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AIR DESIGN STUDIO JOURNAL SAMIL ATLIHAN 558467


Table of Contents About the Author

pg.4

PART A CONCEPTUALISATION pg.6 A.1 Design Futuring pg. 8 A.2 Design Computation pg.14 A.3 Composition/ Generation PART B CRITERIA DESIGN pg.24 B.1 Research Field pg.26 B.2 Case Study 1.0 pg.28 B.3 Case Study 2.0 pg36 B.4. Technique Development pg.40 B.5. Technique: Prototype pg.44 B.6. Technique: Proposal pg.46


PART C DETAILED DESIGN pg.56 C.1. Design Concept pg.58 C.2. Techtonic Elements and Prototypes pg.64 C.3 Final Detail Model pg.68 REFERENCES pg.141


THE AUTHOR

SAMIL ATLIHAN My name is Samil Atlihan. I am a third year bachelor of Environments student majoring in Architecture. I was born and raised in Melbourne, primarily the northern suburbs, however, I am of Turkish descent. Previously, I have worked with computer aided design programs such as Rhino and its plug-in Grasshopper, and have benefitted from its use with model-making. I also have experience with hand-made model making from the 3rd year Construction Design subject, however i am more interested in improving my modelmaking abilities via computational design.

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FIG.1/2: CONSTRUCTION MODEL OF A SECTION FROM THE DANDENONG EDUCATION PRECINCT

FIG.3: LASER-CUT PROTOTYPE OF A SECTIONED WALK-TROUGH LAND ART

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PAR CONCEPTU


RT A UALISATION

IMAGE CREDIT: IWAN BAAN; HERZOG & DE MEURON; ARCH-PHOTO


A.1. DESIGN FUTURING - “THE ‘STATE OF THE WORLD’ AND THE STATE OF DESIGN NEED TO BE BROUGHT TOGETHER” – TONY FRY


IMAGE CREDIT: GOOGLE IMAGES

Design Futuring, as Tony Fry explains it, is a “practice that aims to make time for human existence by negating forms of action, goods, systems and institutions that take time away (Defuturing)” (Fry, Tony, 2008). Architecture and how we shape its’ future plays a significant role when it comes to the lifespan of the planet we inhabit. Our future, if we as mankind want a future, depends on finding and implementing ways to undo the process of unsustainability, which is gradually taking our future away from us. We need to take wiser and more cautious actions and respect the environment we live in, when it comes to design and bringing our objectives to life. So far, we have been sacrificing a part of nature every time we want to bring about something for ourselves- ‘the omelet at the cost of the egg, the table at the cost of the tree, through to fossil fuel generated energy at the cost of the planet’s atmosphere’ (Fry, Tony, 2008). Focusing on certain aspects of architecture and how we design our habitats by optimizing environmentally friendly techniques, such as sun shading systems, renewable energy systems and passive design, will aid us towards a more sustainable future. Although these techniques and aspects have already been implemented in the past, now with the help of computational design and advances in technology, optimizing designs for sustainable architecture will be easier, faster and would be able to be instigated on a much larger scale. The Land Art Generator Initiative is a significant motivator for the Design Futuring practice.

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PRECEDENT 1

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND HEALTH 1935

“…FRESH AND CAREFUL STUDY OF THE COMPLICATED NEEDS OF THE MODERN OFFICE BUILDING” - PHILLIP GOODWIN, 1943

IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON, 2014) MES ROOFTOP GARDEN

The Ministry of Education and Health (MEH), Rio de Janeiro, designed by an outstanding team of architects, of whom are Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer, in 1935, is one of the earliest examples of designing in order to benefit the future of sustainable architecture and has inspired many others to follow in its footsteps. MEH was the first commercial public building to implement the five points of Modernism and inspired modernism to be a part of Brazilian architecture with the planning of the city of Brasilia. What stands out most about the Ministry of Education and Health, and is of most interest regarding the practice of design futuring, is the buildings use of a Bris-Soleil on the north facing façade, which was made adjustable, the first of its kind in the world. It was acknowledged by the New York Times in 1943 to be the most ‘advanced architectural structure in the world’ (Modern-brazilarchitecture.blogspot.com.au, 2014). 80 years later, today, structures such as the Al-Bahr Towers of Abu Dhabi are using similar adjustable shading systems, but which are now being perfected with the help of computer aided design. Along with the Bris-Solei façade, the MES also promoted a rooftop garden. Le Corbusier, a decade after his contribution with the design of this building, built a few of the finest works of Modernist Architecture, such as Unite d’Habitation 1947, with the same approach as the MEH. Conclusively, the Ministry of Education and Health is one of the first displays of architects designing in order to take a step towards a sustainable future and at the same time achieve stylistic acclaim. 10

IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON, 2014) MES BRISE-SOLEIL FACADE

IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON, 2014). SPANISH PAVILLION, OSCAR NIEMEYER 1939. BRISE-SOLEIL FACADE


PHOTO CREDIT: (ANON, 2014) MINSTRY OF EDUCATION AND HEALTH 1935

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PRECEDENT 2

AL BAHR TOWERS - RESPONSIVE FACADE “DEVELOPED BY THE COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN TEAM, OUR WORK CONSISTED IN FINDING A PARAMETRIC DESCRIPTION FOR THE GEOMETRY OF THE ACTUATED FACADE PANELS AND SIMULATING THEIR OPERATION IN RESPONSE TO SUN EXPOSURE AND CHANGING INCIDENCE ANGLES DURING THE DIFFERENT DAYS OF THE YEAR.” – AEDAS 2014

The Al Bahr Towers, located in Abu Dhabi, are the headquarters for the Abu Dhabi Investment Council (ADIC) and the head office of Al Hilal Bank. What makes this eco-friendly project unique is that it boasts the world’s largest sun-responsive façade shades, which elegantly wraps the Towers, protecting it from direct solar heat gain. Inspired by the ‘mashrabiya’ shading systems used in Arabian culture, this innovative dynamic façade shading system with geometrically-designed adjustable shades, help reduce interior heat gains caused by sunlight by ‘around 50 percent’ (Kaye, 2014) . The shades face all directions except the north and are controlled via a building management system. This system was implemented in order for the offices within the Towers to remain cool without the excessive use of air conditioning. The Towers were designed to be as sustainable as possible amidst the harsh desert climate. The responsive façade system illustrates that parametric design and computer aided design help to merge sustainable goals with the relevant cultural aesthetic, since the software-driven design has shaped an elaborate modern version of the ‘mashrabiya’ style of shading. A façade of this caliber expands future possibilities for more creative larger and efficient architectural exterior-skins. Brazil’s 1935 MES building amazed the architectural world over half a century ago, the AL Bahr Towers amaze and inspire us today, the future only holds further advances and creative ideas. 12

IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON, 2014)

IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON, 2014)

IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON, 2014)

IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON, 2014)


IMAGE CREDIT: (ANON,2014)

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A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION

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IMAGE CREDIT: [1],[2]. INNOVATION: 3D STRUCTURAL MODELING LOCATION: BILBAO, SPAIN ARCHITECT: FRANK GEHRY

The readings analysed regarding Design Computation explain the evolution of design processes and how computing has interacted with them. Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, explain, through their academic writing, ‘Theories of the Digital in Architecture’, the contribution ‘digital’ has made to architecture. Parametric systems have allowed for the ‘writing of rules, or algorithmic procedures, for the creation of variations’ (Oxman, 2014, pg. 3). This enables architects to derive numerous iterations and alleviates form and technique development. At the same time as disgning parametrically, computational softawares proide perfomative behaviours such as energy and structural calculations (Oxman, 2014, pg.4). Collaboration between architects and engineers has also been established by the digital world in order for interactive digital generation and performance simulation (Oxman, 2014, pg. 5). It could be said that research has now commenced via design. Therefore, design computation has revolutonised architecture for the better. However, not everyone agrees with the succes of design computation. Most architects acknowledge the advanteges, but others still have not look passed the disadvantages they claim design computation has. Yehuda E. Kalay, discusses these advanteges and disadvanteges in his writings ‘Architecture’s New Media Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design’. He outlines that computers may be spectacular machines, but they are at times unreliable for design prcesses, stating that it is easy for humans to understand computers, but not the other way around (Kalay, 2004, pg.2). In my opinion, computers might be not be able to solve all our problems now, however times are changing and advances in technology are proving to provide for us what we thought they never would. It is only a matter of time that computational design is perfected. I believe, using comptuers in the architectural design process is extremely beneficial for those who are able to use it., especially when it comes to performative systems. Computer-aided design softwares are continuously changing, improving and are being modified as technology advances. Therefore, users continuously need to learn new programs and adapt to various softwares. CAD programs vary from Auto-Cad to more parametric systems such as Rhino’s plugin Grasshopper. Having used grasshopper, it was frustrating when i was so eager to use the software but was not yet able to use it to its ull potential due to limited knowledge. However, after sometime and practice, slowly slowly i was able to adapt to the parmetric environment. As i learnt the logic behind the algorithmic procedures, i was able to aplly numerous different trategies of design. The trick is to learn the logic behind CAD systems and then be able to apply this knowledge to new and improved systems you choose to uprgrade to. Inevitably though, the time of visual communications being practised by hand in Architecture is soon to be replaced with computational design for good.

IMAGE CREDIT” KELLY WERNER

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A.3 COMPOSITION / GENERATION

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“WHEN ARCHITECTS HAVE A SUFFICIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ALGORITHMIC CONCEPTS, WHEN WE NO LONGER NEED TO DISCUSS THE DIGITAL AS SOMETHING DIFFERENT, THEN COMPUTATION CAN BECOME A TRUE METHOD OF DESIGN FOR ARCHITECTURE.” - BRADY PETERS, COMPUTATION WORKS, 2013

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A.6 APPENDIX ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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BIBLIOGRAPHY AEDAS.COM, (2014). ABU DHABI INVESTMENT COUNCIL HEADQUARTERS - RESPONSIVE FACADE | AEDAS | GLOBAL AWARD WINNING ARCHITECTS | ABU DHABI, UAE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.AEDAS.COM/RESEARCH/ADIC-RESPONSIVE-FACADE [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FCLASSCONNECTION.S3.AMAZONAWS. COM%2F618%2FFLASHCARDS%2F1220618%2FJPG%2F-0111337050542875.JPG&IMGREFURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.STUDYBLUE.COM%2FNOTES%2FNOTE%2FN%2FLECTURE13-LATIN-AMERICA-AND-JAPAN%2FDECK%2F6637179&H=775&W=1200&TBNID=K9VHN4I66QGPWM%3A&ZOOM=1&DOCID=MCCBL4SLBSFDPM&EI=RXP2U_RFB8XI8 AXEKYD4CQ&TBM=ISCH&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&VED=0CD8QMYGCMBW&IACT=RC&UACT=3&DUR=918&PAGE=2&START=27&NDSP=26 [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. : ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://ARTICLE-WOVEN-ALUMINIUM-FACADE-1.JPG [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. KAYE, L. (2014). WORLD’S LARGEST SUN-RESPONSIVE FAÇADE SHADES ABU DHABI’S IMPRESSIVE AL BAHR TOWERS. [ONLINE] INHABITAT.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP:// INHABITAT.COM/ABU-DHABIS-STUNNING-AL-BEHAR-TOWERS-ARE-SHADED-BY-A-TRANSFORMING-GEOMETRIC-FACADE/ [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. : MODERN-BRAZIL-ARCHITECTURE.BLOGSPOT.COM.AU, (2014). MODERN BRAZIL ARCHITECTURE: THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND HEALTH. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://MODERN-BRAZIL-ARCHITECTURE.BLOGSPOT.COM.AU/2009/12/MINISTRY-OF-EDUCATION-AND-HEALTH.HTML [ACCESSED 20 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+1935+RIO+DE+JANEIRO&CL IENT=FIREFOX-A&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=FRP2U-QFMPOQUASN9YKACA&VED=0CACQ_ AUOAG&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+OSCAR+NIEMEYER&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM= ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=6MGBPXY1V76PVM%253A%3BOSO17LLTDFPZUM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252F38.MEDIA.TUMBLR.COM%252FTUMBLR_ MEMG2323GN1RDPK23O4_R1_250.JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FBLOG.PAPRESS.COM%252FPAGE%252F37%3B250%3B32IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=SPANISH+PAVILION+OSCAR+NIEMEYER&CLIENT=FIRE FOX-A&HS=J6Q&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=DBX2U8VLKJK7UASA2YLAD W&VED=0CAYQ_AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=GH7H0NM029NIYM%253A%3BAPO-BWSU8YOTUM%3BHTTP %253A%252F%252FMEDIA-CACHE-CD0.PINIMG.COM%252F236X%252FB4%252FE0%252FBF%252FB4E0BFD7BEE45E26FDB681210435FEB2. JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FWWW.PINTEREST.COM%252FSOMBIN%252FOSCAR-NIEMEYER%252F%3B236%3B293 [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+1935+RIO+DE+JANEIRO&CL IENT=FIREFOX-A&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=FRP2U-QFMPOQUASN9YKACA&VED=0CACQ_ AUOAG&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+OSCAR+NIEMEYER&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIA L&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=QME_0SWKTAVTMM%253A%3BKORFA6TT9O0PWM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FCLASSCONNECTION. S3.AMAZONAWS.COM%252F856%252FFLASHCARDS%252F749856%252FPNG%252FBRAZIL_MINISTRY1322583602039.PNG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FWWW. STUDYBLUE.COM%252FNOTES%252FNOTE%252FN%252FFINAL%252FDECK%252F1569303%3B710%3B913 [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.DESIGNBOOM. COM%2FWEBLOG%2FIMAGES%2FIMAGES_2%2FDANNY%2FALBAHAR%2FALBAHAR05.JPG&IMGREFURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.DESIGNBOOM. COM%2FARCHITECTURE%2FAEDAS-AL-BAHAR-TOWERS%2F&H=261&W=818&TBNID=LFHSGROXJKPCVM%3A&ZOOM=1&DOCID=CK0YLLFKRT6UTM&EI=RST2U6PQB8L Q8AW7K4K4BW&TBM=ISCH&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&VED=0CCOQMYGPMA8&IACT=RC&UACT=3&DUR=3493&PAGE=1&START=0&NDSP=24 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=BIRS-SOLI&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&HS=SQB&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&S OURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=MXB2U4HSCMU48GW3LYLQDQ&VED=0CAGQ_AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=AL+BAHAR+TOWERS+ABU+DHABI&RLS=ORG. MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=LPTTOHJHUENGPM%253A%3BRK0UW7VKHLDMFM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252F WWW.ARUP.COM%252F~%252FMEDIA%252FIMAGES%252FPROJECTS%252FA%252FABU_DHABI_INVESTMENT_COUNCIL_HEADQUARTERS%252FADIC_ MASHRABIYA_900X600.ASHX%253FMH%253D800%2526MW%253D1000%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FWWW.ARUP.COM%252FPROJECTS%252FABU_ DHABI_INVESTMENT_COUNCIL_HEADQUARTERS%252FADIC_GALLERY1.ASPX%3B900%3B600 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FAD009CDNB.ARCHDAILY.NET%2FWPCONTENT%2FUPLOADS%2F2012%2F09%2F1346845546-NEW-HEADQUARTERS-AL-BAHAR-TOWERS-ABU-DHABI-UAE-8-682JPEG492X0-Q85-CROPSMART.JPG&IMGREFURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.ARCHDAILY.COM%2FCATEGORY%2FBUILDING-TECHNOLOGY-AND-MATERIALS%2F&H=369&W =492&TBNID=AKYHMKKNF32DBM%3A&ZOOM=1&DOCID=I53UTNNNPGYRYM&EI=RST2U6PQB8LQ8AW7K4K4BW&TBM=ISCH&CLIENT=FIREFOXA&VED=0CBSQMYGAMAA&IACT=RC&UACT=3&DUR=1136&PAGE=1&START=0&NDSP=24 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=MASHRABIYA+SHADING+SYSTEMS&CLIENT=FIREFOXA&HS=4D&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=LC70U4YYK9AGUGS85OLQBG&VED=0CAGQ_ AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=TRADITIONAL+MASHRABIYA+SHADING+SYSTEMS&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&I MGRC=JBU1FTCXCCCG_M%253A%3BGBVPIMJECTNVZM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252F1.BP.BLOGSPOT.COM%252F-RC_ASB6KY98%252FUBGUFF7S-7I%252FAAAAAAAAAXE% 252F7XHRFNBKSVQ%252FS1600%252FIMG_0677.JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FRENATOCILENTO.BLOGSPOT.COM%252F%3B1600%3B1118 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=BIRS-SOLI&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&HS=SQB&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&S OURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=MXB2U4HSCMU48GW3LYLQDQ&VED=0CAGQ_AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=AL+BAHAR+TOWERS+ABU+DHABI&RLS=ORG. MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=SOTIMNKFCJVXCM%253A%3BWBVANB8B4E1NAM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FEDENISON.ZENFOLIO.COM%252 FIMG%252FS3%252FV43%252FP800551216-3.JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FEDENISON.ZENFOLIO.COM%252FP16106146%252FH2FB77130%3B580%3B387 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014].

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OXMAN, RIVKA AND ROBERT OXMAN, EDS (2014). THEORIES OF THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE (LONDON; NEW YORK: ROUTLEDGE), PP. 1–10 • KALAY, YEHUDA E. (2004). ARCHITECTURE’S NEW MEDIA: PRINCIPLES, THEORIES, AND METHODS OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAMBRIDGE, MA: MIT PRESS), PP. 5-25 • ISSA, RAJAA ‘ESSENTIAL MATHEMATICS FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN’, SECOND EDITION, ROBERT MCNEEL AND ASSOCIATES, PP 1 – 42 PETERS, BRADY. (2013) ‘COMPUTATION WORKS: THE BUILDING OF ALGORITHMIC THOUGHT’, ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, 83, 2, PP. 08-15 • FERRY, ROBERT & ELIZABETH MONOIAN, ‘A FIELD GUIDE TO RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES’’, LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE, COPENHAGEN, 2014. PP 1 - 71 • DEFINITION OF ‘ALGORITHM’ IN WILSON, ROBERT A. AND FRANK C. KEIL, EDS (1999). THE MIT ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE COGNITIVE SCIENCES (LONDON: MIT PRESS), PP. 11, 12

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PART B CRITERIA DESIGN

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(ANON, 2014)

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B.1. RESEARCH FIELD STRUCTURE

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(ANON, 2014) As a starting point for the development of my technique i have selected the research field of structure. Structure is the primary element of any design. Although somedesigns are self-supportive, most designs require structure to be designed to be placed on. Structure is a field which is simple to design and manipulate with the help of parametric programs, such as grasshopper. With grasshopper, the shape, number of members and other variables are easily changed. manipulated and adjusted with sliders. The structure of a parametric design could take the form of a lattice grid, waffle grid, contours, collumn grids and expressive forms. conceptual design implications Structure may take the many conceptual design forms. From small to gigantic to curvilinear planes. However, its fabrication oppurtunities are limited. Limited in the sense that, the key way to piece together structural members effciently is, in my opinion, to fit them together via slits or gaps, similiar to a waffle grid. Waffle grids, again in my opinon, are the most efficient forms of structure. Although, i believe lattice grids to provide more options when it comes to conceptual design and aesthetic.

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B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 ‘CANTON TOWER’

(ANON, 2014)

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Canton Tower by Information Based Architects, in Guandong, China, is unlike any other. With a height of 600m, the Canton Tower, in 2010, became the worlds tallest TV and sightseeing tower. Rather than designing a regular rectangular and strong masculine structure, the team at Information Based Architects decided to introduce a more feminine structure with curves and a waist. Their curvey design was structured with straight members, which gives it a unique twist. With a circle form at the bottom and an eclipse up top, the straight members connect the two together and fool the eye with a form that appears to be deformed and curved.

(ANON, 2014)

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‘CANTON TOWER’ ITERATION MATRIX

Iterating a matrix for the Canton Tower was smple. 30 iterations vary from changes in pipe diamter, the outer skins pattern, the number of members vertically and horizontally, and the type of truss system which connects the tower and the skin.

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B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0 ‘SPANISH PAVILLION’

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Spanish Pavillion steel structure wicker cover architect: Benedetta Tagliabue 2010 Shanghai Pavillion, Spain

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B.4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT ‘SPANISH PAVILLION’ ITERATION MATRIX

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B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPE

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B.6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

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B.7. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

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I believe structure was a good choice as a technique to develop, because it is a flexible technique, in that i can apply other techniques along with it. Experimentiung with structure allowed me to then experiment with panellisation, which i found to me more interesting and rewarding. However, as experienced while prototyping, i realised that a lattice structure and panels were an issue to fabricate, the way i had designed them. Therefore, a method of designing the loft and the panels to be fabricated and attached efficiently and allowing the panels to recieve optimum solar gain needs to be looked into before comfirming a proposal for the LAGI site. Furthermore, the prototype was successful in the fact that, it allowed me to experiment with 3-d printing for the first time and allowed me to physically analyse the issue i had with a design based on the Spanish Pavillion. However, the prototype was unsuccessful in that it had broken, due to inefficient diammeters and since i had glued the panels onto the lattice structure, rather than efficiently finding a way to attach them. Learning from these mistakes, i have to proportionatelly prepare a form with will physically hold itself up in the real-world and obviously be structurally efficient. Testing out a few more prototypes with different diammeters might help. In order to efficiently attach the panels to the structure, a waffle grid is an option. Although a waffle grid is an overused method, it is efficient. Another option would be to create points from the nodes where each panel could be inserted into. this method is similiar to how they attached the woven basket panels to the Spanish Pavillion, but for the spanish pavillion the panels are attached onto a wire which is then attatched onto the structure of the pavillion, which allows for the panels to be adjusted and positioned as pleased. This connection issue gives me more to research on. In my opinion i have to look in to a more creative approach. Overall, prototyping was a good lesson for me to learn from for upcoming attemps at 3d-modelling. In regards to learning from the Canton Tower case study, i will be taking away from it the principle that the structural members are able to create a curved and deformed illusion while still remaing straight. i will be applying this as the structure to hold solar panels, snaking along the site, capturing energy to be used and guiding users around the site as a inhabitable sculptural land art, in a similiar way to the Spanish Pavillion, but with the design concept of the Canton Tower. if the panels had more of a 3d-shape to them, rather than being flat, i believe it would be more appealing, aesthetically. However, this might minimise solar optimisation. It is an idea i will be looking into. I hope to design a form with teh panels creating a scale-like feature along its surface. This will intensify its aesthetic. Conclusively, i believe that the mistakes i have made and issues i have come across have tauht me lessons which allow me now to develop a successful proposal.

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B.8. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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BIBLIOGRAPHY IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://4.BP.BLOGSPOT.COM/-OAQQGXNCWJK/TQVJJDJKMCI/AAAAAAAAADC/ XELRTOWSTSM/S1600/198054_177669115612236_167825166596631_412868_1292542_N.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. ONLINE IMAGE OR VIDEO ANON IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.CGARCHITECT.COM/CONTENT/ PORTFOLIOITEMS/2012/03/46778/PARAMETRIC_ARCHITECTURE_LARGE.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. ONLINE IMAGE OR VIDEO ANON IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://FC04.DEVIANTART.NET/FS71/I/2012/265/0/5/CANTON_TOWER_BY_JONSONOX-D5FKQYJ.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. ONLINE IMAGE OR VIDEO ANON IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://INTERSCHOOLMATHEMATICS.PBWORKS.COM/F/1376492282/04DAVSB_INSPIRE7.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. ].

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PART C DETAILED DESIGN

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C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT IF YOU HAVE TOTAL FREEDOM, THEN YOU ARE IN TROUBLE. IT’S MUCH BETTER WHEN YOU HAVE SOME OBLIGATION, SOME DISCIPLINE, SOME RULES. WHEN YOU HAVE NO RULES, THEN YOU START TO BUILD YOUR OWN RULES. – RENZO PIANO

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In preparing for Part C: Detailed Design, a personal decision was made to set constraints in order to produce a final design in time for the final presentation. ‘Part B: Criteria Design’ concluded with a propsal of a pavillion similiar to the 2010 Spanish Pavillion, a giant lofted lattice grid structure which has oriented onto it, solar panels varying in size proportional to the suns orientation. After receiving very useful feedback regarding this proposal, two key thughts have pathed a way for a design concept for my next and final proposal, ‘Location’ and ‘constructability’. Part B’s proposal was attractive, however a connection detail had not been resolved and where it was to be loacted and oriented onto the site in Refshaleøen, Copenhagen, was not significantly decided. Therefore, by taking a thought from the feedback which was received whilst presenting Part B, that the form of the Canton Tower is an interesting form and should be lookied into in further detail, i have decided develop this form in a way that it snakes through the site. guiding users. The Canton Tower forms a waist in the centre by lofting two rotated elipses together with straight members, giving it a feminine and curved look when in fact all connecting members are straight. After dwelling on this form, i decided to develop the canton tower to further suit the site and brief. Therefore, instead of towering on the site, i decided to lay the form horizontally across the site and see what i could do with that. Then i changed the size of the openings , t have a smaller oppening leading to a larger opening. Then more ring were added to add more then one waist. I then finalised this part of the development by snaking the form across the site with a smaller entrance leading users out to larger exit. This form preety much resembles a snake or a serpent of some sort, which i was content with. The next step was to apply the energy producing elemnt of the brief to this form. Therefore, with my previous ambition to have solar panels oriented relevant to the suns orientation, optimising solar gain, i oriented panels onto the serpent form. This time however using a boxmorph component and then tested a attractor point to have the panels oriented onto the form only in areas where the suns ray will be most effective. In the end i was, again, content with how it looked, but had not solved the connection detail.

After contemplating on how to realistically connect a lattice grid efficiently, i curiously investigated other connection details. This led me to look into gridshell connections. After testing the serpent form with a gridshell structure my attention again quickly moved to another form of parametric design which allowed for very simple structural connection or in some cases does not need connection details at all; ‘Sectioning’. I have previously worked with sectioning different forms and creating pathways with sectionig. The most beneficial factor of sectioning is its simplicity to fabricate and put together, which is what i was looking for in my proposal. A proposal which could be put together without any machinery and heavy materials is compelling. Therefore, sectioning was the new designing strategy and was then applied to the canton tower form to begin with and see what could be done, which is evident in the following pages of this journal in the form of a prototype model. In similiarity with the wise words of Renzo Piano, that “when you have no rules, then you start to build your own rules”, using constraints which i have created for myself subtly, i have been able to move past a problem which was slowing me down. The problem, might have been simple and easy to resolve with the help of computational design skills, however it was taking me too long to get through. Fortunately though, this process had to be gone through in order to be content with making final decisons regarding the final proposal and led me to a design which i am now happy with finalising. In cocnlusion, the feedback from Part B: Criteria Design brought about the design concept that the final proposal will focus on a form similiar to that of the canton tower which has happened to resemble a serpent, snaking across the site guiding users around. It also brought about developments which led to sectioning as a form in order to fabricate the design as simply and efficiently as possible.

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C.2 TECHTONIC ELEMENTS AND PROTOTYPES After numerous devlopments with lattice structures, in order for a simply assembalable design, the Canton Tower form was a applied to sectioning. However, the form was cropped out of another form, the form of a box. So, visually the same spiral waist form is present internally. On the other hand, externally a more simpler geometry, a box-shaped or house-shaped geometry is present. The site is surrounded by factories and so i believe that this box-form complements the surrounding and introduces something new aswell. From the outside the design is very linear, however the path inside takes you on a curvilinear journey. Therefore, the path is sort of surprising when you are on it. The form is shaped as numerous panels stand together and are held together by another panel which wedges through a slit at the bottom. This wedge helps to keep all the members together. Each panel touches at the bottom, where pedestrians will be walking. However, in order for aesthetics and light effects the top part of every second and third panel is absent. Most importantly, the design is an inhabitable pavillion, with photovoltaic solar panels which rest on its roof. In this case the solar panels are to be translucent Thin-Film Photovoltaics, which will let light penetrate through them and into the pavillion. The model is 1:100 and is made of laser plywood. The proposal is intended to be of a laser cuttable wood as well. The model is glued together excessively, however, so much glue would not be neccessary in the real life proposal, the thickness of each of the panels and the wedge which keeps them together will suffice. This prototype demonstrates that sectioned structures are easy to assemble and provide sufficient structure and rigidity. The wedge which keeps the members stable may also be improved to work as a step on the pavillion and/or as seating for users. The thickness of each panel and the proposal in general needs to be scaled a bit larger than seen in the model. The thickness of each panel may also vary, which might add to its aesthetics.

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This prototype has been successful in that it provides and has paved way for great potential for an interesting and sufficient final presentation. A lot could be implemented and tweaked with what the prototype has presented. In other words, it offers a lot of oppurtunuites and can be manipulated. For instance, it may be cropped at certain areas and provide more openings. It may also be stretched out and provide a path which is elevated, or guides users up and down. Various cull patterns may also be inputed. Therefore, with the help of a few scales and components, the model has proved to be parametric. The prototype of the concept has proved to be successful in that it visually displays and physically displays what is not witnessed with the rhino models, which is the simultaneous linearity and curvi-linaerity of the form. Conclusively, the design so far has proved to be fabricatable and offers a lot of potential aesthetically. The Final doesign has been confirmed to be of a laser-cuttable-wood material which will be both selfsupporting and supported with help of a horizontal wooden element, wedged in between fellow elements.


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C.3. FINAL DETAIL MODEL A BUILDING HAS AT LEAST TWO LIVES - THE ONE IMAGINED BY ITS MAKER AND THE LIFE IT LIVES AFTERWARD - AND THEY ARE NEVER THE SAME. REM KOOLHAAS

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The final detail model, is a 1:100 scaled model of one of the five pavillions situated across the site at Refshaleøen, Copenhagen. It consists of over 400 panels standing side by side one another, held with the help of two panels which slide between the rest and affirm rigidity. All the panels are made of box-board, however in reality it is intended to be built with plywood. Boxboard was used due to a shortage of plywood., but still manages to demonstrate the designs tectonics. There are a few things which differ between this design and the design put together previously. After anlysing the prototype in detail and seeing what could be done to propose a final design, the form had been tweaked. This time instead of the Canton Tower form, the serpent form, demonstrated in C.1 Design Concept, has been cropped out of box shape, and has had the top half removed. Furthermore, the solar panels now lay on the southern side of the design, soaking up as much sun throughout the day as possible. This time, the solar panels are intended to be normal photovoltaic panels and not thin film solar cells. Also, the wedges used to keep the numerous panels together has been extended to be used as both seating and an optional walkway, situated not too high of from the floor. Overall, this model is an improvement of the protype which put to test the design concept for a final proposal.

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The wisdom behind removing the top half of the panels lies in both the symoblism of the form resembling factory-type warehouse style architecture and the user feeling both free and claustrophobically trapped in the tunnel as they make their way to the end. The decison to remove the top-half was sudden and after comparing it to the previous prototype, seemed to be much more aesthetically appealing. The form also resembles Robert Venturi-style post-modernistic architecture, which was unitended, but is interesting to compare. The panels are stuck together and kept together throughout the design so users may walk through it. It was possible to have the panels seperated at some areas and distanced apart so users can view the surroundings. However keeping the panels close together and the surrounding views shut off, in my personal opinion, keeps the user suspensfully waiting for an opening and the user is then rewarded at the end of the tunnel with an amazing view of the port and the rest of Copenhagen across from them. This then, also, gives users time to observe and appreciate the effect and forms the sectioned panels create as you journey through patiently to the end. Overall the model represents a pavillion pathway which ends with an observation point at 1:100 scale and exhibits the structural integrity of the proposed design.


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The benefit of model making is the ability to physically analyse the tectonics of the design and to also inspect whether or not the design fits into its surroundings and becomes one with its environment, which is crucial to architecture. Furthermore, being able to observe the model in person and see it in natural light is also advantageous. So is being able to place human figures to scale in and around it. All these aspects of model making allow a more upclose and personal interaction with the design and the ability to see what works and what doesn’t or what you are able to experience if it was to be brought to life. When analysed from an outside and external perspective, the scale model boasts a very special quality. From the outside, the outside walls, the seating, the gravel footpath and the allignment of trees are all straight and linear. Whereas on the inside, a void molded by a chaotic yet fluid and rythmic arrangement of panels forms a curvi-linear path. The difference between the external and internal can be compared or visuallised in many ways. The outside is smooth, whereas the inside is rigid and ribbed, like the human body. The interior feels very naturally formed, whereas the exterior is razor sharp and seems crafted. In a more literally representational light, the form is like a fruit which has a smooth skin on the outside and when you peel it and push the inside out, with a life-like pulpy texture, the internal elements spring out. That might be too surreal of a description, however, the 70

form is unique in a way that it could be visually interpreted in numerous ways. Furthermore, without entering the model, it may easily be mistaken for an ordinary building such as a warehouse or even a large house. It could be said, if only focusing on the outside, the design makes you feel at ease and at home, because it is easy to relate it to. It is a form we are all familiar with, similiar to that of cartoonish buildings and houses drawn by children. Entering the model however is a whole new world which is rarely witnessed. Apart from the design’s form, the seating, which is also the primary connection element, allows users to either rest or simply relax and take in the surrounding serenity. This allows users to both interact with the land art proposed and the surrounding site. Also, the seating is stable enough and close enough to the ground that it is able to be walked on. So, for those who choose to, may walk on it and cross it as they please. Internally the experience is focused on the sectioned panels. Whereas, alongside the pavillion on the outside, the view is of the park environment and the sea and the view of the rest of copenhagen across from the site . Overall, experiences within the design, outside the design, along side it and the site around it all compliment each other in their own unique way.


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The Design Concept which shaped this final proposal was to have a structure which snaked around the site. What was done with this concept was, instead of having a structure snake around the site, a path snakes into and through the structure. The structure both provides interesting aesthetic quality and structural stability for the solar panels it holds. The path that this structure forms takes the user on an interesting journey, which is what the concept is all about. It’s purpose is to give the user a gratifying experience. The model displays this experience, which begins from a tight ground level opening and takes you up higher along other wider and narrower spaces. The height of the opening varies also, from waist high to openings above head height. However, once the user is in the path, except for looking up and seeing the sky, there is no view out. This is intended. This is so the path is hidden from when you observe from the outside. It is also to ensure a build up of suspense for something to see at the end of the path, as the saying goes ‘...light at the end of the tunnel’. Furthermore, the hundreds of panels put together form a structure. Each individual panel has a circle cropped out of it positiond slightly a way from the other leading the user and guiding a user a certain way. This creates a great visual effect. By observing the model and the small scaled people positioned within it, it could be visuallised that as you walk through this path you can pass your hand along the wall and edges and feel the grooves as you walk along.

Therefore, it is not only a visual effect but an effect which you can feel. The model intrigues all five senses. you see the tunnel get smaller and larger and curve around the bends. The different widths for each cut out cause you to step a certain way. You can smell laser-cut wood all around you, and nearly taste it. The wind and other people talking and walking cause echoes and are heard bouncing off the walls. It is surprising how so much could be experienced from justwooden panels being alligned side by side. The path continues on and gets significantly higher as you get closer to the peak. The section of the tunnel towards the centre is more open then the rest of the path, wich has walls that curve and nearly meet at the top. The opening though allows for brief signs of freedom and saves the journey from feeling too claustrothobic. Therefore, there is a balance of being trapped and being free. Additionally, the curved walls also, at certain stages, get sharp and very thin. When the user is able to see above the path it nearly feels like being in a trench and you are walking through land and not a structure. As users approach the pavillion they are led through and guided by each opening in the panels which vary in position. After this point the user are in ‘the belly of the beast’.

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The journey to the top and to the end of the pavillion is exciting and the patience of the users is rewarded with a gratifying open observational look-out of Copenhagen. As users pass halfway, the path inclines dramatically and funnels out to a much wider area to stand and enjoy the surrounding views. Towards the end of the pavillion is also where the sectioned panels form their most awesome effect. Many cull patterning techniques may be applied to this form and variying the thickness of the panels may also be interesting. However, the form this final model displays, similiar to that of a canyon or rock formation, provides a natural feel which is perfect in its own way and would lose its value if it was changed. It has a unique life of its own, with the panles positioned together all the way through and resonates a strong stable climb. As Rem Koolhaas said: “A building has at least two lives - the one imagined by its maker and the life it lives afterward - and they are never the same”. After modelling the pavillion, it has developed a life of its own, and only after the model was complete were certain aspects, such as the grooves along the walls and the smooth and sharp edges, realized. During development in Rhino the life of the design was nowhere near the same as the built scaled model. By observing the model, we see that it has this surf wave/rip-curl type of fluid, yet solid, effect throughout and especially toward the end of the journey.

Although it was deffinitely not intended, the life of its own that it seems to have taken also resembles an architectural representation of the splitting of a sea and the ‘waves’, which are the walls of the pavillion, are about to close and crash together. Much may be associated with the form now that it is alive and takes a life of it own, however in the end most feelings and similiarities that can be associated with it have to do with water, waves and the sea, which the land its on is surrounded with. This works well and is a bonus. The great quality about such a natural yet abstract form is that everyone can experience their own unique take on it. Overall, the fact that the site model allows this to happen proves its success. In cocnlusion, the model has been most successful in that it has allowed for a deeper and more meaningful observation of what the form of the proposal offers.

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It is important to note that the scaled model represents only one of the main structured paths on site and is only a representation of the site withtin the near vicinity of this main land art. The proposed final site consists of 5 of the structured paths of sectioned plywood panels. Each of these art forms provide their own unique pattern and visual feature, one positioned to lead users to the other. The five pavilions take up only a small percentage of the site, however they are still large enough to significantly stand out amongst their surroundings. They are positioned to the southern side of the area, adjacent and running along where the ferry boats and water taxi’s dock. The pavilions provide seating for those waiting for the boats, as well as something to experience as they make their way over from the factory-side of the site to the jetty side of the site. Apart from the five structures, the proposed site contains numerous trees situated across the land by the side of the pavilions, providing a park-like atmosphere for users to enjoy as they also enjoy the land art. The trees and the pavilions alongside the nearby factories also symbolically represent a production cycle. The trees represent the raw material which nature provides, the factories represent the labor and manufacturing process, while the pavilions made from wood represent the final product. The final product, the land art, resembles the architecture of the factories around it and is made from the trees beside it. In a way this new site blends into its environment symbolically. The trees are also important because they breath life into the atmosphere, literally, and give back to the environment what the industrial surroundings are taking away. The Five pavillions may be positioned in numerous ways, however they are poitioned the way they are for three reasons. The first is in order to guide users from the start of the site to the south-west corner to either board the boats or enjoy the view. The second is for the side the solar panels

rest on, to recieve the optimum possible sunlight which is towards the southern side of the site. Thirdly and most significantly, the pavillions are positioned one in front of the other, in a straight line and not scattered randomly or in a circular pattern, but in a straight line, because from the external view of the pavillions it is intended for the user to think and feel as if the pavillions are linear and straight and box-like. When the users then enter through the path, they are surprised by the winding journey. Since the positioning and form externally extrudes an atmosphere of linearity, it isn’t expected for so many corners and such a snaking trip wihtin. The linearity of the site positioning and external form speeds users up to and into the pavillions, but once entered, the internal curves slow the user down and allow users to appreciate its features and effect, since a windy journey takes longer to complete then a straight and direct journey. In addition, their is an appeal to the form of this structure which not just invites users and arouses curiosty to see what is within it, but to get to the end and see where it has led you to, which is hard to do as each pavillion is even more enchanting then the next and forces yu to gradually appreciate it. Conclusively, the site has been formed around both the orientation of the sun, the traffic towards the water and primarily the experience which is intended for the user. The following pages take you on a journey through each pavillion and step by step allow the visuallisation of the aesthetic quality of sectioning. Starting off with half a pavillion, each pavillion gradually gains full form, ascending from incomplete to complete and then to the final halfcomplete but at the same time, in its own way, complete pavillion, which is intended to be the “head’ of the ‘serpent’.

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C.4. LEARNING OBJECTVES AND OUTCOMES The aim of Studio Air was to educate us regarding the newage system of design within the world of architecture, which is computational architecture. Personally, I have learnt very significant lessons. I am now able to generate numerous designs for a certain scenario, with the aid of Rhino and the parametric tools available via Grasshopper. These computational tools allow me to explore a wide range of design possibilities. I have worked with numerous different styles of parametric design, such as patterning, tessellation, structure, geometry and most importantly sectioning. Using computational tools I am now able to parametrically and systematically generate a matrix of various designs for each of these research fields. I began by experimenting with structure by analysing and re-engineering the Canton Tower. A matrix of numerous iterations are evident in Part B of this Journal. After gathering techniques from this analyses i then moved on to tessellation strategies in order to apply an energy generating system to the structure i had prepared. I received inspiration to orient panels onto a structure after a precedent study on the 2010 Spanish Pavillion exhibeted in Shanghai. Several iterations arranged as a matrix are available also in part B of this Journal. However, after interrogating the brief and looking back at the site my focus moved on to sectioning in order to produce a final product which I thought most accurately addresses the LAGI brief. Sectioning is also a personal favourite of mine when it comes to fabrication. Studio Air has also allowed me to experiment with 3d-modelling and digitally fabricate what I have designed parametrically. Physical scaled models and a site model has allowed me to progress to a final proposal via observation and interaction with the atmosphere they are able to create. Overall, the course has been extremely rewarding and my computational skills have improved significantly. 138


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AEDAS.COM, (2014). ABU DHABI INVESTMENT COUNCIL HEADQUARTERS - RESPONSIVE FACADE | AEDAS | GLOBAL AWARD WINNING ARCHITECTS | ABU DHABI, UAE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.AEDAS.COM/RESEARCH/ADIC-RESPONSIVE-FACADE [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FCLASSCONNECTION.S3.AMAZONAWS. COM%2F618%2FFLASHCARDS%2F1220618%2FJPG%2F-0111337050542875.JPG&IMGREFURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.STUDYBLUE.COM%2FNOTES%2FNOTE%2FN%2FLECTURE13-LATIN-AMERICA-AND-JAPAN%2FDECK%2F6637179&H=775&W=1200&TBNID=K9VHN4I66QGPWM%3A&ZOOM=1&DOCID=MCCBL4SLBSFDPM&EI=RXP2U_RFB8XI8 AXEKYD4CQ&TBM=ISCH&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&VED=0CD8QMYGCMBW&IACT=RC&UACT=3&DUR=918&PAGE=2&START=27&NDSP=26 [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. : ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://ARTICLE-WOVEN-ALUMINIUM-FACADE-1.JPG [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. KAYE, L. (2014). WORLD’S LARGEST SUN-RESPONSIVE FAÇADE SHADES ABU DHABI’S IMPRESSIVE AL BAHR TOWERS. [ONLINE] INHABITAT.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP:// INHABITAT.COM/ABU-DHABIS-STUNNING-AL-BEHAR-TOWERS-ARE-SHADED-BY-A-TRANSFORMING-GEOMETRIC-FACADE/ [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. : MODERN-BRAZIL-ARCHITECTURE.BLOGSPOT.COM.AU, (2014). MODERN BRAZIL ARCHITECTURE: THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND HEALTH. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://MODERN-BRAZIL-ARCHITECTURE.BLOGSPOT.COM.AU/2009/12/MINISTRY-OF-EDUCATION-AND-HEALTH.HTML [ACCESSED 20 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+1935+RIO+DE+JANEIRO&CL IENT=FIREFOX-A&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=FRP2U-QFMPOQUASN9YKACA&VED=0CACQ_ AUOAG&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+OSCAR+NIEMEYER&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM= ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=6MGBPXY1V76PVM%253A%3BOSO17LLTDFPZUM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252F38.MEDIA.TUMBLR.COM%252FTUMBLR_ MEMG2323GN1RDPK23O4_R1_250.JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FBLOG.PAPRESS.COM%252FPAGE%252F37%3B250%3B32IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=SPANISH+PAVILION+OSCAR+NIEMEYER&CLIENT=FIRE FOX-A&HS=J6Q&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=DBX2U8VLKJK7UASA2YLAD W&VED=0CAYQ_AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=GH7H0NM029NIYM%253A%3BAPO-BWSU8YOTUM%3BHTTP %253A%252F%252FMEDIA-CACHE-CD0.PINIMG.COM%252F236X%252FB4%252FE0%252FBF%252FB4E0BFD7BEE45E26FDB681210435FEB2. JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FWWW.PINTEREST.COM%252FSOMBIN%252FOSCAR-NIEMEYER%252F%3B236%3B293 [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+1935+RIO+DE+JANEIRO&CL IENT=FIREFOX-A&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=FRP2U-QFMPOQUASN9YKACA&VED=0CACQ_ AUOAG&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=MINISTRY+OF+EDUCATION+AND+HEALTH+OSCAR+NIEMEYER&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIA L&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=QME_0SWKTAVTMM%253A%3BKORFA6TT9O0PWM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FCLASSCONNECTION. S3.AMAZONAWS.COM%252F856%252FFLASHCARDS%252F749856%252FPNG%252FBRAZIL_MINISTRY1322583602039.PNG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FWWW. STUDYBLUE.COM%252FNOTES%252FNOTE%252FN%252FFINAL%252FDECK%252F1569303%3B710%3B913 [ACCESSED 21 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.DESIGNBOOM. COM%2FWEBLOG%2FIMAGES%2FIMAGES_2%2FDANNY%2FALBAHAR%2FALBAHAR05.JPG&IMGREFURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.DESIGNBOOM. COM%2FARCHITECTURE%2FAEDAS-AL-BAHAR-TOWERS%2F&H=261&W=818&TBNID=LFHSGROXJKPCVM%3A&ZOOM=1&DOCID=CK0YLLFKRT6UTM&EI=RST2U6PQB8L Q8AW7K4K4BW&TBM=ISCH&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&VED=0CCOQMYGPMA8&IACT=RC&UACT=3&DUR=3493&PAGE=1&START=0&NDSP=24 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=BIRS-SOLI&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&HS=SQB&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&S OURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=MXB2U4HSCMU48GW3LYLQDQ&VED=0CAGQ_AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=AL+BAHAR+TOWERS+ABU+DHABI&RLS=ORG. MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=LPTTOHJHUENGPM%253A%3BRK0UW7VKHLDMFM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252F WWW.ARUP.COM%252F~%252FMEDIA%252FIMAGES%252FPROJECTS%252FA%252FABU_DHABI_INVESTMENT_COUNCIL_HEADQUARTERS%252FADIC_ MASHRABIYA_900X600.ASHX%253FMH%253D800%2526MW%253D1000%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FWWW.ARUP.COM%252FPROJECTS%252FABU_ DHABI_INVESTMENT_COUNCIL_HEADQUARTERS%252FADIC_GALLERY1.ASPX%3B900%3B600 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014].

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ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FAD009CDNB.ARCHDAILY.NET%2FWPCONTENT%2FUPLOADS%2F2012%2F09%2F1346845546-NEW-HEADQUARTERS-AL-BAHAR-TOWERS-ABU-DHABI-UAE-8-682JPEG492X0-Q85-CROPSMART.JPG&IMGREFURL=HTTP%3A%2F%2FWWW.ARCHDAILY.COM%2FCATEGORY%2FBUILDING-TECHNOLOGY-AND-MATERIALS%2F&H=369&W =492&TBNID=AKYHMKKNF32DBM%3A&ZOOM=1&DOCID=I53UTNNNPGYRYM&EI=RST2U6PQB8LQ8AW7K4K4BW&TBM=ISCH&CLIENT=FIREFOXA&VED=0CBSQMYGAMAA&IACT=RC&UACT=3&DUR=1136&PAGE=1&START=0&NDSP=24 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=MASHRABIYA+SHADING+SYSTEMS&CLIENT=FIREFOXA&HS=4D&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&SOURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=LC70U4YYK9AGUGS85OLQBG&VED=0CAGQ_ AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=TRADITIONAL+MASHRABIYA+SHADING+SYSTEMS&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&I MGRC=JBU1FTCXCCCG_M%253A%3BGBVPIMJECTNVZM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252F1.BP.BLOGSPOT.COM%252F-RC_ASB6KY98%252FUBGUFF7S-7I%252FAAAAAAAAAXE% 252F7XHRFNBKSVQ%252FS1600%252FIMG_0677.JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FRENATOCILENTO.BLOGSPOT.COM%252F%3B1600%3B1118 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM.AU/SEARCH?Q=BIRS-SOLI&CLIENT=FIREFOX-A&HS=SQB&RLS=ORG.MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&CHANNEL=SB&S OURCE=LNMS&TBM=ISCH&SA=X&EI=MXB2U4HSCMU48GW3LYLQDQ&VED=0CAGQ_AUOAQ&BIW=1536&BIH=755#CHANNEL=SB&Q=AL+BAHAR+TOWERS+ABU+DHABI&RLS=ORG. MOZILLA:EN-US:OFFICIAL&TBM=ISCH&FACRC=_&IMGDII=_&IMGRC=SOTIMNKFCJVXCM%253A%3BWBVANB8B4E1NAM%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FEDENISON.ZENFOLIO.COM%252F IMG%252FS3%252FV43%252FP800551216-3.JPG%3BHTTP%253A%252F%252FEDENISON.ZENFOLIO.COM%252FP16106146%252FH2FB77130%3B580%3B387 [ACCESSED 22 AUG. 2014]. OXMAN, RIVKA AND ROBERT OXMAN, EDS (2014). THEORIES OF THE DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE (LONDON; NEW YORK: ROUTLEDGE), PP. 1–10 • KALAY, YEHUDA E. (2004). ARCHITECTURE’S NEW MEDIA: PRINCIPLES, THEORIES, AND METHODS OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAMBRIDGE, MA: MIT PRESS), PP. 5-25 • ISSA, RAJAA ‘ESSENTIAL MATHEMATICS FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN’, SECOND EDITION, ROBERT MCNEEL AND ASSOCIATES, PP 1 – 42 PETERS, BRADY. (2013) ‘COMPUTATION WORKS: THE BUILDING OF ALGORITHMIC THOUGHT’, ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, 83, 2, PP. 08-15 • FERRY, ROBERT & ELIZABETH MONOIAN, ‘A FIELD GUIDE TO RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES’’, LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE, COPENHAGEN, 2014. PP 1 - 71 • DEFINITION OF ‘ALGORITHM’ IN WILSON, ROBERT A. AND FRANK C. KEIL, EDS (1999). THE MIT ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE COGNITIVE SCIENCES (LONDON: MIT PRESS), PP. 11, 12 IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://4.BP.BLOGSPOT.COM/-OAQQGXNCWJK/TQVJJDJKMCI/AAAAAAAAADC/ XELRTOWSTSM/S1600/198054_177669115612236_167825166596631_412868_1292542_N.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. ONLINE IMAGE OR VIDEO ANON IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.CGARCHITECT.COM/CONTENT/ PORTFOLIOITEMS/2012/03/46778/PARAMETRIC_ARCHITECTURE_LARGE.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. ONLINE IMAGE OR VIDEO ANON IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://FC04.DEVIANTART.NET/FS71/I/2012/265/0/5/CANTON_TOWER_BY_JONSONOX-D5FKQYJ.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. ONLINE IMAGE OR VIDEO ANON IN-TEXT: (ANON, 2014) BIBLIOGRAPHY: ANON, (2014). [IMAGE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://INTERSCHOOLMATHEMATICS.PBWORKS.COM/F/1376492282/04DAVSB_INSPIRE7.JPG [ACCESSED 25 SEP. 2014]. FOR PART C, ALL POTOS WERE TAKEN BY METIN ATLIHAN FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS JOURNAL.

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AIR DESIGN STUDIO JOURNAL SAMIL ATLIHAN 558467

IMAGE CREDIT: BARCELONA FORUM PHOTO © ADRIAN WELCH


Design journal samil atlihan 558467 design journal design journal design studio air semester 2 2014