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SATYAGRAHA WEEKLY

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(Dec. 12, 2013)

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ef/tdf ;Qfwf/L a9fl/P l5d]sL /fi6« ef/tdf xfn} ;DkGg kfFr k|fGtx?sf] lgjf{rgn] /fhgLltnfO{ t/+lut agfPsf] 5 . of] lgjf{rgn] cfufdL dfr{ dlxgflt/ x' g uO/x] s f] cfdlgjf{rgsf] k"j{ ;+s]tsf ?kdf klg lng] ul/G5 . ;DkGg k|fGtLo lgjf{rgn] s]Gb|df ;Qf?9 ef/tLo /fli6«o sf+u|]; / To; bnsf] s]Gb|ljGb'sf ?kdf /x]sf] uf+wL g] x ? kl/jf/nfO{ 7" n f] wSsf k/] s f] ljZn]if0f ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . lgjf{rg kl/0ffdcg';f/ sf+u; ]| cToGt} ;fgf] /fHo ldhf]/ddf dfq cfkm\gf] OHht hf] u fpg ;kmn ePsf] 5 . sf+ u | ] ; sf] o;eGbf cl3 cfkm\gf] ;Qf /x]sf] /fh:yfg / lbNnLdf ;Qf u'dfPsf] dfq xf]Og, cToGt} zd{gfs k/fho Joxf]/]sf] 5 . ljkIfL ef/tLo hgtf kf6L{n] /fh:yfgdf ljho xfl;n u/]sf] 5, cfkm\gf]

of] lgjf{rgdf b'O{ kfqx? cToGt} rrf{df /x] / oL b'O{ kfqx?sf] ;kmntf jf k|efjsf af/]df uDeL/ ax;sf] yfngL ePsf] 5 . ef/tLo hgtf kf6L{sf] tkm{af6 cfufdL cfd lgjf{rgdf k|wfgdGqLsf pDd]bjf/ 3f]lift u' h /ft /fHosf d' V odGqL g/] G b| df] b Lsf] k|efjsf af/]df 7"nf] rrf{ x'Fb}5 . ef/tLo hgtf kf6L{ s f] ;kmntfdf g/] G b| df] b Lsf] nf]slk|otfn] sfd u¥of] jf u/]g eGg] ax; z'? ePsf] 5 . dWok|b]z / 5lQ;u9 /fHodf df]bLsf] nf]slk|otfsf] s]xL c+s ylkP klg g/]Gb| df]bL c/lj+b s]h/Ljfn d'ntM To; /fHodf efhkfsf d'VodGqLx? lzj/fh l;+x / 8f= /d0f l;+xsf] ljsf;d'vL ;Qf /x]sf] dWok|b]zdf cem ;'b[9 eP/ kms]{sf] pknAwLnfO{ d'Vo sf/s tTjsf ?kdf lnOPsf] 5 eg] 5lQ;u9df ;Qf hf]ufPsf] 5 . lbNnLdf 5 . /fh:yfg /fHodf rflxF= sf+u|];L d'VodGqL klg ef/tLo hgtf kf6L{ ;aeGbf 7"nf] bnsf czf]s uxnf]tsf] /fd|f] sfdsf jfjh"b sf+u|];n] g/fd|f] k/fho Joxf]g'{k¥of] / afFsL k[i7 ^ df ?kdf :yflkt ePsf] 5 .

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SATYAGRAHA WEEKLY

– ;]js ;'bfdf

sf+u;]| n] cfkm\gf] x}l;ot a'emf];\

sf+u|]; eGg] Tof] hdftn] lgSs} 7"nf] c3]{nf] ul//x]sf] 5 . hfjf] !(^ ;ef;b\ ePsf] bnn] Toqf] ljzfn !&% ;ef;b\ ePsf] Pdfn] h:tf] dxfg\ kf6L{;Fu lgx"F vf]Hg] xf] t Û ldNb} lgldNg] s'/f] ÛÛ kf7sx? e'mlsPnfg\, !&% eGbf !(^ a9L g} xf] eg]/ . ;fdfGo ul0ft a'em\g] ca'em d'v{x?n] dfq To;f] eGg ;Sb5g\ . ?kdf !(^ 7"nf] eP klg ;f/df !&% 7"nf] / ljzfn xf] eg]/ a'em\g g;Sg'sf k5fl8 x7jfbL, d'9 / k/Dk/fut a'h'{jf lrGtgn] sfd u/]sf] 5 . ;fdfGo c+sul0ftsf ;"qn] ;f]Rg' d'vt{ f xf] . !(^ / !&% nfO{ PsIf0f yflt /fvf}+ . k|ToIf lgjf{lrt ePsfx?nfO{ x]/f}+ . sf+u|];sf] !)% c+s leq ePsf !,),% nfO{ hf]8\bf ^ x'G5 eg] Pdfn]sf] (! sf] ( / ! nfO{ hf]8\bf !) x'G5 . ^ 7"nf] ls !) 7"nf] < sf+u|]; eg]sf] ^ xf] eg] Pdfn] eg]sf] !) xf] . csf]{ zAbdf eGg] xf] eg] k|To]s ^ hgf sf+u|];sf] t'ngfdf !) hgf Pdfn] 5g\ eg]/ a'em\g'kb{5 . oL b'O{sf] ef/ oxL xf] . s'g} pkj'h|'s lg:s]nf . !)% / (! x]/]/ x'G5 / ;dfg'kflts ;d]t hf]8\g'k5{ . !(^ / !&% sf] d'nfÍ lgsfnf}+ t eGg] ts{ klg ul/Pnf . s'/f] To;/L x'Fb}g . k|ToIf eg]sf] k|ToIf xf], ;dfg'kflts eg]sf] t 5fofF g xf] . dfly u0fgf ul/P cg';f/ !)% / (! af6 lgsflnPsf] d'nfÍ d'Vo xf] . ToxL d'nfÍn] ;dfg'kfltsdf k|fKt x'g] l;6 ;+VofnfO{ u'0f u/]kl5 Tof] kf6L{sf] k|fKtfÍ k|fKt x'G5 / k|fKtf+snfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ sf] 7"nf] sf] ;fgf] l5gf]kmfgf] ug'{ j}1flgs x'G5 / tfls{s xf] . sf+u;]| sf] d'nfÍ ^ n] ;dfg'kfltsdf k|fKt x'g] ;+Vof (! nfO{ u'0fg ubf{ %$^ c+s k|fKt x'G5 eg] Pdfn]sf] d'nfÍ !) n] ;dfg'kfltsdf k|fKt x'g] ;+Vof *$ nfO{ u'0fg ubf{ *$) x'G5 . Pdfn] *$), sf+u|]; %$^ . olt s'/f] :ki6 eO;s]kl5 Tof] sf+u;]| eGg] hdftsf] ;fd' s'g} ljsNk 5}g . dxfg\ Pj+ ljzfn Pdfn]n] h] h] eGof], n'?n'? ToxL dfg]/ cfkm\gf] x}l;ot a'em]/ Jojxf/ ug'{ 7Ls x'G5 . Pdfn]n] /fi6«klt x6fpg'k5{ eg]kl5 x6fpg'k5{ . pkfo 5}g . Tof] lztn lgjf;df a:g] e};+ L uf]7fnf]n] klg tTsfn} 5fl8lbg'kg]{ xf] . *$) ef/ ePsf] Pdfn]sf] cfb]znfO{ %$^ ef/ ePsf] 5f]6] kf6L{ sf+u;]| sf] cf8df c6]/ ug{ t k6Ss} ldNb}g lg Û /fi6«klt, pk/fi6«klt dfq xf]Og, eljiodf p7\g;Sg] s'g} klg k|Zgdf Pdfn]sf] cu|flwsf/ /xG5 . bfgjL/ Pdfn]n] lbPsf] v08df k|wfgdGqL kb kfOof] eg] …hbf} dflnsÚ eGb} bfd /fVg' l7s x'G5 . To;df xfd|f] ;'zLn cflb OToflb eg]/ av]8f lgsfNg' x'Fb}g . Pdfn]n] /fh]Gb| s];L jf /fd]Zj/ 9'+u]n h;sf] gfd tf]s] klg n';'Ss dfGg'kb{5 . cflv/ Tof] k|wfgdGqL t cfn+sfl/s g xf] . ef]ln Pdfn]n] k7fpg] pk– k|wfgdGqLnfO{ sfd ug{ ;lhnf] x'g'k¥of] lg Û ;du|df eGg] xf] eg] sf+u;]| n] k'/ftgk+yL h8;'qjfbL oyfl:yltjfbL ;f]r TofUg'kb{5 . j}1flgs cfw'lgs lrGtg c+ufn]/ Jojxfl/s aGg'kb{5 . :ki6 a'lemg] efiffdf eGg] xf] eg] sf+u|];n] cfkm\gf] x}l;ot a'em\g'k5{ .

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bzf}+ jif{df ;flgdf a}s +

;flgdf a}+s lnld6]8 ljQLo sf/f]af/ ;~rfngsf] bzf}+ jif{df k|j]z u/]sf] 5 . :yfkgfsfndf ljsf; a}+ssf] ?kdf ljQLo sf/f]af/ z'? u/]sf] ;flgdf a}+s zlgaf/ bzf}+ jif{df k|j]z u/]sf] xf] . jflif{sf]T;jsf] cj;/df /Qmbfg, j[Iff/f]k0f, lgMz' N s :jf:Yo ;]jfnufotsf ;+:yfut pQ/bfloTj cGtu{ t sf sfo{ q md ;~rfng u/]sf] a}+sn] hgfPsf] 5 . kl5Nnf] cjlwdf s'n v/fa shf{ z"Go bzdnj z"Go tLg k|ltzt /x]sf] a}+ssf] k'FhLsf]if eg] !$ bzdnj *& k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .

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gf/f;lxt a}+sn] s[ifs, Jofkf/L tyf pBdLx?nfO{ ljleGg lsl;dsf n3', ;fgf, demf}nf tyf 7"nf shf{x? pknAw ub}{ cfPsf] hgfPsf] 5 . a}s + n] xfn;d $! xhf/ hgf u|fxssf] lgIf]k vftf vf]nL /fli6« o ;xsf/L a} + s n] !) cf} + u|fxs–;]jf k|bfg ub}{ cfPs]f 5 . a}s + n] ;fwf/0f;efn] a}s + df gofF sfo{;ldlt rog u/]sf] 5 . /d]z kf]v/]n g]t[Tjsf] Kofng /fh]zxl/ hf]zLsf] KofgnnfO{ ef/L dtn] k5fl8 kfb}{ ljhoL ePsf] xf] . s'n ^ xhf/ dtbftf eP klg @^ ;o $* dt v;]sf]df kf]v/]nn] !$ ;o %^ / hf]zLn] * ;o ^( dt NofPsf lyP . kf]v/]n ;j{;fwf/0fsf] nflu (@ s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] z]o/ Kofngsf tkm{ a f6 ;~rfns ;ldlt -cfO{kLcf]_ hf/L ug]{ of]hgfdf /x]sf] ;b:odf ;l/tf ltlD;gf e§/fO{, /fdz/0f hgfPsf] 5 . a}s + n] stf/, o'gfO6]8 Old/]6; \ zdf{ l3ld/], xl/x/gfy of]uL, b]j/fh c/a -o"PO{_, ;fpbL c/a, s'jt] , ax/fOgaf6 k/fh'nL, /fdaxfb'/ hL;L, hfgaxfb'/ ljk|i] f0f leq\ofpFb} cfPsf] 5 eg] ;'g–rfFbL tfdfª ljhoL ePsf 5g\ eg] s]aL pk|]tL cfoft u/L ljqmL;d]t ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .

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k/z' sfkm\n] Pdfcf]jfbL cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfn …k|r08Ú n] o;k6ssf] r'gfjdf w]/} l;6 lhTg] ck]Iff ug{' c:jfefljs lyPg . r'gfjL ;/sf/ lgdf{0f / lgjf{rg k|lqmofsf] dfxf]n aGg'df ;dsfnLg zLif{ g]t[Tjk+lQm eGbf pgs} b]g a9L lyof] . ut df3df x]6f}+8f dxflwj]zgaf6 lvn/fh ;/sf/sf] df]8]n k|:t't u/]sf k|r08s} sf/0f g} g]skf–dfcf]jfbL;lxt ## bnLo df]rf{sf] cj/f]w l5rf]n/] r'gfjL dfxf]n tof/ ePsf] lyof] . Jofks cfz+sf / cfnf]rgfsf aLrdf klg pgsf] b]zJofkL …x]lnsf]K6/ bf}8Ú n] r'gfj x'G5 eGg] ;Gb]z lbPs} xf] . To;sf/0f r'gfjL ;/sf/sf] cfTdan / tof/Ln] xf]Og, k|r08x¿sf] b[9tfn] g} lgjf{rg ;DkGg x'g] cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf] xf] . rf} t kmL{ cfz+ s faLr k| r 08sf] ljZjf;df sf+u; ]| / Pdfn]n] k|wfgGofofwLz ;/sf/ u7g :jLsf/ u/]sf x'g\ . o;df cb[Zo kf6f]af6 lgjf{x ePsf] e"ldsf jf b]vfOPsf] ¿lr s] lyof] eGg]af/]df k|r08 / cGo zLif{ g]tfx¿ g} cjut 5g\ . of] ;sf/fTds / pT;fxhgs kl/l:ylt Pdfcf]jfbLsf] kIfdf lyof] ls nf]stGqsf] kIfdf eGg] s;Laf6 x]g{ Pdfcf]jfbL r'ss ] f sf/0f clxn]sf] cGof]n pTkGg ePsf] xf] . x]lnsf]K6/ bf}8df hfFbf b]ze } l/ k|r08sf] jl/kl/ em'lDdPsf] eL8nfO{ Pdfcf]jfbLn] cfkm\gf dtbftf ;lDemof] . k|r08n] htftt} b'O{ ltxfO cfpg] ;Defjgf b]v] . sfo{stf{sf ljljw Rofgnn] k|r08nfO{ elg/Xof]– …ax'dt lglZrt 5, b'O{ ltxfOsf] ;Defjgf w]/} 5 .Ú kl/0ffdtM k|r08x¿ ;Defljt lhtsf] pQ]hgfdf 8'Ab} uP . k|r08n] dtu0fgf cf/De x'Fbf;Dd cfkm\gf] kf6L{sf] b]zJofkL k|efjaf/] h] a'em]sf lyP, Tof] qmdzM ldYof ;fljt eof] . jl/kl/ em'lDdPsf sfo{stf{, n]vs, a'l4hLjLn] h] l/kf]6{ lbP/ pgnfO{ v';L kf/]sf lyP, k|r08sf nflu tL ;a} PsfPs lg/f;fdf ablnP . sf7df8f} + – !) sf] dtu0fgf x'Fb} ubf{ b]lvof] ls /];sf] t];|f] nfOgdf k|r08sf] dt slgs'yL bf}l8Fb} lyof] . ;du| k|lqmofsf] kxnstf{sf b[li6n] k|r08nfO{ dtkl/0ffd :jLsf/ ug{;Sg] cj:y} /x]g . To;kl5 Ps}lbg ^ d+l;/df kf6L{sf tkm{af6 b'O{k6s jQmJoafhL eof] Pp6f k| r 08 / csf{ ] k| j Qmf clUg ;fksf]6fsf] x:tfIf/df . To;cl3 k|r08n] afa'/fd e§/fO{, gf/fo0fsfhL >]i7 / kf]i6axfb'/ af]u6LnfO{ af]nfP/ nflhDkf6df lanf} g f ul/;s] s f lyP . k| r 08n]

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;'g]hfg]sf] if8\oGqsf] af:gf tLg} g]tfn] cfTd;ft ul/;s]sf lyP . a¿ e§/fO{n] ;'g]hfg]sf if8\oGqsf syf Tof] a}7sdf ylkPsf] lyof] . r'gfjdf k/fhosf] k|:6 lIflth k|s6 eO/xFbf k|r08x¿n] b]v]– lgjf{rgcl3 cu|ufdL elgPsf ;a} d'2f cfkm}; + uF 5g\ . klxrfg -hftLo_ ;lxtsf] ;+ 3 Lotf, wd{lg/k]Iftf, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq cfkm\g} kf]N6fdf 5 . s]jn hgdt sf+u; ]| / Pdfn];uF 5 . d'2f cfkm";uF , cfkm\gf d'2fdf slgs'yL kl5 nfUg] ck]Iff ul/Psf sf+u; ]| – Pdfn] k|r08x¿sf b[li6df s]jn km8\s] lsgf/fsf ;fIfL dfq} x'g\ . To;sf/0f k|r08x¿n] 5nkmn u/]– …kl/jt{gsf Ph]G8f xfdL;Fu, hgdt sf+u; ]| ;Fu . of] s;/L ;Dej x'G5 <Ú k|r08x¿sf] b[li6uf]r/df o:tf] ;Dej x'g] Pp6} cj:yf lyof], Tof] xf] wfFwnL . pgLx¿n] dtbfg k|lqmofdf wfFwnL b]vg] g\ -lsgeg] l56k'6afx]s ePs} lyPg_ . dWo/ftdf wfFwnLsf] ;+s]t pgLx¿n] dtu0fgfdf b]v] . clg k|r08 lgjf;df tof/ eof], wfFwF nLsf] dglrGt] kxf8 . nuQ} Pdfcf]jfbL x]8Sjf6{/n] sfo{stf{nfO{ ;Gb]z kmdf{of], …dtu0fgf hxfF h:tf] cj:yfdf 5, alxisf/ u/]/ aflx/ lg:s . cfkm\gf] k/fhosf] /ldtf x]//] ga; . kl/jt{gsf Ph] G 8f xfdL;F u 5g\ .Ú Pdfcf] j fbLn] cfTd;ft ug{ ;s]g ls pgLx¿n] b]vs ] f, a'em]sf jf k9fPsf …cu|ufdL d'2f -ljz]ifu/L hftLo cfwf/df ;+3Lotf_ hgcbfntdf lt/:s[t eO;s]sf lyP . hgtfn] s]jn :jLsf/ u/]– ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq / ;fdYo{sf cfwf/df ;+3Lotf . k|r08nfO{ wSsf 7" n f] ljhosf] k| l tIffdf a;] s f k|r08nfO{ k/]sf] em:sf cGttM cWoIf kb;Dd k'u/] 7f]lSsof] . g}ltstf eGg] lrh lbdfusf] s'g} s'gfdf lyof] eg] k|r08sf nflu kf6L{;Qf x/]skn k|lts"n lyof] . t/ r'gfjL k/fho;Fu hf]l8Psf] g]tT[ jsf] c;kmntf, kf6L{ gLlt / kf6L{ k+lQmsf] z}nLnfO{ k|r08 l6dn] cfTd;ft ug{' csf{] k| l tufdL sbd 7x/ u¥of] . a¿ nflhDkf6sf] 5nkmnd} k|r08 l6dn] z+sfsf] ofqf ;' ? u¥of] . cl3Nnf] r' g fjdf lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnfn] ;Qf x:tfGt/0f ug{ lsg ;do nufP < k|wfg;]gfklt ?Sdf+ub s6jfn x6fpFbf /f]Sg] sf] sf] lyP < k|r08x¿sf] cfFvf cufl8 k"j; { g] fklt s6jfn, tTsfnLg ef/tLo /fhb"t /fs]z ;"b, /fi6«klt /fdj/0f ofbj, sf+u|];sf tTsfnLg ;efklt lul/hfk|;fb sf]O/fnf, Pdfn]sf cWoIf emngfy vgfn qmd};uF cfpFb} lyP . olt dfq xf]Og, k|r08n] olt;Dd z+sf u/], …cl3Nnf] df3df cfkm"n] k|:tfj u/] klg lvn/fh ;/sf/sf] jf:tljs k|:tfjs s'g pk/jfnf lyof] < lgjf{rgdf g]kfnL ;]gf kl/rfng s;/L eof] <Ú oL ;a} z+sfsf] hjfkm k|r08x¿;Fu lyof] lsgeg] of] u]ddf pgLx¿ klg ;xefuL lyP . t/ z+sfsf] ofqf s]xL dfOn to ubf{ k|r08x¿n] :ki6¿kdf if8\oGqsf] tl:a/ b]v] . lsgeg] Pdfcf]jfbL /fhgLlt

kf]=a=g+= M @!%!) O{dn ] M satyagrahaweekly@gmail.com

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@)&) ;fn d+;L/ $ ut] ;DkGg ;+ljwfg;ef ;b:o lgjf{rgkZrft PsLs[t g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -dfcf]jfbL_ nufot /fhgLlts bnx¿;Fu ;xdlt lgdf{0fsf nflu jftf{ / ;+jfb rln/x]sf] ;Gbe{df ;dfg'kflts ;"lraf6 bnx¿n] 5flgPsf pDd]bjf/x¿sf] gfdfjnL k|:t't ug{ s]xL ;do yKg' pko'Qm ePsfn] @)&) d+;L/ @% ut];Ddsf nflu tf]lsPsf] ;dodf % lbg yk u/L d+l;/ #) ut];Dd ;do a9fO{ lbg g]kfnL sf+u|];n] lgjf{rg cfof]u ;dIf cg'/f]w u/]sf] 5 . –lrgsfhL >]i7 d'[Vo ;lrj, g]kfnL sf+u|];

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blIf0f clk|msfsf /+ue]b lj/f]wL dxfg g]tf, ljZjdf rln/x]sf] pTkLl8t ;d'bfox¿sf] d'lQm cfGbf]ngsf] k|]/0ffsf] ;|f]t g]N;g dG8]nfsf] (% jif{df lgwg ePsf]n] pxfFsf] :juL{o cfTdfsf] lr/ zflGtsf] sfdgf ub{} >G2f~hln AoQm ub{5f}+ . – s'df/ lnª\b]g s]lGb|o cWoIf, d~r ;Da4 ;+3Lo lnDa'jfg /fHo kl/ifb\

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blIf0f clk|msfsf k|yd cZj]t /fi6«klt Pj+ /+ue]b lj/f]wL g]tf g]N;g d08]nfsf] z'qmaf/ laxfg (% jif{sf] pd]/df hf]xfg];ju{df lgwg ePsf] va/n] dnfO{ ddf{xt / :tAw agfPsf] 5 . blIf0f clk|msfdf /+ue]bL zf;gsf] cGTo u/L ;a} hgtfnfO{ ;dfg clwsf/ pkef]u ug{] cj;/ k|bfg ug{ cfhLjg ;dlk{t d08]nfsf] lgwgsf] o; b'Mvb 38Ldf d blIf0f clk|msL ;/sf/, ToxfFsf hgtf / zf]s;GtKt kl/jf/k|lt ;dj]bgf k|s6 ub{} lbj+ut cfTdfsf] rL/zflGtsf] sfdgf ub{5' . nf]stGqsf d"Nox¿ ;fdlhs Gofo / ;dfgtfsf] dfu ub{} nfdf] ;do;Dd clk|msL g]zgn s+u; ]| df cfa4 /xL /+ue]blj/f]wL ;+3if{sf] g]tT[ j ug{e ' Psf d08]nfsf] lgi7f, Tofu, ;dk0f{ / lgZjfy{efjn] blIf0f clk|msfnfO{ nf]stGqsf] cfw'lgs o'udf k|jz ] u/fPsf] xf] . hgtf / /fi6«nfO{ ;jf{k] /L ;Dem]/ sfd ug{] d08]nf o; ztfAbLsf] Ps dxfg cfbz{ x'gx' G' Yof] . pxfFsf] oxL cfbz{n] ljZjsf pTkLl8t hftL ;d'bfosf] /fhgLltnfO{ rL/sfn;Dd dfu{lgb{z ] g ul//xg] xfdLn] ljZjf; u/]sf 5f+} . – ljZj]Gb| kf;jfg cWoIf, blnt hghflt kf6L{

w]/} xb;Dd if8\oGqsf] l;4fGt …sG;lk/];L Yof}/LÚ åf/f lgb{]lzt 5 . To;kl5 syf a'lgof]– dtbfg;Dd l7s} lyof] . …lsgeg] dtbfg zflGtk" 0 f{ eof] eg] / lj1lKt ;a}eGbf klxn] hf/L ug{] k|r08 g} lyPÚ dtbfg s] G ›b] l v dtu0fgf:yn;Dd dtk]l6sf k'¥ofpg] a]nf wfFwnL eof], dtk]l6sf ;fl6of] . @ ;o $) j6} If]qdf if8\oGq eof] .Ú t/ lht]sf @^ l;6df wfFwnL / if8\ o Gq ePg . lsgeg] ToxfF Pdfcf]jfbLsf pDd]bjf/n] lht]sf 5g\ . Pdfcf]jfbLsf] z+sfdf ;a}eGbf 7"nf] if8\oGq sf7df8f}+–!) df eof] . lsgeg] ToxLF a f6 …qmflGtgfos k| r 08Ú t] ; | f ] :yfgdf ;d{gfs xf/ a]xf]b{} lyP . Tof] If]qsf] d'6' sLlt{k'/nfO{ k|r08n] cfkm\gf] /fhgLltsf] cf:yfk'~h agfPsf lyP . sf/0f, sfN;{, n]lgg, dfcf], :6flng, P+uN] ; lyPgg\ . lyof] – g] k fn PsLs/0fstf{ k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxn] /fHo PsLs/0fsf a]nf sLlt{k'/dfly u/]sf] cfqmd0fsf qmddf ePsf] elgPsf k|fof]lht syf . uf]vf{nL ;] g fn] sLlt{ k ' / ] x ¿sf] !& wfgL{ gfs sfl6Psf] ldysdf plePsf] hfltjfbL r]tgf k|r08sf] 7"nf] /fhgLlts cfbz{ lyof] . uf]vf{nLlj/f]wL Tof] a]nfsf] k|lt/f]wL dfgl;stfnfO{ pgn] clxn] oyfy{ d f abNg vf]h] . clg cfkm"nfO{ k|r08n] uf] v f{ n Lx¿;F u n8\ g ] tTsfnLg sLlt{k'/]x¿sf] kl5Nnf] pQ/flwsf/L 7fg] . k| r 08n] dtbfgsf] s] x L lbgcl3 …sLlt{k'/n] ;fdGtL /fhf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] k|lt/f]w u/]sf] ufyfÚ cfkm\gf] klg cfbz{ /x]sf] atfpFb} lyP . Tof] a]nf ePsf] cTofrf/sf] lx;fa–lstfa ug{], Ifltk"lt{ lbg] k| r 08sf] 3f] i f0ff :jo+ ToxfF s f hgtfsf nflu xfF;f]sf] ljifo ag]sf] lyof] . lsgeg] Tof] a]nfsf] 36gf Oltxf;sf] cfjZos df]8 lyof] eGg]df clxn] s;}nfO{ klg ;Gb]x 5}g . t/ s]xL a'l4hLjLx¿ klg k|r08sf] Tof] dxfg\ a'l4dtfsf] kl5 bf} l 8P . t/ k| r 08x¿sf] hfltjfbL dfGotfnfO{ sLlt{ k ' / n] g} c:jLsf/ ul/lbof] . k| r 08sf nflu zflGtk" 0 f{ /fhgLltdf cfPkl5sf] of] j}rfl/s klg xf/ lyof] . t/ pgn] o;nfO{ if8\oGqsf syflt/ ldNsfP / pgsf] g] t [ T jdf Pdfcf]jfbL k'gM Psl9Ssf eof] . /fhgLlts df]ntf]n k|r08 o:tf /fhgLlts v]nf8L x'g,\ h;n] wfFwnL k|s/0fsf] 7"nf] kxf8 v8f u/]/ sdhf]/L / lhDd]jf/Laf]w ug{k' g{] cj:yfaf6 cfkm"nfO{ d'Qm u/fP . k|r08n] kf6L{sf] ;d{gfs k/fhosf] lhDd]jf/ g]tT[ j xf]Og eGg] ;Gb]z sfo{stf{dfem lbPsf 5g\, h;sf sf/0f xlNng'kg{] pgsf] u2L cem sl;nf] x'bF } uof] . ;fgf] ;+s6nfO{ 7"nf] ;+s6 v8f u/]/ kG5fOlbg] k|r08 snfn] Pdfcf]jfbLleq km]l/ klg ;kmntf xft kf¥of] . pgn] kf6L{sf cfGtl/s sdhf]/L, Ph]G8fx¿sf] c;kmntfsf] oyfy{eGbf kf6L{kl+ QmnfO{ cs{} 8'u+ fdf ;jf/ u/fP . kf6L{kl+ Qmsf] Wofg wfFwnL k|s/0fdf uof] . To;kl5 k|r08n] yfn]– /fhgLlts afu{l] gªsf] bf];f| ] RofK6/ .

k|r08n] df]xg j}BnfO{ e]6/] eg]– …uNtL ul/P5 . clxn] yfxf eof] .Ú j}Bn] eg]– …;+ljwfg;efdf hfFbg} f}+ eg] sfo{ut Pstf x'g;S5 .Ú To;kl5 k|r08 / pgsf] l6dn] ;Gb]z lbP– …zflGt k|lqmofsf] Pp6f kIf dfcf]jfbL xf] . Pp6f dfcf]jfbL z'?b]lv g} aflx/ 5, Pdfcf]jfbL klg aflx/ a:b}5 . b'j} dfcf]jfbLnfO{ aflx/ /fv]/ s;/L ;+ljwfg aGbf] /x]5, xfdL klg x]5f{+} .Ú t/ j}Bx¿nfO{ r'gfjdf cfpg glbg] k|r08x¿ g} x'g\ eGg] s'/f nf]sn] hflg;s]sf] 5 . k| r 08n] afu{ ] l gªs} nflu dw] z cfGbf]ngsf] p7fgstf{ pk]G› ofbj, dxGy 7fs'/ / /fh]G› dxtf], hghflt ;]lG6d]G6 af] s ] s f czf] s /fO{ x ¿nfO{ ;d] 6 ] / df] r f{ a GbLsf] z' ? jft u/] . hftLo ;+3Lotfsf kIfkf]ifs, t/fO{nfO{ Ps k|bz ] agfpg] d'2fsf kIfkf]ifsn] /fhgLlts ;'/Iffsf nflu klg Pdfcf]jfbLsf] w'/L ;dfTg'kg{] afWotf lyof] . pk]G› ofbj, dxGy 7fs'/, /fh]G› dxtf], czf]s /fO{x¿ Pdfcf]jfbL;Fu xtfl/P / jQmJoafhL klg u/] . hftLo d'2fdf j}B dfcf]jfbL klg Pdfcf]jfbL eGbf leGg gePsf sf/0f clxn] k|r08sf] s;/t casf] ;+ljwfg;efleq / aflx/af6 cfkm\gf k/flht d'2f hah{:t nfu" u/fpglt/ s]lG›t 5 . ;+ljwfg;efdf pgLx¿ ;xefuL x'g] lglZrt eP klg ToxfFsf] …lahg];Ú k|r08x¿af6 k|efljt x'g] w/ftn aGb} uPsf] 5 . t/ j}Bsf] ;du| Ph]G8fdf k|r08 k|jz ] ug{] ;Defjgf clxn] 5}g . k/fhosf] cfj]zdf h] k|ltlqmof lbP klg s]G›Lo ;ldltsf] a}7saf6 Pdfcf]jfbLn] :ki6 ;Gb]z lbPsf] 5, pm ;+ljwfg;ef aflx/ a:g] 5}g . ;ftf}+ dxflwj]zgn] lnPsf] …klxrfg;lxtsf] ;+ 3 Lotf, ;+ 3 Lotf;lxtsf] ;+ l jwfg, ;+ljwfg;efaf6} ;+ljwfgÚ eGg] gf/fdf p;n] k'gM k|lta4tf hgfPsf] 5 . j}B dfcf]jfbLn] g} of] cj:yfdf k|r08x¿;Fu ;xsfo{ ug{ g;Sg] elg;s]sf] 5 . t/ :d/0f/xf];\– hftLo d' 2 fdf pgLx¿aLr eljiodf df]rf{aGbL x'g] vt/f 6l/;s]sf] 5}g . /, cGTodf Pdfcf]jfbLn] cfkm"nfO{ cem} klg zflGt k|lqmofsf] Pp6f kIf bfaL ug{' / ;Qfsf] csf{] kIfsf ¿kdf :yflkt ug{ vf]Hg' cToGt c:jfefljs 5 . lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfcg';f/ n8fs'sf] ;dfof]hg / Joj:yfkg ;DkGg eO;s]sf] 5 . b'Ok{ 6s ;/sf/sf] g]tT[ j;d]t p;n] lnO;s]sf] 5 . ca Pdfcf]jfbL sf+u; ]| , Pdfn], g]skf dfn], /fk|kfh:t} Pp6f /fhgLlts bn dfq xf] . of] oyfy{af6 sf+u|]; / Pdfn]sf g]t[Tj ljrlnt ePgg\ eg] cfufdL k|lqmof ;xh x'g]5 . pQ]hgfdf cfP/ Pdfcf]jfbLsf] k|ltlqmof h] h:tf] eP klg pgLx¿ of] k|lqmofdf ;xefuL x'g'sf] ljsNk 5}g . ljz]ifu/L g]kfnL sf+u|];sf zLif{ g]tfdf Pdfcf]jfbLnfO{ ;d]t ;d]6/] hfg] u/L w}o{ / kl/kSjtf ck]lIft 5 . lsgeg] hgtfn] cfufdL /fhgLltsf] :ki6 dfuto:{lrq dtdfkm{t k|:t't ul/;s]sf 5g\ . pkaphle@gmail.com

t'hs ' /fi6«klt / d}n] kbsf] lg/Gt/tf rfx]sf xf]Ogf}+, cfkm\g} sfo{sfndf gofF ;+ljwfg hf/L xf];\ eGg] rfx]sf 5f}+ . ;+ljwfg hf/L u/]sf] ef]lnkN6} xfdL kb 5f8\g tof/ 5f}+ . t/ ;+ljwfg hf/L x'g'cl3 g} x6fP/ ckdfg gug{ cg'/f]w ub{5' . – d+l;/ @# ut] sf7df8f}+df af]Nb} pk/fi6«klt k/dfgGb emf ;+ljwfg;ef 5f]8]/ ;8s ;+3if{df cfP dfq Pdfcf]jfbL;Fu sfo{ut Pstf x'g ;S5 . xf]Og eg] kf6L{ PsLs/0fsf] t s'/f} 5f]8f}+, sfo{ut Pstfsf] ;d]t ;Defjgf 5}g . – d+l;/ @$ ut] s]lGb|o ;ldlt a}7sdf af]Nb} g]skf–dfcf]jfbL cWoIf df]xg j}B ko{ 6 gn] dxTjk" 0 f{ e" l dsf lgjf{ x ug] { xfd| f ] d' n ' s df g] k fnL jfo' ;]jfdf k|ltaGw nufpg] o'/f]lkog cfof]usf] lg0f{o 7Ls 5}g . ca xjfO{ ;Dj4 ;a}n] ;'/Iffdf Wofg lbO{ g]kfnL cfsfz ;'/lIft 5 eGg] cfjfh p7fpg] a]nf cfPsf] 5 . – d+l;/ @@ ut] sf7df8f}+df af]Nb} ko{6gdGqL /fds'df/ >]i7 d'n's ;d[4 / alnof] geP;Dd :jfledfgL gful/s aGg ;lsFb}g . To;sf nflu Joj;foLx¿n] ;fdflhs pQ/bfloTj k" / f ub} { /fHonfO{ OdfGbfl/tfk"j{s s/ ltg'k5{ . – d+l;/ @# ut] x]6f+}8fdf af}Nb} ;/sf/sf d'Vo;lrj nLnfdl0f kf}8]n r'gfjdf wfFwnL ePsf] / To;df g]kfnL ;]gf klg ;+nUg ePsf] cf/f]k cfwf/xLg, tYoxLg / e|dk"0f{ 5 . o;n] Jofj;flos ;]gfsf] rl/qdfly k|xf/ ePsf] 5 . – d+l;/ @) ut] lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ ;}lgs hg;Dks{ lgb]{zgfno, g]kfnL ;]gf


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km' 6 ] s f dw] z L bns} sf/0f cfh of] cj:yf;Dd emg'{k¥of] . h;sf/0f dt ljefhg eof] / dw] z sf clwsf+ z k|efjzfnL g]tfx¿n] k/fhosf] ;fdgf ug'{k¥of] . s'g} a]nf 7"nf bnsf g]tfx¿n] dw]zL df]rf{sf g]tfx¿nfO{ e|i6 x'g\ eGg] cf/f]k nufpg] uy],{ t/ To;sf] hjfkm;Dd kmsf{pg ;Sb}gy], df]rf{sf g]tfx¿n] . lsgeg] ltgLx¿n] df]rf{ agfPs} lyP ;Qfdf hfgsf nflu . ha–ha ;/sf/ aGg] a] n f cfpF Y of] ta–ta logLx¿ df]rf{sf] a}7s a:Yof] / ;/sf/df hfg] dfWodsf] ¿kdf ;Demf} t fx¿ uYof] { . To;df xfdL dw]zsf] nflu of] ;Demf}tf u/]sf xf}+ eg]/ eGy] . t/, ha r'gfj cfof], To;a]nf PskN6 klg s;}n] df]rf{sf] rrf{ ;d]t u/]gg\ . cflv/ df]rf{ lsg agfPsf lyP t < s] ;/sf/df hfg] dfWod dfq lyof] < dw]zjfbL bnx¿sf] k/fhosf sf/0f :jod\ dw]zjfbL g]tf cfkm}+ x'g\ . clxn] k/fho eO;s]kl5 s;}n] olb cfGbf]ng u5f}+{ eG5g\ eg] Tof] p;sf] 7"nf] e"n xf] . lsgeg] To:tf g]tfx¿nfO{ hgtfn] k/flht u/]sf 5g\ g ls c¿ s'g} kf6L{n] . r'gfjsf] kl/0ffd cfO;s]kl5 of] if8\oGq eof], of] wf]sf xf] h:tf] cleJolQm lbg' hgtfsf] cfb] z nfO{ c:jLsf/ ug'{ xf] . olb ;/sf/df hfgs} nflu df]rf{ lyof] eg] clxn] klg t 7"nf bnaf6 dw] z L g] t fx¿ lht] s f 5g\ . ltgLx¿ klg t dw]zL g} 5g\ . lsg rflxof] dw]zjfbLsf] gfddf ;Qf:jfyL{ g]tf < hft, k};f / v;elQmdf lnKt /x]sf] dw]zjfbL egfpFbf g]tfx¿sf sf/0f cfh dw]z d'2f k'gM bzsf}+ k5fl8 kl/;s]sf] cj:yf 5 .

k|wfg;]gfkltaf6 k'/:sf/ ljt/0f k;f{ ldng s]Gb|åf/f ;Ddflgt ut cflZjg % ut] sf7df8f} + d f cfof]hgf ePsf] l/on ;ftf}+ sf7df8f}+ Dof/fyg–@)!# sf pTs[i6 v]nf8LnfO{ d+l;/ @% ut] k|d'v cltly k|wfg;]gfklt uf}/j zDz]/ ha/fåf/f k'/:sf/ ljt/0f sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . lqe'jg cfdL{ clkm;;{ Snadf cfof]lht sfo{qmddf pQm bf}8 k|ltof]lutfdf lqe'jg cfdL{ Snasf v] n f8Lx¿n] w]/}h;f] ljwfdf pTs[6 glthf xfl;n u/L cfkm\ g f] ar{ Z j sfdo ug{ ;kmn ePsf lyP . pQm k| l tof] l utfsf pTs[ i 6 v]nf8Lx¿nfO{ ha/fn] gub k'/:sf/ ljt/0f ug'{sf ;fy} awfO{ lbP . pQm bf} 8 k|ltof]lutfdf g]kfnL ;]gfsf] tkm{af6 pTs[i6 glthf xfl;n ug{] tyf cGo k|ltof]uLx¿nfO{ k'/:s[t ul/Psf] lyof] . h; cGtu{t Dof/fygtkm{ x'2f pQd vqL k|yd, Ko'7 s[i0f a:g]t lålto / cdNbf/ /fhg vqL t[ltonfO{ qmdzM Ps nfv, krf; xhf/ / aL; xhf/ ljt/0f u/] eg] xfkm Dof/fygtkm{ x'2f /fhs'df/ lji6 k|yd, x'2f xf]dnfn >]i7 lålto, cdNbf/ lty{axfb'/ tfdfË t[ltonfO{ qmdzM krf;

xhf/, klRr; xhf/ / bz xhf/ ljt/0f u/] . o;}u/L, % lsld k"?if bf}8tkm{ Ko'7 sNof0f aflgofFnfO{ klRr; xhf/, % lsld dlxnf bf}8tkm{ ;}Go ljZj?kf a'8f k|yd

k;f{ ldng s]Gb| sf7df8f}+n] cfkmgf] !^ cf} k;f{ ldng lbj;sf] cj;/df ljleGg If]qdf sfo{/t /x]/ k;f{ lhNnfsf] ul/dfnfO{ a9fpg] JolQmx¿nfO{ ;Ddfg u/]sf] 5 . nlntk'/sf] wf]la3f6l:yt l8PeL sn]hsf] ;efxndf cfof]hgf ePsf] ;Ddfg sfo{qmddf b]zsf] ljleGg :yfgdf a;]/ k;f{ lhNnfsf] kl/ro a9fpg] / ul/df /fVg] >i6fx¿nfO{ Ps ;df/f]x aLr ;Ddfg u/]sf] lyof] . ;Ddflgt x'g]df lzIffsf] If]qaf6 7fs'//fd ax'd'vL sn]hsf ;x–k|fWofks hgs dxtf], v]ns'bsf] If]qaf6

sf]lxg'/ zDz]/ /f0ff, kqsfl/tfsf] If]qaf6 kqsf/ /fh' >]i7, ;dfh;]jfsf] tkm{af6 aL/xif{ zfSo, snf ;+:s[ltsf] tkm{af6 >LdtL lahof lu/L /x]sf 5g\ . ;Ddflgt x'g]x¿nfO{ s]Gb|n] bf];Nnf cf]9fP/ ;Ddfg kq k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] . ;Ddfg kq kfpg]dWo] kqsf/ /fh' >]i7nfO{ uf}td dfWolds ljBfno jL/u+hn] !) xhf/ Ps ?k}ofF ;d]t k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] . kqsf/ >]i7n] k'/:sf/ jfktsf] ;a} /sd k;f{ ldng s]Gb|sf] ljsf;sf] nflu s]Gb|sf cWoIf k|df]bk|;fb g]kfnnfO{ x:tfGt/0f u/]sf lyP .

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…3/ zflGt g} ljZj zflGtsf] cfwf/M bdgsf] k|ltjfb u/L dlxnf lx+;f cGTo u/f}Ú+ eGg] /fli6«o gf/f /x]sf] n}l+ us lx+;f lj?4 !^ lbg] cleofg /fli6«o?kdf dgfO/x]sf] ;Gbe{df k|x/L k|wfg sfof{no dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf ;]jf lgb]z { gfnosf] cfof]hgfdf k|x/L dxflg/LIfs pk]Gb|sfGt cof{n tyf pkTosfl:yt dlxnf k|x/L sd{rf/Lx¿aLr cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . sfo{qmddf k|x/L dxflg/LIfs cof{nn] @)%@ ;fndf dlxnf tyf afnaflnsf ;]jf s]Gb|sf] u7gkZrft !* jif{sf] cjlwdf g]kfn k|x/L o; If]qdf w]/} cuf8L a9L;s]sf] atfpFb} dlxnf k|x/L sd{rf/Lx¿sf] j[lQ ljsf; Pj+ dlxnfsf] kx'r F clej[l4sf] nflu /fHo ;+oGq g} nflukl//x]sf] atfP . g]kfn k|x/L ;+u7gn] dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf w]/} klxn] b]lv g} u/fpFb} cfPsf] / xfnsf] jif{df dlxnfsf] ;xeflutf a9\b} uO/x]sf] atfpFb} dlxnf k|x/L sd{rf/Lx¿sf] ;+VofTds Pj+ u'0ffTds?kdf ljsf; tyf Ifdtf clej[l4 / ;zlQms/0fnfO{ ;+u7gn] cfufdL lbgdf ;zQm?kdf cuf8L a9fpg] atfP . dlxnf ;zlQms/0fsf] nflu xfdL ;a} ;sf/fTds x'gk' g]{ atfpFb} k|x/L dxflg/LIfs cof{nn] cfk'mn] dlxnf k|x/L sd{rf/Lx¿sf] lxtsf nflu v]Ng'kg]{ e"ldsfdf s'g} sdL x'g glbg] atfP . sfo{qmddf k|x/L cltl/Qm dxflg/LIfs 8f= /fdgfy l;+x, k|x/L gfoj dxflg/LIfsx¿, jl/i7 k|x/L clws[tx¿ nufot dlxnf k|x/L clws[t tyf hjfgx¿sf] ;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] .

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;d"x …hLÚ hd{gL kf]r{'un cd]l/sf 3fgf

;d"x …PrÚ a]lNhod blIf0f sf]l/of /l;of cNh]l/of

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O{Zj/Lo k|]d / elQm tyf ;fwgfsf nflu xfdL ljleGg b]jL b]jtfsf] k'hf, cr{gf / cf/fwgf ub{5f}+ . w'klåk, g}j]w, e]6L;d]t r9fpF5f}+ . >4fefjn] z'4 eP/ PslrQ eO{ ljleGg dgf]sfdgf k"0f{ xf];\, d]/f] kmnfgf] sfdgf l;4 xf]cf];\ eGg] sfdgf;lxt k'Hg] u5f}+{ . o:tf] k/Dk/f k|frLgsfnb]lv g} rNb} cfPsf] 5 . ljleGg j]b pklgifb\, k'/f0f clfbdf JoQm ul/Psf syf k|;+unfO{ dgg u/L ;Ktfx dxfo1h:tf j}lbs sfo{x¿ klg u5f{}+ . oL ;a} ug'{sf k5fl8 dfgjn] cfkm\gf] :jfy{ l;4 ug]{ clenfif /fv]sf] x'G5 . olb eujfg\ jf O{Zj/nfO{ lgM:jfy{ efjn] ul/Psf] eP dfq O{Zj/k|lt cf:yf /x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . xf]Og eg] :jfy{;lxtsf] elQmn] s'g} pknAwL x'Gg Tof] b]vfj6L dfq x'G5 . eujfgnfO{ sfd ug{ cfb]z lbO/x]sf x'G5f}+ cyjf lzi6tfk"j{s cg'/f]w ub}{ d]/f] of] OR5f k"0f{ u/fOlbg'xf];\, d of] r9fpg]5' eg]/ . ;f]em} eGg'kbf{ eujfgnfO{ 3'; lbg] sfo{ ul//x]sf x'G5f}+ . lagf sfdgf lg:jfy{?kn] k'hfcf/fwgf ug]{ dfgj d'lZsnn] kfFr k|ltzt xf]nfg\ . o;/L ul/g] cr{gf k|fy{gfnfo{ ;Rrf elQm / eujfgk|lt k|]d eg]/ dfGg ;lsGg . k|frLg ;dodf eujfg\ /fdsf] /fHo Joj:yfdf /fd/fHo lyof]– To;a]nfs} Pp6f b[i6fGtnfO{ x]/f}+ . Pp6f s's'/n] dnfO{ cGofo eof] dxf/fh eg]/ /fhf /fdsf] ;fd' uP/ Gofo dfu] . /fdn] k|Zg u/] s's'/nfO{– ltdLnfO{ s] eof] < pQ/df p;n] eGof]– dnfO{ hf]uLn] hlxn] klg n¶Ln] lxsf{pF5g\ . To;kl5 /fhfn] hf]uLnfO{ klg af]nfP/ ;f]w]– lsg ltdLn] s's/nfO{ n¶Ln] lxsf{of} < pQ/df hf]uLn] eg]– dnfO{ b]v]/ s's'/n] 7"nf]–7"nf] :j/n] e'S5, h;n] ubf{ dnfO{ p;n] 6f]S5 ls eGg] 8/ x'G5 / d p;nfO{ t;f{pg n¶Ln] lxsf{pF5' . s's'/n] eGof]– d]/f] sfd eg]s} e'Sg] xf] d}n] e's]kl5 g d]/f] dflnsn] yfxf kfpF5g\ ls 3/df s] cfof] eGg] . d]/f] sfd d}n] ubf{ lk6\g'kg]{ Tof] s:tf] Gofo < eg]/ /fdsf ;fd' s's'/n] s'/f /fVof] . To;kl5 hf]uLsf] uNtL xf] eGg] km};nf u/L cab]lv s's'/ e's]/ klg hf]uLn] lk6\g' gx'g] s'/fdf ;xdt eP/ uP . jf:tjdf s's'/n] t cfkm\gf] sfd OdfGbfl/tfk"j{s ul//x]sf] dfq lyof] . uNtL t hf]uLsf] lyof] . ljr/f s's'/nfO{ sf] hf]uL, sf] cGo dflg; s] yfxf < p;nfO{ sf]xL gofF dfG5] 3/df cfpFbf e's]/ 3/sf dflg;nfO{ yfxf lbg'k5{ eGg] dfq yfxf 5 . s's'/n] eg]sf] s'/f ;xL lyof] . To;}n] p;n] Gofo klg kfof] . ;a}n] cf–cfkm\gf] sfo{ OdfGbf/Lk"j{s ug]{ xf] eg] e|i6frf/, n'6kf6, xTof, lx+;f cdfgjLo lqmofsnfkx¿ klg Go"g x'Fb} hfG5g\ . xfdL cfkmGt tyf cfkm\g} kl/jf/sf ;b:osf] b]xfGt ePsf a]nf ?jfjf;L u/L lgs} cnfk ljnfk klg ub{5f}+ t/ s]xL ;dokZrft\ ltg} d[t z/L/nfO{ 5'g 8/ nfUg], o;nfO{ l56f] cGTo]li6 ug'{k5{ eg]/ cf–cfkm\gf] ;+:sf/ cg'?k cGTo]li6 ub{5f}+ . To;nfO{ df6f]df ldNg lbG5f}+ . hnfpg] jf uf8\g] u/L bfx;+:sf/ ub}{ cfkm\gf] cfkm\gf] 3/ kms{G5f}+ . d[To'sf] ;dodf of] ;+;f/5 o:t} /x]5, ;a} dg'{k5{ eg]/ cflv/ xfd|f] hLjg s]xL klg xf]Og, cfk;df d]/f]–t]/f] eg]/ j}dg:o ug'{ klg a]sf/ 5 eGg] klg ;f]R5f+} t/ km]l/ 3/ kms]{kl5 cf–cfkm\gf] sfo{df nfUg yfn]kl5 km]l/ pxL kf/fn] klxn]s} Jofjxf/ ub}{ hfG5f+} . o;/L dfgjn] ;+;f/df cfkm\gf] :yfg / st{JonfO{ /fd|/L dgg ug{ g;Sbf cgfjZos b'Mv / ;d:ofsf] hfndf km:g k'u]sf 5f}+ . xfdLn] ;fdfGo s'/fdf dfq Wofg k'¥ofpg] xf] eg] klg zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s :jf:Yodf nfe k'Ug] / O{Zj/Lo k|]d a9\g] x'G5 . z/L/nfO{ :jf:y /fVgsf nflu ?k}ofF vr{g' kb}{g . b}lgs vfg] ul/Psf, ;'Tg] / p7\g] ;do af]nLjrg tyf c?nfO{ ug]{ cfb/ ;Ddfg, :g]x, dfof, ddtfk|lt ;d]t x'g] xf] eg] qmdz To;df pNn]Vo dfqfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg ;lsG5 . xfdLn] c?n] s'g} s'/f eGbf / ubf{v]/L hlt dg b'V5, rf]6 k'U5, To:t} s'/f / sfo{ c?k|lt klg gug]{ xf] eg] :jtM ;dfhdf ;sf/fTds / ;b\efjk"0f{ jftfj/0f lgdf{0f x'Fb} hfG5 . ;fdfGo s'/fdf klg lrlGtt x'g], b'MvL aGg] ugf{n] gfgfyl/sf tgfj pTkGg eP/ c;Gtf]ifsf] sf/0f 3/ Jojxf/df pyn–k'yn eP/ kfl/jfl/s snx tyf ;fdflhs?kdf klg JolQm 3[0ffsf] kfq aGg k'U5 . t;y{ ;fdfGo cfrf/nfO{ Vofn u/L hLjgnfO{ ;'Gb/ agfpg ;lsG5 .

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k|;] sfplG;n g]kfn

kqklqsf ljt/0f ;Dk/LIf0f ;ldlt ;~rf/u|fd, ltnu+uf, sf7df8f}+ kf]=a=g+= #)&&, kmf]g g+= $!!@^&*, $!!@&((, km\ofS; g+=M $!!@^($, Od]nM prescoun_mdf@wlink.com.np

If]qdf ePsf ljsf; / gofF k|ljlw k|bfg ug]{ p2]Zon] cfof]hgf ub}{ cfPsf] OGkmf]6]ssf] of] @) cf}+ ;+:s/0fdf ;'lj;' s]jng]6n] 6fO6n :kG;/ u/]sf] cfo]fhs ;+:yfn] cfOtaf/ /fhwfgLdf cfof]lht kqsf/ ;Dd]ng u/L hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 . sf7df8f}+ e[s'6Ld08kdf x'g] ;'lj;' Sofg OGkmf]6]s–@)!$ sf] Knfl6gd :kf]G;/ 8]n afO{ lgof]6]l/s g]kfn, uf]N8 :kmf]G;/x? h]g]/]zg g]S:6 / sn;{ df]afOn, l;Ne/ :kf]G;/x? P; kfj/ / clkml;on a}+sdf l;4fy{ a}+s /x]sf 5g\ . sofg OGkmf]6]sdf d'Vo k|bz{gL xnleq #( j6f, xnaflx/ # j6f a|flG8ª k|bz{gL sIf, 6«;df ! ;o $$, cf]kg :k];df @) / k'm8 :6n !% u/L hDdf @ ;o @! :6n /xg] atfOPsf] 5 . o; k6ssf] d]nfdf xf8{j]o/ ;]N; tyf d]G6]G;, kfj/ ;f]n';G;, df]afOn P;];f]l/h, l8n/ / l8l:6«Jo'6;{, OG6/g]6 ;]jf k|bfos, 6] l nsDo' l gs] z g, cfO;L6L sn] h tyf 6« ] l gª OlG:6Ro' 6 x?, ;km\ 6 j] o / ;f]n';gG;nufot 5g\ . xfn;Dd d'Vo k|bz{gLxnleq k'/} :6n a'lsª eO;s]sf / 6«;df *) k|ltzt :6nx? a'lsª eO;s]sf] Sofgn] hgfPsf] 5 .

;lsof] /fli6«o k':ts k|bz{gL

g]kfn k|sfzg dxf;+3n] /fli6«o ;efu[xdf cfof]hgf u/]sf] k':ts k|bz{gL zlgjf/ ;lsPsf] 5 . pQm k| b z{ g Ldf ljleGg #@ k| s fzg ;+ 3 cGtu{ t sf ;b:ox? ;xefuL lyP . e[s'6L k|sfzg u[x, tn]h' k|sfzg, h]aL8L k|sfzg, ;f] k fg dfl;s, lxdfn klAns] z g, laPg k' : ts ;+ ; f/, ;' k | j fk| s fz, esf/L k| s fzg, x] l /6] h klAn;;{ P08 l8:6LJo' 6 ;{ tyf ljj] s l;h{ g zLn k| s fzg cflbn] ;lqmo ;xefuLtf hgfPsf lyP . k|bz{gLqmddf em08} ^ nfv vr{ ePsf] cfof] h ssf] bfaL 5 . k| b z{ g Ln] k' : tsk| ] d Lx?nfO{ ljleGg ljwfsf k' : tsx? k:s]/ gf}nf] :jfb rvfPsf] lyof] . oxL cfof] h ssf] nflu pknlAw lyof] . afnaflnsfsf nflu syf, sljtf, uLt cflbsf snfTds / /+ u Lg lstfasf ;fy} o' j fnufot ljleGg ljBfyL{ j u{ s f kf7sx?sf] ?rL / cfjZostf cg' ? ksf k' : tsx? k| b z{ g Ldf /flvPsf lyP . ljleGg g] k fnL n] v s, cfnf] r s tyf cg' j fbsnufot ljb] z L n] v sx?sf sfJo, /rgfx? klg k| b z{ g Ldf k| b lz{ t lyP . k| b z{ g Ldf %) nfv a/fa/sf] k':ts ljqmLljt/0fsf] sf/f]jf/ eof] eg] nueu %) xhf/ hlt k' : tsk| ] d Lx?åf/f k' : ts cjnf] s g tyf cWoog ul/Psf] lyof] . nlntk| s fz kf08] k| s fzg ;+ 3 sf dxf;lrjsfcg' ; f/ ;du| d f g] k fnsf] Oltxf;d} g] k fns} dfq k| s fzg u[ x x?sf] ;+ o ' Q m ;lqmotfdf ePsf] o; k| b z{ g Ln] ;DalGwt ;a} s f] Wofgfsif{ 0 f u/fPsf] lyof] . – ;latf kf]v/]n, k|lzIffyL{ kqsf/

cfa'v/} g] Ldf ahfhsf] ;f]?d

g]kfnsf nflu ahfh df]6/;fOsnsf] cflws[t ljqm]tf x+;/fh x'nfrGbn] tgx's F f] cfa'v/} g] Ldf ;f]?d vf]ns ] f] 5 . l8k OG6/k|fOh]hdf vf]lnPsf] ;f]?ddf ;]N;, ;le{; / :k]o;{sf] ;'ljwf /xg]5 . ;f]?daf6 u|fxsn] u'0f:t/Lo ;]jf k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] sDkgLn] hgfPsf] 5 . ;f]?d pb\3f6g ub}{ PrPr ahfhsf pkdxfk|aGws lr/~hLjL ;fxn] cfkm"n] kfPsf] ;sf/fTds k|ltlqmofn] cem} u'0f:t/Lo ;]jfdf k|ltj4 agfPsf] atfP .

:jf:Yo ;/f]sf/ afy

ufp6 cyf{t\ o"l/s Pl;8nfO{ ;fwf/0f efiffdf afy klg eGg] ul/G5 . afy eGgfn] hf]gL{ b'Vg' xf] / of] ljz]ifu/L /ftsf] ;dodf a9L b'Vg] ub{5 . g]kfnLdf of] cj:yf Psbd} w]/} dfqfdf ePsf] kfOG5 . $) jif{ eGbf d'lgsf pd]/sf] JolQmdf afy ePsf] b]lvG5 . rf8kj{sf] a]nf ljz]ifu/L bz}+, ltxf/sf] a]nf df;', afnf /fO{ /S;L, u]8fu'8L / c? k|f]l6go'Qm vfg]s'/f a9L vfg] rngn] ubf{ afyaf6 kLl8tx¿nfO{ rf8kj{sf] a]nf cem w]/} ;tfpg] ub{5 .

sf/0fx¿

– /utdf o"l/s Pl;8sf] dfqf w]/} ePsf] cj:yfdf -xfOk/o'/];]ldof_ . – j+zf0f'ut, vfgf / s'g} cf}ifwLsf] k|of]un] xfOk/o'/];]ldof x'g ;S5 . – JolQmsf] /xg;xg / vfgkfg . – d]l8sn cj:yfx¿ h:t} k]6sf] df]6f]kgf, pRr/Qmrfk, /utdf sf]n]:6«f]nsf] dfqf w]/} ePdf, d[uf}nfn] sfd ug{ 5f]8]df, cfª k|Tof/f]k0f u/]sf] a]nf .

nIf0fx¿

z'?df k|fo v'§fsf] a'9L cf}+nfsf] hf]gL{af6 b'vfO z'? x'G5 . hf]gL{ tftf], /ftf] x'G5 / ;'lGgG5 . z/L/sf cGo hf]gL{x¿ h:t} gf8L, s's{'rf, 3'F8fsf] hf]gL{df klg b'Vg z'? x'G5 / slxn]sfxLF xftsf] cf}+nfx¿sf] hf]gL{df klg b'vfO dx;'; x'G5 . hf]gL{sf] b'vfO /ftLsf] ;dodf a9L x'G5 . ysfO nfUg] clg Hj/f] klg cfpg ;S5 .

afy ePsf] s;/L kQf nufpg]afy ePsf] s;/L kQf nufpg]

/utdf o"l/s Pl;8sf] dfqf x]g{ ;lsG5, olb o"l/s Pl;8sf] dfqf ;fdfGo eGbf w]/} ePdf afy x'G5 . PS;–/] ug{ ;lsG5 . hf]gL{df kfOg] ljz]if t/nkbfy{ -;fO{gf]ljcnkm\n'O8_ sf] hfFr ug{ ;lsG5 .

pkrf/ ljlwpkrf/ ljlw

o"l/s Pl;8sf] dfqfnfO{ 36fpg cf}ifwLsf] k|of]u ug{ ;ls5 . h:t}M gf]g :6]/f]O8nPlG6–OGkm\nfd]6f]/L 8«U; / :6]/f]O8\; . olb afysf] ;'?jftL cj:yf 5 eg] of] ;fdfGo?kdf cfkm+} lgsf] klg x'g ;S5 t/ olb JolQm lrgLsf] /f]uL, d'6'sf] /f]uLaf6 kLl8t 5 eg] afyn] c? ;d:of Nofpg ;S5 . ;dodf g} pkrf/ gu/]df afyn] hL0f{ cj:yf lgDtfpg ;Sb5 / hf]gL{x¿sf] Ps?ktf gi6 u5{ ;fy} d[uf}nfdf :6f]g x'g] ;Defjgf klg a9fpF5 .

s;/L aRg] / s:tf] vfgf afg{s ] ;/L aRg] / s:tf] vfgf afg{]

cfkm\gf] b}lgs hLjgdf kl/jt{g Nofpg], ;xL vfgf / ;dodf cf}ifwLsf] k|of]un] afynfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ ;lsG5 . /ftL lgG›f gnfUg]x¿nfO{ afy x'g] emf]lvd a9\5, ToxL eP/ /ftL slDtdf ;ft 3G6f ;'Tg] . /QmrfknfO{ ;w}+ ;fdfGo /fVg] . / d'6', ls8\gL / ;'u/ /f]uaf6 kLl8t JolQmn] cfkm\gf] o"l/s Pl;8sf] hfFr ;do ;dodf u/fO/fVg] . df]6f JolQmx¿n] cfkm\gf] tf}n 36fpg] . vfgfdf h:t}M df;', cG8f / df5f sd vfg] . af];f]o'Qm / lrNnf] vfgf gvfg], /S;L / /S;Ldf klg lao/df a8L Ko'l/g x'G5, ToxL eP/ ljo/ rflxF k6Ss} gvfg] . b}lgs cf7 lunf; kfgL lkpg h;n] ubf{ z/L/sf] o"l/s Pl;8 lk;faaf6 lg:sg d2t k'U5 . le6fldg ;Ln] afy x'g] ;Defjgf sd u/fpF5 / slkmsf] ;]jgn] klg s]lx xb;Dd afy x'g] hf]lvdaf6 arfpF5 . -n]vs lqljljaf6 kLPr8L ub}{5g\_

;flxTo l;h{gf

s7} d]/f] b]z Û  lgZrn a:g]t 

s;}nfO{ s;}nfO{ s;}nfO{ s;}nfO{ s;}nfO{ s;}nfO{

s'l;{ Kof/f] 6]an=== dxFuL Kof/f] g"g=== t]n Kof/f] v]n===

vfgnfO{ g'g 5}g k9\gnfO lah'nL v} < lxF8\gnfO{ ;8s aGb hLpgnfO{ zflGtsf] cfefif v} < af]NgnfO 6\jL6/ 5 l/; kf]VgnfO{ km];a's snd af]Sg] xftdf v's'/L lstfa af]Sg] emf]nfdf ad o:t} 5 d]/f] b]z clg oxfFsf] kl/j]z=== b]z agfp5' eGg]x¿ df}g 5g\to: b]z agfpm eGg]x¿ klg df}g t/ slxn] ;Dd << cem} slxn] ;Dd eGg' kg{] xf]=== s7} d]/f] b]z ÛÛ

cf/fdbfoL ofqfsf] nflu dsfn' oftfoftnfO{ ;Demg'xf];\ . kmf]g g+= M $@&&%%@, $@*!(&@


^

;fKtflxs

;Tofu|x

laxLaf/, d+l;/ @&, @)&)

SATYAGRAHA WEEKLY

cWoIf kb === 7fpF Pp6f dfq lyof]– k|r08 lgjf; . lgjf{ r g xfg{ yfn] k l5 h:tf;' s } sfo{stf{n] cfkm}+ 7fpF 5f8\g yfN5g\ / pgLx?sf] Wofg To;nfO{ kl/rfng ug]{ s]Gb|dfly s]lGb|t x'g yfN5 . lgjf{rgsf] of] dgf]j}1flgs tYo xf] . To;} klg k|r08n] of] kl/0ffdnfO{ dfGb}gf}+ egL Tof] /flt elgPsf] s'/fnfO{ ef]lnkN6} h]hltn] lht]sf lyP, ltgn] dfg]gg\ . ;efdf efu lnGgf+} elgPsf] s'/f lhTg]x?n] cfj]usf] lg0f{o egL ToxL l8hfOgtkm{ ;+s]t ug{ yfn] eg] lgjf{rg alxisf/ u/]/ a;]sf] j}B ;d"x;Fu k|r08n] ldnfpg vf]hs ] f] xft PstkmL{ eP/ /Xof] . x'Fb} hfFbf k|r08 cfkm}+ ljhopT;j dgfpg If]qdf k'u] . xfg]{x? ;a}n] wfFwnL eg]/ klG5g kfP eg] cWoIfsf] g}ltstf / sfo{Ifdtfdfly tTsfn p7\g vf]h]sf] k|Zgx? !) lbg k/ ;/] . slyt ;TotYo phfu/ ug]{ eGb} ;ldlt lgdf{0f eof] / To;n] c? PsxKtf cndNofO lbof] . xfg]{x?nfO{ …cGt/3ftLÚ vf]Hg ufpFlt/} kmsf{ O of] eg] lhTg] x ?nfO{ h' n ' z sf gfddf lhNnftkm{ . lgjf{rg kl/rfng ug]{dfly s]lGb|t x'g yfn]sf] eL8 o;/L sl/a sl/a PsxKtfs} aLrdf ltt/ljt/ eof] . xfg]{x? a9L cfqmf]l;t lyP t/ pgn] cGt/3ftL vf] H g] sfd kfP . lhTg] x ? c?sf ljho h' n z b] v / s'Fl8/x]sf lyP . pgn] klg dfnf klx/g kfpg] eP . o;n] ;a}lt/af6 cWoIfsf] sfo{ I fdtf dfly ;f] R g df} s } lbPg . o;nfO{ ko{j]Ifsn] c;kmn kf6L{sf] ;kmn g]t[Tj eGg] ;+1f lbP, h'g ;xL lyof] . olt 7"nf] k/fhosf] lhDdf lng' gkg]{, cem sf/0f ;d]tdf rrf{;Dd gx'g' cfkm}d + f g]t[Tjsf] ;kmntf g} xf] < k|r08s} lj/f]wfefifk"0f{ egfO{ / dfun] klg ;+ : yfut wfF w nLsf] of] l8hfOg tTsfnsf nflu cfkm" hf]lug ul/Psf] a'emfpF5 . s]lGb|o ;ldltn] lbPsf] 5fglag ;ldltsf] k| l tj] b g -d+ l ;/ !*_ df elgPh:tf] s'g} km]nf gk/]sf] pNn]v 5 . pgsf] ;f] k|ltj]bg eG5– …;Lldt ;"rgf / 36gfqmdx?sf] ;+sng / ljZn]if0f u/L k|ltj]bg tof/ ug'{k/]sf] sf/0fn] sltko ljj/0fx?sf] k|df0f h'6fpg ;lsPsf] 5}g . t;y{ o:tf ljj/0fx?sf] ;TotYo :jtGq cfof]u u7g u/L ;f]xL cfof]uaf6 lg?k0f ul/g'kg]{ l;kmfl/; ul/G5 .Ú of] bnn] p7fPsf] wfFwnL cf/f]ksf] of] k|ltj]bg ;dfKtL v08 xf] . 7"nf] wfFwnL ePsf] eP / To:tf] cf/f]k nufpg] bn cfkm}+n] vf]Hbf gkfOPsf] ljj/0f c? s;}n] h'6fOlbg'kg]{ of] lgisif{ cfkm}+df elgP h:tf] wfFwnL ePsf] 5} g eGg] xf] . p;n] :jtGq elgPsf] Tof] cfof]u kl5 aGof] eg] ToxfF a:g] dfG5] t ToxLFsf x'G5g\ . o;n] klg a' e mfpF 5 of] sfo{ s tf{ n fO{ s] x L lbg cndNofpg dfq ul/Psf] xf], s]xL lbg 6fg{ of] sfd ul/of] . tTsfnsf] ;+s6 6/]/ s]xL lbg yk kfOof] eg] jftfj/0f cfkm\gf] ;dy{gdf cfpF5 eGg] g]t[Tjsf] a'emfO{ cGtu{tsf] l8hfOg . otf of] gf6s rln/xFbf ptf g]t[Tjn] csf]{ dfu cl3 ;f¥of], Tof] lyof] oxL x}l;otdf klg ;Qf ;fem]bf/Ldf s]xL efu kfOG5 eGg] atfpg vf] H g' . cGtl/d ;+ l jwfgsf k|fjwfg ;+zf]wg ug{ dfUg' / ;xdltdf dfq ;+ l jwfg agfpg k| : tfj ug' { s f] clek|foM a'em\g} g;lsg] xf]Og . cfkm"n] ;+ljwfg agfpg'kbf{ ax'dt / c?n] agfpg bfloTj kfpFbf ;xdltsf cfwf/df vf]Hg'

cfkm}+df lj/f]wfefifk"0f{ / cem To;df klg wfFwnL ul/Psf] elgPsf] ;efdf cfkm" hfFb} ghfg] 3f]if0ff ul/Pkl5 cfPsf] of] s'/f g]t[Tjn] cfkm\gf sfo{stf{nfO{ 5n5fd ug}{ g} lyof] . of] k6ssf] ;+ljwfg;efdf eP ;xdlt geP dtaf6 lg0f{o ug]{ s'/f ;a} bnn] Ps :j/df hgtf;dIf k'¥ofPsf lyP . To;cg';f/ aGg] ;+ljwfg;efsf] a}7s g} ga;L o:tf] dfu ug'{ g]t[Tjaf/] p7\g] k|ZgnfO{ cGoGq df]8\g g} xf] . To;}leq k5{ cfkm" xf/] klg cfkm\gf] Ph]08fn] lht]sf] eGg' klg ToxL sf]6Lsf] s'/f lyof] . olb Tof] Ph]08fn] lht]sf] eP of] wfFwnL s] xf] t eGg] k|Zg ;Fw}sf nflu v8f eof] . clxn] h;n] lgjf{rg lht] , Tof] Ph] 0 8f of] bnsf] xf] O g . nf]stGq b]zsf] d"n Ph]08f xf], Tof] nf] s tGqjfbLx?s} Ph] 0 8f xf] , h;df dfcf]jfbL of] k4ltlj?4 bz jif]{ lx+;fTds ljb|f]x 5f8]/ o;df ;dflxt ePsf] xf] . ;+ l jwfg;ef cfkm} + d f ;a} e Gbf 7" n f] nf]stflGqs k4lt xf] . To;df sf] ;dflxt eof] eGg] of] k4ltsf] ljhoaf6 klg k| i 6 x' G 5 . wfF w nLsf] cf/f] k n] h;/L cWoIfsf] kb hf]luof], c? xfg]{x?n] klg xfdLn] lhTof}+ egL cfTd/lt ug]{ of] Pp6f jftj/0f xf], h;nfO{ ;'/lIft ug]{ dfq l:yltdf of] s'/f cfof] . of] xf/n] cWoIfaf6 k|r08n] 5f8\gk} g]{ l:ylt Tolta]nf k}bf u/]sf] lyof], h'g a]nf pgL hxfF hxfF k'u], pgsf kfOnf hxfF – hxfF 6] l sof] , tL ;a} 7fpF ckjfbafx]s of] bnsf ;a} pDd]bjf/ xf/] s f 5g\ . k| r 08sf] cg' x f/ ;d] t ;j{ ; fwf/0fn] g?rfPsf] of] ;a} e Gbf HjnGt pbfx/0f xf] . lgjf{ r gcl3 k|r08sf] JolQmTjaf/] Pp6f dt ;j]{If0f ePsf] lyof] . To;df pgL /fk|kf g]kfnsf sdn yfkfeGbf tn /x] . lxdfn ldl8ofsf] of] cWoog clxn] lg x] g { ;lsG5, h;n] k|r08 bn;lxt k/fho ePsf] of] 36gf ck|Tofl;t lyPg eGg] a'emfpF5 . To;sf/0f klg wfFwnLsf] of] l8hfOg s] sf nflu /lrof] / cfkm\gf sfo{stf{df dGq / ;"qh:t} u/L k'¥ofOof] eGg] cfFsng ug{ uf¥xf] kb}{g .

;dembf/Ldf === ldNg] s' / fdf t …kfj/ ;] o l/ªÚ sf] s' / f klg cfpnf lg < ;xdltsf] ;/sf/ agfpgsf] nflu …kfj/ ;]ol/ªÚ t ug}{ k5{ . ;a}sf] lrQ a'emfpg} k5{ . Pdfn]nfO{ s;/L lrQ a'emfpFb} x'g'x'G5 < Pdfn] ; F u ;Dafb u/] / cfk;L ;dembf/Ldf plrt lgsf; lgsfN5f+} . clxn] To;sf] jftfj/0f agfpFb} 5f+} . Ps jif{df ;+ljwfg hf/L ug'k{ g]{ ePsf]n] To;sf] k|efj ;/sf/df ;d]t kg]{ ePsf]n] ;/sf/ agfpFbf v]/L g} To;df ;+j]bglzn eP/ ;a}sf] efjgf ;d]6g] k|of; ug'{ k5{ . /fi6«kltsf] ljifo s;/L 6'+Uofpg' x'G5 < Pdfn]n] kl/jt{gsf] s'/f u/]sf] 5 . xfdL To;df u+le/ s'/f u5f+}{ . kf6L{sf] wf/0ff klg /fV5f}+ . Pdfn] / sf+u|];aLr cfk;L ;dembf/Ldf cfk;L lg0f{o lnG5f+} . Ps jif{leq ;+ljwfg hf/L ug{ s] ug'{ k5{ / ;xdlts]f jftfj/0f gljufg{ s] ug'{ k5{ Tof] xfdL u5f+}{ . /fi6« k ltsf] ljifodf sf+ u | ] ; sf] a6dnfO{ g s] xf] < sf+u|]; / Pdfn]aLr 5nkmn u/]/ Tof] ljifonfO{ ;+ljwfg;ef dfkm{t\ 6'+uf]

hgtfsf] kL/dsf{ ;'Gg / /rgfTds ;'emfjx? u|x0f ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/ ;w}+ tTk/ / hfu?s 5 . ;fy} ;d:of lg/fs/0f ug{ ;'emfjsf] ck]Iff klg ub{5 .

g]kfn ;/sf/

;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno ;"rgf ljefu

nufpg' k5{ eGg] g} xf] . d' V os' / f ;+ljwfg hf/L ug'{ xf] . To;sf] nflu xfdL ;+j]bglzn 5f}+ . cGtl/d ;+ljwfg;efdf t k|i6 5 < To; ljifodf klg 5nkmn x'G5 . To;nfO{ 6'+uf]df ;+ljwfg;efsf] a}7s a;]kl5 k'¥ofO{G5 . sf+u|];af6 ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tj s;n] ug]{ lg < kf6L{ ;efklt ;'zLn sf]O/fnfsf] g]t[Tjdf xfdL r'gfjdf uPsf xf+} . pxfFs} g]t[Tjdf kf6L{ ;a}eGbf 7"nf] bn aGof] . Tof] sf/0fn] ubf{ kf6L{ ;efkltn] rfx];Dd pxfFs} g]t[Tj x'G5 . g]kfnL sf+u|];sf] ljwfgcg';f/ ;+;bLo bnsf] a}7sn] g]tf rog u/] k l5 ;f] x L cg' ; f/ g] t f k|wfgdGqL x'G5 . ;dfg'kfltssf] ;ef;b\ s;/L 5fGb} x'g'x'G5, cK7\of/f] k/]sf] vj/x? cfPsf] 5 < sl7g t k/]sf] xf]O{g, (! hgf 5fGg' kg]{ To;df %) k|ltzt dlxnf g} x'G5g\ . ;dfj]zLtfsf] dfkb08 nufP/ of]Uo 5fGg s]xL ;do nfu]sf] xf] .

dfgjclwsf/k|lt===

;Dk"0f{ dfgj ;d'bfonfO{ ;dfg xs clwsf/ k|bfg u/L k|rngdf Nofpg ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3n] dfgjclwsf/sf nflu /fi6« ; + 3 Lo pRr cfof] u :yfkgf u/L sfd u/] s f] 5 . g] k fnL sf+ u | ] ; o; sbdsf] ;¥xfgf ub{5 . g]kfnL sf+u|]; :yfkgfsfnb]lv g}} dfgjclwsf/k| l t k" 0 f{ k| l ta4 /xF b } cfPsf] 5 . @))& ;fnsf] hgqmflGtb]lv cfh;Dd xfd| f ;+ 3 if{ / k| o f;x? k| h ftGq, JolQmut :jtGqtf, dfgj clwsf/ / df}lns :jtGqtfsf] k"0f{k|flKtdf ;dlk{t /xFb} cfPsf 5g\ . xfd| f ] ;+ n Ugtfdf ag] s f ;+ l jwfg / P]gx?n] cfh;Dd To;sf] k|Tofe"lt klg lbPsf 5g\ . bf]>f] ;+ljwfg;efn] agfpg] ;+ 3 Lo u0ftflGqs g] k fnsf] efjL ;+ljwfgdf klg dfgj clwsf/sf] k"0f{ k|Tofe"lt ul/g] ljZjf; ljZj dfgjclwsf/ lbj;sf] pknIodf d ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL lbbLalxgL tyf bfh'efO{ / dfgjclwsf/sdL{nfO{ lbg rfxG5' . dfgjclwsf/sf] ljZjJofkL 3f]if0ffkqsf] k| : tfjgf / wf/fx?df ;d] l 6Psf k| f jwfgx?k| l t k" j { j t k| l ta4 /xF b } d'n'sdf zflGt / /fhgLlts :yfloTj sfod u/L gful/snfO{ ;an / ;d[4 agfpg g]kfnL sf+u|]; ;bf em+} ;tt\ k| o TgzLn /xg] 5 . …@) jif{ b ] l v tkfOFsf] clwsf/sf nflu sfo{/tÚ eGg] ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] of] jif{sf] gf/fn] ;Dk"0f{ ;b:o /fi6« x ?nfO{ dfgjclwsf/sf] k| T ofe" l t ug{ k| ] l /t ug] { cfzf d} n } lnPsf] 5' . ljZje/sf gful/snfO{ k|hftflGqs jftfj/0fdf cfkm\gf] JolQmTj ljsf; ub}{ ;+;f/df pknAw ;jf]{Qd cj;/x? k|fKt ug{ ljZj dfgjclwsf/ lbj;n] k| ] / 0ff lbg] 5 . g] k fndf dfgjclwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt ug]{ ;+j}wflgs / sfg"gL Joj:yf ug{ / To;sf] cIf/;M kfngf ug{ u/fpg ;dlk{t dfgjclwsf/sdL{ / dfgjclwsf/jfbL ;+3;+:yf ;a}nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o dfgjclwsf/ lbj;sf] pknIodf k'gM xflb{s z'esfdgf . ho g]kfn Û

vgfnlj?4=== / pk/fi6«kltsf] k|s/0fnfO{ pNn]v u/]sf 5}gg\ . pgL klxnf] r/0fdf ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f / bf];|f] r/0fdf dfq gofF /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rgsf] kIfdf 5g\ . t/ jl/i7 g]tf dfwj g]kfn / k|efjzfnL g]tf s]kL cf]nL eg] h;/L klg /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] r'gfj u/fP g} 5f]8\g] kIfdf s]lGb|t 5g\ . g]kfn / cf]nLsf] of] c8fgaf6 Pdfn]sf clwsf+z g]tf / cu'jf sfo{stf{x? g]t[Tjk|lt ?i6 aGg yfn]sf 5g\ . o;}u/L Pdfn] kIfw/ a'l4hLljx?n] klg /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rgdf av]8f lgsfn]/ kf6L{n] h3Go /fhg}lts uNtL u/] s f] atfpg yfn] s f 5g\ . sltkon] g]tT[ jnfO{ lsg tkfOFx?n] r'gfjL 3f]if0ffkqdf /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rgsf] k|;Ë p7fpg' ePg eg]/ k|Zg klg u/]sf 5g\ . t/ g]tfx?n] eg] tL s' / fx? 5f8\ g ' x f] ; \ eg] / pN6f] a'l4hLjLx?nfO{ klg xKsfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . vf;u/L /fi6«kltsf] lgjfrg k|s/0fdf g]tf s]kL cf]nLn] ljz]if d'2f agfpg k'us ] f 5g\ . pgL /fi6«kltsf] gfddf …afu]{lgªÚ u/L sf+u|];;Fu /fhgLlts ;f}bfafhL ug{ vf]lh/x]sf 5g\ . ;j{k|yd t pgL jl/i7 g]tf dfwj g]kfnnfO{ /fi6«klt agfpg] v] n df 5g\ . o;sf nflu pgn] Pdfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k'iksdn bfxfn;Fu klg kf6L{ s f] lxt ljkl/t cfTd3ftL ;Demf} t f ug] { kIfdf g} /x] s f 5g\ . g] k fnnfO{ 7] u fpg nufpg ;s] d f

Pdfn]leq cfkm\gf] ks8 x'g] 7x/ klg g]tf cf]nLsf] /x]sf] 5 . g]tf cf]nLsf] lgs6 ;'qsf cg';f/ pgL oxL jif{leqdf kf6L{leq pynk'yn Nofpg] tof/Ldf 5g\ . cfufdL @)&! ;fn j}zfvleqdf kf6L{sf] gjf}+ dxflwj]zg u/fO5f8\g] / To; dxflwj]zgaf6 cfkm" cWoIf x'g] p;sf] leq of]hgf /x]sf] 5 . To;sf] nflu pgn] zfd, bfd, b08 / e]bsf] gLlt ckgfO/x]sf 5g\ . h'g;'s} kmd'n { f ckgfP/ ePklg cfkm" kf6L{ cWoIf x'g] pgsf] u|f08 l8hfOg /x]sf] x'bF f pgL /fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg u/fpg] / dfwj g]kfnnfO{ /fi6«klt agfpg] pgsf] u'Kt v]n /x]sf] 5 . dfwj g]kfnnfO{ 7]ufg nufpg ;s]sf] v08df vgfnnfO{ 7]ufpg nufpg s'g} uf¥xf] gkg]{ cf]nLsf] kmd'n { f /x]sf] 5 . JolQmut /fhgLlts :jfy{sf] nflu cf]nLn] kf6L{nfO{ g} bnbndf km;fpg] ePsf 5g\ . jt{ d fgdf pgL d' v df /fd/fd / aunLdf 5' / f gLlt lnP/ /fhgLlts if8\oGqsf tfgfa'gf a'lg/x]sf x'Fbf Pdfn]leq 7"n} 3D;f3D;L x'g] l:ylt a9]/ uPsf] 5 . o;}u/L cWoIf vgfn klg cf] n Lsf] of] h gfnfO{ Wj:t kfg{ cfkm\gf lgs6 ;xsdL{x?;Fu 5nkmn ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;dfrf/ ;"qn] pNn]v u/] cg';f/ vgfn / cf]nLaLr zlQm xTofpg] cleofgdf 7"n} 6s/fj x'g]5 . o;df s;n] afhL dfg]{ xf] o;} eGg ;lsg] cj:yf eg] 5}g . t/ cf]nLsf] sf/0f Pdfn] hgtfsf ;fd" ;jf{Ë gf+lug] l:ylt aGg k'u]sf] 5 .

ef/tdf ===

efhkfn] 7"nf] ljho xfl;n u¥of] . o;sf nflu g/]Gb| df]bLnfO{ h; lbOFb5 } . ;du|df g/]Gb| df]bLsf] k|efjsf] pRr d"Nof+sg ul/Fb}5 . rrf{ d f /x] s f csf{ kfq x' g \ – /fhLgLltdf ev{/} pbfPsf cfd cfbdL kf6L{sf c/lj+b s]hl/jfn . cGgf xhf/]sf] cfGbf]ngsf pkh s]hl/jfnn] kf6L{ :yfkgf u/]sf] Ps jif{d} lbNnLsf] s'n ljwfg;efsf] &) l;6 ;+Vofdf @* :yfg xfl;n u/]/ #@ :yfg xfl;n u/]sf] efhkfeGbf $ l;6 dfq k5fl8 /x]/ bf];|f] 7"nf] bnsf ?kdf sfod ePsf] 5 . sf+u|];sf d'VodGqL zLnf bLlIft /fd|f] sfdsf afjh"b sf+u|];nfO{ lhtfpg c;kmn ePls dfq xf]Ogg\, :jod\ cfkm+} s]hl/jfn;Fu k/flht eOg\ . e|i6frf/ lj/f]wL cfdhgtfsf] ljifonfO{ Ph]08f agfPsf s] h l/jfnn] cfufdL cfd lgjf{rgdf ;d]t d'n'sel/ o:t} cfFwL Nofpg] kf] xf] ls eGg] 8/ 7"nf /fhgLlts bnx?df k}bf ePsf] 5 . of] lgjf{rgn] ;f]lgof ufGwL / /fx'n ufGwLsf] kf6L{ ef/tLo /fli6«o sf+u|];nfO{ eg] 7"nf] k|ZglrGxsf] 3]/fdf kf/]sf] 5 . cfufdL nf]s;efsf] %$@ :yfgdWo] @&@ sf] ax'dt Nofpg p;nfO{ k|foM c;Dej b]lvPsf] 5 . 7"nf] ;+Vofdf ;b:o 5flgg] pQ/ k|b]z, laxf/, u'h/ft, /fh:yfg / dWok|bz ] df sf+u; ]| sf] Go"g k|efj b]lvPsf] 5 . cGo 7"nf /fHox? dxf/fi6«, klZrd a+ufn / tfldngf8'df If]qLo bnx?sf] e/ ug'{kg]{ cj:yf 5 . oL /fHox?df ;xof]uL bnx? /fi6«jfbL sf+u|]; e8\lsg] ;+st] b]vf k/]sf] 5 eg] klZrd a+ufndf q0fd'n sf+u|]; u7aGwgaf6 xl6;s]sf] 5 . tldngf8' d f klg ;xof] u L bn l8Pds]sf] e/df 7"nf] kl/0ffd xfl;n ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf 5}g . dWod cfsf/sf] sgf{6s / lxdfrn k|b]z / pQ/fv08 h:tf /fHox?df sf+u|];nfO{ efhkfsf] 7"nf] r'gf}lt 5, hxfF g/]Gb| df]bLsf] cfFwL rNg] cg'dfg ul/Fb}5 . oxL cj:yfdf sf+u|];n] nf]s;efdf !)) :yfg xfl;n ug{ d'lZsn x'g] cfFsng ul/Fb}5 .

k|ljlw o;/L rnfcf}+ :sfO k|f]

g]kfn 6]lnsdn] ;L8LPdP k|ljlwdf cfwfl/t ›"t ultsf] OG6/g]6 ;]jf …:sfO k|f]Ú sf ?kdf a]lr/x]sf] 5 . df]afOn kmf]g tyf Nofk6k / sDKo'6/df klg rnfpg ;lsg] of] OG6/g]6 ;]jf oltv]/ 6]lnsdn] gLlh If]qsf tLg sDkgLx¿ cf/6LO OG6/g]zgn, jT;n ODk]S;, ;fOa/g]l6S;;Fusf] ;xsfo{df @@)) df pknAw u/fPsf] 5 . of] ;]jf lngsf nflu tkfOFn] gful/stfsf] kmf]6f]skL / Pp6f kf;kf]6{ ;fOhsf] kmf]6f] lnP/ hfg'k5{ . kmf/d el/;s]kl5 tkfOFn] @@)) df ;L8LPdP Olel8of] OG6/g]6 rnfpgsf nflu o"PaL 8f]+un ;fy} !)) Aofn]G; /x]sf] /Ldsf8{ kfpg'x'G5 . h;af6 OG6/g]6 rnfpFbf tkfOFnfO{ %) k};f k|lt PdaL z"Ns nfU5 . t/ tkfOF n ] :sfO k| f ] lsg] / sDKo'6/df hf]8g\ f;fy sDKo'6/df OG6/g]6 eg] rln xfNb}g . To;sf nflu tkfOFn] s]xL k|lqmof eg] ckgfpg'k5{ . :sfO k|f] lsg]/ NofO;s]kl5 tkfOFn] :sfO k|fs ] f] /Ldsf8{nfO{ o"P;aL 8f]u+ nsf] kl5Nnf] efudf /fVg'k5{ . To;kl5 o"P;aL 8f]u+ nnfO{ sDKo'6/sf] o"P;aL kf]6d { f nu]/ hf]8g\ k' 5{ . tkfOFn] o"P;aL 8f]u+ n sDKo'6/df hf]l8;s]kl5 Pp6f ;Gb]z b]lvG5 . tkfOFn] /g ;]6ck n]vs ] f] :sfO k|fs ] f] nf]uf] ePsf] efudf afofF lSns ug{k' 5{ . To;kl5 tkfOFsf] sDKo'6/df Pp6f ;Gb]z ePsf] aS; b]lvG5 . To;df n]lvPsf] g]S:6 eGg] a6gdf lSns u/]/ cufl8 hfg'xf];\ . To;kl5 tkfOFsf] sDKo'6/sf] l:qmgdf Pp6f aS; b]lvG5 . h;df tkfOFn] :sfO k|f] ;km\6j]o/ sxfF :yflkt OG:6n_ ug{ rfxg'xG' 5 eg]/ ;f]lwPsf] x'G5 . tkfOFn] c? s'g} 8«fOe 5fg]sf] v08df afx]s ;km\6j]o/ :jt ;L 8«fOesf] k|fu] f| d kmfON;df :yflkt x'G5 . o;df g]S:6 u/]/ tkfOF cufl8 a9\g ;Sg'xG' 5 . hxfF tkfOFnfO{ :sfO k|fs ] f] l56f] vf]Ng] dfWod -;{6s6_ sxfF /fVg] eGg] ;f]lwPsf] / kl/jt{g ug{] cj;/ lbOPsf] x'G5 . To;nfO{ kl/jt{g ug{' vf;} h?/L geOPsfn] tkfOF To;af6 klg l;w} cufl8 hfg ;Sg'xG' 5 . g]S:6df lSns u/]/ cufl8 hfg';\ . Tolt u/]kl5 tkfOFsf] l:qmgdf ;km\6j]o/ :yflkt OG:6n_ x'gsf nflu tof/ /x]sf] ;Gb]z cfpF5 . To;df klg g]S:6df lSns u/]/ cufl8 a9\g; ' \ . ;km\6j]o/ :yflkt x'bF } u/]sf] ;Gb]z b]lvG5 . ;km\6j]o/ ;fy} :sfO k|f] rnfpgsf nflu /Ldsf8{ /fVgsf nflu cfjZos 8f]u+ nfO{ sDKo'6/sf] k|0ffnL;Fu hf]8g\ ] -8«fOe/_ ;km\6j]o/x¿ sDKo'6/df :yflkt x'bF } u/]sf] ;Gb]z b]lvG5 . ;km\6j]o/ k'/} :yflkt x'g] qmddf /x]sf] 5 . tkfOFn] ;km\6j]o/ /fv]sf] s]xL ldg]6df g} aS; / ;Gb]z b]lvG5 . h;df :sfO k|f] rnfpgsf nflu cfjZos ;km\6j]o/ tkfOFsf] sDKo'6/df :yflkt eof] . o;vfnsf] ;Gb]z;Fu} tkfOFn] tTsfn :sfO k|f] rnfpg rfxg'xG' 5 eGg] vfnsf] ;Gb]z b]lvG5 . ;Gb]zdf pNn]v ePsf] tTsfn rnfpg rfxG5' eGg] vfnsf] ljsNkdf l7s nufP/ ;km\6j]o/ :yflkt ug{] sfd ;lsPsf] ;Gb]zdf lSns ug{'ePsf] l:qmgdf b]lvG5 . To;vfnsf] l:qmgdf tkfOFsf] :sfO k|fs ] f] g]6js{ ;fy} To;df Olel8of] / jfgPS;sf] g]6js{ b]vfpF5 . tkfOF /x]sf] If]qdf Olel8of] ;]jf gePsf] eP To;df Olel8of]sf] l;Ugn b]vfpFbg} . jfgPS;sf] dfq b]vfpF5 . ;fy} l:qmgdf tkfOF jfgPS;df jf Olel8of]df hf]l8g rfxg'xG' 5 eGg] ljsNk b]vfpF5 . t/ ToxfF /x]sf] ljsNkddf /x]sf] sg]S6df lSns ugf{;fy OG6/g]6 eg] rNb}g . To;sf nflu tkfOFn] :sfO k|f] l:qmgsf] afofFtkm{ /x]sf] kmfOn eGg] ljsNkdf uP/ ;]l6ªdf lSns ug{k' 5{ . h'g ul/;s]kl5] ;Gb]z aS; b]lvG5 . To;df /x]sf] gofF PsfpG6 vf]Ng] ljsNk -Go"_ df lSns u/]/ gofF PsfpG6 vf]Ng'k5{ . ;Gb]z aS;df /x]sf vfnL 7fpFx¿df eg{x' f]nf . hxfF o"h/g]ddf cfkm\gf] ;L8LPdP /Ldsf] gDa/ / kf;j8{df klg ;f]xL gDa/ g} /fVg'xf]nf . olt u/]kl5 ;a} ljsNkx¿df cf]s] u/]/ aflx/ lg:sg'xf];\ . To;kl5 b]lvg] :sfO k|f] l:qmgdf b]lvg] jfgPS; jf Olel8of] OG6/g]6 ;]jfdf hf]l8g] xf], To;sf] ljsNk -sg]S6 n]lvPsf] a6g_ df lSns ug{x' f];\ . :sfO k|f] :qmLg b]lvPkl5 tkfOFn] jfgPS; jf Olel8of] s]df hf]l8g] xf] Tof] ljsNkdf lSns u/]kl5 tkfOFsf] sDKo'6/ OG6/g]6df hf]l8G5 . /, k'5f/df sg]S6]8 cyf{t\ tkfOF OG6/g]6;Fu hf]l8g'eof] eGg] ;Gb]z b]lvG5 . ca tkfOFsf] :sfO k|f] OG6/g]6 rnfpgsf nflu tof/ eof] . tkfOF Pp6f ›"t ultsf] OG6/g]6 ;]jf;Fu hf]l8g'eof] . ofb ug{';\ Olel8of]df g]kfn 6]lnsdn] eg]sf] h:tf] pRr ult ;Fw} ldNb}g . sltko :yfgdf tkfOFsf] Olel8of] grNg ;S5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf jfgPS;df /x]sf] sg]S6 a6gdf lSns u/]/ ;':t g} ;xL OG6/g]6;Fu hf]l8g eg] ;Sg'x'G5 .

cfsfzaf6 8]lne/L

k|l;4 cgnfOg ;lkª ;fO6 cd]hgn] cgnfOg vl/b ePsf ;fdfgsf] 8]lne/L ca cfsfzaf6 klg lbg] ePsf] 5 . cd]hgsf ;LOcf] h]km a]hf];n] l56\6} pkef]QmfnfO{ cfsfzaf6 8«f]gsf] ;xfotfn] ;fdfg 8]lne/L ul/g] atfPsf 5g\ . o;/L 8«f]gsf] k|of]u u/]/ vl/b u/]sf] #) ldg]6df g} pkef]Qmf;Dd ;fdfg k' ¥ ofpgsf nflu cd] h gn] tof/L ul//x]sf] 5 . cd]hgn] o;sf nflu oltv]/ ;'/Iff ;DaGwL cWoog / kl/If0f ul//x]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . cd]hg k|fOd Po/sf] gfddf p;n] ldgL 8«f]g dfkm{t o;vfnsf] ;fdfg 8] l ne/L of] h gf agfPsf] xf], h'g cfufdL kfFr jif{ leq}df z'? x'g] atfOPsf] 5 . ;LaLP; 6]lnlehgdf cd]hg l;Ocf]n] o;vfnsf] tof/L ;fj{hlgs u/]sf x'g\ . cd]hgn] ;fdfg 8]lne/L ug{] eg]/ tof/L ul//x]sf] o;vfnsf] 8«f]gdf ljB'tLo df]6/x¿ /x]sf 5g\ h;n] !^ lsnf]ld6/ ;Ddsf] If]qdf ;fdfg k'¥ofpg ;S5 . o;nfO{ rnfpgsf nflu hLkLP;sf] k|of]u ul/g]5 eg] of] tl/sf 6«s k|of]u ug{' eGbf a9L jftfj/0f d}qL x'g]5 .


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SATYAGRAHA WEEKLY

/x]gg\ lzj /]UdL

g]kfnL l;g]dfsf Ps x:tL lgb{]zs lzj /] U dL ca /x] g gg\ . $( jifL{ o lgb{ ] z s /] U dLsf] aNv' l :yt aof] w f c:ktfndf pkrf/sf] qmddf ;f]daf/ laxfg kf}g ^ ah] lgwg ePsf] 5 . pgL ( dlxgfb]lv d[uf}nfsf] pkrf/ u/fpFb} cfPsf lyP . kl5Nnf] ;do lgdf]lgof ;d]t ePkl5 pgsf] cj:yf yk uDeL/ ePsf] lyof] . pgsf sfG5f efO ;/f]hn] Pp6f d[uf}nf lbg] lgwf] u/] klg lgdf]lgof ePkl5 d[uf}nf k|Tof/f]k0f x'g ;s]sf] lyPg . /]UdLnfO{ >4fGhnL lbg rnlrqsdL{, snfsf/, z'e]R5's / cfkmGt c:ktfn k'u]sf lyP . aof]wf c:ktfndf egf{

u/]b]lv g} pgnfO{ e]6\g z'e]R5'sx¿sf] eL8 nfu]sf] lyof] . pgsf] kfly{j z/L/ cGTo]li6sf nflu u[xlhNnf lrtjgsf] af/3/]df nluof] . pgsf >LdtL, b'O{ 5f]/L / Ps 5f]/f 5g\ . /]UdLsf] hGd @)@! ;fndf lrtjgdf ePsf] lyof] . pgsf rnlrq …k|]dk"hfÚ dfkm{t n]vg / …cfkmGtÚ dfkm{t lgb{]zg ofqf yfngL u/]sf lyP . …;'vb'vÚ, …cfkm\gf] dfG5]Ú, …P d]/f] xh'/Ú, …pkxf/Ú, …kfx'gfÚ, …xfdL tLg efOÚ, …d'UnfgÚ, …sxfF e]l6PnfÚ, …b'lgofFÚ, …dflg;Ú, …;fyL d ltd|fÚ] nufotsf rnlrq lgs} dg k/fOPsf] lyof] . pgn] lgb{]zg u/]sf b'O{ rnlrq …k/fO{Ú / …dgn] dgnfO{ 5'G5Ú k|bz{gsf] tof/Ldf 5 .

lj1fkgdf klg ljlsgL

lg/ zfx, jl/i7 lkmNdsdL{ d}n] pxfF;Fu hDdf b'O{ lkmNd -km"n / sxfF e]l6Pnf_ df sfd ug{] df}sf kfPsf] lyPF . lkmNddf ;Fu} w]/} sfd gu/]klg pxfFn] /fli6«o lkmNd pwf]usf] nflu 7"nf] of]ubfg lbg'ePsf] 5 . pxfFn] nufPsf] u'gsf] d"No ;fob} r'sfpg ;lsFb}g . pxfF lkmNd pBf]usf] lx/f] g} xf] . ;–;fgf rl/qnfO{ ;d]t ulx/fOdf k'u]/ cWoog ug{] pxfF h:tf] s'zn lgb{]zsn] cfkm\gf] nflu slxNo} s]lx dfUg' ePg, pN6} pxfF n ] ;F w } lbOg} /xg'eof] . pxfFsf] hLjgdf lkmNd afx]s c¿ s]lx lyPg . s]za e§/fO{, snfsf/ / lgd{ftf d}n] pxfFnfO{ lnP/ …cfkm\gf] dfG5]Ú, …kfx'gfÚ / …;f] l;DknÚ lgdf{0f u/]sf] lyPF . Tof] eGbf klg dxTjk"0f{ s'/f, d}n] pxfFsf clwsf+z lkmNddf clego ug{] df}sf kfPsf] 5' . ljz]ifu/L …;'vb'vÚ lkmNddf pxfFn] dnfO{ lbg'ePsf] rl/q d]/f] sl/o/s} d]df]l/oan rl/q ag]sf] 5 . d]/f] a'emfO{df lzj /]UdL g]kfnL lkmNd pBf]usf] Pp6f dfOn:6f]g xf] . ljsf; cfrfo{, n]vs / lgb{]zs xfdLn] …o'4Ú, …/fd an/fdÚ, …sxfF e]l6PnfÚ, …xfFl;b]p Ps km]/Ú, …d ltdL lagf dl/xfN5'Ú h:tf cfwf bh{g lkmNddf l:qmK6 n]vgsf] ;xsfo{ u/]sf 5f}+ . pxfF lgs} ;xh JolQm x'g'x'GYof] . c¿sf] ljifodf s'/f gsf6\g] / csf{sf] s'/f ;'Gg g¿rfpg] tyf ;Fw} ;sf/fTds ;f]r /fVg] xFl;nf] d]/f] ldqnfO{ cfh d}n] u'dfPsf] 5' . xfdL x/]s sfd Pscsf{sf]

;Nnfxdf uYof{}+ . d}n] cfkm\gf] z/L/sf] Pp6f c+u g} u'dfPsf] cg'ej u/]sf] 5' . nIdL lu/L, jl/i7 snfsf/ pxfF lgs} r'na'n] :jfefjsf] nfUYof] dnfO{ . d t pxfFsf] j0f{g u/]/} yflSbgF . ca xfdLnfO{ s:n] ufnL u5{ < s:n] clego u/fpF5 < lszf]/ /fgf, jl/i7 lgb{]zs g]kfnL lkmNd If]qsf] pxfF lbUuh JolQm x'g'x'G5 . pxfFn] t ;'gf}nf] cIf/df n]lvg'kg{] ul/ Pp6f cWofo g} sf]/]/ hfg'ePsf] 5 . zDe' ;fksf]6f, 5fofFsf/ d}n] pxfFsf] klxnf] lkmNddf g} Sofd]/f rnfpg] cxf]efUo kfPsf] lyPF . To;kZrft pxfF;uF !# j6f lkmNddf sfd u/]+ . pxfFn] agfPsf lkmNdn] g} pxfFsf] rl/q lgwf{/0f u5{ h:tf] nfU5 dnfO{ . /fh]Gb| pk|]tL, lgb{]zs d]/f] t pxfF sd{ lbg] a'af g} xf] . cfkmGtb]lv dflg;;Ddsf lkmNddf pxfFsf] ;xfos lgb{z ] s eP/ sfd u/]sf] lyPF . lzj bfO{sf] r]nf x'g kfpFbf d uj{ u5{' . cfh d}n] dfq x}g ;Dk"0f{ pBf]un] g} Pp6f s'zn lgb{z ] snfO{ u'dfPsf] 5 . 5la/fh cf]emf, lgdf{tf dnfO{ ;Demgf 5, pxfFn] cfkmGt lkmNdsf] l:qmK6 d]/} 3/df a;]/ n]Vg' ePsf] lyof] . pxfF;Fu d}n] lkmNd ug{] eg] / Plu| d ] G 6 klg u/] s f] lyPF t/ ;dofg's'n gx'Fbf ug{ ;lsg . pxfFn] g} gf/L k|wfg lkmNdsf] 6«0] 8 leq\ofpg' ePsf] xf] . pxfF h:tf] JolQmnfO{ u'dfpg' xfdL ;a}sf] nflu b'vsf] s'/f xf] .

lkmNd l;6L lgdf{0fdf hf]8

;" r gf tyf ;~rf/dGqL dfwj kf}8]nn] bf]nvfsf] nfs'/L8fF8f uflj;l:yt 8fª8'ª] 8fF8fd} lkmNd l;6L lgdf{0f x'gk' g{d ] f hf]8 lbPsf 5g\ . bf]nvf ;b/d'sfd rl/sf]6df z'qmaf/ cfof]lht cGt/lqmof sfo{qmddf dGqL kf}8]nn] k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, ef}uf]lns cj:yfnufotsf sf/0f 8fª8'ª] 8fF8f pko'Qm :yfg /x]sf] atfPsf x'g\ . …bf]nvfd} lkmNd l;6L lgdf{0fsf nflu ;/sf/ k|lta4 5, cfpg] ;/sf/n] klg o;nfO{ pRr k|fyldstfdf /fVg]5Ú, dGqL kf}8]nn] eg] . ;/sf/n] rnlrq gu/L ljsf; d:of}bf dlGqkl/ifb\af6 :jLs[t ug{] tof/L ul//x]sf] hfgsf/L lbFb} pgn] u'?of]hgf / k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f, gLlh / cGt/f{li6«o If]qsf] nufgLsf nflu ;d]t ;/sf/n] kxn ug{] cfZjf;g lbP . lkmNd

l;6L lgdf{0fsf nflu :yfgLo:t/df ;a} ;/f] s f/jfnf ;lDdlnt ljz] i f lhDd]jf/L;lxtsf] ;+oGq agfP/ sfd cl3 a9fpg'kg{]df dGqL kf}8]nsf] hf]8 5 . sfo{qmddf ;~rf/ dGqfnosf ;lrj w'|jk|;fb zdf{n] lkmNd l;6L lgdf{0fdf ;/sf/ nflu;s] s fn] :yfgLo ;/f] s f/jfnfsf] /rgfTds ;xof] u cfjZos /x]sf] atfP . bf]nvfsf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L k| N xfb kf] v /] n sf] ;efkltTjdf ePsf] sfo{qmddf 8f= ljqmd tfdfªn] 8fª8' ª ] 8fF 8 f lkmNd l;6L lgdf{0fsf] k|f/lDes ;DefJotf cWoog k|ltj]bg k|:t't u/]sf lyP . bf]nvfdf lkmNd l;6L lgdf{0fsf nflu ;/sf/n] rfn' cfjsf] ah]6d} b'O{ s/f]8 ah]6 ljlgof]hg ul/;s]sf] 5 .

cleg]qL rGb ;DdfgLt

df]8n 8\ofgL dy;{ cfkm\gf] sfd's 5lj sfod} ug{ rfxlG5g\ . To;sf/0f pgn] Ps lkpg] kfgLsf] lj1fkgdf cfkm\gf] sfd's z/L/ b]vfOg\ . n; PGhndf pgL ljlsgL nufP/ Ps lj1fkgsf] nflu kmf]6f];'6 ub{} lyOg\ . !#* gfds kfgLsf] lj1fkgdf lgs} v'n]sL 8\ofgLn] kmf]6f];'6 ubf{ lgs} /dfOnf] ePsf] k|ltlqmof lbPsL lyOg\ .

…u'TyLÚ sf] klg sd]8L ;f]

sn;{ 6LeLjf6 k|;f/0f eO/x]sf] sd]8L gfO6\; jLy slkndfkm{t\ u'TyLsf] e"ldsfaf6 rlr{t ePsf sd]l8og ;'lgn u|fj] /n] gofF sd]8L ;f] Nofpg] ePsf 5g\ . sd]8L gfO6\; jLy slknaf6 kfPsf] rrf{;uF } pgn] z'?df slkn;Fu lx:;]bf/Lsf] dfu u/]sf lyP . t/ slknn] To;nfO{ OGsf/ u/]kl5 pgL ;f]af6 cnu ePsf lyP . clxn] ;'lgnn] cfkm\g} l8hfOgdf gofF sd]8L ;f]sf] tof/L ul//x]sf] ef/tLo ;~rf/dfWodx¿n] hgfPsf 5g\ . :6f/ Kn;af6 k|;f/0f x'g] sd]8L ;f]sf] ;do sd]8L gfO6\; jLy slknsf] ;do;Fu h'Wg] ;d]t atfOPsf] 5 .

gofF n'sdf laBf

laBf afngsf] gofF n's xfn} ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . laBfsf] gofF lkmNd …aaL hf;';Ú df laBf gofF n' s df b] l vPsL x' g \ . lkmNddf pgn] hf;';sf] e"ldsf lgefPsL l5g\ . laBfn] hf;';sf] e"ldsf lgs} lgk"0f{tfsf ;fy lgefPsf] lkmNd o'lg6sf] bfjL 5 . cgf}7f] t of] 5 ls, ;'l6ª a]nf levf/L;Fu} a;]/ lev dfUbf s;}n] klg oL laBf afng x'g\ eg]/ lrg]gg\ . Toltdfq sxfF xf] /, Ps dlxnfn] t pgnfO{ …xft v'§f x'Fbfx'Fb} sfd u/]/ vfg ;Sb}gf} <Ú eGb} ufnL klg ul/g\ .

g]kfnL lkmNdsf] klxnf] cleg]qL e'jg rGbnfO{ …;'/ kßf ;Ddfg @)&)Ú n] ;Ddflgt ul/Psf] 5 . zlgaf/ /fhwfgLdf Ps ;df/f]xsfaLr jl/i7 ;+ : s[ t ljb\ 8f= ;Todf] x g hf] z Ln] cleg]qL rGbnfO{ bf];Nnf;lxt tfd|kq k|bfg ub{} ;Ddfg u/] . uflosf b]ljsf aGbgfn] cfkm\ g f ;f;' ;;' / fsf] ;Demgfdf …;'/ kßf ;DdfgÚ sf] :yfkgf u/] s L x' g \ . @)^( ;fnb] l v lbg yflnPsf] of] ;Ddfg g]kfnL lkmNd / ;+uLt If]qsf] ljsf;, lj:tf/ tyf ;Ddfgsf] nflu :yfkgf ul/Psf] sfo{qmddf uflosf aGbgfn] atfOg\ . To:t} sfo{qmddf cleg]qL rGb;lxt uflosf /rgf lh;L / /+u kqsf/ hog;'Aaf dfgGw/ klg ;Ddflgt eP . o;cl3 o; ;Ddfgaf6 cleg]qL a;'Gw/f e'iffn / ;+uLtsf/ bLks h+ud ;Ddflgt ePsf lyP .

Hofsk6df ;GgL af]N8 ;GgL lnof]gsf] rrf{ alnp8df ;Fw} x'g] u/]sf] 5 . w]/}h;f] ;do rnlrqsf] x6 clego / x6 kmf]6f] ;'6sf sf/0f rrf{df cfO/xg] ;GgLsf] rrf{ alnp8df clxn] km]/L r'lnPsf] 5 . ;GgLsf] o;k6s klg pgsf] rrf{ kmf]6f];'6sf sf/0fn] xf], h'g kmf]6f] pgn] cfkm\gf] cfpFbf] rnlrq …Hofsk6Ú sf nflu u/fPsL x'g\ . pgn] rnlrqsf nflu a]8?ddf kmf]6f] ;'6 u/fPsL 5g\ . pQm kmf]6f] ;'6df ;GgLn] a]8df ;'t]/ ;]S;'cn kf]h lbPsL 5g\ . rnlrq …Hofsk6Ú df ;GgLn] af]N8 e'ldsf lgjf{x u/]sL 5g\ . rnlrqsf] 6]n/df klg ;GgLsf] lgs} af]N8 b[Zo /flvPsf] 5 . rnlrqdf ;GgLsf] ;fydf ;lrg hf]zL / gl;?bLg zfxsf] d'Vo e'ldsf /x]sf] 5 .

/f]rs ;+;f/ sfl6of] ;f+;b\sf] ln+u

lhDafa]sf ;f+;b\x¿sf] ln+u sfl6Psf] 5 . ToxfFsf !) hgf ;f+;b\n] /fhLv';Ln] cfkm\gf] ln+u sf6]sf x'g\ . ;'Gbf crDd nfUg;S5 / k|Zg klg p7\g;S5 . cflv/ ;f+;b\x¿n] lsg ln+u+ sf6\g yfn] < PrcfOeL P8\; lj?4sf] cleofgdf ;fy lbFb} ;f+;b\x¿n] cfkm\gf] ln+ud'08 5f]ks ] f] 5fnf sf6]sf jf vtgf u/]sf x'g\ . em08} !) ldg]6sf] zNolqmof u/]/ pgLx¿n] cfkm\gf] ln+usf] 5fnf tf5]sf x'g\ . P8\;lj/f]wL ;f+;b\ ;d"xsf cWoIf ;d]t /x]sf ;f+; + b\ An]l;ª r]aG' 8f] ln+usf] 5fnf tf5\g] klxnf] ;f+;b\ ag] . cfkm'x¿n] ln+u tf5\gs ' f] d'Vosf/0f ;j{;fwf/0fnfO{ P8\;sf] af/]df hgr]tgf hufpg' / vtgf ug{sf] nflu k|fT] ;flxt ug{' ePsf] pgsf] egfO 5 . :d/0f/xf];\ ;+oQ' m /fi6«;3+ sf] Ps cWoogn] k'?ifsf] ln+u vtgf ug{] sfdn] PrcfOeL P8\;sf] km}nfj6 sd ug{] tYo kQf nufPsf] lyof] . 8An'Prcf]sf cg';f/ vtgf ul/Pdf k'?ifdf PrcfOeL ;g{] vt/f ^) k|ltztn] 36fpg ;lsG5 . d'l:nd ;d'bfodf aRr}df vtgf ul/lbg] rng 5 .

dlb/fn] dft]kl5 o:tf] klg

hd{gLsf] Ps kf6L{df Ps o'jtLn] o'jssf] tNnf] cf]7 6f]Sg] dfq x}g rf]S6f lgsfn]/ hldgdf y'lsg\ . 36gf s]xL dlxgf klxn]sf] xf] . ;]K6]Da/df …cS6f]a/ km]:6Ú sf] cj;/ kf/]/ em08} ^) nfv dflg; ;xefuL x'g] u/L eJo kf6L{ cfof]hgf ul/Psf] lyof] . kf6L{df ;xefuL Ps o'js o'jtL glhs} hfG5 / s]xL eG5 . #) jifL{of cnf:sg o'jtL @# jifL{o ci6«l] nofnL o'js;Fu s] s'/fdf olt el8\sOg\ ls o'jtL cfkm\gf] l;6af6 h'?Ss pl7g\ / o'jsnfO{ s'6g\ yflng\ t/ pgsf] l/; d/]g . nuQ} o'jtLn] o'jssf] cf]7sf] tNnf] efudf a]:;/L 6f]lsg\ / s]xL efu lgsfn]/ hldgdf y'lsg\ . kf6L{df ;xefuLx¿n] o'jtLnfO{ /f]Sg] k|of; gu/]sf klg xf]Ogg\, t/ ;kmn ePgg\ . 36gfkl5 o'jsnfO{ cf]7sf] 6'qmf;lxt c:ktfn nluPsf] lyof] . ck|z ] gkl5 pgsf] cf]7 hf]l8Psf] 5 .

Hof]ltif lj1fgdf of}g/f]u / d}yg' zf/Ll/s u7g -h;df u'Ktf+u klg ;lDdlnt 5_ df c+usf] 7"nf]–;fgf], k'i6– ck'i6 x'g' OToflb klg Hof]ltifsf] ljifo xf] . t/ ljj]ssf] b[li6af6 u'Ktf+u;DaGwL cg';GwfgeGbf klg hgdfg; tyf hjfgx¿sf dgsf] v' N b' n L tyf k| f s[ l ts pkxf/df cfF r k' ¥ ofpg] u'Ktf+u/f]u / ck|fs[lts of}glqmof x:td}y'g_ ;DaGwL eGg ;lsG5 .

of}g/f]u

s'08nLdf 5}7f}+ efjnfO{ /f]u;DaGwL cfwf/ dfg]/ ljrf/ ul/G5 . t/ of}g/f]usf] af/]df ljrf/ ubf{ ;ftf}+ tyf cf7f}+ efjsf] klg cWoog ug{' cfjZos x'g cfpF5, lsgls ;Ktd efj a:tL:yfg -gfeLb]lv d"n;Dd_ tyf cf7f}+ efjnfO{ u'Kt]G›Losf] :yfg dflgG5 . ctM :ki6} 5 ls oL b'j} :yfg sfdef]u;Fu ;DalGwt 5g\ . of}g lj1fgdf rG›dfn] dgnfO{ pQ]lht kfb{5, d+un jLo{ tyf zlQm k|bfg ub{5 . a'w lqm8fdf :gfo'd08nsf] dfWodaf6 ;Gt'li6 lbnfpF5 / z'qm ;Def]u ub{5 . o;/L ;kmn of}g hLjgdf rG›df d+un, a'w tyf z'qmsf] z'e l:ylt x'g h?/t x'g cfpF5 . ;fy} ;Ktd tyf ci6d efj zlg tyf /fx'sf] k|efjaf6 d'Qm x'g' emg\ lgtfGt h?/L 5 . o;df klg :qL s'08nLdf ;Ktd efj Pj+ k'?if s'08nLdf ci6d efjsf] d'Vo e"ldsf /xG5 . olb oL efjdf s'g} kfku|x tyf s'g} kfku|xsf] b[li6 ePdf of}g/f]u x'g] k|jn ;Defjgf /xG5 .

k|:t't 5, s]xL of}g/f]u;DaGwL u|xl:yltsf] ljj/0f

!= t'nf tyf j[lZrs nUg s'08nLdf ;Ktd efjdf zlg a;]df of}g /f]u x'g hfG5 . @= ;Ktd efjdf d+un, zlgaf6 b[i6 ePdf u'Ktf+u;DaGwL /f]u x'G5 . #= ;Ktd efjd} zlg klg d+unaf6 b[i6 ePdf dflg; u'Ktf+u/f]uL x'G5 . $= olb ;Ktd efjdf a'w Pj+ zlg b'j} ePdf klg gk'+;stf ldNg]5 . %= l;+x Pj+ sGof nUgdf ci6d efj tyf ci6d]zdfly kfku|x / zlgsf] b[li6 ePdf u'Ktf+u/f]u x'G5 . ^= rG›df lgrf] ePdf klg dfgl;s of}g/f]uL agfpFb5 .

d}yg'

x:td}y'g Ps ck|fs[lts of}g k|lqmof xf] . o;n] zfl//Ls / dfgl;s ljsf/ pTkGg ug{] x'gfn] o;;DaGwL klg Hof]ltifLo cfwf/df ljleGg k|df0fx¿ kfOPsf] 5 . x:td}y'g ug{]x¿sf] k|foM ;"o{, rG› / z'qm sdhf]/ of kfk qmfGt x'g'sf ;fy} k~rd, ;Ktd / gjd efj klg e|i6 ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . ;"o{ cfTdf, rG›df dg / sfdjf;gfaf]ws, z'qm kfk qmfGt x'gf;fy x:td}y'glt/ lnKt ePsf] b]lvg cfPsf] 5 .

cfjZostf km/s–km/s

dlxnf / k'?ifsf] zfl//Ls agfj6 dfq km/s x'bg} ltgLx¿sf] ;f]rfO{df klg cfsfz hldgsf] km/s x'G5 . j} 1 flgsx¿n] xfn} u/] s f] Ps cg';Gwfgdf oxL s'/f kQf nufPsf 5g\ . To; cg';Gwfgcg';f/ dlxnf / k'?ifsf] ;]S; cfjZostf km/s– km/s dfq x'bF g} , To;sf] af/]df ;f]rfO{ klg km/s g} x'G5 . j}1flgsx¿ dfG5g\ ls, k'?ifx¿ ;]S;nfO{ lbge/Lsf] lqmofsnfk eGbf cnu dfG5g\ t/ dlxnfx¿ o;df km/s ;f]rfO{ /fVb5g\ . j}1flgsx¿n] cg';Gwfgsf] qmddf kfP ls k'?ifx¿ cfkm' pQ]lht ePsf] k|ltlqmof l56\6} lbG5g\ t/ dlxnfx¿nfO{ cln ;do nfUb5 . SjLG; o'lgel;{6Låf/f u/fOPsf] o; cWoogdf !( jif{bl] v @& sf aLr @%)) dlxnf / !()) k'?ifaLr zf]wsf] cWoog ul/Psf] lyof] . zf]wdf ;fd]n ul/Psf k'?if tyf dlxnfx¿nfO{ sfdf]Qh ] s ultljwLsf] klxn] / k5f8L slQsf] pQ]hgf dx;'; x'G5 eg]/ ;f]lwPsf] lyof] . To;k5L hjfkm / To;a]nf tL dlxnf tyf k'?ifx¿sf] of}gf+ux¿df ePsf] /utsf] axfj / dfgl;s k|ltlqmof;Fu bfFlhPsf] lyof] . o;qmddf k'?ifx¿sf] dfgl;s / zfl//Ls k|ltlqmof ldn]sf] kfO{of] eg] dlxnfx¿sf] zfl//Ls pQ]hgf / dfgl;s pQ]hgfaLr tfnd]n Tolt gePsf] kfO{of] . cem cg';Gwfgsf] qmddf dlxnfx¿df s'g} zfl//Ls abnfj lagf g} dfgl;s?kdf pQ]lht ePsf] kfO{of] eg] s'g} a]nf aflx/ pQ]lht gb]lvP kgL dfgl;s?kdf lgs} pQ]lht ePsf] kfO{of] . o; cg';Gwfgsf k|dv ' k|fk] m];/ d]/l] by lrj;{ /x]sf lyP . —Ph]G;Lsf] ;xof]udf


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