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Consulting Report Prepared by: Sarbjit Gill (9578415) Date: December 16, 2013 Client: Kate Ashby – Owner and Manager at Expedia CruiseShipCenters Kamloops Prepared for Anne Terwiel as per the requirements of TMGT 4160


DISCLAIMER STATEMENT

The report hereunder represents an attempt to assist this business by the student enrolled in TMGT 4190 - Tourism Enterprise Consulting Project within the Bachelor of Tourism Management Program at Thompson Rivers University. Every reasonable attempt has been made to present reliable and accurate information. Much of the analysis is, of necessity, subjective in nature and is based on personal interviews or student observations. Accordingly, no warranties or promises of accuracy are made by the writer or the instructor of this course. Furthermore, the University, its faculty, and the writer assume no responsibility or accrue any liability for the reliance by any of the parties upon the report and any portion thereof.

This report has not been and will not be used by the student consultant for any other purpose without the written permission of the client and the supervising professor.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The following consulting report addresses the challenge “recruiting generation Y in a sales performance model” as identified by Kate Ashby – owner of Expedia CruiseShipCenters – Kamloops and client for this project. Expedia CrusieShipCenters – Kamloops is a travel agency featuring a range of travel products for purchase with a strong emphasis upon “cruise ship” products. They also offer “travel consultant” career/entrepreneurial opportunity, which is salesoriented and based upon 100% commission model. This opportunity allows an individual to become a constituent of Expedia CruiseShipCenters brand, build their clientele, and sell them the travel products. The individual earns uncapped commissions and Expedia CruiseShipCenters has one of the best commission rates in the industry. Expedia CruiseShipCenters also provides lifelong training, support, growth opportunities, and flexible schedule to ensure that the constituent is successful in their venture. However, at Expedia CruiseShipCenters – Kamloops, they have been unable to recruit Generation Y effectively. The following consulting report presents a review of existing literature on the topic, assesses the current recruitment strategy at Expedia CruiseShipCenters – Kamloops, identifies barriers, and provides recommendations to overcome the barriers in order to “recruit generation Y in a sales performance model”. The limitations of the work completed and suggestions for future development are further discussed at the end.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Disclaimer Statement ................................................................................................................... (i) Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................(ii) Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................(iii) List of Figures and Tables ......................................................................................................... (iv) Consulting Proposal .......................................................................................................................1 Client Contract .............................................................................................................................14 Interim Report .............................................................................................................................17 Final Report ..................................................................................................................................32

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Table 1: Gantt chart for the proposed consulting project ................................................................9 Figure 1: SWOT analysis of current recruitment strategy .............................................................18 Figure 2: Stages and Strategic Dimensions of Staffing Programs (Olian & Rynes, 1984) ...........19 Table 2: Revised Gantt chart for the proposed consulting project .................................................25 Table 3: Cost-Benefit analysis of suitable marketing channels .....................................................37

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CONSULTING PROPOSAL Introduction ....................................................................................................................................2 Literature Review ..........................................................................................................................2 Strategic Recruitment...........................................................................................................2 Recruiting Generation Y ......................................................................................................4 Recruiting Salespeople.........................................................................................................5 Conclusion ...........................................................................................................................7 Action Plan .....................................................................................................................................7 Timeline ..........................................................................................................................................9 References .....................................................................................................................................10 Appendix A: Recruitment Frameworks ....................................................................................12

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Introduction The proposed project would address the issue of staff recruitment at Expedia CruiseShipsCenters in Kamloops, British Columbia. As discussed at the meeting on 26th September, 2013 with the client, attracting Generation Y in a sales performance model has proved challenging through current recruitment strategy. Thus, this project would aim to: 

Assess the current recruitment strategy

Understand and find the key barriers in recruitment for Generation Y

Conduct thorough analysis on these barriers through several tools

Develop a new recruitment strategy that is logical, competent and easy to implement, addressing the key issue

Literature Review Upon consultation with the client, the biggest challenge faced currently by the business is recruitment of Generation Y travel consultants in a 100% commission model (based upon sales performance). Thus, this review will go in-depth upon three topics: strategic recruitment, recruitment for Generation Y, and recruiting salespeople. This review is aimed to provide an understanding of the concepts and theories pertaining to the challenge faced by the client and uncover the latest information.

Strategic Recruitment Phillips (2007) claims that the 2 most challenging issues faced by Human Resources in this day and age are recruitment and retention of the staff. He further elaborates with the example from UK that more and more baby boomers are retiring and there is insufficient number

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of workers for replacement. The median age of population is rising in UK and the population between the ages of 16 and 44 will fall by 7% in the next few decades. This not only creates an added challenge of attracting best talent in short supply but also a challenge of retaining the talent from ever-so-shrinking supply (Shafique, 2012). Thus, strategic recruitment should be a long-term plan (Maxwell 2004) consistent with the future organizational vision (Olian & Rynes, 1984), and based upon the business plan, and values and goals of the company (Shafique, 2012) to attract the “right” fit for the organization (Dhamija, 2012; Olian & Rynes, 1984; Schachter, 2009; Shafique 2012).

The key to successful recruitment strategy is hiring the “right” people as indicated by several researchers. Dhamija (2012) reiterates the notion that recruitment is not only choosing the best candidate out of the ones who have applied for the position but rather to enroll the right candidate in ones human capital. Schachter (2009) also stresses the same and it is evident in the title of his article, “Hiring Smart: It’s who, not what, that matters”. More so, Shafique (2012) expresses that an organization should not merely look at filling positions but be “proactively focused on bringing the specific kind of skills and experiences in the organization especially those that cannot be built from within”. Lastly, Olian & Rynes (1984) also illustrate that staffing practices should merely stop matching people with the job requirements and look for people who bring certain skills, abilities and knowledge that can help further the strategic vision of the organization. Thus, strategic recruitment focuses on hiring the “right” candidate.

There are several frameworks to look upon for creating a strategic recruitment plan. For this consulting project, we will be mainly reviewing and applying the work of Olian & Rynes

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(1984) and Shafique (2012) which can seen in Appendix A. Olian & Rynes (1984) proposed a framework for recruitment titled “Stages and Strategic Dimensions of Staffing Programs” which is still relevant to date. It takes into account the stages of staffing/recruitment process and provides corresponding strategic dimensions for successful recruitment. Shafique (2012) on the other end assesses recruitment in the context of 21st century. The outcome of his research indicates that interviews are the best method to hire the right fit for the organization. These frameworks, along with the recommendations and suggestions from Dhamija (2012), Maxwell (2004), Schachter (2009), and Sisodia & Chowdhary (2012) will be taken into account to devise a recruitment plan addressing the client’s needs for recruiting individuals from Generation Y.

Recruiting Generation Y Generation Y is born in 1980s and 1990s. They are tech-savvy (Coley, 2009; Herbison & Boseman, 2009; Mihalcea, Mitan, & Vitelar, 2012; Reisenwitz & Iyer, 2009), ones who value personal connections, and are apt to multi-tasking (Coley, 2009). Kropp (2012) and Coley (2009) also state that Gen Y is more collaborative and team-oriented than any other generations. They respect continuous feedback, building personal connections and seek a coach/mentor instead of a boss (Coley, 2009). Generation Y appreciates challenges but they equally admire flexibility so they can manage work/life balance efficiently (Coley, 2009; Holt, Marques, & Way, 2012; Mihalcea, Mitan, & Vitelar, 2012). Gen Y is also an entrepreneurial generation (Mihalcea, Mitan, & Vitelar, 2012). A study conducted in Romania found that Gen Y members are fond of entrepreneurship, flexibility, like to be consistently informed, and dream of being “their own bosses”. Gen Y has a costs-benefits approach to work and perceives entrepreneurship from the perspective of income and success rate (Mihalcea, Mitan, & Vitelar, 2012) . Gen Y also seeks

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self-fulfillment and has the notions of social betterment (Kropp, 2012; Holt, Marques, & Way, 2012). Recruiting these Gen Y’ers requires companies to explore technology and the Internet (Herbison & Boseman, 2009; Reisenwitz & Iyer, 2009). YouTube, MySpace, LinkedIn, and Craigslist are all new modes to attract Gen Y’ers aside from newspaper and Monster.com ads (Herbison & Boseman, 2009).

To engage Generation Y at the workplace, managers need to devise opportunities for creative challenges and get them more involved in problem solving (Holt, Marques, & Way, 2012). Clear explanation of expectations and genuine praise motivates Gen Y, as it creates a sense of value and community for the individual (Kropp, 2012; Holt, Marques, & Way, 2012). Also, Gen Y requires timely feedback on their performance and career development, instead of monthly or semi-annual performance reviews (Coley, 2009; Holt, Marques, & Way, 2012). They like to know specific areas they can improve upon and what they are doing great at (Holt, Marques, & Way, 2012). More so, by providing challenging work, having open communication and by establishing personal relationships, an employer can create an environment suitable for Generation Y (Kropp, 2012). Kropp (2012) also stresses the importance of individuality and the need for the leaders to learn about each individual young employee to assess if they are the “right” fit for the organization.

Recruiting Salespeople “Recruiting good candidates is essential to building an effective sales organization” (Ridlehuber, 1998, p. 1). Ridlehuber (1998) further elaborates that a vital, energetic sales culture needs to be developed in order to cater to individuals with sales mentality so they feel valued and

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honored at the workplace. The sales mentality requires individuals to be people-centric and be devoted to building long-term relationships with the clients (Ridlehuber, 1998; Mathews & Redman, 2001). Ridlehuber (1998) claims that the “right” sales people are the ones with a balance of intellect and people skills. The author urges, “…teaching product knowledge is far easier than developing skills to those who lack commitment” (Ridlehuber, 1998, p. 1).

When recruiting for a sales position, be as detailed as possible (Kwicien, 2010; Riblehuber, 1998). Sales individuals value detailed job descriptions outlined with goals, objectives that are clear in expectations (Ridlehuber, 1998). Moreover, looking it through an internal lens, the employer should specify the skill sets they expect their ideal candidate to possess (Kwicien, 2010). Although the recruitment process is usually about how potential candidate fills the requirements of the posting, however, how the corporate brand is managed through personal interactions with potential candidates (Kwicien, 2010) and through recruitment advertisements (Mathews & Redman, 2001) is equally crucial in the recruitment process. Essentially, you are selling your company to the recruits and making a case of why they should work there (Kwicien, 2010). Thus, corporate brand should be evident throughout the recruitment process to entice salespeople (Mathews & Redman, 2001).

Lastly, to retain the salespeople, employers should create an environment for salespeople to thrive in (Jaramillo, Mulki, & Boles, 2012; Riblehuber, 1998). A research study conducted upon 1450 sales directors found that the two main factors contributing to meaningful experience of salespeople at the job included customer demandingness and ethical climate (Jaramillo, Mulki, & Boles, 2012). Customer demand motivates the salesperson and the ethical climate relieves

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stress (Jaramillo, Mulki, & Boles, 2012). Also, well thought-out compensation programs are a major draw for sales people (Riblehuber, 1998). However, the shift with the new generation is upon “purpose maximization” than “profit maximization”, thus leading for creation of workplaces that offer meaningful jobs (Jaramillo, Mulki, & Boles, 2012).

Conclusion The new strategic recruitment plan will be based upon the framework of Olian & Rynes (1984) and Shafique (2012). It will also draw suggestions/recommendations from the various authors mentioned within the literature review. Overall, the new strategic recruitment plan for Expedia CruiseShipsCenters in Kamloops, BC will address Generation Y and salespeople, to find the “right” fit for the sales performance model, and for the organization itself.

Action Plan 1) Existing literature will be examined on the topics of “strategic recruitment”, “recruiting Generation Y” and “recruiting sales people” to build theoretical foundation. 2) A thorough investigation of recruitment practices will be conducted to assess what may be causing hindrance in attracting Generation Y. 3) A review of “Best Practices in the industry” will be conducted to showcase practical application and implementation of the practices. 4) A consultation will be conducted with a varied panel of experts and consultants in the field to examine the best strategic approaches to the given issue of attracting Generation Y in a sales performance model.

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5) Final deliverables: A new strategic recruitment plan will be devised to recruit Generation Y travel consultants in a 100% commission model.

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Timeline

Project Activity

Deadline

Project Proposal (inclusive of Literature Review)

October 10th, 2013

Signed Contract by the client

October 15th, 2013

Interim Report (inclusive of assessment of current recruitment plan, and best practices in the industry)

October 31st, 2013

Final Report: Strategic Recruitment Plan to attract Gen Y (inclusive of consultation with the panel)

November 21st, 2013

Table 1: Gantt chart for the proposed consulting project

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References Coley, D. C. (2009). Leading Generation Y. Principal Leadership, 9(6), 24-28. Dhamija, P. (2012). E-recruitment: A roadmap towards E-Human Resource Management. Researchers World: Journal Of Arts, Science & Commerce, 3(2), 33-39. Herbison, G., & Boseman, G. (2009). Here They Come-Generation Y. Are You Ready?. Journal Of Financial Service Professionals, 63(3), 33-34. Holt, S., Marques, J., & Way, D. (2012). Bracing for the Millennial Workforce: Looking for Ways to Inspire Generation Y. Journal Of Leadership, Accountability & Ethics, 9(6), 8193. Jaramillo, F., Mulki, J. P., & Boles, J. S. (2012). Bringing meaning to the sales job: The effect of ethical climate and customer demandingness. Journal of Business Research, 66(11), 2301-2307. Kropp, W. (2012). One voice of generation Y. Frontiers Of Health Services Management, 29(1), 40-44. Kwicien, J. (2010). Improving sales management effectiveness: recruiting. Employee Benefit Adviser, 8(2), 46-47. Mathews, B. P., & Redman, T. (2001). Recruiting the wrong salespeople: Are the job ads to blame?.Industrial Marketing Management, 30(7), 541-550. Maxwell, M. (2004). Human resource solutions. The long and short of recruitment strategies. Nursing Economics, 22(3), 159-160. Mihalcea, A., Mitan, A., & Vitelar, A. (2012). Generation Y: Views on Entrepreneurship. Economia: Seria Management, 15(2) , 277-287.

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Olian, J. O., & Rynes, S. L. (1984). Organizational Staffing: Integrating Practice with Strategy. Industrial Relations, 23(2), 170-183. Phillips, C. (2007). Viewpoint - today’s talent contest: the battle for talent in the uk is hotting up. In D. Pollitt (Ed.), Recruitment (3 ed., Vol. 15, pp. 3-5). Bradford, GBR: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. Reisenwitz, T. H., & Iyer, R. (2009). Differences in Generation X and Generation Y: Implications for the organization and the marketers. Marketing Management Journal, 19(2), 91-103. Ridlehuber, T. (1998, February). Recruiting a sales team. U.S. Banker. p. 74. Schachter, H. (2009, April 1). Hiring smart: It's who, not what, that matters. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/hiring-smart-itswho-not-what-that-matters/article600297/ Shafique, O. (2012). Recruitment in the 21st century. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 4(2), 887-901. Sisodia, S., & Chowdhary, N. (2012). Use of illustrations in recruitment advertising by service companies. Journal of Services Research, 12(2), 81-109.

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Appendix A Frameworks

Olian, J. O., & Rynes, S. L. (1984). Organizational Staffing: Integrating Practice with Strategy. Industrial Relations, 23(2), 170-183. Title: Stages and Strategic Dimensions of Staffing Programs (Page 172)

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Appendix A Frameworks

Shafique, O. (2012). Recruitment in the 21st century. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 4(2), 887-901. Please refer to pages: 890-899 in specific for the recruitment framework. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2325900

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CLIENT CONTRACT

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CLIENT CONTRACT (Continued)

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CLIENT CONTRACT (Continued)

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INTERIM REPORT

Assessment of Current Recruitment Strategy ...........................................................................18 Strengths ............................................................................................................................19 Weaknesses ........................................................................................................................20 Opportunities......................................................................................................................22 Threats................................................................................................................................22 Common Trends and Practices in the Industry: A Brief Overview .......................................24 Revised Timeline .........................................................................................................................25 References ....................................................................................................................................26 Appendix A: Marketing Message & Channels .........................................................................28 Appendix B: Expedia CruiseShipCenters Brand ....................................................................30

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Assessment of Current Recruitment Strategy The assessment of the current recruitment strategy employed by Expedia CruiseShipsCenters (Kamloops, BC) is based upon the one-on-one discussions with the client, the documents pertaining to recruitment process supplied by the client, literature review conducted by the consultant, and personal expertise of the consultant acquired over the years. The aim of this assessment is to find and review the strengths and weaknesses of, and opportunities and threats to the firm in relation to attracting Gen Y in a sales performance model. Following is the snapshot of the findings:

Figure 3: SWOT analysis of current recruitment strategy

STRENGTHS The recruitment process is very well organized. The selection process & techniques are well devised to acquaint a new consultant to the workplace. The career opportunity offered is attractive to Gen Y.

Opportunities Strong brand presence can be further capitalized upon. The travel agency industry is experiencing resurgence. Gen Y can be strongly targeted with refined marketing message and appropriate marketing channels.

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WEAKNESSES Marketing message has discrepencies between the opportunity and advertisement. Limited marketing channels are currently being utilised. Interview questions can be more probing.

Threats Competition may go after the same target market for recruitment. Internet and technology is a consistent threat to travel agencies and it may influence an individual's decision to take up employment with a firm.


Strengths Recruitment Strategy: The current recruitment process is very well organized if viewed in reference to Olian & Rynes’ (1984) “Stages and Strategic Dimensions of Staffing Programs” framework (see below). The “Choice of Selection Criteria”, “Selection of Recruitment Method”, “Choice of Selection Techniques” are well engrained in the recruitment process. The client knows of the knowledge, skills, and abilities to look for in a candidate. The client has an appropriate recruitment method in place that helps acquaint a new consultant to the workplace from initial contact to signing of the contract (K. Ashby, personal communication, September 26, October 3, October 10, 2013). The selection techniques implemented are aggressive and sort out wheat from the chaff (please refer to documents in the appendix). Therefore, the final decision made by the client becomes easy as the individual proves they are willing to work as hard as it requires. Figure 4: Stages and Strategic Dimensions of Staffing Programs (Olian & Rynes, 1984)

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Career Opportunity: More so, the career opportunity offered by Expedia CruiseShipCenters (Kamloops) is appealing to Generation Y as it is entrepreneurial in nature (Mihalcea, Mitan, & Vitelar 2012), provides flexible hours (Coley 2009), tech-savvy environment (Herbison & Boseman, 2009; Mihalcea, Mitan, & Vitelar, 2012; Reisenwitz & Iyer, 2009), life-long training (Holt, Marques, & Way, 2012), challenging work, and allows one to establish personal relationships (Kropp 2012). However, during the assessment it was found that the marketing strategy wasn’t appropriate to attract Gen Y (Herbison & Boseman, 2009; Olian & Rynes, 1984; Reisenwitz & Iyer, 2009).

Weaknesses Marketing Channels: Recruiting Gen Y’ers requires companies to explore technology and the Internet as stated by Herbison & Boseman (2009) and Reisenwitz & Iyer (2009), and currently Kijiji.com is the only Internet marketing channel utilized by the client and the other channel is the local newspaper “Daily News” (please refer to Appendix A to view advertising in place, 11-12). There is also an online recruitment platform on corporate website where individuals can visit to look for opportunities with the company. Alternative Internet platforms such as YouTube, MySpace, LinkedIn, Craigslist (Herbison & Boseman 2009), Facebook, etc. can be utilized to reach more Gen Y’ers.

Marketing Message: There are positives and negatives to advertising a job opening. The goal is to attract appropriate candidates but the dangers are of attracting too few of the qualified candidates or too many of the inappropriate ones (Mathews & Redman, 2001; Shiplacoff, 1999). Thus, the marketing strategy is one of the major components of the recruitment process (Olian &

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Rynes, 1984) as it allures potential employees and informs them of the opportunity, the company brand (Mathews & Redman, 2001), and crafts the preliminary image of the company in a candidate’s mind (Sisodia & Chowdhary, 2012). Currently, the Daily News advertisement does an excellent job of selling the Expedia CruiseShipCenters (Kamloops) brand but fails to provide details about the opportunity being offered (see Appendix A). On the other hand, the Kijiji ad sends mix signals as it talks about both entrepreneurship and full-time/part-time positions (instead of saying flexibility), resulting in confusion about the nature of the opportunity being offered (see Appendix A). Therefore, the marketing message needs revision to attract Generation Y.

Interview Questions: Lastly, the selections tools and techniques in place at Expedia CruiseShipCenters (Kamloops) are excellent and rigorous, but the personal interview component can be further strengthened. Dhamija (2012), Mathews & Redman (2001), Olian & Rynes (1984), Schachter (2009), Shafique (2012), Shiplacoff (1999), and Sisodia & Chowdhary (2012) – all stress upon the importance of finding the right fit for the organization as “hiring a wrong person can be detrimental to the growth, brand equity and reputation of the organization resulting in financial repercussions” (Sisodia & Chowdhary, 2012).

Schachter (2009) proposes the following questions to ask in the screening process: What are your career goals; What are you really good at professionally; What are you not good at or not interested in doing professionally; and Who are your last 5 bosses, and how will they each rate your performance from 1-10 when we talk to them. Following are the questions he suggests to probe upon during the detailed interview along with other necessary questions: What were you

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hired to do; What accomplishments are you most proud of; What were some low points during the job; Who were the people you worked with; What was your boss’ name; What was like working with him or her; What will he or she tell me your biggest areas of strengths and areas of improvement are; and Why did you leave your job?

Schachter (2009) states that the people you put in place are the most critical component to your success as they are the ones representing your business, you brand, your repute, and selling your products and services. Therefore, it is crucial for a business to assess the potential candidates in depth to learn their weaknesses and strengths and how they will add the value to the organization.

Opportunities The travel agency industry is currently experiencing resurgence and Expedia CruiseShipCenters is one of the leading brands in the industry (Appendix B, 30-31). The combination of these factors can be utilized to target Gen Y with refined marketing message and through appropriate marketing channels as described in the weaknesses.

Threats One thing to be aware of is that the competition may go after the same target market for recruitment. Therefore, upon devising the appropriate marketing strategy, it is crucial to identify how the competition is recruiting (marketing message and channels), and how we can propose a differentiated and more appealing value proposition in the market to recruit the right candidates. Secondly, Internet and technology is a consistent threat to travel agencies and it may influence an

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individual’s decision to take up employment with the firm. Therefore, it is essential to clarify in the advertising about the resurgence of and growth in travel agency industry.

In summary, Expedia CruiseShipCenters (Kamloops) has an excellent and rigorous recruitment plan in place but the marketing message & marketing channels need immediate revision to target Gen Y. The strong brand presence of Expedia CruiseShipCenters and resurgence of travel agency industry are two key factors that can serve as opportunities in marketing strategy to eliminate threats such as misconceptions & misunderstandings, so that we can recruit the best of the best. The assessment will be further strengthened with interviews from the professionals in the fields of recruitment and/or travel & tourism.

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Common Trends and Practices in the Industry: A Brief Overview Following are few of the current trends and practices in travel agency industry from around the world: 

In Penang, Malaysia, small-medium sized travel agencies usually use recruitment methods that are convenient, inexpensive and directly controllable by their businesses, such as direct applications, personal and employees’ referrals, and newspaper advertising (Yaacob & Then, 2012).

In Gauteng, South Africa, it was identified that poor salaries, a lack of educational sponsorships and poor management relationships with employees working for travel agencies were the causes of high staff turnover (Lombard, 2013).

Most of the young students today do not choose a career in travel because they feel that they do not know enough information about travel careers (American Society of Travel Agents [ASTA], 2007)

The number of full-time travel agents employed at travel agencies is declining (currently estimated at 50,000) and the number of independent agents is continuously rising (currently estimated at 40,000) (Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS], 2012).

In summary, flexibility is an emerging trend in the travel agency industry as it lowers costs and allows individuals to maintain a work-life balance. However, it was found that Gen Y lacks information on travel careers, which can make recruitment a challenging task for the firms in coming years. Most of the firms tend to utilize low-cost recruitment initiatives. Lastly, poor salaries, lack of training/education, and poor relationship between employee and the management can result in high staff turnover for the industry (South African study).

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Revised Timeline

Project Activity

Deadline

Project Proposal (inclusive of Literature Review)

October 10th, 2013

Signed Contract by the client

October 10th, 2013

Interim Report (inclusive of assessment of current recruitment strategy, and common trends and practices in

November 21st, 2013

the industry: a brief overview) Final Report: Marketing Strategy for Recruiting Gen Y (inclusive of consultation with the panel)

Table 2: Revised Gantt chart for the proposed consulting project

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November 28th, 2013


References American Society of Travel Agents. (2007). Why Students Do Not Choose Travel as a Career. Morrisville, NY: ASTA. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012, May). Occupational employment and wages, may 2012: 413041 travel agents. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes413041.htm Coley, D. C. (2009). Leading Generation Y. Principal Leadership, 9(6), 24-28. Dhamija, P. (2012). E-recruitment: A roadmap towards E-Human Resource Management. Researchers World: Journal Of Arts, Science & Commerce, 3(2), 33-39. Herbison, G., & Boseman, G. (2009). Here They Come-Generation Y. Are You Ready?. Journal Of Financial Service Professionals, 63(3), 33-34. Holt, S., Marques, J., & Way, D. (2012). Bracing for the Millennial Workforce: Looking for Ways to Inspire Generation Y. Journal Of Leadership, Accountability & Ethics, 9(6), 8193. Kropp, W. (2012). One voice of generation Y. Frontiers Of Health Services Management, 29(1), 40-44. Lombard, M.R. (2013). The recruitment market practices of travel agencies in the Gauteng province of South Africa – What is the status quo? African Journal of Marketing Management, 5(1), 1-19. Mathews, B. P., & Redman, T. (2001). Recruiting the wrong salespeople: Are the job ads to blame?.Industrial Marketing Management, 30(7), 541-550. Mihalcea, A., Mitan, A., & Vitelar, A. (2012). Generation Y: Views on Entrepreneurship. Economia: Seria Management, 15(2), 277-287.

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Olian, J. O., & Rynes, S. L. (1984). Organizational Staffing: Integrating Practice with Strategy. Industrial Relations, 23(2), 170-183. Reisenwitz, T. H., & Iyer, R. (2009). Differences in Generation X and Generation Y: Implications for the organization and the marketers. Marketing Management Journal, 19(2), 91-103. Schachter, H. (2009, April 1). Hiring smart: It's who, not what, that matters. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/hiring-smart-itswho-not-what-that-matters/article600297/ Shafique, O. (2012). Recruitment in the 21st century. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 4(2), 887-901. Shiplacoff, D. A. (1999). Methods for recruiting and evaluating job candidates. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 11(2), 27-33. doi:10.1177/108482239901100210 Sisodia, S., & Chowdhary, N. (2012). Use of illustrations in recruitment advertising by service companies. Journal of Services Research, 12(2), 81-109. Yaacob, M.R. & Then, G.H. (2012). Investigating recruitment and selection practices of SMEs travel agencies in penang, malaysia. Terengganu International Management and Business Journal, 2(2), 32-46.

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Appendix A Marketing Message & Channels

Daily News Advertisement

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Appendix A Marketing Message & Channels

Kijiji.com Advertisement

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Appendix B Expedia CruiseShipCenters Brand

Expedia CruiseShipCenters Brand

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Appendix B Expedia CruiseShipCenters Brand

Resurgence of Travel Agencies/ Growth of Expedia CruiseShipCenters

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FINAL REPORT

Interviews with the Consultation Panel .....................................................................................33 Key Takeaways from the Interviews .................................................................................34 Final Deliverables.........................................................................................................................36 Brief Overview of the Process and Findings .....................................................................36 Marketing Channels ...........................................................................................................36 Marketing Message ............................................................................................................38 Interview Questions ...........................................................................................................39 Strategic Fit ........................................................................................................................40 Concluding Remarks ..........................................................................................................41 Limitations of work completed and suggestions for future development..........................41 References .....................................................................................................................................43 Appendix A: Recruitment Posting Exercise ..............................................................................45 Appendix B: Strategic Fit Document .........................................................................................47

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Interviews with the Consultation Panel Two interviews were conducted with the industry professionals to gather insight, recommendations, and strengthen the assessment of current recruitment strategy. The two individuals who were interviewed were as following: 

Gemma Gowling - Owner/business consultant at Gemco Enterprises in Kamloops, BC. She has over 17 years of experience in working with businesses in all of the different areas, including recruitment. Interviewed on 22nd Nov, 2013.

Matthew Coyle – Manager at FlightCentre Australia - Macarthur Central Store in Brisbane, Australia. He is responsible for turning his store into “The most improved store worldwide – Year 2012”, and FlightCentre has over 2500 stores in over 10 countries. Coyle brings direct knowledge and experience from the travel agency industry. Interviewed on 26th Nov, 2013.

Both Gowling and Coyle were asked the following 7 questions: 1) What would you have done differently if you were in my shoes? 2) In your view, what are the best methods to recruit Gen Y in a sales performance model? 3) What would you look for in a candidate, if you were the recruitment manager in this instance? 4) What marketing channels would you use to recruit the candidates? 5) What would be the marketing message that you would utilize in this instance? 6) How would you deem a candidate to be a strategic fit at the end of the recruitment process? 7) Do you have any further comments or insight that may be valuable?

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Key Takeaways from the Interviews The Right Candidate for this Position: The most prominent thing an individual must embody for this position is a sales-oriented demeanor and a passion for travel. Sales-oriented demeanor incorporates of an individual who is results/targets oriented, is likeable and friendly, and can be considered as a person of influence. Being passionate about travel is not only about demonstrating enthusiasm, but also someone who bears some experience and knowledge about the industry, products, and places, and is more than willing to accrue more knowledge and indulge in the travel products.

Marketing Channels: To reach these individuals, several marketing channels can be strategically utilized, such as social-media, industry-specific recruitment websites, and institutions that have travel/tourism programs.

Marketing Message: The marketing message carried out in these advertisements should demonstrate value to the prospect travel consultants. Both Gowling and Coyle stated that the ad should appeal to an individual’s sense of getting something. This can be achieved by stating the benefits of the position, such as entrepreneurship/ownership opportunity, flexibility in schedule, uncapped commissions, life-long training, lead-generator tool, strong brand backing, product familiarization trips, and an example of a local employee who has succeeded in this position (such as Michael Mckenna-Small), and more.

Strategic Fit: To deem a candidate to be a “strategic fit� at the end of the recruitment process, both Gowling and Coyle agreed that this individual should be passionate about the

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industry they work in, and they should have experienced the travel products. Coyle adds that this individual must be able to demonstrate some knowledge about the travel products as well, and bears long-term intentions with this opportunity and the firm. He further elaborates that to do so, it is a two-way relationship and incentives (financial, experiential, etc.) should be offered by the firm to entice, engage, and motivate Generation Y. Moreover, Gowling states that a proven sales record is another key thing one should look for – be it the sales of photocopies at a local shop or sales of Big Macs at McDonalds. Also, before hiring an individual, Gowling suggested to ask the individual to demonstrate the sales skill. She also suggests that if possible, have a 2nd person from the office involved in the recruitment process. This will help validate the recruitment approach and the 2nd person can perhaps pick up on things that the primary recruiter may have missed out on.

Further Comments: Lastly, upon asking for any further comments and valuable insight, surprisingly, both Gowling and Coyle elaborated on the power of “positivity” and “positive work environment”, and how happy people make a place both productive and enjoyable. Coyle referred to Oprah and how she always states that the secret to happiness is belief – the belief that staying optimistic and believing in oneself can accomplish anything. Coyle said that the first thing he tells his employees whenever he is requested to take over a new store is, “Treat everyone who contacts you as if they are contacting you to book. We are not an inquiry source that sends out quotes, we are the ends of the line, and the client is ready to make a booking. So believe in that belief, serve them as if they were ready to book, and go get that sale.”

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Final Deliverables As indicated in the contract, the current recruitment strategy was assessed to identify key barriers in recruitment of generation y in a sales performance model. Upon identification of these barriers, a rigorous analysis was conducted inclusive of interviews from the industry professionals to gain a deeper insight to prepare the final document that details recommendations below.

Brief Overview of the Process and Findings Upon analyzing the recruitment strategy and having discussions with the industry professionals, it was clear that “sales demeanor” and “passion for travel industry” are the two prominent things to look for in a travel consultant. Moreover, it was identified that the marketing strategy and marketing message needed to be tailored to reach the target market. Also, a list of interview questions was devised in the interim report to make the one-on-one conversations more probing. Lastly, the client indicated at the meeting on November 21st, 2013 that they are concerned and unsure as if they are hiring a “strategic fit”. A document and few recommendations are devised below to help resolve that dilemma.

Marketing Channels It was found in the analysis of the recruitment strategy that there are only 2 marketing channels that are currently being utilized to advertise the opportunity: The Daily News (local newspaper) and Kijiji.ca for Kamloops (local classifieds). These two marketing channels present limitations in terms of the audience and the message, thus failing to reach the target market on a

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larger scale (Gen Y). To diversify the channels and broaden the reach, following are the few recommended marketing channels to reach Gen Y (18-33 years of age): Table 3: Cost-Benefit analysis of suitable marketing channels

Type of Channel Channel Social Facebook Media

Social Media

LinkedIn

Tourism Industry Specific Job Search Website

Go2Hr.ca

Tourism Industry

Cooljobsc anada.com

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Benefits & Reach

Costs

 Locally, about 28,000 individuals can be targeted living in Kamloops and within a 10-mile vicinity in the age range of 18-34. (Facebook, 2013)  The recruitment advertisements can be tailored to the age group, the area, interests, and more. A Facebook page can also be created for the organization to communicate with their target audience, build strong brand presence in the community, post employment opportunities, and promote the products as well (Facebook, 2013).  59,357 members in British Columbia can be reached between the ages 18-34  Alike Facebook, the companies can create a page, build strong brand presence, post vacancies on the site and welcomes applications (LinkedIn, 2013).

 The Facebook Page is free.  The ads are based on cost-per-click or costper-impression.  The budget is managed manually.

 British Columbia’s premier tourism job search site  This site also possesses valuable employer resources, which may prove beneficial in operations of the business and staying upto-date on Human Resources end. (go2 Tourism HR Society, 2013).  Website traffic: Approximately 88,600 monthly (TrafficEstimate.com, 2013)  Nation-wide, tourism-specific job search website (CoolJobsCanada, 2013).

 A 30-day job posting package can be purchased to post an opening on the company’s page  If the job is to be advertised, the budget can be managed manually and it can be as low as $10 or as high as $1000. The ads are based on cost-per-click model or cost per 1000 impressions.  Free to post and manage

 Free to post and manage for 1 month.


Specific Job Search Website Institutio Thompson n Rivers University

 Website traffic: Approximately 20,700 monthly (TrafficEstimate.com, 2013)  Partnering with the local institution can prove significantly beneficial as it will raise brand awareness of Expedia CruiseShipCenters and allow students to learn more about the company itself, which will translate into word-of-mouth advertising and strong brand recall in the long run.  The forms of partnerships can be: Networking events, and building relationships with the faculty (which may open doors to other opportunities, such as presentations and more) and students.

Charges afterwards.

 Volunteer at Networking 411 event as a career mentor (Thompson Rivers University [TRU] – TRU career mentoring, 2013)  Inform students of the opportunity via career fair at the university. The booth space starts from $350 (TRU – employers, 2013)

For more marketing channels that can be utilized to reach the desired audience, information and links can be found at DiscoverTourism.ca website, which is partially funded by the Canadian Government (Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council, 2013).

Marketing Message As explained in the interim report, a marketing message is the content in the recruitment advertisement that disseminates information about the opportunity and communicates the corporate brand premise (Olian & Rynes, 1984; Mathews & Redman, 2001; Sisodia & Chowdhary, 2012). It includes everything from words, images, information, the style of writing, and the emotion you tend to evoke in a reader. Marketing message is crucial in recruitment ad as it is serves as the first interaction between your company and the prospect travel consultant. The marketing message should urge the desired reader to apply for the opportunity being advertised. In terms of recruitment, an effective job posting should bear these following details: Company Name, Job Title, Sector, Location, Salary, Job Description, Person Description, Company

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Description, and How to Apply (Guardian News and Media Limited, 2013). Upon writing the job advertising, the company is selling themselves, thus it is crucial to remain true to the brand and company culture. Also, the advertisement should be engaging, informational (without jargon), consistent with the brand, and of an appropriate length. Medina (2013) analyzed over 100 job postings and found the following elements that constitute “great job postings” are as following: concise description of what the company does, a short list of requirements, are detailed in terms of job description, and include salary information.

A recruitment posting was devised with the client on December 4th, 2013 taking literature review, industry professional’s advice, and Expedia CruiseShipCenters brand into account (see Appendix A).

Interview Questions As stated in the interim report, Dhamija (2012), Mathews & Redman (2001), Olian & Rynes (1984), Schachter (2009), Shafique (2012), Shiplacoff (1999), and Sisodia & Chowdhary (2012) – all stress upon the importance of finding the right fit for the organization as “hiring a wrong person can be detrimental to the growth, brand equity and reputation of the organization resulting in financial repercussions” (Sisodia & Chowdhary, 2012).

Schachter (2009) proposes the following questions to ask the candidates upon recruitment:

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What are your career goals?

What are you really good at professionally?

What are you not good at or not interested in doing professionally?


Who are your last 5 bosses, and how will they each rate your performance from 1-10 when we talk to them.

What were you hired to do?

What accomplishments are you most proud of?

What were some low points during the job?

Who were the people you worked with?

What was your boss’ name? What was like working with him or her? What will he or she tell me your biggest areas of strengths and areas of improvement are?

Why did you leave your job?

Strategic Fit (Also see Appendix B) As stated above, hiring a candidate who is a “strategic fit” is crucial for an organization’s growth. Therefore, following is a list of few questions that the client can use as a cheat-sheet to assess a candidate in terms of “strategic fit” (see Appendix B) before they make their final decision. 

Is this person people-friendly?

Does this person have previous sales experience of any kind? Are those skills transferrable to this job?

Is this person passionate about travel?

Have they travelled outside of Canada and US before? If yes, what travel products have they used before? Planes? Cruise Ships? Ferries?

How knowledgeable are they about the travel products and how willing are they to learn about existing/new travel products?

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How committed will this individual be to the travel-consulting job? Do they anything else going on?

Are they simply looking to make side money or would they consider this job as a career (if not now, perhaps down the road)?

Do they have the potential to generate sales?

What value do they bring to the organization?

What are their biggest strengths and where is the room to make major improvements?

Lastly, can this person make it as a travel consultant with available training, tools, guidance, and their personal skills, abilities and knowledge?

Concluding Remarks The final deliverables, if strategically implemented, should help address the key challenge identified in the project proposal, “Recruitment of Generation Y in a Sales Performance Model”. The new marketing channels will help expand the reach, and the marketing message will help inform the candidates of the position, workplace environment, and Expedia CruiseShipCenters brand, urging them to apply for the position. The probing interview questions and the strategic fit document will help ensure that the right candidate is being selected who will help propel the organization forward, bring value to the workplace, and build a career with Expedia CruiseShipCenters.

Limitations of work completed and suggestions for future development This consulting report is written by a student consultant, who came to the findings and conclusion with the help of their supervisor, academic material, and interviews with industry

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professionals. The student consultant lacks prior consulting experience which may/ may not have affected the outcome(s). Also, the travel agency industry is experiencing turbulent environment currently due to the rapid technological development and changes, and the work conducted may/ may not be relevant in few years from now. Therefore, the suggestions for future development include: implementation of the deliverables as stated above in recruitment process. If the turnover persists, the attention must be directed towards employee engagement at workplace and retention of the best.

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References Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council. (2013).Tourism and hospitality job boards. Retrieved from http://discovertourism.ca/en/find_a_job/tourism_job_boards CoolJobsCanada. (2013). Home. Retrieved from http://www.cooljobscanada.com/ Dhamija, P. (2012). E-recruitment: A roadmap towards E-Human Resource Management. Researchers World: Journal Of Arts, Science & Commerce, 3(2), 33-39. Facebook. (2013). Advertise on facebook. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/advertising go2 Tourism HR Society. (2013). Home. Retrieved from https://www.go2hr.ca/ Guardian News and Media Limited. (2013). How to write good job advertisements. Retrieved from http://jobs.theguardian.com/article/4277804/how-to-write-good-job-advertisements/ LinkedIn. (2013). Advertising. Retrieved from http://www.linkedin.com/advertising Maclean's. (2013, August 13). Facebook releases stats about canadian usage; 14 million daily users. Retrieved from http://www2.macleans.ca/2013/08/13/facebook-releases-statsabout-canadian-usage-14-million-daily-users/ Mathews, B. P., & Redman, T. (2001). Recruiting the wrong salespeople: Are the job ads to blame?.Industrial Marketing Management, 30(7), 541-550. Medina, M. (2013, May 29). What great job postings have in common. Retrieved from http://www.ere.net/2013/05/29/what-great-job-postings-have-in-common/ Olian, J. O., & Rynes, S. L. (1984). Organizational Staffing: Integrating Practice with Strategy. Industrial Relations, 23(2), 170-183. Schachter, H. (2009, April 1). Hiring smart: It's who, not what, that matters. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/hiring-smart-itswho-not-what-that-matters/article600297/

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Shafique, O. (2012). Recruitment in the 21st century. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 4(2), 887-901. Shiplacoff, D. A. (1999). Methods for recruiting and evaluating job candidates. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 11(2), 27-33. doi:10.1177/108482239901100210 Sisodia, S., & Chowdhary, N. (2012). Use of illustrations in recruitment advertising by service companies. Journal of Services Research, 12(2), 81-109. Socialbakers. (2013). Canada facebook statistics. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics/canada Thompson Rivers University. (2013). Tru career mentoring. Retrieved from http://www.tru.ca/__shared/assets/mentorprogram24864.pdf Thompson Rivers University. (2013). Employers. Retrieved from http://www.tru.ca/jobfair/employers.html TrafficEstimate.com. (2013). Website traffic estimates by trafficestimate.com. Retrieved from http://www.trafficestimate.com/

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Appendix A Recruitment Posting Exercise

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Appendix A Recruitment Posting Exercise (Continued)

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Appendix B Strategic Fit Document

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Appendix B Strategic Fit Document (Continued)

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Consulting report prepared by: Sarbjit Gill Contact email: sarbjit.gill@hotmail.ca LinkedIn Profile: http://ca.linkedin.com/in/sarbjitgill

Consulting Report - Expedia CruiseShipCenters Kamloops  

Consultant: Sarbjit Gill Client: Kate Ashby (Owner & Manager at Expedia CruiseShipCenters Kamloops) Supervising Professor: Anne Terwiel

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