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“Nothing behind me, everything ahead of me, as is ever so on the road.”

- Jack Kerouac, On the Road -

Why do people travel?

Why did people travel? •  •  •  •  •  •  • 

Survival and  migra-ons   Explora-ons  and  discoveries   Commerce   Poli-cal  expansion   Pilgrimages  and  missionaries   16yh  century’s  Grand  Tour   Leisure    

•  •  •  •  •  •  • 

Holidays To  experience  new  cultures   Necessity  or  work   To  learn  new  language   Take  a  gap-­‐year   To  challenge  yourself   To  find  yourself  

Jonathan Swift • 

Jonathan Swi+   (1667-­‐1745)   belongs   to   the   Augustan  Age.  


He was   an   Irish   writer,   and   in   1694   became   an   Anglican  priest.  In  1720  SwiQ,  with  Alexander  Pope   and  John  Gay  created  a  group  of  Tory’s  sa-rists:  the   Scriblerians.  


In his   novel,   in   par-cular   in   Gulliver’s   Travel,   he   cri-cises  poli-cians,  English  provincialism  and  it  is  a   sa-re  of  man’s  hypocrisy,  vanity  and  cruelty.  


For long   -me   it   was   considered   like   a   children's   fable  because  of  the  fantas-c  elements,  but  in  truth   it  is  a  modern  criEcs  of  society  wonderfully  hidden   by  him.  

Gulliver’s Travel Ø  Jonathan SwiQ   masterpiece   was   Gulliver’s  Travel,  a  saErical  novel.   Ø  It   is   divided   into   4   parts.   Write   in   3°   person,   the   hero   is   a   ship’s   surgeon,   Lemuel   Gulliver,   belonging   at   middle   class.     Ø  He   undergoes   a   series   of   misadventures   who   brings   him   to   discover   new   weird   worlds  and  during  his  trip  he  understands   that   the   human   being   is   false   and   wretched.   Ø  When   he   finally   arrives   at   home   by   his   wife   and   his   family   he   is   disgusted   by   their  human  behaviours.   IllustraEon  by  Tony  Wolf  

Samuel Taylor Coleridge • 

Coleridge (1772-­‐1834)     was   a   Roman-c   poet.   Born   in   Devon,   he   was   friend   of   William   Wordsworth   and   together  writes  the  Lyrical  Ballads.    


He was   one   of   the   cursed   poets   like   Charles   Baudelaire   who  even  writes  about  the  Albatross  in  “Les  Fleurs  du   Mal”.  


In his   poem   “the   Rime   of   the   Ancient   Mariner”   he   treated   “Biblical   themes”   like   life,   death   and   life   aQer   death.    


His wri-ngs   are   prone   to   fantasy.   He   is   the   poet   of:   supernatural,  figure  of  speech  and  imaginaEon.  

The Rime of an Ancient Mariner This is  a  long  poem,  divided  into  7  parts,  each  of  them  is  introduced  by  a   summary   of   the   previous   part.   It   is   the   opening   poem   of   Lyrical   Ballads   collec-on.     It  is  told  by  the  mariner  himself.     It  talks  the  story  of  a  cursed  mariner  who  killed  an  Albatross.  The  crew  was   very   angry   but   then   they   forgive   him,   because   It   was   an   horrible   act   and   then  a  course  fell  on  the  ship.     The   aim   of   the   mariner   is   to   teach   other   to   respect   and   love   all   nature’s   creatures.   The  Albatross  is  a  symbol  of  freedom.   Killing  him  is  an  act  against  Natural  Laws  and  so  against  God.     The  story  is  full  of  personifica-on  and  even,  talks  about  life  and  death  and   the  connec-on  between  them.  At  the  end  appears  death's  personifica-on   like  a  mysterious  woman  who  punishes  all  of  the  crew,  because  they  have   forgiven  the  mariner  .  

Engravings by  Gustave  Dorè  

Alfred Tennyson • 

Tennyson was  born  in  Lincolnshire  in  1809.  In  his  poem  he  is  par-cularly  amazed  by  the  -me  and  the   death,  some-mes  connected  by  each  other.  He  was  a  Victorian  writer.  


He is  fascinated  by  Greek  mythology  and  medieval  tradi-on  in  par-cular  King  Arthur’s  stories.  


In 1850   he   was   proclaimed   Poet   Laureate,   and   he   had   more   fame   than   Wordsworth.   He   had   some   famous  friends  like  Queen  Victoria  and  was  appointed  Sir  by  her.  Fond  to  King  Arthur  and  the  knights  of   the  round  table’s  stories  he  wrote  the  famous  but  not  really  known:  Lady  of  Shalog.  


When he  wrote  the  Ulysses,  the  main  sources  were  from  the  Homer’s  epic  poem    (Odyssey)  and  from   Dante’s   Inferno.   Odyssey   talks   about   the   voyage   of   Odysseus   (La-n   name   of   Ulysses)   from   the   Trojan     war  to  his  return  to  Ithaca,  his  home,  by  his  wife  Penelope  and  his  son  Telemachus.  


The major  point  is  the  ques-on:  there  is  life  a+er  death?  In  this  point  of  view  Tennyson  was  inspired  by   Dante.  He  wants  to  tell  about  an  op-mism  in  a  beger  world,  probably  death  could  be  this  world.  

Ulysses The poem   is   wrigen   like   a   dramaEc   monologue,   and  it  has  blank  verse.   He   recounts   the   journey   of   Odysseus   to   return   home.   Arrived   at   home   is   happy   to   see   his   family,  but  soon  realizes  that  it  can  not  help  but   travel.   He   feel   himself   restless   and   bored   and   he   will  not  have  a  sedentary  existence.  He  want  to   have  the  triumphs  of  his  past  once  more  again.   So  he  is  determinate  to  start  a  new  voyage  to  an   unknown  des-na-on.     • 

In the   last   lines   of   the   poem   the   author   reflects  on  the  nature  of  heroism.  


The phrase”  to  seek  a  newer  world”  is  linked   to  the  BriEsh  Empire  expansionism.  

John William  Waterhouse   Mermaid  -­‐  1901      

Bruce Chatwin • 

Bruce Chatwin   (1949-­‐1989)   belongs   to   the   Contemporary   Age.  He  died  young  aQer  contrac-ng  AIDS.  


Unlike other   authors,   he   made   the   journey,   he   is   the   protagonist  of  his  wri-ngs,  the  others  were  limited  to  only   travel  with  their  imaginaEon,  without  leaving  home.  


His masterpiece   is   his   first   book,   published   in   1977:   in   Patagonia.   He   loved   nomadic   life   and   especially   loved   travel,  he  was  in  Africa,  Asia,  Australia,  South  America.  


In his   notebook’s   travel   took   note   of   whatever   was   happening  to  him:  who  he  met,  places  visited,  languages,   colors  and  so  on...  


The texts  are  very  simply  and  easy  to  read  and  have  not  a   complicated   language.   OQen   the   narra-on   in   his   books   is   interrupted   by   citaEons   from   Dante,   Coleridge,   Darwin,   Poe,  Shakespeare…  

In Patagonia This book  is  a  mix  of  some  modes  of  wri-ng,  from  autobiography  to  mythology…  it  recounts  Cathwin’s  journey   to  the  land  “at  the  end  of  the  world”    Patagonia,  where  he  always  wanted  to  go.    The  reasons  of  this  travel   were  two.     First  he  wanted  to  search  another  piece  of  skin  of    a  prehistoric  animal,  belongs  to  his  grandmother  but  then   gone  lost.  Second  reasons  is  connected  to  his  childhood:  when  he  was  scared  by  Cold  War  who  prospect  the   total  world  destruc-on,  and  so  he  wants  to  discover  a  safe  place  where  living  hide.   Chatwin  didn’t  find  the  piece  of  skin  he  wanted  and  realises  that  it  was  a  pretext  for  travelling  in  Patagonia.    

the time of Travel  
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