ິໃ ຄ຃ທຌຊືຽບ຺າ຾ກທ ໄ ຋ັຄຘາຓຌີຽໄ ຎັຌ຋ີໃ ຽຑິໃ ຄບ ັຌຘູຄຘຸຈ.

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ກ່ຽວກັບຜູ້ຂຽນ: ຑ ຕ ະ ບ າ ຅ າ ຌ ຈ ຕ . ຽ ຃ . ຘ ຕີ ຋ັ ຓ ຓ ະ ຌ ຌ ັ ຋ະ Ven.Dr.K.Sri Dhammananda (1919-2006)

ຽກີຈດູ຋ ໃ າຄຑາກເຉຂ ໄ ບຄຘີຖ ັຄກາ. ຋າໃ ຌຽຎັຌຑຕະ ຘ ຺ຄບ ຺ຄຘາ຃ ັຌຏູໜ ໄ ໃ ຶຄເຌທ ຺ຄກາຌຑຸຈ຋ະຘາຘະໜາ ຿ຈງຘະຽຑາະ຾ຓ ຌ ໃ ກາຌຽຎັ ຌ ຑຕະ຋ັຓ ຓະ຋ູຈ ຘາງຎະຽ຋ຈຓາຽຖຽຆງ ຾ຖະຘິ ຄ ກະ຿ຎ, ແຈ ໄ ບຸ຋ິຈຆີທຈ ິ ຽຑືໃ ບກາຌຽຏີ ງ຾ຏ຋ ັ ຓະ຃າຘໃຄັ ຘບຌຂບຄຑຕະຑຸຈ຋ະຽ຅຺ໄາ ໃ ຓ ຉະນົ ບຈແຖງະຽທຖາ 50 ຎີ ເຌຓາຽຖຽຆງ ຅ ຺ຌຽປັຈເນຑ ໄ ຕະຑຸຈ຋ະຘາ ຘະໜາດັໃ ຄປາກບ ັຌ຾ໜຌ ັ ໄ ຽຎັ ຌຑຕະຘ ຺ຄ ໄ ຾ກຌ ໃ ຖຄ຺ ເຌຈິຌ຾ຈຌ຾ນຄ ໃ ຌຌ, ບ ຺ຄໜຶໃ ຄ ຋ີໃ ຓີຏ ຌ ຺ ຄາຌ຋າຄກາຌຂີຈ ຂຼຌ຾ຖະຎາຊະກະຊາຽຏີ ງ຾ຏໃ຋ຓ ັ ນົ າງຑຘ ຺ຓ຃ທຌ. ຽຊິຄ຾ຓຌທ ຺ ຄາຌຂບຄຽຑິໃ ຌ ໃ າໃ ຽຑິໃ ຌ຅ະ຅າກແຎ ຾ຉຏ ໃ ຌ ງ ັຄ຃ ຺ຄຽຎັຌບະຓະຉະ ຾ຖະຘິຈຘາຌຸຘຈ ິ ຏູດ ໄ ຽໃູ ຍືໄບຄນົ ັຄ ກງ ັຄຘືຍຉໃ ຌາຽບ຺ າ ຋ັຓຓະ຋ີໃ ຽຑິໃ ຌຽ຃ີງແຈຂ ີ ຂຼຌ຾ຖະຽ຋ຈແທຌ ໄ ຈ ໄ ຌັ ໄ ບບກຽຏີງ຾ຏດ ໃ ໃາຄຍໃ ດຸຈ ໄ ດັຄ຾ຖະ຾ຎບບກນົ າງຑາຘາ ຽຎັຌ຋ີໃ ປູ຅ ໄ ັກກ ັຌ຋຺ໃທ຿ຖກ ເຌທ ຺ຄກາຌຑຸຈ ຋ະຘາຘະໜາ຾ຖະຎັຌງາຆ ຺ຌ຋຺ໃທແຎ.

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“...ສຳລບ ຸ ທະສຳສະໜຳມຳດ ົນນຳນແລວ ັ ຄ ົນລຳວເຮົຳ ທີ່ ເຄີຍນ ັບຖືພດ ້ ກຍ ັງ

ເຫັ ນວຳ່ ຈຳເປັນທີ່ ຄວນຈະອຳ່ ນຢູ່ ເພຳະວຳ່ ບຳງທີເຮົຳອຳດຈະຍ ັງບ່ ທັນຮູ້ ້ ພ ພຸດທະສຳສະໜຳທີ່ ບ ັນພະບູລດ ຸ ເຮົຳເຄີຍນ ັບຖືກ ັນມຳນີດ ີ ຽງພ. ສະນນ, ັ ້ ຈິ່ ງ ຖືວຳ່ ປື້ ມນອ ື ່ ີນຳເອົຳເລື່ ອງເກົ່ ຳມຳນຳສະເໜີໃໝ່ ້ ຍໆເຫຼັ ້ມນີ້ ປຽບເໝືອນຄູມ ່ ທ ເມື່ ອໃຫເ້ ຂົຳ້ ໃຈຕື່ ມອີກ.”

ຈຳກຄຳນຳຜູ້ແປ

“ປຶ້ ມທັມມະນອ ຸ ປະໂຫຍດຫຼຳຍພສ ົມຄວນ ເໝຳະແກກ ້ ຍໆເຫຼັ້ມນີ້ ເຫັ ນວຳ່ ມີຄນ ່ ຳນ

ນຳສະເໜີພດ ຸ ທະສຳສະໜຳຕື່ ມອີກ ໂດຍສະເພຳະແກນ ່ ັກສຶກສຳ, ປັນຍຳຊ ົນ, ້ ອ ແລະນ ັກສ ົງໄສທັງຫຼຳຍ ທີ່ ຍ ັງມີຂຂ ້ ງໃຈບຳງຢຳ່ ງກຽ່ ວກ ັບສຳສະໜຳນີ”້

ສຳນ ັກພິມໂຊຕິປນ ັ ຍຳ

ກຽ່ ວກ ັບຜູແ ້ ປ ສ ງັ ກ ັດຢູ່ວ ດ ັ ອ ງົ ຕື້ ມ ະຫຳວິ ຫ ຳນ, ນະຄອນຫຼ ວ ງວຽງຈ ັນ. ເປັ ນ ອຳຈຳນສອນປະຈ ຳ ວິທະຍຳໄລສ ົງ(ອ ົງຕື້)ເລີ່ ມແຕປ ່ ີ 2001 ແລະຊ ວ ່ ຍວຽກຫອ ້ ງກຳນ ອ.ພ.ສ ສູນກຳງ ໜວ ັ ແລະວິປດ ັ ສະນຳກ ັມມະຖຳນເລີ່ມແຕປ ່ ຍງຳນເຜີຍແຜສ ່ ີລະທມ ່ ີ 2005 ເຮັດວຽກ ໃຫທ ົ້ ົນຮອດປັດຈຸບ ັນ. ້ ັງສອງແຫງ່ ນີເ້ ປັນຕນມຳຈ

For Free Distribution ພິມແຈກເປັນທັມມະທຳນ

What is this religion  

A brief introduction to Buddhism.

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