DIGITAL DESIGN + FABRICATION SM1, 2017 CONVERTIBLE STARS Satish Muthuarumugam 759624 Siavash Malek | Seminar 3
Content 0.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................................7 1.0 Ideation...................................................................................................................................................9 1.1 Object 1.2 Object + System Analysis 1.3 Volume 1.4 Sketch design proposal Module 1 Reflection 2.0 Design...................................................................................................................................................23 2.1 Design development intro 2.2 Digitization + Design proposal v.1 2.3 Precedent research 2.4 Design proposal v.2 2.5 Prototype + Testing Effects Module 2 Reflection 3.0 Fabrication............................................................................................................................................45 3.1 Fabrication intro 3.2 Design development & Fabrication of prototype 3.3 Final Prototype development + optimisation 3.4 Final Digital model 3.5 Fabrication sequence 3.6 Assembly drawing 3.7 2nd Skin Module 3 Reflection 4.0 Reflection..............................................................................................................................................71 5.0 Appendix..............................................................................................................................................75 5.1 Credit 5.2 Bibliography 5
0.0 INTRODUCTION A 2nd skin which protects my personal space. Convertible Stars are flexible and movable. It uses arms to create personal space. It is like an extendable arm. I have used panel and fold to design the stars. The main purpose of the stars is not to scare people away, it is designed such that it would graciously defend people from getting inside my personal space boundary. The movement of arms and light are used to produce the effect.
1.0 IDEATION The first module asked us to choose a designing system to develope my 2nd skin project. I chose panel and fold system as it was flexible and would fit the brief of the object sitting on the body. For Module 1 foldable wood fence was examined to produce a detalied analysis of the object. Further sketch model was made out of the object. This was further developed to produce initial sketch designs for the 2nd skin project.
Folding Fence when half stretched
Foldable wood fence
Object Material and Usage The object chosen was a wooden folding fence. The fence is made up of wood and joined by steel pivot joint which makes this fence to fold and stretch completely. The fence is used as a hang on the wall for flower decorations. The main usage is to give the outdoor garden plants some support and gives a modern look.
Measuring Technique For the purpose of technical drawing, the fence was half stretched and photographed exactly from top to produce a plan view. The photograph was then printed and traced to get the plan view. Then the drawing was scaled accordingly using Indesign. For the elevation and section the drawing was produced by measuring the object and drawing to scale on the paper.
0 100 Scale 1:5
0 40 Scale 1:2
Elevation of one segment
Plan of half stretched Folding Fence
0 20 Scale 1:1 Section of one joint
Close up view of one segment
View showing how panels are connected
From the reference image the lines were drawn. The joints were drawn on the panels. The curves are then extruded to produce volume (solid) in Rhino.
1.2 Object + System Analysis
The fence can stretch to different lengths giving different plan drawings. Each of the plan would give different angles between the panels. The plan for the fully stretched almost looks like a straight line. Whereas the plan for the fully folded looks like a rectangle. The arrows show the force direction in which the fence can be stretched. The half stretched one gives a cross formation. The pivot joint and the panel gives the fence a flexible design with complex pattern and has a simple mechanism.
0 80 Scale 1:5
Plan of fully folded fence
0 240 Scale 1:10
The diagram represents a pivot joint. This joint gives the panel and fold to stretch flexibily by rotating the panels.
Plan of fully stretched fence
The diagram shows one panel of the fence. The panel has three pivot joints and has a thickness of 5 mm. The fence contains 14 panels in total.
The model is inspired from the folding fence. However the folding fence joints produced a cross formation but this reconfigured object forms a diamond formation. The paper was also folded so that it also gives a triangular structure to the object.
For the reconfigured object the folding mechanism is used. Like the folding fence object metal strings were attached to the wood sticks making the wood sticks to move. To give shape to the object paper was folded and attached to the sticks. This paper panel gives form to the object.
I used strings, wood sticks and paper. The wood sticks are attached with the strings to get a diamond or square formation. The folded paper was then attached to the sticks giving a triangular fold. This produces an object in the panel and fold system.
1.4 Sketch design proposal Design #1
Foldable, Flexible, Expandable
The design is inspired from peacock where the material can be expanded when needed. The design uses the folding fence mechanism where the pattern can be expanded or folded.
The design works as an extended arms and the artificial arm can be expanded when the personal space is invaded. The spikes in the side view would give more personal space not just to the sides but also to the front and back. The best way to protect the personal space is to extend the arm wherever there is a need for personal space.
Extendable, More Volume more space
The design protects the shoulder and extends throught the arms. The design is inspired from a shoulder armour. The pyramids is used not just for design purposes but it also occupies more space. The bigger the pyramid the greater the personal space.
There is a big protection in the shoulder. This is maily used because the personal space near the face will not invaded if there is a boundary surrounded by the face in the form of big shoulder guard. The arm pyramids are extendable and the arm can be placed wherever wanted. This helps to protect the personal space else where in the body when it is invaded.
Defensive, Protective, Covered
The design is inspired by a dilophosaurus. The design works like dilophosaurus wings in the neck. The design is like a hood where it can be covered or uncovered and folds up and down. The more cubes used the more personal space.
Mostly covering the face is more effective because most of the sensory factors (eyes, ears, nose) are present on the face. When it is covered we feel like personal space is secure. The design works like the dilophosaurus when the personal space is invaded the hood can be used to cover the head.
Module 1 Reflection This module made me to explode an object and try something new out of it. By this I was forced to think in a diffrent dimension, thus generating many design ideas of my own. This initial stage preparation helped me throught the design process to create a design not just something that already exist but to create something which is unique. As mentioned in the reading (Heath and Jensen 2000) observing an object is a necessary part of creation. This later helped me to develope my initial sketch designs inspiring from my initially given object. However in the later modules a more dynamic way of developing design is learned rather than sticking to one similar concept. In this module I was also able to relate to personal space and incorporating it into the design. As (Sommer 1969) said personal space is an invisible layer where intruders may not come, this was thought in my design process thus I used arms as a mechanism to create personal space around. Because in nature we mostly use our arms as a defensive mechanism.
2.0 DESIGN This module wanted us to design and develope many ideas and pick something which we like and is satisfying to the brief. Here Rhino software is extensively used to try and improve design ideas and to visualise how it looks on the body.
Team Satish Muthuarumugam (759624) Sezen Smrdelj (698662)
2.1 Design development intro Personal space analysis
We decided to interpret the second skin brief as responding to an invasion of one’s personal space. In effect, our interpretation of personal space can be quoted directly from the Sommer (1969) reading; that is, that personal space is an “invisible boundary into which intruders may not come”. Thus, this undetectable boundary needed to be measured in a quantitative and diagrammatic manner as perceived by model Julianna, an extrovert. The model’s extroverted or introverted status is significant in that, as stated by Sommer (1969), this is an integral factor affecting an individual’s perception of personal space: Introverts were found to keep people at a significant distance in comparison to their extroverted counterparts. INTIMATE SPACE
Our personal space analysis images utilise a diagrammatic system coined by anthropologist Edward T. Hall as ‘proxemics’. Hall (1963) defines intimate space (red) as being closest to the individual, followed by personal space (orange), then social space (green), and finally, public space (blue). In the case of our interpretation, Hall’s notion of intimate space and part of personal space is what we have defined as our personal space.
PERSONAL SPACE SOCIAL SPACE PUBLIC SPACE
Our design, as we have discovered, focusses on the centre of the body (pictured diagram 1). If we interpret our design in this way, rather than specifying a single body part such as the arms or the chest, it is possible to protect more of oneâ€™s personal space in a much more economical manner. As pictured in diagram 2, the hatching displays the personal space area protected when designing and thinking holistically and centrally on the body, rather than using only the arms, as shown below in diagram 3.
PERSONAL SPACE PROTECTED
Sketch Design development
However, personal space does not “extend equally in all directions” (Sommer, 1969). Thus, this is a preliminary sketch design and the final design will not form an equal circumference around the entire body. Rather, it will be tailored to our personal space analysis that will document the sections of the body that require more protection and the other that will require less.
The integral concepts we decided to pursue from module 1 included the method of using one’s arms in a way to protect one’s personal space, and the idea of a two-dimensional shape expanding into a three-dimensional form. From this, our preliminary sketch designs (above) are imagined as an object that sits close against the body when the user is comfortable and their personal space is not being invaded, then fanning open in a way that requires arm movement from the user in order to form a circumference around the body.
Sketch Model Our refined sketch model utilises an origami folding system that is an example of a system that can deform in multiple ways and can be dimensioned in response to oneâ€™s needs. 4cm, 6cm and 8cm dimensions were used in the above three examples to test this folding technique for our particular needs. Although the visual quality of the smallest folds are interesting and striking, this size of fold was impractical. Thus, if this particular folding system were to be included in our further designs, perhaps the 6cm or 8cm folds would be more suitable for economical and aesthetic reasons.
2.2 Digitization + Design proposal v.1
Our first design proposal utilises an origami technique called â€˜magic ballâ€™ (as presented in our refined sketch model) to sit close against the body and as the arms of the user are extended out when feeling uncomfortable, to deform into a tube-like form that circles around the body. This design proposal utilises a single folding system (that is, one piece of material) for the entire form. This design would utilise a paper or card-type material as these materials are ideal for complicated origami style folding. As discussed in the analysis of our refined sketch model, this particular style of origami is extremely time consuming to create and execute. The style of fold , despite possessing an attractive visual quality, is simply impractical to design. Furthermore, it does not deform specifically in the way that we would like it to. In going further, we would like to perhaps simplify and create a more tailored and engineered folding system to deform when move as the body moves. A tailored system would also be able to produce a more irregular shape in order to extend differently around different body sections, rather than being regular all the way around as the magic ball design demands.
Our second design proposal utilises a folding system in different sections (that is, multiple pieces of material) for its form where the first only utilises one. In this way, we are able to tailor the form in accordance with our personal space analysis and as a result, create irregularity between members. Origami is not used in this proposal in that origami folding provides much more rigidity in our design. Utilising a different and simpler folding system provides us with further freedom to create an irregular shape based on user needs. A well-considered design process, according to Heath, Heath, and Jensen (2000) is one that creates an object that relates to users and is versatile to suit any environment. Thus, we would like to create a more versatile and tailored personal space system that allows us to do this through the use of simpler folding techniques.
Model (Material test): This model is testing 0.6mm thick polypropylene as a possible material for our design. Itâ€™s translucency creates an interesting effect that could not be achieved through the use of paper and creates a more open and penetrator feel. The material here has been scored lightly with a scalpel on one side and bent gently to avoid snapping (as the material tends to do). The deformity when scoring the polypropylene on different sides at different parts creates an interesting form that we would like to explore further. Sketch
2.3 precedent research veasyble/GAIA
ENCOMPASSING | REGULAR | IMPENETRABLE | SHIFTING
This concept by GAIA depicts a very closed, opaque and thus, impenetrable surface around the user it occupies. The form, which expands from a flat shape due to its folds, is regular in the way that all of its members (folds) are the same dimension. The use of material makes the design appear uninviting to those viewing it and likely, unenjoyable for the user/s inside it. Despite this, its ability to shift from one state (closed) to the next (open) would ensure that a user is able to utilise it at their own discretion and as would sufficiently comfort them.
Translucent Polypropylene Photos
The precedent is a concept relating closely to our second skin brief and specifically, closely to the design we aim to produce. Its placement on the body is central and similar to our idea of viewing the body holistically, rather than a single part, in protecting oneâ€™s personal space. Its material, however, does not elicit the emotional response that we are attempting to achieve. While the design of the precedent would likely protect oneâ€™s personal space because of this impenetrability due to its opacity, it is impractical for actual use. We would like to establish a design that allows one to communicate and socialise comfortably with others whilst keeping them at a distance so that personal space is not compromised. Thus, a translucent or transparent material would be fitting of our concept. Furthermore, the form itself is perfectly regular; a regular form in its definition is not compatible with our concept of personal space in that it extends differently over different sections of the body. Thus, altering the form to a more irregular one is more suitable for the brief.
2.4 Design proposal v.2
Isometric Expanded Isometric Contracted
Sketch Design of Hyperbolic Parabaloid
Our design development for version one required simplifying the folding system from V1 due to its timeconsuming folding pattern. As we found, origami, although flexible in the literal sense, was rigid in its form and did not deform when stretched in certain ways as our design intended it to. As such, we researched methods in which one could fabricate a shape such as a hyperbolic paraboloid and make it into a developable surface. This folding system is an incredibly simple one in comparison to the magic ball origami and is simple to attach on its edges to other members of perhaps different sizes. The hyperbolic paraboloid shape was attractive to us due to its expanding and contracting quality when folded, allowing a material such as paper or card to be bent both ways where it naturally would not. This folding technique is still quite aesthetically pleasing and a fold that draws interest from viewers. The design, as explored in V1, sits between the arms of the user and is in its compact and more sharp-appearing form when the arms are relaxed beside the body, then flattened as the arms extend. This motion is in direct contrast to the method in V1 in which the origami sits flat against the userâ€™s body when the arms are relaxed, only to expand when the arms are extended.
Elevation Open Plan Open Isometric Open
Side View Open
V2 is further developed in this design. Angled folds are used to create an asymmetrical, irregular personal space. This covers form the upper body and sections of the lower body. The arms are used as a tool to open and close the folds. Unlike V2, we devised our own folding system in the development; this system utilises an irregular series of triangular folds, with each section of fold being supported by a structural system. In effect, the folded panels are supported by structural elements. The design can be folded with the userâ€™s hands and when it is released, a springing action unfolds the panels to an extent that covers more surface area. This is a fold that is influenced by our precedent by GAIA and our sketch designs in that the form is created from a two-dimensional shape. As the torso is covered, a sense of personal space is achieved. This concept provides us with flexibility in design in that it does not utilise an origami type of folding that restricts us to a more regular shape. As desired, this design can be tailored to oneâ€™s personal spatial needs. Unlike our precedent, a design such as this would preferably utilise a translucent material in order to allow the user to fully communicate with others when wearing it, whilst keeping others at a comfortable distance. This decision is due to the emotional effect created in our precedent that elicits avoidance from viewers outside of the object.
2.5 Prototype + Testing Effects
The Prototype shown was made in the FABLAB using the laser cutter. The material used is clear polypropylene. The material is strong, flexible and stable and is a good choice for our design. The flexible nature of the material makes the prototype to contract and expand when needed.
Prototype on body
Testing Effects Movement effect (Sequence of effects) The movement effect helps with our design concept of using our arms to create personal space. The motion of arms will be used to produce the effected tested in the above pictures.
Light effect is used as an emotion. Various types of lights are tested to observe the emotion it creates. Light intensity can be used to denote the invasion of personal space. Or it can also be used to attract people with different colour light that the person is comfortable with particular people stepping inside the friendâ€™s zone.
Translucent material is used to test the effect it causes within personal space boundary. The material allows one to communicate and socialise comfortably with others whilst keeping them at a distance so that personal space is not compromised.
Module 2 Reflection Module 2 made us develope a lot of design ideas, we were able to workout the materials we will use, the folding system we want to use and the type of effects that we wanted our 2nd skin to have. We tested our folding system with our prototype, then we had some problems, when it is done in 1;1 scale it behaves differently. So we had to solve those issues later in Module 3. Though we were able to test different folding system we did not come to a conclusion of how our 2nd Skin is going to look like by Module 2. Having said that Module 2 was really helpful in terms of figuring out what is right and wrong in designing something. This knowledge was helpful when we were making our final model. We wanted to design something which is of a developable surfaces (pottmann 2007) as it would be helpful for us when physically making the design. We also tried to incorporate hyperbolic parabaloid (from lectures) into our design. As mentioned in the reading â€˜complex shapes are handled digitallyâ€™ (Scheurer and Stehling 2011). We made most of our shapes in Rhino. Though digitally modelling is useful for developing complex shapes, sometimes it became uniform that all our designs started to look the same as digital modelling sometimes lead to creating same patterns (for example triangular sharp panels) if not handled carefully. Therefore we wanted to create something different to others, thats is why stars that is able to move with our arms was developed in Module 3.
3.0 FABRICATION This module made us develope our final 2nd Skin design. Here laser cutting was used to create our final design.
Team Satish Muthuarumugam (759624) Sezen Smrdelj (698662)
3.1 Fabrication intro Following feedback in response to our presentation of our module two prototype, we would like to explore some revisions to our design. In order to shift the design from possibly appearing as a sleeping pod, our focus will be moved back to the method of utilising one’s arms as a tool for protecting personal space, as explored in modules one and two. Further, polpropylene as a material will need to be changed due to its tendency to snap when folded. Considering folding is an integral aspect of our design, the material is not well suited for our use. The material also lacks a certain lightness in its execution and can appear ‘clunky’, specifically when structural elemtns are added to it. We would also like an aspect of our design to include a more controlled light source that warns intruders in personal space away the closer that they approach. The social situation our design would be utilised in is public transport to protect a female introvert’s personal space being invaded.
3.2 Design development & Fabrication of prototype Moving forward from module two, we attempted a number of experimental techniques to aid aspects of our design. In place of a material such as wire (as utilised in our module two prototype) as a structural element, we tested yarn as a joint between folded members in a technique named Japanese stab binding. Holes are measure on the material and yarn sewn between holes to create not only a strong and somewhat flexible joint, but also creating an appealing and customisable pattern. This technique however, was found to make the joints in the material too flexible to create the structure in form we desired. Fabric panels were also tested between rigid ones to create a composite material using perspex, yarn and canvas. Similarly, we found this method too flexible and required more strength between joints. Our form will be tested as a variation on the same folding system used in module two, but with no joints and thus, the use of a single material.
Japanese stab binding
Fabric between rigid panels
6-pointed star, open position with
6-pointed star, closed posiion with tensioned nylon fishing line
3.3 Final prototype development + optimisation
Our preliminary prototype was expanded from previous weeks with the use of laser-cutting and a new material, mountboard. The same folding system was utilised, however more forms were added to the design. Tension between forms became a crucial design aspect and nylon fishing line was used to achieve this in this prototype. Cut-outs were added as a pattern in the form in this prototype in order to address the lack of permeability of paper and card in place of polypropylene. Although this system functions mostly as we hoped, it has some pitfalls. The scale by which we reduced the star shapes was much too low and thus, pieces did not function cohesively. As a result of this, the shape did not fold as well as if the inner stars were larger. Furthermore, the nylon fishing line was unable to be properly knotted in order to retain tension, whilst also making the shape too fragile to be moved at all.
Optimisation - Movement
Mountboard became our material of choice due to its structural capabilities. The material retains its shape when folded and is difficult to manipulate. This posed some benefits and some problems. Benefits included its strength in retaining shape, whilst our main problems were that it was difficult to achieve our desired movement effect because of this. We attached strings to each of the inner points of the stars and pulled at a central point in order to close the shapes. This action worked as we wanted when performed on a single star, however as more stars were added, the forms refused to close. To address this, we tested a method of wet-folding in which the material is folded to its desired state, then drenched with water and allowed to dry. When released, we found that the mountboard was not only much more flexible and easily manipulated than before, but it also retained a memory of its folded shape once opened. This technique was able to provide us the flexibility in an otherwise inflexible material, making it easier to open and close. In using mountboard in place of the polypropylene of our module two design, we lost the translucency of material allowing light to pass through. To achieve this transparency again, cut-outs were integrated into our design to further aid in the protection of personal space.
In our preliminary laser-cut prototype, our cut-outs were unplanned, however, we employed more control in our final design by decreasing the amount of holes as the size of the shapes decreased. This acts in a way that more light penetrates the shape closest to the body, warning intruders away. With less holes on the smallest pieces, less light is able to penetrate when personal space is not being invaded.
Our panel and fold design was optimised for fabrication in a number of ways. Our initial prototype featured stars gradually decreasing in size by half. During fabrication of this prototype, we found that the â€˜floatingâ€™ effect was not as apparent as desired due to the small size of the stars. The largest star gave us the desired effect of a more three-dimensional form whereas the smaller the stars became, the flatter the form also became. In order to combat this, we decided to decrease the dimensions of the stars much more gradually and thus, fabricate our final design with larger stars that nested together much more comfortably whilst giving us the three-dimensional effect that we required. We also optimised our design by changing our laser cutting pattern in order to combat the creasing we encountered when folding our material, mountboard (pictured, figure 2). This creasing occurred due to the several layers mountboard is comprised of and to avoid this, our new laser cut pattern featured less etched lines to allow for scoring by hand post-laser cutting (as pictured in figures 3 & 4). Valley folds were etched using the laser cutter and all mountain folds were hand-etched. Figure 2 (Left) Figure 3 (Immediately below) Figure 4 (Below)
In our preliminary laser cutting file, material usage was highly optimised. Due to the less gradual increments between the size of stars, all stars fit together on a single 600 x 900mm sheet of mountboard. Moving forward and as our design grew in size, we were no longer able to utilise the material as efficiently as before. However, we were still able to nest some stars on sheets of mountboard together. Our star design and its gradual increments were created for the laser cutting template primarily using the scale command in Rhinoceros. The design was copied, a reference line drawn to a specified measurement and the shape was then scaled to the desired size. This was repeated for each shape.
3.4 Final Digital Model
Plan, elevation, isometric view of digital model of 2nd skin expanded and contracted
3.5 Fabrication sequence
Laser cut design taped to mountboard upon collection
Remove circles from laser cut holes and etch rear of material
Fold mountboard in correspondenc
where mountain folds will occur
Wire LED lights in parallel
Join LED lights to mountboard using hot glue gun
Feed lights and wire through to nex
ce with etched lines
xt star and repeat
Fold mountboard to closed position and secure to flash under
Weave yarn through pattern at inner points of star and connect
water, then allow to dry
Sew arm bands and eyelet hooks to bands
Measure and feed string through eyelets
3.6 Assembly drawing
A - Laser-cut mountboard stars, etched and hand scored with scalpel to ease folding B - Adjustable elastic waistband, joining mountboard between cutout tabs in material C - Elastic shoulder, elbow and wrist bands with eyelet hooks attached D - Thread running through eyelet hooks connected to C E - Wired LED light placement between largest and smallest mountboard pieces
3.7 2nd Skin (Initial) In our initial 2nd skin, the model was made up of mountboard, since mountboard is harder to fold and the pattern was not in hierarchy. We chose a different material (ivory card) as suggested during our Module 3 presentation. With Ivory card a hierarchy of pattern is achieved however the material became soft and too flexible to hold the folding. Since we had problems with the folding of the material, we made our final 2nd skin to simply open and close when personal space is invaded. The convertible stars would be infront of us protecting our privacy. Though we were not able to achieve what we wanted we still were able to design an alternative design that serves its purpose. We used movement which is the opening and the closing of the stars. Light effect is also used, here light serves as a non physical object that keeps distance between you and person next to you thus helps you stay inside your comfort zone but still communicating through light. As mentioned earlier we did not want people to get scared of our 2nd skin, the main purpose of choosing light and attracting stars is to graciously inform others that to stay away from my personal space boundary.
Final 2nd Skin
Movement / Pattern and light effect
Module 3 Reflection This module the final 2nd Skin is made but after the presentation, it was improved further and a refined 2nd Skin is created. Though we were not able to create something intitially we were able to achieve something different from an alternate design. With the use of a subtractive procedure like laser cutting (Kolarevic 2003), we were able to digitally design and fabricate our model by creating multiple prototypes, testing their effects, and changing the design if necessary. This technology helps us to test different materials and revise our designs as quickly as possible. We used Rhinoceros software in our project to design our 3D model, then unrolled the surface to laser cut. This software development stage is built through information modelling and parametric software. Then, using CNC, the idea has progressed directly from the design stage to the production stage (Lecture 8, Digital Fabrication). This enables us to test the physical material in a virtual environment by just folding the laser cut material. This helps us to physically fabricate a 1:1 scale model with simplicity, precision and time-effectively. From the reading I understood how digital technolgy has made our life easier especially in architecture where we are able to create something with little effort.
4.0 REFLECTION Critical reflection of the subject
This subject has developed me more as a designer. Throughout the course of the subject I learned a lot of new concepts which I was not aware of before. As a non-architect student I have never heard of laser cutting before. Now I am able to design in a digital environment and laser cut. Starting from Module 1 I learned that in designing not everything goes by plan. From M1 I learned to think different and explode an object to create a reconfigured model. This was one of the biggest steps which lead me all the way from initial days of the design to the final days of this subject. I learned how object has different dimensions to it, that a completely different system can be developed from an existing object. I also learned how a 2D piece of paper can be made into a complex solid object. In Module 2 I brainstormed lots of design ideas. It is where in M2 I realised that things start to behave diffrently as soon as the scale is changed. I learned a lot about material strength and behaviour. In Module 3 I wanted to create something unique. This made me design the convertible stars where it can be folded and unfolded. As the reading (Kolarevic 2003) suggests laser cutting was extremely useful to create objects in no time with little effort. The rise in digital technology has made designers life easier and today because of that different designs are created around the world where the olden generation would have never imagined. I also learned that designs do not go by plan because my 2nd Skin had some problems when folding, so for the final design I used Ivory card to make my design. Even my newer design did not function properly as the material became soft and flexible. So instead of making the design fold I made the stars just open and close. Though this was not I thought before, this alternate design works and it serves its purpose of protecting personal space. From this I learned that designing something is not static as it evolves through the journey. As mentioned in the lectures I learned that pick whatever that works the best and move forward. Things that can be be improved in my design is that I could have done more material research and would have simplfied the design. However given the time and budget I think I have designed something which is unique and functionally purposeful. As mentioned earlier, the subject and the studio learning was challenging as I was constantly engaged in designing and resolving problems that arises while designing and making the 2nd Skin. From the reading (Refkin, Macmillan 2011) it is eye opening that how the new technology are engaged in our everyday life and how useful and dependent it has become. It is like a third Industrial revolution where the future is dependent on technology. One aspect is the use of laser cutting and 3D printing in the field of architecture. This technology was very helpful particulary in this subject and how easy it was to visually see and make things quickly and easily. Today we have got the opportunity to use these technology to go beyond the boundaries and explore not only designing but also in other fields of industry. Overall this subject was helpful and challenging as a designer.
Satish Muthuarumugam 759624
Sezen Smrdelj 698662 Page
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5.2 Bibliography 1. Enric Miralles, Carme Pinos, 1988/1991. â€œHow to lay out a croissantâ€™ El Croquis 49/50 Enric Miralles, Carme Pinos, En Construction pp.240-241 2. Heath,A.,Heath,D,,%jensen.A.(2000), 300 years of industrial design: function, form, technique, 1700-2000/ Adrian Heath, Ditte Heath, Aage Lund Jensen. New York: Watson-Guptill 3. Cheng.R.2008. Inside Rhinoceros 4/ Ron K.C. Cheng. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning. c2008. 4. Sommer, R,1969. Personal space: the behavioral basis of design/ Robert Sommer. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, c1969.A 5. Scheurer, F, and stehling, H. 2011: Lost in Parameter Space? IAD: Architectural Design, Wiley, 81 4, July, pp. 70-79 6. Asperl et al, 2007, Surfaces that can be built from/ In H.Pottmann.A.Asperl>M.Hofer, A.Kilian (eds) Architectural Geometry, p534-561, Bentley Institute Press 7. Kolarevic, B 2003, Architecture in the digital Age - Design and Manufacturing/ Branko Kolarevic , Spon Press, London 8. Marble, S, 2008. Building the future: Recasting Labor in Architecture/ Philip Bernstein, Peggy Deamer. Princton Archtectural Press. pp 38-42 9. Rifkin, J 2011, The third Industrial Revolution, Palgrave Macmillan pp 107-126
Published on Jun 2, 2017