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SEA LEVEL RISE: BOSTON sasaki intern charette June 3-14, 2013


After Hurricane Sandy’s impact narrowly missed Boston, the City has begun to investigate what it means to be a resilient coastal metropolis. During the first two weeks of June 2013, Sasaki’s intern Charette contributed to the city’s dialogue. the sea level rise team analyzed Boston’s urban vulnerabilities and visualized multiple design strategies for how the City can live with water. Sasaki collaborated with the City of Boston, the Trust for Public Land, the Boston Harbor Association, and the Boston Architectural College, encouraging an inclusive dialogue that spanned Boston’s

neighborhoods

and

design

scales.

#Summerofslr


sea level rise: boston table of contents Introduction 06 Boston’s Vulnerabilities

18

Design Strategies for South Boston 48


INTERNSHIP CHARETTE the team Charette Team Andrew Turco, Urban Planning

Kevin Hebard, Civil Engineering

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tufts University

Benjamin Roush, Landscape Arch

Maureen Lyne, Interior Architecture

North Carolina State University

Endicott College

Jennifer Corlett, Landscape Arch

Rhiannon Sinclair, Urban Planning

Harvard

University of Pennsylvania

Jessica MacDonald, Architecture

Xin Zheng, Graphic Design

Roger Williams University

Fashion Institute of Technology

Joy Hu, Architecture

Zhenwen Dai, Landscape Arch

University of Virginia

Harvard

Justin Garrison, Urban Design

Daniel Xu, Landscape Arch

Texas A&M University

Purdue University

Consultants Carl Spector, City of Boston Brian Swett, City of Boston Leah Bamberger, City of Boston Kevin Essington, Trust for Public Land Vivien Li, The Boston Harbor Association Julie Wormser, The Boston Harbor Association Shaun O’Rourke, The Boston Architectural College

6

Introduction


Coordinators

Support team

Jason Hellendrung

Tera Hatfield, Graphic Design

Nina Chase

Chris Horne, GIS, SLR Modeling

Ruth Siegel

Stephen Kun, GIS

Chris Merritt

Emily Junker, Photography

Meredith McCarthy

Ken Goulding, Sasaki Strategies

Hope Stege

Laura Marett, Advisor Alexis Canter, Advisor Benjamin Kou, 3D Modeling Liz Juusola, Marketing

CRitics

review Jury

Carey Walker

Gina Ford

Chris Freda

James Miner

Mary Anne Ocampo

Steve Brittan

Chris Hardy

Bob Culver

Emily Goldenerg

Shaun O’Rourke

Stephen Gray Mark Delaney

sasaki INTERN CHARETTE 2013

7


INTERNSHIP CHARETTE OVERVIEWI SLR + BOSTON

STRUCTURE

Sea level rise due to climate change is threatening coastal cities around the world. Storms are occurring more frequently and with greater intensity than in the recent past. By 2050, 100-year storms are expected to occur every 2-4 years in Boston, and the economic impact of a major storm is predicted to cost around $460 Billion.

1. VULNERABILITIES (WEEK 1):

Hurricane Sandy awakened coastal cities to the vulnerabilities of climate change and extreme weather events. Boston was fortunate that Hurricane Sandy hit during low tide - if the storm had landed 5 hours later, Boston would have seen similar wreckage that occurred in the New York/NJ Metropolitan area. There is much to learn from the devastating consequences of Hurricane Sandy - Boston can no longer afford to hope it will not be impacted by the next storm surge; the time for resilient design and planning is now.

Precedent strategies were documented and analyzed for infrastructure, architecture, landscape and policy.

Resiliency implies a mode of being in which sustainability is no longer enough. Resilient cities will prepare, adapt, and regenerate in order to survive. How can we begin to shift the focus away from exit strategies and instead towards exist strategies?

OBJECTIVES Due to the increasing threat of climate change on our coastal urban systems, the 2013 Sasaki internship charette was focused on this issue using Boston as a case study. The goal was to evaluate Boston’s vulnerabilities to sea level rise as well as investigate and propose design strategies to address the problems caused by climate change. One key objective of the charette was to encourage multi-disciplinary collaboration in order to develop innovative design strategies.

8

Introduction

The team Investigated, analyzed and documented vulnerable systems and landuses in the face of sea level rise. These vulnerabilities included: inputs and outputs, services, and the built and natural environment.

2. PRECEDENT STRATEGIES (WEEK 1):

3. DESIGN STRATEGIES (WEEK 2):

Proposed design interventions, responding to the vulnerabilities and precedents studied in week 1, were expected to be realistic, implementable proposals that could be adopted by the City.


WEEK 1 VULNERABILITIES

land use

power

demographics

built structure

food

fresh h2o

communication transportation

waste h2o

emergency response

WEEK 2 PRECEDENT STRATEGIES

policy

+

architecture

landscape infrastructure

=

DESIGN STRATeGIES FOR SOUTH BOSTON!

solid waste

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Panel discussion with the City of Boston and The Boston Harbor Association,

Harbor Tour via the MBTA F2 Commuter Ferry

Site tour of the South Boston waterfront

10

Introduction


The Innovation District Team

The group conceptualizes a Site Framework plan

Principal Jason Hellendrung presents Sasaki’s disaster recovery work for Cedar Rapids, IA

sasaki INTERN CHARETTE 2013

11


INTERNSHIP CHARETTE the siteI While the scope of the internship was to understand the impacts of sea level rise on Boston as a city, the focus area was South Boston’s waterfront including the neighborhoods of Fort Point Channel, Seaport District, Marine Industrial Park, Castle Island & Pleasure Bay and Columbia Point. This focus area contains a diversity of land uses ranging from residential to commercial to industrial to recreational. The site includes historic and highly urbanized areas. It also encompasses neighborhoods with fewer developed parcels, providing opportunities for landscape interventions. The team acknowledges that there are multiple geographies in Boston and in the greater metropolitan area that will be affected by sea level rise. South Boston emerged as an important case study due to its inclusion of a wide array of urban conditions..

FORT POINT CHANNEL

Fort Point Channel is a maritime channel separating South Boston from downtown Boston, feeding into Boston Harbor. The south part has been gradually filled in for use by the South Bay rail yard and several highways. The Boston Tea Party occurred at its northern end. South of Summer Street on the west side of the channel is a large U.S. Postal Service facility. Gillette Headquarters are located at the southeast corner of the channel and two federal buildings are located here as well. The channel is surrounded by the Fort Point neighborhood, which is also named after the same colonial-era fort. This neighborhood has become a hot spot for artists.

SEAPORT DISTRICT

The seaport district has been a major focus for development in the recent past. This area was formerly all industrial, supporting the marine and textile industries. Now it is home to the Boston Convention and Expo Center (BCEC), the Institute for Contemporary Art (ICA) and many new condominiums, office buildings, restaurants and retail stores. Fish pier remains as a active relic of the former working waterfront.

12

Introduction

MARINE INDUSTRIAL PARK

A 191 Acre industrial park, once abandoned is now a very active working district, home to the Boston Design Center, seafood processing plants, wholesale companies, and scientific/energy R&D companies. MASSPort owns a large amount of property here, where many abandoned warehouses still remain. This is also the location of the Black Falcon Cruise Terminal and Conley Terminal, Boston’s main shipping container port.

CASTLE ISLAND & PLEASURE BAY

Fort Independence, a pentagonal five-bastioned, granite fort built between 1834 and 1851, is the dominating feature of Castle Island. This 22-acre urban park is connected to the mainland by both pedestrian and vehicular causeways. Pleasure Bay, the M Street Beach and Carson Beach form a three mile segment of parkland and beach along the South Boston shoreline of Dorchester Bay.

COLUMBIA POINT/UMASSS BOSTON

Columbia Point is a peninsula jutting out into Dorchester Bay, the original landing place for Puritan settlers in the early 1600s. This was formerly mostly wetlands and has been filled in significantly, growing from 14 acres to 350 acres. The original sewage pumping station was located here before it was relocated to Deer Island in 1968. Much of this area was a former solid waste landfill, which closed in 1962. Columbus Park and Morrissey Blvd. are built on top of the former landfill. This area contains a large mixed-income housing project (1,500 units), built here in 1954, renovated in 1990. UMASS Boston, opened in 1974, and the JFK Library and Museum (designed by I.M. Pei) built in 1979. The Bayside Expo center, a 30acre development is currently in construction, and two new residential towers are in the works.


Charlestown East Boston

SASAKI Downtown Boston

Allston

Ft. Point

Fenway/ Kenmore

South Boston

Jamaica Plain

Dorchester West Roxbury

City of Boston Area of focus

Ft. Point Channel Sea Port District

Marine Industrial Park

Castle Island South Boston

Columbia Point

Pleasure Bay

Area of focus sasaki INTERN CHARETTE 2013

13


SEA LEVEL RISE PROJECTIONS

Sea Level Rise (SLR) (2’) SLR + Today’s 100-year Storm Surge (7’) SLR + Today’s CAT 3 Hurricane Surge (14’) 14

Introduction

SCALE 1:72000


2050

sasaki INTERN CHARETTE 2013

15


SEA LEVEL RISE PROJECTIONS MAPPING METHOD Sasaki’s sea level rise maps assume three scenarios (described below) each represented at three key moments in time, today (2013), midcentury (2050), and end-of-century (2100)*. Sea Level Rise (2013 = MHHW+0’, 2050 = MHHW+2’, 2100 = MHHW+6’). These scenarios approximate the flooding that will occur as sea levels incrementally rise over the next century. According to leading climate change scientists (Vermeer and Rahmstorf), sea level is predicted to rise 1-2’ by 2050 and 2-6’ by 2100. For visualization purposes, the extreme heights, 2’ for 2050 and 6’ for 2100, were modeled. Sea Level Rise + Today’s 100-year Storm Surge (2013 = MHHW+5’, 2050 = MHHW+7’, 2100 = MHHW+11’). These scenarios approximate flooding that will occur rapidly during a 100-year storm event. Using TBHA’s analysis of NOAA tide gage data that estimated a 5’ average storm surge for a 100-year storm event in Boston, these scenarios depict 5’ storm surges in addition to sea level rise. Sea Level Rise + Today’s Category 3 Hurricane Storm Surge (2013 = MHHW+6’, 2050 = MHHW+11’, 2100 = MHHW+18’). These scenarios approximate flooding that will occur rapidly during a Category 3 Hurricane. According to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, an average Category 3 hurricane produces 12’-15’ of storm surge. The Great New England Hurricane of 1938 was the most damaging hurricane to have hit Boston and was measured as a Category 3 hurricane. For visualization purposes, a 12’ storm surge was modeled in addition to sea level rise.

16

Introduction

*Sasaki sea level rise projections were calculated based on MassGIS 2002 and 2009 Terrain/Elevation Data and the NAVD88 vertical datum. Boston’s Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) elevation was determined using NOAA’s Tide Gage Approach. Sea level rise projections were then mapped above MHHW. Sea level projections were approximated and do not account for wave heights, flooding due to subsurface structures and/or drainage outlets. Attempts were made to remove hydrologically unconnected areas of inundation as accurately as possible.


2013

2050

2100

Sea Level Rise (2013 = MHHW+0’, 2050 = MHHW+2’, 2100 = MHHW+6’)

2013

2050

2100

SLR + Today’s 100-year Storm Surge (2013 = MHHW+5’, 2050 = MHHW+7’, 2100 = MHHW+11’)

2013

2050

2100

SLR + Today’s Cat 3 Hurricane Storm Surge (2013 = MHHW+6’, 2050 = MHHW+11’, 2100 = MHHW+18’)

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SEA LEVEL RISE: BOSTON week 1: vulnerabilities The Charette team studied a series of vulnerable systems in Boston coupled with an inventory of precedent design strategies. The vulnerability categories included Inputs and Outputs, Services, and Built and Natural Environment. Through an intense analysis process, the designers identified vital factors of each vulnerable system that are threatened by sea level rise and storm surge. The identification of vulnerabilities allowed for exploration of short term and long term interventions with a combination of reinforce, retreat, and retrofit design strategies.

18

vulnerabilities


Built + natural environment

land use

demographics

built structure

inputs + outputs

power

food

fresh h2o

communication transportation

services

waste h2o

solid waste

emergency response

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BUILT/NATURAL ENVIRONMENT LAND USE Daniel Xu

Landuse Affected by Flooding The majority of South Boston’s landuse is residential build on high ground. Because of this only 12% of residences would be flooded in the 7’ storm surge scenario. However a majority of South Boston’s commercial real estate and industrial properties would be flooded. Information Sources: MassGIS

20

vulnerabilities

SCALE 1:20000


percentage of landuse in S. boston

16.1% 12.1%

11.2% 29.8% 5.7% 7.0%

18.1%

percentage of landuse flooded in s. botston

Commercial office Mixed - Use Hotel / Motel Shopping center Retail

Natural

Forest Wetland Brushland sandy beach forested wetland

Institutional Educational Governmental civic medical religious

Residential single family university housing apartments

Open Land Parks Recreational facilities cemetery golf courses

Industrial warehouses shipping packaging production

Infrastructure Transportation junkyard

56% 91% 32% 12%

43% 85%

82%

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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BUILT/NATURAL ENVIRONMENT DEMOGRAPHICS Rhiannon Sinclair & Xin Zheng BOSTON POPULATION :

Home Ownership Rate

34%

Population Change (in 10 yrs)

5%

SOUTH BOSTON:

Home Ownership Rate

40%

617,594 (in 2010) White

Median Age

47%

31

Median Household Income

51, 739

37,404 [6% of Boston]

Population Change (in 10 yrs)

26%

White Median Age

79%

31

Median Household Income

61, 935

Demographics Impacted by Flooding South Boston houses 6% of Boston’s population with a higher than average home ownership rate and significant population change over the past 10 years. South Boston is anticipating even greater growth in the future. Development should be maintained on the ridges to avoid additional properties damaged by flooding Source: U.S. Census Bureau: Decennial Census

22

vulnerabilities


T PERCENTAGE MOS

ASIA N4 .8%

W H

BA

RENT 60%

5-14 6.7%

CK | AFR. A 4.7% BLA

ASSOCIA TES 10%

OWN 40%

HD

617,594

4.4%

1.6% ORE RM OO TW

E 4% GRAD 9TH AN TH SS LE

A 26% LOM DIP

ATI ON

HOME OW NE RS HI P

5 DER UN

37%

TY

S OR EL CH

15 -1

RACE | ET HN IC EDUC I

E AG NT CE ER

.8% 78 E IT

LE AS TP

9% 3.

4 -6

AGE

.9% 65

9

25

BOSTON:

850,400

574,283

T GRADS 23% POS

10% PANIC HIS

% 9.3 24 0-

65 + 9. 8%

AGE

32,000

6

5+

2% 10.

BA

RENT 66%

30,000

H

NIC PA IS

HD

40,000

5-14 6. 7%

ASIAN 9%

ASSOCIA TES 20 %

OWN 34%

A 24% LOM DIP

8.1%

1.6% ORE RM OO TW

% 10.6 ADE GR TH <9

HOME OW NE RS HI P

19 15-

CAT IO N

15 -1

Y IT

% 24.4 RS LO E CH

RACE | ET HN IC EDU

9% 3.

7% E4 IT

LE AS TP

E AG NT CE ER

.9% 65

T GRADS 21% POS

W H

2050

BOSTON POPULATION FORECAST

9

BLAC K | AF R. A

20-2 4 1 4.3 %

25

2

2010

T PERCENTAGE MOS

S. BOSTON: 4 -6

1990

1990

2010

2050

SOUTH BOSTON POPULATION FORECAST

sasaki INTERN CHArETTE 2013

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BUILT/NATURAL ENVIRONMENT ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGIES Maureen Lyne

ID

C/ID IN

ID C

C

Land Use Key C R IN ID

R

ID

Commercial Residential Institutional Industrial

Architectural Typologies Compared to Landuse

R IN

Landuse designations and architectural material types were combined and exposed that a majority of residences are small wood construction while a majority of commercial and industrial property houses large masonry and steel buildings. Information Sources: MassGIS

24

vulnerabilities

SCALE 1:20000


SMALL WOOD LARGE WOOD SMALL MIXED SMALL MASONRY

LARGE MASONRY

LARGE STEEL

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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BUILT/NATURAL ENVIRONMENT EDGE TYPOLOGIES

1

Joy Hu

1

2

5

4

South Boston’s Coastal Edges South Boston’s waterfront edge is a diverse mix of hard and soft conditions. Hard bulkheads, seawalls, revetments characterize the edge along South Boston’s commercial and industrial districts. Softer breakwaters, jetties, groins, and beaches line South Boston’s residential neighborhoods. Information Sources: MassGIS Oliver and Morris

26

vulnerabilities

SCALE 1:20000


Hard Barriers Hard Barriers 2 SECTION Hard Barriers

PLAN

SECTION HardBarriers Barriers Hard SECTION

PLAN

SECTION SECTION

PLAN PLAN

Bulkheads/Seawalls

PLAN

Bulkheads/Seawalls A vertical retaining structure, partition or wall constructed of conceret steel stone or wood along the waterfront Bulkheads/Seawalls A vertical retaining structure, partition or wall constructed of conceret steel stone or wood along the waterfront

ABulkheads/Seawalls vertical retaining structure, partition or wall constructed of conceret steel stone or wood Bulkheads/Seawalls along the waterfront

1

verticalretaining retainingstructure, structure,partition partitionororwall wallconstructed constructedofofconceret conceretsteel steelstone stoneororwood wood AAvertical alongthe thewaterfront waterfront along

1

BULKHEAD / SEAWALL Revetments Revetments SLOPED STRUCTURES BUILT OF DRY PLACED STONE BUILT Revetments FOR SUSTAINING EMBANKMENTS FRsOM EROSION SLOPED STRUCTURES BUILT OF DRY PLACED STONE BUILT Revetments SLOPED STRUCTURES BUILT OF DRY PLACED STONE BUILT FOR SUSTAINING EMBANKMENTS FRsOM EROSION Revetments FOR SUSTAINING EMBANKMENTS FRsOM EROSION SLOPEDSTRUCTURES STRUCTURESBUILT BUILTOF OFDRY DRYPLACED PLACEDSTONE STONEBUILT BUILT SLOPED FORSUSTAINING SUSTAININGEMBANKMENTS EMBANKMENTSFRsOM FRsOMEROSION EROSION FOR

2 REVETMENTS

5

Breakwater/Jetty

3

Breakwater/Jetty SLOPED STRUCTURES BUILT OFFSHORE WITH TWO SIDES FOR Breakwater/Jetty WAVE DISSIPATION SLOPED STRUCTURES BUILT OFFSHORE WITH TWO SIDES FOR Breakwater/Jetty SLOPED STRUCTURES BUILT OFFSHORE WITH TWO SIDES FOR WAVE DISSIPATION Breakwater/Jetty WAVE DISSIPATION SLOPEDSTRUCTURES STRUCTURESBUILT BUILTOFFSHORE OFFSHOREWITH WITHTWO TWOSIDES SIDESFOR FOR SLOPED WAVEDISSIPATION DISSIPATION WAVE

3 BREAKWATER/JETTY

Groin Groin LONG, NARROW STRUCTURE BUILT OUT INTO THE WATER TO Groin PREVENT EROSION LONG, NARROW STRUCTURE BUILT OUT INTO THE WATER TO Groin NARROW LONG, STRUCTURE BUILT OUT INTO THE WATER TO PREVENT EROSION Groin PREVENT EROSION LONG, NARROW STRUCTUREBUILT BUILTOUT OUTINTO INTOTHE THEWATER WATERTO TO LONG, NARROW STRUCTURE PREVENTEROSION EROSION PREVENT

4

Coastal Beach Coastal Beach EXPANSE OF SAND AND SEDIMENT ALONG Coastal Beach SHORE WATERFRONT EXPANSE OF SAND AND SEDIMENT ALONG CoastalBeach Beach EXPANSE OFofSAND SEDIMENT ALONG WATERFRONT SHORE Coastal Formations sand,AND sediment, and vegetation from wind WATERFRONT SHORE deposit and geomorphology along shore. EXPANSE OF SAND AND SEDIMENT ALONG Formations sand,AND sediment, and vegetation from wind EXPANSE OFof SAND SEDIMENT ALONG WATERFRONT SHORE Formations sand, sediment,along and vegetation from wind deposit and of geomorphology shore. WATERFRONT SHORE deposit and geomorphology along shore. Formations of sand, sediment, and vegetation from wind Formations of sand, sediment, and vegetation from wind deposit and geomorphology along shore. deposit and geomorphology along shore.

2

GROIN

5 COASTAL BEACH/DUNE

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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INPUTS/OUTPUTS ENERGY Andrew Turco

MIT Central Utilities-Cogen Plant Gillette SBMC

Medical Area TotalEnergy Plant

13.3 MW 16 MW 50 MW 83 MW 56.3 MW 19 MW 237.7 MW 1,968 MW

Gillette SBMC Exelon L Street M Street Jet Medical Area Total Energy Plant Deer Island Treatment Plant MIT Central Utilities/Cogen Plant Kendall Square Station Mystic Generating Station

Net Summer Capacity of Boston-Area Power Plants Three of Boston’s four power plants fall within the South Boston project area. However, in total, these power plants produce only 0.6% of Massachusetts’s energy production. By contrast, Massachusetts’s largest power plant - the Mystic Generating Station - produces 15%. Information Sources: US Energy Information Administration

28

vulnerabilities

SCALE 1:72000


Mystic Generating Station

Kendall Square Station

Exelon L Street

Deer Island Treatment Plant

M Street Jet

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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INPUTS/OUTPUTS ENERGY Andrew Turco

Hurricane Frequency & Power Demand

Comparing the months of Massachusetts’s highest energy production with the months of highest hurricane activity in the US demonstrates the riskiness of locating power production in areas that are vulnerable to increased storm surges, such as the area along the Reserve Channel in South Boston. When Massachusetts’s energy production is at its highest during the summer months, there is little, if any, excess capacity that could be taken up by other plants if hurricane storm surges required a waterfront power plant to be taken offline.

JUL | 416,515 million MWh in 2012

Chart shows 2012 energy production in Massachusetts by month against number of hurricanes to make landfall in US between 1851 and 2012 by month. Light yellow bars show amount of energy produced by petroleum, and orange bars show amount produced by natural gas - the same sources that power South Boston’s plants. Information Sources: US Energy Information Administration, NOAA Hurricane Research Division

30

vulnerabilities


SEP | 104 hurricanes since 1851

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INPUTS/OUTPUTS FOOD DISTRIBUTION

Fish Pier

Jessica MacDonald

MBTA Cabot Yard

Major Methods of Food Distribution to and from Boston In South Boston, there are concentrations of the major distribution centers that are most vulnerable in the case of flooding. Conley Terminal and Fish Pier could be drastically affected by flood and therefore unable to receive imports or function to bring in fresh seafood. The economic impacts reach beyond Boston, to a larger food distribution network. MBTAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cabot Yard, which provides maintenance and storage for rail cars and functions as a major hub for southern Massachusetts, is entirely covered by the scope of flood waters in this scenario. The distribution centers transport food and supplies to schools, hospitals, restaurants, grocery stores, and smaller shops. 85% of these distribution locations are affected by flood waters in this scenario. This flooding could cause contamination to the food supply at these centers, as well as isolating them due to road closures and rendering them useless in the larger food distribution network. The flooding in Boston could greatly affect residents throughout the Greater Boston region, as well as Massachusetts at large, extending in the worst case to other parts of the country that economically rely on this system. Information Sources: MassGIS, MassDOT, Mass.gov, MassPort, NEFS-expo.

32

vulnerabilities

SCALE 1:20000


Boston/Logan Airport

Boston/Logan Airport Conley Terminal MBTA Cabot Yard Fish Pier Distribution Centers: Ideal Seafood Inc.

Conley Terminal

John Mantia & Sons Co. Atlantic Coast Seafood Inc. Another Fish Co. Bramante Seafood Inc. Fraser Fish Beau’s Seafood Sunny’s Seafood & Lobster Co. Tub Fisheries Sousa Lobster Co. Inc. Yankee Specialty Foods

Boston Distribution Centers: Slade Gorton & Co. Inc. North Coast Seafoods Steve Connolly Seafood Co. Inc. S.M. Sneider Co. William & Co. Food Line Imported Foods Corp. Costa Fruit and Produce Co.

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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INPUTS/OUTPUTS FRESH WATER Kevin Hebard

Quabbin Reservoir Wachusett Reservoir

John J. Carroll Treatment Facility

Cosgrove Aqueduct

Large Distribution Tunnels

Massachusetts Water Resources Association

Water Distribution The BWSC purchases drinking water for distribution in Boston from the MWRA. This water comes from the Quabbin and Wachusett Reservoirs, is treated at the John J. Carroll treatment plant and is stored around the region. Information Sources: MassGIS, MWRA

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vulnerabilities

SCALE 1:400000


BWSC Service Network

South Boston Households

Local Distribution Network

Boston Water and Sewer Commission

MWRA Network ~ 20 Million Gallon Storage sasaki INTERN CHArETTE 2013

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INPUTS/OUTPUTS WASTE WATER

Somerville Marginal CSO Facility

Jennifer Corlett

Prison Point CSO Facility

Cottage Farm CSO Facility

30%

parks/undeveloped

70%

sewer (20,500 acres) Ward Street Headworks

Union Park Pump Station

20%

combined (4,000 acres)

80%

separated (16,500 acres)

1,455 miles 622 miles 595 miles 235 miles 3 miles

35,934 sanitary 47,413 storm drain 430 combined sewer 202 CSO 174 8 total pipes

catch basins manholes outfalls tide gates regulators pumping stations

Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Waste Water System Components Waste water systems are especially vulnerable to storm surges and coastal flooding. Treatment plants are placed in low-lying areas, usually near water, so that sewage can be piped via gravity. Compounding this inherent risk, the system consists of expansive underground labyrinths of pipes, holding tanks, and pumps that can remain waterlogged long after floodwaters recede. Treatment plants also discharge treated wastewater through underwater pipes which can cause facilities to flood from the inside as waters rise, long before surface water overruns the structures. Information Sources: MassGIS

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vulnerabilities

SCALE 1:72000

Charl Statio


lestown Delauri Pump on Chelsea Creek Headworks

E Boston Cargo Pump Station

Winthrop Terminal Headworks North Main Pump Station Lydia Goodhue Pump Station

Columbus Park Headworks

Squantum Pump Station

CSO Outfall_Closed (23) CSO Outfall_25-year Storm Control (5) CSO Outfall_Open (32) Pump Station Headworks CSO Facility Outfall Tunnels

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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INPUTS/OUTPUTS WASTE WATER Jennifer Corlett

J

K L

H

G E

Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Waste Water System Components

38

F

A

Influent

C

Sewer Lateral

E

Catch Basin

G

Overflow Outfall

B

Downspout

D

Sewer Main

F

Interceptor

H

Manhole

vulnerabilities


A

COMBINED

I

B

SEPARATED

C D

I J

Headworks

K

Treatment Facility

Pump Station

L

Effluent sasaki INTERN CHArETTE 2013

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INPUTS/OUTPUTS HAZARDOUS WASTE Justin Garrison

6

7 5

8 9 10

11

15

Hazardous Waste Producers

100%

2 3

12

Inaccessible during MHHW +7ft flooding

Hazardous Waste Producers and Flood Accessibility South Boston is home to many industrial and manufacturing facilities that produce hazardous waste. The proper disposal of hazardous waste is very important to the health and safety of its surrounding area. With a flood of MHHW +7ft the street network is one-hundred percent in-accessible rendering waste disposal methods ineffective. A majority of hazardous waste producers are also located within the flood plain which when exposed during a flood could pollute water sources and soil.

14

15

Information Sources: mass.gov | bing.com

40

vulnerabilities

13

SCALE 1:20000


Hazardous Waste Producers 4

1

Ex. Boston shipping port 1. Coastal Oil Of New England 2. TEI Biosciences 3. Exelon New Boston 4. Boston Ship Repair 5. Adcotroin EMS 6. MA Bay Brewing Co. 7. Gillette Co. 8. US Postal Service 9. Metalonics 10. Ryder Transportation Services 11. Amtrak Maintenance Facility 12. Crown Services 13. Standard Uniform Services 14. Globe Newspaper Co. 15. University of MA Boston Map portrays South Boston hazardous waster producers and flood accessibility during MHHW +7ft

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Services COMMUNICATIONS Zhewen Dai materiality

copper wire

cable wire material used in verizon switch center

fiber optic wire

cable wire material used in data centers ( source: BSRIA worldwide study April 2012 )

cell tower wind resistance wind speed ( mph ) 74

95 category 1

110 category 2

130 category 3

katrina

155 category 4

category 5

sandy hook

special wind 19% ice 29%

built strength of wind resistance from most mobile network provider falls into this range

aircraft 1 1% anchor failure 10%

42

vulnerabilities

construction errors 31%

top 5 causes of cell tower failure


boston alert system

internet activity

internet activities during Sandy

voice call over skype during Sandy

foursquare check in before Sandy Sat, 10/27

foursquare check in after Sandy Sat, 10/31

sasaki intern charette 2013

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SERVICES TRANSPORTATION Ben Roush

Transportation Systems Transportation systems are among the most vulnerable of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban systems. 51 of Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s T-stations could be affected by flooding. Boston relies on road networks to provide most other services such as food, water, medical attention, law enforcement. Road are also used as an important means of evacuation. Information Sources: MassGIS

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LEGEND BOSTON SOUTH BOSTON TRAINS SUBWAY SEAPORTS T STOPS

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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SERVICES EMERGENCY RESPONSE Ben Roush

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

STATE GOVERNMENT

POLICE, FIRE, EMS. HEADQUARTERS

MOBILE COMMAND UNITS

FIRST RESPONDERS

Agency Hierarchy The number of agencies, organizations, and groups involved in a catastrophic disaster are tremendous, While these groups provide much needed aid during times of crisis, it is important that their actions are highly coordinated and their services are easily accessible to those in need. Information Sources: Breezy Point Fire. CBS New York. October 30, 2012. New York, US

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SEA LEVEL RISE: BOSTON week 2: DESIGN STRATEGIES The second week of the internship focused on sea level rise design strategies. After studying vulnerable systems at a regional and city scale, teams zeroed in on the South Boston project site. The site included the Fort Point Channel, Innovation/Seaport District, Marine Industrial Park, Castle Island, South Boston, and Columbia Point. After developing a Site Framework as an interdisciplinary team, the group broke into four teams with separate project areas: Team 1 - Boston Harbor This group surveyed the harbor and edge conditions around the site. With an inventory of bathymetry, dredging, and tidal currents, the team developed a strategy for wave attenuation as a preventative strategy against sea level rise. The strategy proposed development with tactical phasing to introduce new edge typologies including: oyster reefs, land infill, salt marshes, silt bunkers, and surge towers. Team 2 - Innovation/Seaport District This team proposed a creative, phased strategy for the growing Innovation District, also known as the Seaport District. With a theme of “add, convert, flood proof,” the group suggested that the district add green space to absorb rising water levels, convert vulnerable buildings to become water resistant, and flood-proof new buildings with innovative technologies.

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Team 3 - South Boston and Columbia Point The South Boston and Columbia Point team made key interventions adding open space and green streets while proposing new development districts based on the most vulnerable areas to sea level rise. With a large residential population, the team focused on creating habitable, dense zones of development away from new floodable absorbent landscape zones. The team also proposed strategies for new, temporary housing typologies and emergency response in the case of intense storm surge. Team 4 - Working Waterfront This group focused on Boston’s industrial waterfront, proposing strategies for how an industry’s complex infrastructure can be made resilient. By working with an approach of retreat and resistance, the team proposed creative solutions for Conley and Black Falcon Terminals, new waterfront open space with dune landscapes, and new development strategies supporting the creative economy.


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SITE FRAMEWORK CONCEPTUAL PLAN Hard

Soft Information Sources: Aershop, Dredge Economies

50 Design strategies

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rrents

d Cu Tide & Win

Edge Condition Concept After an analysis of assets and vulnerabilities, the team developed one overarching Site Framework plan, reflecting a comprehensive understanding of how sea level rise and storms will affect Boston. The framework is conceptually derived with a continuum of edge conditions, from soft to hard, that reflect the potential for water absorption and the proximity to the critical systems of central Boston. sasaki intern charette 2013

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SITE FRAMEWORK MASTER PLAN Green Flood Buffer Sea Wall / Harbor Walk

2

Wetland

INNOVATION DISTRICT

Cruise Ship Facilities Sea Wall / New Flouting Port Wetland

Bermed Freight Line

4

East Broadway Corridor Housing

Strengthened Shipping Terminal

Dunes / Marsh

WORKING WATERFRONT Groins

Wetland / Marsh

Bioretention Flood Zone

Oyster Reefs U Mass Housing

3 S. BOSTON & COLUMBIA PT.

Marsh

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Salt Marshes

Silt Bunkers Surge Towers

1 HARBOR ISLANDS Land Infill

Project Areas Four distinct project areas were identified including 1) the Harbor Islands, serving as the protective offshore barrier 2) the Working Waterfront, comprised of industrial facilities, 3) South Boston and Columbia Point, with a focus on residential development, and 4) the Innovation District, slated for new economic development. sasaki intern charette 2013

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TEAM 1 Boston Harbor Justin Garrison // Ben Roush

Harbor Front PHASE 1

Inner Harbor PHASE 2

Attenuation Typologies Analysis of the harborâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bathymetry, surge currents, channel depth, and edge conditions determined the placement of the various attenuation systems. Illustrated above, each of the areas are bolstered by multiple technologies, allowing the complete system to respond dynamically to incoming surges, Image Sources: Oyster-tecture - MoMA Rising Currents | www.gtmnerr.org | www. tencate.com | www.britannica.com | winstone.ongoing.co.nz

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vulnerabilities addressed: design strategies used:

Oyster Reefs

Land Infill

Harbor Inlet PHASE 3

Salt Marshes

Silt Bunkers

Surge Attenuation Towers

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TEAM 1 Boston Harbor Justin Garrison // Ben Roush

Silt bunkers

oyster reefs

Wave Attenuation Typologies // After A suite of wave attenuation systems are implemented throughout the harbor to respond to incoming storm surges. Using a combined approach of natural, constructed, hard, and soft infrastructure, the system creates a holistic defense strategy for the harbor. This project does not rely on one system, but 56 Design strategies


Surge Tower

salt marsh

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TEAM 1 Boston Harbor Justin Garrison // Ben Roush

surge towers silt bunkers

Wave Attenuation Typologies Various wave attenuation systems not only provide the harbor with the storm surge protection, but they also improve the aesthetic qualities of the landscape. Image Source: www.bostonfoodandwhine.com

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Before

LAND INFILL salt marsh

OYSTERS

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TEAM 2 INNOVATION DISTRICT Zhewen Dai // Joy Hu // Daniel Xu

Phasing Strategy

This team developed a gradual adaptive phasing strategy to accommodate SLR. Each phase incorporated an “Add”, “Convert” and “Flood-proof” component that will adapt the area to become more resistant to flood damage. Eventually the site will be converted it into an amphibious urban neighborhood that will respond to permanently higher water levels by 2100. Phase 1 addressed the immediate edge while phase 2 and 3 stepped back to address how infrastructure further inland could be adapted to SLR.

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vulnerabilities addressed: design strategies used:

CONDITIONS

VALUABLE PROPERTY CULTURAL HUB HISTORICAL PORT VIBRANT RESTAURANTS + NIGHTLIFE

GLOBAL WARMING SEA LEVEL RISE

DAMAGED INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGED PORT DAMAGED ROAD NETWORKS OVERALL LOSS OF VALUE + MONEY

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TEAM 2 INNOVATION DISTRICT Zhewen Dai // Joy Hu // Daniel Xu 2013

PHASE 1 PLANT NETWORK GREENSPACE RETROFIT EXISTING LANDMARKS MOVE PROPOSED NEW DEVELOPMENT

2050

PHASE 2 CREATE PORTABLE FLOATING WALKWAY CONVERT LANDMARKS TO BE AMPHIBIOUS CREATE NEW FLOODABLE BUILDINGS

2100

PHASE 3 CONSTRUCT HARD SEAWALL EDGE CONVERT SUMMER ST. TO FLOOD BERM REQUIRE ALL FLOOD PROOF BUILDINGS

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ADD

ADD

CONVERTCONVERT FLOOD-PROOF FLOOD-PROOF

MOVE MOVE OF PROPOSED NEW AREAS OF RETROFIT EXISTING LANDMARKS RETROFIT EXISTING TO LANDMARKS TO PROPOSED NEW AREAS DEVELOPMENT TO HIGHERDEVELOPMENT GROUND THATTO IS HIGHER GROUND THAT IS BECOME FLOOD RESISTANT BECOME IN PREPARATION FLOOD RESISTANT IN PREPARATION PLANT A NEW NETWORKPLANT OF GREENSPACE A NEW NETWORK OF GREENSPACE MORE INLAND MORE INLAND FOR STORMS FOR STORMS TO REPLACE LOTS OF NEWTODEVELOPMENT REPLACE LOTS OF NEW DEVELOPMENT

N PLA

T

N PLA

IT

T R

IT

OF ET R

R

OF ET R

E

E

V MO

V MO

CREATE A PORTABLE,MODULAR CREATE FLOATING A PORTABLE,MODULARCONVERT FLOATING EXISTING LANDMARKS CONVERT TO EXISTING BE LANDMARKS CREATE TO BE NEW FLOODABLE CREATE BUILDING NEW FLOODABLE BUILDING WALKWAY WHICH CAN BE WALKWAY DEPLOYEDWHICH IN THECAN BE DEPLOYED IN THE TO RESISTAMPHIBIOUS AMPHIBIOUS SEA LEVEL RISE TO RESIST SEA LEVEL TYPOLOGY RISE THAT WILL RESIST TYPOLOGY STORMS THAT WILL RESIST STORMS EVENT OF A FLOOD EVENT OF A FLOOD AND POTENTIAL STORMSAND POTENTIAL STORMS FOR THE FUTURE FOR THE FUTURE

S S E E IOU IOU AY AY TYP TYP B B I I W W G G H H K K L L P P IN IN WA WA AM AM ILD ILD E E E E U U T T K K B B EA EA W W MA MA CR CR NE NE

SUMMER STREET CONVERT TO A FLOOD SUMMER STREET TO AREQUIRE FLOOD ALL NEW CONSTUCTION REQUIRE ALL TONEW CONSTUCTION TO CONSTRUCT A HARD SEAWALL CONSTRUCT EDGE A THAT HARD SEAWALLCONVERT EDGE THAT BERM TO PROTECTION TO PROVIDE EXTRA PROTECTION BE FLOODPROOF TO ENSURE BE FLOODPROOF TO ENSURE WILL DEFEND THE CITY FROM WILLFUTHER DEFENDSEA THE CITY FROM FUTHER SEAPROVIDE EXTRABERM FROM STORMS FROM STORMS INVESTMENT IS RESISTANT INVESTMENT TO WATER IS RESISTANT TO WATER LEVEL RISE INUNDATION LEVEL RISE INUNDATION

LL

CR

WA EA S TE EA

CR

WA EA S TE EA

LL FLO

O

ER DB

M FLO

O

ER DB

M

OF RO P OD FLO

A

DG BL L L

S

OF RO P OD FLO

A

DG BL L L

S

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TEAM 2 INNOVATION DISTRICT Zhewen Dai // Joy Hu // Daniel Xu

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TEAM 3 S. BOSTON/COLUMBIA POINT Maureen Lyne//Jessica MacDonald//Xin Zheng The key strategies listed on the right will occur over the course of three phases: 2013 SS +5’, 2050 SLR MHHW +2’, and 2100 SS +11’. Phase One is made up of two parts. The first involves the retrofitting and replanting of Joseph Moakley Field in South Boston. The field’s proximity to the water and it’s low elevation make it an immediate target for SLR. By outfitting the area with new drainage and plantings, the land can increase its precipitation absorption percentages dramatically, keeping water out of the streets and sewage systems. Phase one also incorporates “greening” the streets. The team analyzed the existing street conditions and identified strategies for creating bio swales along the heavily trafficked streets. This method will collect and divert excess water from storm surges, as well as increase vegetation in the South Boston neighborhoods, This will reduce the heat island effect, reduce air pollutants, and create an overall healthier environment. Phase two includes both architectural and landscape interventions. The architectural response focuses on retrofitting the existing neighborhood and proposed campus residences along Columbia Point with a new housing typology that is resilient to rising sea levels and storm surges. The architectural response also focuses on relocating residents currently living along the Old Harbor shore to a denser, mixed-use core along East and West Broadway, located on the naturally higher ground. The landscape response focuses on creating a natural surge barrier along William J. Day Boulevard. Phase three targets long term changes to the South Boston waterfront. This phase includes retrofitting the lower density homes along the Old Harbor shore with a new typology, creating linear green park spaces that extend from the harbor to allow storm surges to permeate the neighborhood fabric and provide public open space. Expanding the landscape out into the bay as a soft buffer against future storm surges. Image Sources: Google Maps, The Noun Project.

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vulnerabilities addressed: design strategies used:

KEY STRATEGIES Bioretention Swales & Green Streets Densification Retrofitting Expanding Landscape

Map portrays a typical 100-year flood in the year 2050, which is 7’ above today’s MHHW (2’ sea level rise + 5’ flood).

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TEAM 3 S. BOSTON/COLUMBIA POINT Maureen Lyne//Jessica MacDonald//Xin Zheng

The design proposes a transformation to a floating neighborhood with public and private boardwalks. The streets with homes have been retrofitted to be resilient to storm surges. Cutting through the beach, William J. Day Boulevard, and Moakley Field, the above section shows the proposed green streets, marshlands on the field, and the protective berm. Image Sources: Google Images, Immediate Entourage, inHabitat.

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TEAM 3 S. BOSTON/COLUMBIA POINT Maureen Lyne//Jessica MacDonald//Xin Zheng

Before Image Sources: Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Wetland Foundation

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The above perspective shows typical conditions for edges along the Old Harbor and Savin Hill Cove when sea levels rise. The marshland could become an integral part of the mainland, extending the landscape into the bays. UMASS can use the land for bio-research or aquatic farming. The public can enjoy the existing public beach, and also walk along the new harbor walk, which extends all the way from Savin Hill Cove to the piers of South Boston and Fort Point Channel. The public will be able to see and study wild life and flourishing natural plant species.

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TEAM 4 Working Waterfront Andrew Turco // Jennifer Corlett Kevin Hebard // Rhiannon Sinclair

Working Waterfront Site Plan This team focused on Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s industrial waterfront, proposing strategies for how industriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; complex infrastructure can be made resilient. By relocating and fortifying areas of high regional economic importance and designing to allow for productive sea water inundation, the team proposed solutions that expand the freight, cruise ship, creative cluster, and parkland infrastructures of the area. The new working waterfront is organized into several distinct zones. The cruiseship facilities move to Marine Industrial Park, creating a new gateway to Boston and allowing for expansion. Simultaneously, the success of the Design Center is harnessed to expand the creative economy hub in and around the former terminal facilities. These areas of the waterfront are working but permeable. Meanwhile, the parkland around Castle Island is expanded and redesigned to bear the brunt of storm surges. This is the softest and most permeable section of the waterfront. Finally, part of the underutilized industrial strip along the southern edge of Reserve Channel is reprogrammed and fortified to house a relocated and expanded Conley Terminal. A new green space is also established that provides access to the water to nearby residents and has capacity to hold rising water over the coming years. Finally, a new freight rail and open space berm is constructed to provide rail access to the port, protect inland neighborhoods from sea level rise, and create new open space for nearby residents 72

Design strategies


vulnerabilities addressed:

$

design strategies used:

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TEAM 4 Working Waterfront “Economic Development”

Dry Dock

“Economic Development”

Dry Dock

Waterfront Section - CURRENT Cruise Terminal

Cruise Terminal

Cruise Terminal

Cruise Terminal

Waterfront Section - BUILT OUT 2100 74 Design strategies


Design Center/ Black Falcon Cruise Terminal

Conley Terminal

Design Center/ Black Falcon Cruise Terminal

Conley Terminal

Expanded Design Center

Conley Terminal

Expanded Design Center

Conley Terminal

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TEAM 4 Working Waterfront Andrew Turco // Jennifer Corlett Kevin Hebard // Rhiannon Sinclair

Rail Line Sections The proposed freight line-green space berm is an example of the multi-purposing of sea level rise infrastructure. By connecting the new and enlarged Conley Terminal with Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s primary freight tracks, it increases the efficiency of the terminal and takes trucks off the road. Simultaneously, the proposed right-of-way and landscaped berm structure provides open space to surrounding neighborhoods. Finally, the height and condition of the berm change according to the predicted sea level rise at each section of the line, serving to protect inland neighborhoods and also providing a visual guide to the sea level flood risk across the lineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s path. Information Sources: MassGIS (existing rail locations)

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TEAM 4 Working Waterfront Andrew Turco // Jennifer Corlett Kevin Hebard // Rhiannon Sinclair

Freight Tunnel / Linear Park

The freight rail and linear park at the seam of the relocated Conley Terminal and South Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s residential neighborhood provide a variety of benefits to the neighborhood. The system reduces noise and particulate pollution by taking trucks off of 1st Street. Additionally, it provides open space for nearby residents, and it displaces the existing industrial blight. Lastly, it buffers the neighborhood from the noise of the freight facility while simultaneously creating a viewing area that visually connects rather than blocks people from the working waterfront. 78

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TEAM 4 Working Waterfront Andrew Turco // Jennifer Corlett Kevin Hebard // Rhiannon Sinclair

RESILIENCE

RETREAT

The New Working Waterfront

The new working waterfront takes advantage of the important regional economic drivers located in this part of Boston while harnessing underutilized areas for both economic expansion, sea level rise protection, and open space creation. The multi-functional design approach results in a mix of design approaches: retreat, resilience, and resistance. Visual Sources: Google Earth Pro (base map and collage images)

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RESISTANCE

RESILIENCE

RESILIENCE

RESISTANCE

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SASAKI ASSOCIATES 64 Pleasant Street Watertown, MA 02472

Cover Photo of Morrissey Boulevard in Boston, MA, by tahomabeadworks.blogspot.com

t: 617.926.3300 w: www.sasaki.com @SasakiDesign


Sea Level Rise: Boston, Sasaki Intern Charette