SCOPE Staff Manual 2012-2013
MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
BASICS Staffer scorecard Expectations Job descriptions Glossary
3 4 5 5
WRITING Anatomy of a story Research resources Interviewing tips Ledes Writing with details Quotes
7 8 8 9 9 10
PHOTOGRAPHY Rule of thirds Interesting angles People Sports What not to do
12 13 14 15 16
DESIGN Anatomy of a page Page checklist Getting started Placing a story Placing a picture Using the library Dummy text and text wrapping Drop cap Justifying text Changing colors Photoshop: Cutouts Photoshop: Brightness, contrast, and cropping
18 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 25
>>>>> section 1:
STAFFER SCORECARD Name: ______________________
Section editor: ______________________
WRITING Met all deadlines (including those set by Executive Section Editor) If writer had an extension, editor should explain the reason here:
Quality of story Does the story reflect time and thought in the reporting/writing process? Are there 3 or more sources? Does the story avoid libel/editorializing (unless it is an opinion story)? Are there careless errors? Is the writing interesting? If the section editor asked the writer to go back and make changes, did the writer follow through?
Supplied a graphic for the story:
Played a part in the design process:
Showed up at least 2 times outside of class and helped out:
Helped out with other stories/graphics/pages:
Section editorâ€™s overall assessment of the story/reason for the score:
GRAPHICS AND PAGE DESIGN
EFFORT/WORK OUTSIDE CLASS
Total: ______ / 40
- Write one or more stories for each issue of the magazine - Write a beat story every two weeks for the website - Put time and effort into stories; do not just throw something together - Use good grammar and spelling - Do not editorialize (unless it is opinion) - Do research and interviews; do not make up anything if you are unsure - Use 3 or more sources - Work with Executive Section Editors as needed - If asked to make edits/changes to your story, you must do so in a timely fashion - Meet all deadlines set by the editors
- Take a photo or make a graphic for every story that you write (including online beat stories) - Help lay out pages for the magazine using InDesign - Assist with graphics/taking other photos as needed - Upload pictures to the journalism server once you have taken them, and clear them off the card. Ask somebody to show you how to upload pictures if you do not know - Do not abuse the cameras or take them for purposes other than journalism. We only have 3, and if people take them during class to go have fun with their friends, we will be stuck without a way to take pictures for the paper.
OUTSIDE OF CLASS
- Complete all assignments given to you by editors (including, but not limited to: conducting interviews, doing research for stories, taking polls/Saxon Speaks, writing news briefs, taking photos, designing pages, copy editing pages, and stuffing envelopes) - You will rarely, if ever, have to do homework for this class. The flip side of this is that during class, there is NO doing homework, wandering the halls, using your phone, surfing the Internet, watching YouTube, reading a book, or doing anything else other than journalism. This is a class - just as you wouldn’t do other things during math or English, you must give journalism your full attention while you are in class. - If you are finished with what you are doing, ask for a new assignment. There is always something that needs to be done!
- You are expected to come in outside of class (before school, Wednesday late starts, Saxon Time, lunch, after school) when you can. You will receive points on your grade based on how much you come in. - Editors always take notice of people who help outside of class; it’s a great way to show us that you are dedicated and want a position. - You must have an email address that you check daily! Email is the primary way we communicate. “I didn’t see the email” is not a valid excuse. - Meet deadlines - you should have enough time in class to finish all your work. If you don’t finish, you must do so on your own time.
job descriptions Editor in Chief
Manages and delegates, leads class. Works with Mrs. McAdams and all editors to communicate ideas to the staff. Edits the entire paper, ships it to the printer. Executive Design Editor
Attends art meetings with the EICs and Mrs. McAdams; plans design and graphics for each page. Executive Section Editor
Manages respective section; creates story and page assignments. Delegates work and manages staffers. Edits entire section, fills out grade sheets at the end of each issue. Assistant Section Editor
Assists Executive Section Editor, helps with story editing and in-class work. Assistant editors are in separate classes from their Executive Editors. Business Editor
In charge of subscriptions, ads, and other budget matters; works with EICs and Mrs. McAdams. Managing Editor
Communicates with EICs about blending the website and the paper. Manages beats and posting stories and pictures on the website. Copy Editor
Edits all the stories in one section for grammar and spelling; checks all names and dates on pages and in stories. Takes home a copy of his/her section right before the issue is finalized, to do a final copy edit. Staff Writer and Reporter
Writes one ore more stories for each issue of the paper, and creates a photo/graphic to go along with each story. Helps lay out the paper using InDesign in class. Assigned a beat (topic) to cover for the website, is responsible for filing a story and photo on that beat every other week.
BSAD: Big Stay After Day; when ev- Cut out: Deleting the background on erybody stays after school to finish the a picture so only the item shows paper. Dummy-text: Gibberish used as a Byline: The name of the person who placeholder on the InDesign page before the story is written wrote the story CMYK: The color mode that all photos InDesign: A program used to make the Saxon Scopeâ€™s pages need to be saved in (instead of RGB) Cropping: Using only part of a pic- Photoshop: A program used to edit photos and make graphics. ture
PSD: The file extension name for Photoshop files. All photos that go on the pages must be PSD (otherwise they look bad in print). Saxon Speak: Asking 4 people (1 from each grade, 2 boys and 2 girls) a question and taking their picture Server: Place on the computer where all journalism files are saved. Go to My Computer - Journalism$ - 2012-2013
>>>>> section 2:
ANATOMY OF A STORY Lede: Catches the reader’s attention Continuing to develop the reader’s attention Nutgraf: Tells what the story is about in a nutshell Background information More information Quote
Wrapping up the story
Cool ending/ clincher
he ended up in a place she would have never imagined. A tiny coastal town, half an hour from Portugal to the west, five minutes from the Atlantic to the south, where cars were just as scarce as the rain. For the first three months of her junior year, Natalie Rasmus studied abroad in Huelva, Spain through the program Ayusa, opting to live out the unpredictable experiences of the unconventional path. Rasmus attended the high school IES Alonso Sanchez, where each day contained its surprises and slight culture shocks, where one student once casually pulled out a lighter in the middle of class and another cried over receiving a U.S. dollar bill. It all began out of her very own curiosity. “Here, we’re stuck in a little bubble, and I wanted the chance to see the way other people live,” said Rasmus. “I wanted something that would set me apart from other juniors–that would broaden my horizons.” Rasmus never second guessed her plans. Not after four months of battling the school system, not after shuffling through several different counselors and superintendents to get her program approved. “I was told that I would be behind in a math class, and that I would have to take two sciences next year. It was definitely hard getting it through Langley, but it was the most amazing experience,” said Rasmus. Academic life differed, and although classes were taught in Andalucian Spanish, she received only a 20-minute homework load per night. “I transferred into an English class halfway through, where on the first day, ‘Leave. Left. Lift.’ was written on the board,” said Rasmus. None of the Spaniards could hear the difference between the words, so she slowly pronounced them nine times in front of the class, stunning her onlookers with the thickness of her American accent. With the decision to travel alone, combined with the extensive length of her trip, came the inevitable feeling of homesickness. “We kept in constant contact with each other through Facebook, and we skyped daily,” said junior Brittany Gallagher, who closely supported Rasmus throughout difficult days. Along with learning that “the American way of life isn’t the only way,” Rasmus’s stay in the beachy Spanish municipality clarified her priorities for the future. “I want to study foreign relations and improve my fluency in Spanish and other languages,” said Rasmus. “Coming back, I realized that all high school problems are not important, and that a certain test is not going to change my life. I have more motivation to go to a good school so that I can travel again… there is just so much more out there I want to see.” The school administration, too, supported Rasmus’s experience. “Her determination and strong initiative was what really made everything work,” said Ms. Jessica Omasta, Rasmus’s counselor. “I highly encourage other students to purse studying abroad, but only if they hold the same level of passion Natalie does. Because that’s what it takes–Passion.”
RESEARCH RESOURCES People
Teachers/Administrators/Counselors: Their emails can be found at www.fcps.edu/LangleyHS/staff.html. If you need to interview a teacher, email them to set up a time. Do not walk into their class and disturb them while they are teaching. Mr. Ragone: If you need to interview Mr. Ragone, go up to Ms. Jamsheed’s office (it is in the main office.) She will either tell you when to come back, or if he is free, she will let you in to see him immediately. Bring your notebook and a pen, in case you end up being able to see him right away. Students: If you do not know a student but need to find them, you can look up his/her schedule by going to the main office. They have a binder with a copy of every Langley student’s schedule. You may only pull a student out of class for an interview if a) it is absolutely urgent or b) you know their teacher won’t mind. Athletes: The Langley sports website, www.langleysports.org, has a roster for every single team. Click on any of the sports on the right-hand menu of the website, then click on “Roster” at the top. Websites www.fcps.edu/LangleyHS: Announcements, a calendar of all Langley events, contact info, and lots of other resources. www.langleysports.org: Has the game schedules, rosters, and scores for every sport www.langleyptsa.org: Home page of the Parent Teacher Student Association. Has information about fundraisers, PTSA news, and projects that the PTSA is doing. www.langleybands.org: Home page of the band www.langleychorus.com: Home page of the chorus www.langleyorchestra.com: Home page of the orchestra www.saxonstage.com: Home page of the drama department
INTERVIEWING TIPS - Be prepared! Find out all you can about the person/event. Have at least 10 questions already planned. Don’t ask questions that could have been learned beforehand. It’s a waste of time for both of you. - Be on time, and always be polite. - Explain your story and purpose. Don’t start questioning without giving the person the big picture. - Start easy. Be ready with your prepared questions. Save the hardest/probing questions after a warm-up period. - Be PATIENT and QUIET. Pause after an answer to make sure the person has nothing more to add. Sometimes silence leads to better answers. - Ask follow up questions. If someone tells you something juicy, don’t just move on to your next written question. - Your last question should always be: Do you have anything else you’d like to add? Almost always, the person will have more to tell you.
The lede is the first paragraph of your story. It is the attention getter, and it is one of the most important parts. After reading the lede, the reader will drop your story if it seems boring. Whenever you write a story, you should try to use one of these ledes: Blind lede
Attention getting lede
Truthfully, the whole concept of Ca- With our three-time state champion reer Day started out sounding like a lacrosse team, our state crown winning golf team, and a plethora of cliche. other successful squads, Langley is Direct address lede no stranger to championship wins. The phone rings. You pick it up; it’s Straight news lede an Ivy League admissions officer, Descriptive lede calling to give you a full scholar- Student government elections for She ended up in a place she would ship. the 2012-2013 school year will conhave never imagined: a tiny coastal sist of an unusually large amount of town, half an hour from Portugal to Imagine hearing yourself on the ra- uncontested positions. the west, five minutes from the At- dio, having your thoughts and voice lantic to the south, where cars were broadcasted for all to hear. just as scarce as the rain. First the pale pink nail polish. Then the gold stud earrings and the monogrammed purse. Is this any way for a football player to dress? It is if she’s a girl.
LEDES YOU SHOULD NEVER USE Topic lede
The school board convened Tuesday What has the school board decided “The cafeteria food is awful, and it night to discuss complaints about to do to reduce complaints about costs too much,” said sophomore Susie Saxon at the school board the cafeteria. cafeteria food? meeting Tuesday. This is lazy! The news is not that the Question ledes are just weak, irritatThe quote doesn’t fairly summarize school board met. Big deal. What ing stalls. Get to the point. the story. It’s an opinion, not a fact. happened?
Writing with detail Always include as much detail as you can! You can insert lots of facts to describe each noun that you write. Bad: Although they were victorious in this game, the varsity team has had some struggles during the record season. Better: Although they were victorious in Wednesday’s 55-degree game, the 12-member varsity team has had some struggles during the record season of 14 wins and one loss. Best: Although they were victorious, pulling out the win in the final two minutes in Wednesday’s 55-degree weather, the 12 member varsity team has had some struggles during the record season, which boasts eight more wins than last year.
USING QUOTES Every story has to have quotes. You can’t just write about something without talking to other people! But how do you use quotes in your story? 1. Start a new paragraph whenever someone new is talking.
2. Always describe the person who said the quote. If they are a teacher, say what they teach. If they are a student, say what grade they are in. Never say 9th grader, 10th grader, etc., always say the name of the grade (i.e. either freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior.) Correct: “You will all get free A’s this year,” said history teacher Mr. Saxon. Correct: “Football games are super fun,” said junior Liz Lemon. Incorrect: “I hate kids,” said Ms. Brown. Incorrect: “Cookies are bad,” said John Smith. Incorrect: “School food is better than a gourmet restaurant’s food,” said 10th grader Katie Jones. 3. Always put the quote first, followed by the person who said it. Or you can put the attribution in the middle of the quote. But never, ever put the attribution first. Correct: “I love Langley so very much,” said Principal Matt Ragone. Correct: “The courtyard is so great,” said Mr. T. “I love sitting in it.” Incorrect: Principal Matt Ragone said, “You all get free Chipotle every day this year.” 4. NEVER say, “When asked about _______, Susie Saxon said _______.” Incorrect: When asked about the dance marathon, Mr. Ragone said, “It was a great success.” 5. If you just want to use part of what someone said, instead of their whole sentence, make sure to put other information in front of or behind the quote, and say “according to” at the end. Correct: Taking journalism is “the best decision a person could make,” according to Susie Saxon. Incorrect: Some people “like journalism so much,” said Otto Saxon.
Correct: Ultimately, the majority of juniors thought the project was well worth their time. “It wasn’t as bad as I thought it would be,” said junior Abby Hassler. Incorrect: Ultimately the majority of juniors think the project was well worth their time and that “it wasn’t as bad as I thought it would be” said junior Abby Hassler.
6. DO NOT copy and paste a person’s paragraph-long quote from a Facebook interview you did. Paraphrase! 7. Take out unnecessary words like “um” and “well.” Incorrect: “Well, I feel like we, um, did like a really great job at that game, so yeah,” said John Smith.
>>>>> section 3:
RULE OF THIRDS Photography should be interesting! To spice your pictures up, and avoid boring deer-in-the-headlights shots, always follow the Rule of Thirds. When you take a picture, envision the shot being split into a grid, and align the main elements of the picture either along the lines, or where the lines intersect.
Don’t just take a head-on shot of something. When in doubt, kneel or raise the camera above your head. Try to get a unique angle that people don’t normally see.
Here’s an example of how an interesting angle can turn a boring subject into a cool picture. Our photographer was given the assignment to go out and take a picture of the Langley field. He could have just taken a boring, head-on picture like the one above. Instead, he knelt down and took the picture on the left. Or you can take a picture of just part of something! Don’t be afraid to zoom in a lot.
No mugshots! Instead, have a pic-
ture of the person in action. If they’re an athlete, get a picture of them playing their sport. If they’re in some sort of club, get a picture of them doing their activity. If it’s a teacher, get them sitting at their desk, writing on the board, or addressing their class. If you need help coming up with ideas, talk to any of the editors.
When you’re taking a picture of someone running, make sure to give them “room to run” in the picture. If they look like they’re about to run right out of the frame, the picture looks really awkward.
what not to do - Pictures of peoples’ backs - Pictures taken through fences - Pictures where you can’t see what’s going on - Blurry pictures (hold your breath while taking the picture to avoid shaking)
>>>>> section 4:
ANATOMY OF A PAGE Page number
Byline (author and staff position)
Date of issue
Section of the paper
Headline Dek (a second headline that describes the story) Photo credit Photo Caption Story; notice how it is justified (lined up on both sides)
Pull out quote Line to divide the two stories on the page Drop cap (the first letter of any story is always bigger) Graphic
PAGE CHECKLIST TEXT
Are all the stories placed? Is everything the right font? Is there a byline on each story? Does everything have a headline and dek?
Does each story have a drop cap? Does each new paragaph have an indent? Is the text wrapping okay? (i.e. no weird spaces) Is all text justified? (not feature)
PHOTOS Are all the photos placed? Photos arenâ€™t stretched? Stroke weight? Photos are the right brightness? Photo credits and captions?
GETTING STARTED Opening InDesign 1. Start > Program Files > Adobe Design Premium CS3 > Adobe InDesign CS3 Opening an InDesign file 1. File > Open 2. Go to the Server and pick the appropriate file. It would be in 2012-2013 > Issue X > Pages Converting an image to PSD 1. If this job is not done, then the photos & graphics look bad in print. 2. Open Photoshop. (Start > Program Files > Adobe Design Premium CS3 > Adobe Photoshop CS3) 3. Open the photo. (File > Open or Ctrl+O) 4. Image >Mode > CMYK
Un-pixelating a photo or graphic 1. When first opened on a page, a photo or graphic may look pixelated. It doesn’t matter at all, and this can be easily fixed if you want. 2. Right-click > Display Performance > High Quality Display
Saving your work 1. Make SURE to save everything you do! 2. Click File > Save As. Give your work a title if it doesn’t have one already. The title should describe the item (for example, if it’s a graphic about burglaries, call it Burglary Graphic.) 3. You should save to the journalism server, under the appropriate issue folder. If it’s a photo or graphic, go to Issue X > Photos and Graphics > Corresponding Section.
LAYING OUT A PAGE Placing a story 1. Make sure the story has finalized by the copy desk before you place it. 2. Open the page you want to place your story on. Go to File > Place. 3. Issue X > Finalized Stories and then click the story you want to place. (If itâ€™s not there, then the story is not finalized yet. Put dummy text instead.) 4. Click and drag. Then let go of your mouse click button. 5. Click on the red plus sign and drag.
LAYING OUT A PAGE cont. Placing a picture 1. File > Place (or Ctrl+D). Make sure the photo you are placing is a PSD! If it’s not, see the section “Getting Started” to learn how to convert the photo to a PSD. 2. Find your photo in Issue X > Photos and Graphics 3. Click and drag (just like placing a story) 4. Move around if needed. Click on the photo/graphic and move the cursor around. 5. Un-stretch the photo. Right click > Fitting > Fill Frame Proportionally. 6. Scale if needed (click on the white arrow right below the black arrow in the InDesign left toolbar, click on the picture, and you can either move the photo around within the frame or hold down shift and scale the photo. 7. Add a stroke weight (black outline around the photo). Right click > Stroke Weight > 1 pt.
laying out a page cont. Using the library - headlines, deks, fonts, photo credits/captions, Saxon Speaks, and pull-out quotes 1. In InDesign, File > Open > My Computer > Journalism$ > 20122013 > Library 2. Drag in whatever items you need onto your page
Inserting dummy text 1. Make a text box. (Click on the Type Tool in the tool box and drag the box on the page.) 2. Right click > Fill in with Placeholder Text Text wrap 1. Click on the item that you want to wrap your text around. 2. Window > Text Wrap 3. Select the <Wrap around the object shape> icon and Wrap to Both Right & Left Sides. 4. Adjust the space between the photo/graphic and the text so that the text doesnâ€™t look crammed. 5. When you text wrap a cut-out photo/graphic, select <Alpha Channel> instead of <Same as Clipping> in contour options.
LAYING OUT A PAGE CONT. Drop cap 1. This must be done for all stories 2. Highlight the first letter of the story 3. Click on the paragraph icon at the top of the screen. 4. Change the drop cap size to 2 5. Go back to the font menu. With the first letter still selected, change the font to Franklin Gothic Demi Cond
Justifying the text 1. This must be also be done for all stories 2. Go to the paragraph menu > Select the bottom left option for justification
Changing the color of text/boxes/lines 1. Select the text/box/line you want to change the color of. 2. Select the correct box on the left toolbox. If you want to change the color of text/box itself, choose the fill box (whole square box). If you want to change the color of an outline of a text/box, or the color of a line, choose the stroke box (box with a hole inside). 3. Among the color icon, gradient icon, and empty icon below the fill & stroke boxes, make sure the color icon is clicked (as the diagram above). 4. Double click the fill box/stroke box. The Color Picker appears. Change the color as you wish by manipulating the controls or entering number values. (If you need the Scope yellow, just get it from the library.)
PHOTOSHOP Doing cut-outs 1. Copy the background layer and turn off the eye of the original.
2. Select Polygonal Marquee Tool from the tool box on the left side of the screen. 3. Trace around the item that needs to be cut out, clicking to drop anchor points. 4. Right click > Select Inverse 5. Press delete. 6. Right click > Deselect.
PHOTOSHOP CONT. Brightness/Contrast 1. Image > Adjustments > Brightness/ Contrast
Cropping a photo 1. Select the crop tool 2. Select the part in the image you want to crop (drag the mouse) 3. Press enter