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Ancient Egyptian Structures By, Sydney Simon 5/17/14


Table of Contents Intro and Great Pyramids of Giza -

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The Great Sphinx -

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Sizes of the Pyramids -

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Tools and Conclusion -

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Glossary -

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Bibliography -

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http://www.english-online.at/history/sphinx/sphinx-oedipus-ancient-egypt.htm

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Ancient Egyptian Structures Are you interested in ancient Egyptian structures? Well if you are, then read this article and you will learn all about ancient Egyptian structures. You will learn about The Pyramids of Giza, The Great Sphinx, The sizes of the pyramids, and even how ancient Egyptians built the pyramids. So get ready to learn about ancient Egyptian structures! The Pyramids of Giza are so big and beautiful. I hope you’re excited to learn about them. There are 80 known pyramids in Egypt today. The three largest pyramids are The Pyramids of Giza. They are the Great Pyramid of Giza, The pyramid of Khafra, and the Pyramid of Menkaura. The Pyramids of Giza have been in Egypt for about 4,500 years. By the time Tutankman was a pharaoh, the pyramids became 1,000 years old. The Pyramids of Giza were built in the 4th dynasty. The designs of these pyramids are the same as the other pyramids, but bigger. The Great Pyramid of Giza was built in 2530 BCE for King Khufu. The process for the Great Pyramid of Giza took 20 years. King Khufu was the pharaoh who was buried in the Great Pyramid of Giza. Robbers took his mummy and it still hasn’t been found. The Pyramid of King Khafra, which has the Great Sphinx guarding it is the second largest pyramid of Giza. It is 471 feet only which is 10 feet smaller than the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Pyramid of Menkaura is the last pyramid of Giza. It is not even half as big as the other pyramids of Giza, it is 213 feet. The pyramid of Mekaura has 3 queen pyramids. Each one is made from the same limestone blocks. Don’t you think The Pyramids of Giza are amazing?

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I hope you’re excited to learn about The Great Sphinx! The Great Sphinx is a large human- headed lion made of limestone and rock in front of The Pyramid of Khafra. The Sphinx is wearing something called the nemes head cloth which is a symbol of royalty. Statues of lions often guard Egyptian structures. People think the Sphinx was meant to guard King Khafra in the same way. There is a story where a prince fell asleep under The Great Sphinx and in his dream the Sphinx told him that he could be king if he took the polluting sand off his neck. The story is written on a stele in hieroglyphics between the Sphinx’s paw. In 1818, an Italian sea captain tried to find a way into the Sphinx. He cleared the sand of the Sphinx’s chest. This was an attempt to free the Sphinx from the desert sands. Some of the crumbling limestone on the Sphinx eroded by blowing sand and pollution. Some people found the Sphinx’ beard under its head. Its surface still has traces of its original red coloring. In the 15th century, Muslim troops smashed off the Sphinx’s nose because it was against their religion to be able to see a god. Some people believe that under The Great Sphinx are rooms and passages, but nothing has been found yet. I hope you enjoyed learning about The Great Sphinx. http://www.guardians.net/egypt/sphinx/ The Great Sphinx

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Do you want to learn about the sizes of the pyramids? The Egyptians believed that with the way pyramids are built the dead pharaoh could climb to heaven and went to the afterlife. There is also something called a mastaba which is a type of early Egyptian tomb. One of the reasons that the Egyptians used the pyramid shape is because it symbolically let the pharaoh climb to heaven so that he could live forever. For the biggest pyramids it took about 20 years to complete the entire process. The Great Pyramid of Giza is 481 feet tall and its sides are 756 feet wide. The great pyramid is made of 2,300,000 limestone blocks, each block weighs 2 tons. The Pyramid of Khafra is 471 feet tall. The very first Egyptian pyramid was called the step pyramid. It is made of 5 steps and it is 200 feet tall. The Pyramid of Sahara is made of roughly cut limestone blocks that are stuck together with mud. The Black Pyramid was a pyramid disaster, and the pharaoh who it was going to be built for, Amenemhat 3 had another pyramid built for him. I hope you enjoyed learning about the sizes of the pyramids.

Height of the Pyramids Great pyramid of Giza-481 feet Pyramid of Khufu-471 feet Pyramid of Menkaura-213 feet The step pyramid- 200 feet Pyramid of Sahara-154 feet

Weight of the pyramids Great pyramid of Giza-5.9 million tons Pyramid of Khafra-4,880,000 tons

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The Egyptians used lots of different tools to build the pyramids. I hope you’re excited to learn about what they used. The main tools they used to build the pyramids were a wooden knife, an ax, and a hard stone. They also used chisels. One of the tools they used for building is called the triangle. The triangle is a tool where if you place the block in the right place and pull the string up it, will lift the block. Another tool that the Egyptians used for building is simply a hard rock. The kind of rock they used is called a dolerite. The first time the Egyptians tried to build a pyramid they made the sides too steep, and they tried to fix it by changing the top but they couldn’t so it became known as The Bent Pyramid. The sides of true pyramids are 56 degrees. They used certain types of blocks to make sure the pyramids were at the right angle. They purposely built pyramids next to the Nile River so that they could take quick boat rides to get the super heavy bricks to the pyramids. The Great Pyramid of Giza had 2,300,000 two-ton blocks so they really needed it close to the Nile River. The Meidum Pyramid collapsed. Some people think its shape put too much pressure on it and others think it was because of an earthquake. King Snefuru tried three times to make a true pyramid. The Meidum Pyramid collapsed and The Bent Pyramid wasn’t built to be a true pyramid. When he finally got a true pyramid, it was called The Red Pyramid. I hope you enjoyed learning about how they built the pyramids in ancient Egypt. The triangle – a device where you put the block on the surface and pull the string to pull the block up A dolerite- a certain type of hard rock A wooden knife An ax -a tool with a hard edge at the end with a handle small hard stone Chisel- a tool with a flat sharp edge used to shape wood

http://www.catchpenny.org/mmbuild.html

I hope you are as interested in ancient Egypt as I am, especially the limestone structures. Everything about them, The Pyramids of Giza, The Great Sphinx, the sizes of the pyramids, and the tools they used to build the structures is interesting. I hope this paper made you want to learn more about ancient Egypt.

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Glossary Afterlife – After the pharaohs are dead, the Egyptians believed they would have another life which they called the afterlife. Chisel – a tool with a flat, sharp end used to shape wood or stone Eroded – worn away by wind or pollution Hieroglyphics – an ancient Egyptian writing system where pictures represented sounds Mastaba – a type of early Egyptian tomb Pharaoh – Pharaohs are the people who used to rule ancient Egypt Pyramid – a large stone building where pharaohs were buried Tomb – a grave, building, or monument where a dead person is buried Stele – a stone or slab with an inscription or design on it Symbolic – an idea used to connect to a belief or a religion

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Bibliography

Bibliography Houston, R. (2012). Ancient Egypt. New York: Andrew Macintyre. Musuem, T. o. (1999). Ancient Egypt. Retrieved from http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/pyramids/home.html Putman, J. (2011). Pyramd. New York: DK Publishing. Taplin, S. (2002). Mummies and Pyramids. New York: Scholastic Inc.

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Sydney