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Participatory Problem-Solving for Youth Suicide Prevention Facilitator’s Training Manual

Sara Krosch, MA for the FSM National Youth Council Youth Suicide Prevention Coalition 2006


Participatory Problem-Solving for Youth Suicide Prevention Facilitator’s Training Manual

By Sara Krosch, MA February, 2006 The training method and approach described in this manual are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the FSM National Youth Council/Youth Suicide Prevention Coalition.

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A New Path: Participatory Problem-solving for Youth Suicide Prevention

Training Context The National Youth Policy of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) 2004-2010 outlines eight strategic areas of youth development: education, health, economic development, cultural identity, spirituality, environment, national pride and strengthening capacity building and coordination of the FSM National Youth Council and its members. Each development area contains several strategies, expected outcomes and notes agencies responsible for achieving each outcome. As stated in the document, an important lesson learned from developing the policy was that “for youth programs to be effective, young people must be active participants in the process of developing, implementing and evaluating programs” that directly effect them. Youth are encouraged to become actively involved in carrying out the Mission of the Youth Council:

Introduction

“To create an environment in which all young men and women of the Federated States of Micronesia are inspired to become responsible and self-reliant members of the community through the development of their full mental, social, spiritual and physical potential.” Although the Youth Policy aims to enhance the well being of all youth—citizens ages 1534—specific target groups within this population are to receive focused attention to meet their special needs. One such priority target group is youth with physical and/or mental health concerns. Policy-implementing agencies are encouraged to plan and execute programs and activities addressing the needs of priority target groups that are also ‘familyoriented’. By involving the family members and communities of youth and ensuring their active participation in the process of planning and implementing youth programs along side youth themselves, activities will have a wider scope of impact. This localized ownership also increases the likelihood and sustainability of positive results. Strategic Area 6.2 of the Policy, Youth and Health, aims to create opportunities that “strengthen and foster the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of young people.” The policy asserts that youth can achieve or maintain good mental health through meaningful relationships with positive role models who assist them in making health decisions. Youth can be powerful contributors to building healthier families and communities when they are partnered with supportive adults. Strategy 8 under Strategic Area 6.2, sets forth a plan for “ongoing suicide prevention through public education and discussions within existing youth organizations,” the aim of which is to decrease the incidence of youth suicide in the FSM by 10% by the year 2006. This ambitious goal was the impetus for the formation of the FSM Youth Suicide Prevention Coalition Taskforce comprised of members and advisors from each State in the Nation— Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk and Yap. In addition, the following agencies were charged with the task of assisting the Coalition Taskforce in reaching this goal: FSM Substance Abuse and Mental Health (SAMH), State SAMH offices, State Social Affairs offices, youth and women’s groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs) and the State Departments of Public Safety. This training manual has been developed to support these entities in their efforts to decrease the incidence of youth suicide in the FSM through: the encouragement of dialogue on youth suicide; building the capacity of the Coalition Taskforce, National Youth Council and National and State offices contributing to suicide prevention; and, ensuring a high level of participation from youth, families and community members. in Stakeholder Workshops and subsequent activities. Youth and community member participation will be sought throughout all four phases of this pilot capacity building plan.

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Introduction

Why involve the youth, their families and the community? Preventing youth suicide is about changing currently accepted thoughts and behaviors. People must change their own minds and actions--this cannot be done for them. Suicide is a very personal and painful subject that affects persons deepest at the individual, family and community levels. By involving youth, families and communities in the process of analyzing the problem of youth suicide and developing an action plan to reduce related risks and enhance related protective factors: community norms and values—often tied to risk and protective factors—can be expressed and/or changed; a wider base of support is created for discussing the issue and changing behavior which increases public support for implementing action plans; community members are valued for their knowledge and experiences and feel empowered to solve their own problems; a better sense of community assets and resources can be gauged leading to more effective plans of action; qualitative data is gathered that can complement research and public health efforts; and, long-term positive changes, specifically fewer premature deaths of young people may be more likely. Involving youth, their families and their communities in dialogue and analysis of the phenomenon of youth suicide does not guarantee that the problem will suddenly go away or that the “culture of silence” around the problem will be permanently ended. This participatory approach to a serious social ill is simply an organized and ambitious effort to attempt to involve those populations most affected in gaining the confidence and skills to begin to solve their own problem. Training Objectives The overall objective of this manual and workshop is to provide capacity building support and training to enable the FSM National Youth Suicide Coalition Taskforce, FSM National Youth Council, and community and youth leaders to facilitate community-based, problem-solving workshops aimed at devising youth/family-centered suicide prevention activities. This grassroots approach aims to involve youth, families and communities in identifying and analyzing the root causes and alternatives to youth suicide unique to their given State and community in order to create and implement a plan of action that reduces risk factors and supports protective factors affecting premature youth death due to suicide. Training participants will gain knowledge, skills and experience in participatory community development methods, the problem-solving process, action planning for project development and the value of youth participation. Specifically, this workshop will aim to meet the following five objectives: 1. Build the confidence and capacity of participants to discuss youth suicide with youth, families and communities; 2. Strengthen participants’ facilitation and recording skills; 3. Familiarize participants with a systematic process of defining and analyzing youth suicide as a social problem; 4. Provide participants with instruction and support in using participatory tools to expose risk and protective factors affecting youth suicide; 5. Enable participants to devise and implement a National Action Plan and to assist Stakeholders in developing and implementing Community Action Plans.

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Introduction

Pilot Plan This workshop has been designed to target the FSM National Youth Suicide Prevention Coalition Taskforce members, and representative youth and adult leaders from each of the four States of the FSM: Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk and Yap.

Phase IV: Evaluation of Community Action Plans and National Action Plan Achievements

Phase I: Training of Trainers (TOT) & National Action Plan development

Pilot Cycle: Kosrae

This training is also the first phase in a four-phase plan that Kosrae State will pilot.

Phase III: Implementation & Monitoring of Community Action Plan activities

Phase II: Stakeholder Workshops & Community Action Plan development

Training Participants Participants attending the Phase I: TOT should be teams of at least three individuals from each State—one Coalition Taskforce member, a community leader/representative and a youth leader/representative. The community and youth leaders/representatives will be the primary Facilitators and Recorders of Stakeholder Workshops in Phase II with the support of the Coalition Taskforce member. TOT training participants should be representative of their target communities and include both genders as equally as possible. The Phase I workshop will allow them to enhance their organization, observation and communication skills enabling them to lead and learn Stakeholders as well as record their needs and ideas. Facilitation Teams In order for the process to be effective, TOT trainees will form Facilitation Teams to carry out Phases II-IV of the National Suicide Prevention Action Plan at the State and community levels. Facilitation Teams are made up of a Team Leader/Community Liaison, a Facilitator, and a Recorder as well as 1-2 Community Link persons. Facilitation Teams will receive support and guidance from Coalition Taskforce members, the Phase I Training Facilitator and this training manual to host Stakeholder Workshops. These 1-2 day events duplicate sessions found in part 2 of this manual. The aim of Stakeholder Workshops is to support youth, families and community members in the development of community-level, youth-focused, family-oriented suicide prevention action plans unique to their identified risk and protective factors and socio-cultural context. Community-level, State-specific plans will contribute to the goals and objectives set forth by the National Action Plan devised in Phase I. The Facilitation Teams will oversee the implementation and monitoring of localized Community Action Plans and report to the National Coalition Coordinator. Key Principles The content and methods found in this manual are based on three key principles: All requisite knowledge for problem analysis exists among the people whose lives are the most affected by the problem being analyzed. The analysis of youth suicide as a social problem does not require the technical expertise of those outside the community, except as facilitators. Problem analysis cannot be transformative unless the analysis is being done by the people most affected by the problem.

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Introduction

The Training Manual This manual is divided into three sections. Section 2 (10 hrs) The Stakeholder Workshop

Section 1 (4 hrs) Facilitating the Participatory Problem-solving Process Prepares the Facilitation Team for their roles in leading Stakeholder Workshops at the community level

Sessions Facilitation Teams will duplicate with Stakeholder groups

Section 3 (3 hrs) Planning for the Stakeholder Workshops Helps Facilitation Teams plan Phase II of the pilot plan

Section 2 contains many tools Facilitation Teams can choose from to use with Stakeholders. Although TOT participants will complete all sessions in Section 2 it is not necessary to do the same with Stakeholders. The entire TOT workshop can be completed in about 17 hours spread over three days. Each session in the manual lists an approximate time, learning objectives, outcomes or products to be completed by the end of the session, needed materials and the steps to complete the activities. The time listed is approximate and facilitators may take as much time as needed to complete the activities and fulfill the learning objectives and outcomes. All session objectives are meant to fulfill the overall objectives of the workshop. All outcomes of sessions should be kept and recorded as soon as possible (at the end of the day) and redistributed to trainees/Stakeholders so all participants have a record of their accomplishments. If chart paper activities cannot be recorded at the end of each day, outcome posters should be displayed throughout the workshop for participants to quickly refer to. Facilitators should pay special attention to sections in bold or in blue as they contain key terms, definitions and questions that should be made clear to participants/Stakeholders both verbally and in writing on chart paper. Facilitation Teams should prepare these pages in advance before leading activities. All activities are designed to be done with a minimum of materials—flipcharts and markers—so they can be completed in almost any setting. Facilitators may decide to enhance their presentations with PowerPoint and a laptop computer and projector if the setting allows. Facilitators may also wish to create handouts of activity steps, diagrams or tables rather than relying on only flip charts to record group activities. The key is to make each session as understandable and engaging as possible. Facilitator’s Guidelines

Facilitator’s Guidelines are resources designed specifically for assisting the Facilitation Team and are not intended to be handouts for Stakeholders. Important notes or disclaimers are marked with this symbol in the manual.

Participation and Change The sessions in this manual employ many participatory tools. Participatory principles and tools often challenge tradition and culture by affording all participants a chance for equal involvement. This does not mean that society loses its roots and its history. The fact is that we live in a world that is changing and if change is inevitable then it can be useful to develop skills to direct that change. A participatory problem analysis can protect the positive aspects of tradition and culture and eliminate the harmful. The roles and identities of youth, family members and communities have been changing throughout history and continue to change. Change is often preceded by conflict and discussing youth suicide can create turmoil and conflict. The Facilitation Team must not fear conflict nor should its members be afraid to challenge themselves or Stakeholders.

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WORKSHOP SESSIONS

The Facilitation Team

60 min.

Supporting Youth Participation

30 min.

The Training Approach

60 min.

Risk and Protective Factors

30 min.

Building Awareness: The Culture of Silence

30 min.

Icebreaker: Doing Laundry

30 min.

Defining the Problem

90 min.

Creating a Shared Vision

30 min.

Tools for Finding Root Causes

60 min.

Tools for Exploring Alternatives

90 min.

Mapping and Prioritizing Risk and

60 min.

Protective Factors Identifying Targets and Agents of Change

30 min.

Mapping Community Assets

90 min.

Drafting the Community Action Plan: Strategies

120 min.

Identifying Stakeholders and Community Links

90 min.

Preparing for Stakeholder Workshops: Roles and Tasks

60 min.

Drafting a National Action Plan

90 min.

PART 3 Planning the Stakeholder

for Stakeholder Involvement

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Day 2

The Stakeholder Workshop

30 min.

Day 3

PART 2

Welcome & Training Overview

Day 1

PART 1 Facilitating the Participatory, Problem-Solving Process


Part 1

Facilitating the Participatory Problem-solving Process

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Workshop Overview Part 1: Facilitating the Participatory Problem-solving Process

Title 1) Welcome & Training Overview

Objectives • Review the training context,

objectives, agenda & logistics

Outputs • Participant sign-in sheet

with contact information

Materials • participant materials

Time 30 min.

• training manuals • laptop/projector or

flipchart & markers 2) The Facilitation Team

• Describe the roles of Facilitation • Facilitator/Recorder

Team

practice assignments

• Receive co-facilitation &

• Facilitator’s Guidelines

60 min.

• Facilitator/Recorder

Assignment Sheet

recording practice assignments

• Facilitator & Recorder

Reporting Sheets • laptop/projector or

flipchart & markers 3) Supporting Youth • Self-assess views of youth Participation • Determine the goal level of youth participation • Create a mitigation plan for

youth participation

• Participant self-

assessments • Youth Participation Goal

• Facilitator’s Guidelines

30 min.

• laptop/projector or

flipchart & markers

Statement • Youth Participation

Mitigation Plan 4) The Training Approach

• Demonstrate the basic

principles of participatory, youth-centered problem solving

4) Risk and Protective Factors

• Define risk/protective factor

5)

• Discuss the idea of a “culture

Building Awareness: The Culture of Silence

• Categorize risk/protective

factors within the Ecological Framework

• Problem-solving posters or

presentations

• Facilitator’s Guidelines

60 min.

• laptop/projector or

flipchart & markers • Ecological Framework of

Risk/Protective Factors Poster

• Responses to three tools

of silence” around youth suicide

• Risk/Protective Factor • flipchart & markers

• Silence vs. Dialogue

pictures

• Learn ways to teach

• “A Frog in Hot Water”

Stakeholders about a “culture of silence”

illustrative story • laptop/projector or

flipchart & markers

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30 min.

cards

30 min.


Part 1 Session 1 30 min.

Activities: 1. Welcome participants to the training. 2. Brief introduction of facilitator. 3. Review the context and objectives of the training 4. Distribute materials and agenda. Explain the content and purpose of training manuals (found in the manual introduction). Go over the agenda. Explain any logistical matters and ask if participants have any questions.

Welcome & Training Overview

Objective • Review the training context, objectives, agenda & logistics Outputs • Participant sign-in sheet with contact information Materials • participant materials (folders, tablets, pens, schedule) • training manuals • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

Training Context See manual introduction. Training Objectives Ask for a volunteer to read the training objectives out loud (from the manual introduction, projected on wall or written on the flipchart). Ask if there are other objectives to be added. Post the objectives for reference throughout the training. Explain to the participants that you, the facilitator, are accountable to them for making sure that all of the objectives are accomplished and they, they trainees, are responsible for fully participating in all training sessions. Training Agenda The workshop will take place over three days with 3-4 hour sessions in the morning and afternoon each day for a total of 18-24 hours. Each session has been allotted an approximate amount of time, however these times can be flexible given that all sessions are completed within the 3 days. Facilitators will have to decide how much time to spend on each session depending on the amount of experience participants have had with similar group problem-solving activities and participatory methods. Logistics It is hard for participants to concentrate on the content of a training if they are worried about logistical matters. Therefore, address these issues right away. Topics to cover include per diems, meals, accommodations, transportation, building orientation and specific rules (no smoking etc.).

“A New Path?” Ask participants to comment on the title and artwork found on the cover of their manuals.

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Part 1 Session 2 60 min.

Activities: 1. Remind participants that they were chosen to take part in this training because they are Key Stakeholders in unique positions to duplicate the process by facilitating activities with youth and community groups. This workshop is therefore both a Training of Trainers and a Stakeholder Workshop. Participants will strengthen their planning, facilitation and recording skills in Facilitation Teams to lead participatory problem-solving Stakeholder Workshops in the future. Therefore, it is important to spend some time discussing what it means to be a good facilitator. 2. Present and discuss the Facilitator’s Guidelines: What is Facilitation

The Facilitation Team

Objectives • Describe the roles of the Facilitation Team • Receive CoFacilitator & Recorder assignments Outputs • Facilitator & Recorder practice assignments Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • Facilitator & Recorder Assignment Sheet • Facilitator & Recorder Reporting Sheets • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

3. Explain that everyone will get to practice (co-)facilitating and recording parts of this workshop. Distribute the Facilitator and Recorder Assignment Sheet as well as the corresponding Reporting Sheets and explain how they will be used. 4. Refer participants to the Facilitator’s Guidelines Speaking and Listening Tips, Recording Tips and Working with Flipcharts to help them prepare. 4. Allow some time for participants to locate their assigned session in their manuals and briefly read over the steps. Remind everyone that these assignments are just for practice and that you will assist them to feel confident in facilitating and recording group sessions!

The Facilitation Team

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

What is Facilitation?

What is Facilitation?

“A leader does not do for others what they can do for themselves.” Facilitation is the process of making something easier or less difficult. A Facilitator helps participants to interact with each other, gain new information, share their knowledge and build upon their experience. The Facilitator is basically a neutral person (with no decision-making authority) who leads the problem solving and action planning process.

The Facilitation Team “Cross a river in a crowd and the crocodile won’t eat you.” “A single blade of grass won’t sweep the yard.” A team is a group organized to work together towards a common goal. Ideally, each State will form one or more Facilitation Teams made up of: 1 adult leader 1 youth leader 1 or more FSM Suicide Prevention Coalition members, and 1-2 community leaders/representatives

Roles of the Facilitation Team The Stakeholder Workshop and post-workshop activities happen as a result of YOUR efforts. Team members take on the roles of Leaders, Facilitators and Recorders before, during and after the Stakeholder Workshop in cooperation with Community Links. Team members may switch roles as needed. However, the Leader should be a permanent point of contact.

The Leader:

The Recorder:

• contacts community and serves as the primary link with community leaders • coordinates the logistics (location, time, materials etc.) of the field work • oversees team members work • ensures that activities stay on schedule. • oversees report writing, editing and distribution after community workshops and activities have taken place • should have experience working with youth and communities and some facilitation/training experience

• observes and records the Stakeholder Workshop and subsequent activities • transcribes both written notes and hand-drawn maps and diagrams that community members create • records who attends the workshop, key comments that are made and observations of group dynamics. • should be observant, a good listener and be able to summarize and present information clearly • completes Reporting Sheets for each session

The Facilitator:

Community Link persons: • identified by Facilitation Team when planning the Stakeholder Workshop • serve as liaisons between the community and the team leader • help with logistical arrangements and can also help lead workshop activities • should be respected, influential people who are willing to learn from their fellow community members and be able to attend the entire workshop to model behaviors

• leads the workshop activities with Stakeholders • ensures that all Stakeholders understand the process and directions for each activity • encourages the fullest participation of all Stakeholders and keeps groups on task • must have good interpersonal skills, a good sense of humor, and be flexible and patient • be comfortable and confident with the process, leading activities and answering questions • completes Reporting Sheet for each session

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Facilitator Reporting Sheet Facilitator(s) ________________________________________________________________ Recorder(s) _________________________________________________________________ Group name and location: ___________________________________________________________ Name of Activity:

Date and Place Conducted:

______________________________________

___________________________________________

______________________________________

___________________________________________

Materials used: ________________________________________________________________________________________

Process: _______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

Key Findings: _________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________

Reflections: What went well? __________________________________________

What needs improvement? ___________________________________________

__________________________________________

___________________________________________

__________________________________________

___________________________________________

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Recorder Reporting Sheet (Attach all related chart papers)

Recorder(s) _____________________________________________________________________ Facilitator(s) ___________________________________________________________________ Group name and location: ________________________________________________________________ Name of Activity:

Date and Place Conducted:

____________________________________________

________________________________________

____________________________________________

________________________________________

Stakeholder Characteristics: Numbers

Approx Ages

Level of Participation

men

High Medium Low

women

High Medium Low

boys

High Medium Low

girls

High Medium Low

General Observations of Groups:

Key Comments: __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Key Findings: _____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

10 Roadblocks to Effective Communication Verbal Examples:

Speaking & Listening Tips

1) Judging

Making a judgment

“You should…” “You ought to…”

2) Rejecting

Offering no support

“It’s your problem, not mine.”

3) Blaming/Criticizing

Place fault on another person

“It’s your fault.”

4) Labeling

Calling names or using negative words

“That’s a stupid way to do things.”

5) Transferring

Not listening, jumping to your own problems

“That’s not bad. Let me tell you what happened to me…”

6) Ordering

Giving solutions with no choices

“You must do this now.”

7) Threatening/Bribing

Using threats or bribes to make someone do something

“If you don’t do what I want I will…”

8) Waffling

Not being clear and consistent in setting limits

“Well, maybe…” “We’ll see…”

9) Nagging

Persistently repeating orders or requests

“I’ve told you a thousand times…” How many times do I have to tell you…”

Non-verbal example

Using body language that sends negative messages, physical abuse

Arm position, eye contact, walking away, posture, facial expressions, pointing, hitting, throwing

10) Acting

“I‘ll think about it…”

5 Tools for Active Listening 1) Encouraging

Sound open and positive before you reply

“Tell me (more) about…”

2) Fact Finding

Get information to make a decision or state your ideas

“Who, what, where, when, why, how?”

3) Restating

Understand the facts; be clear about what the other person is asking/stating

"What you're asking me is…” “What I am hearing is…”

4) Reflecting

Identify your feelings and the feelings of the other person

“I understand this may be a difficult subject…” “I am glad you shared your story with the group.”

5) Summarizing

Clearly state the decision or agreement

“This is what we came up with…” “Is that right?”

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Recording Tips

Sometimes the Recorder will be documenting the session independently and other times s/ he will work with the Facilitator to record participant answers on the flipchart. In either case, the Recorder should complete a Reporting Sheet. All information recorded on chart paper should be summarized/rewritten to be easily duplicated and distributed to participants as soon as possible after the sessions. Interaction between Stakeholders and the Recorder can have a real impact on how the session proceeds and how effective it is.

Keep in Mind: Deciding What to Record: What is important to write down, and what isn't? The Recorder is responsible for capturing what is called the "group memory”—what is being said and what will be remembered. The recorder should document : Answers, feedback & decisions from each activity step Ideas and lists from brainstorming

Record a Comment If: It takes a position, with reasons It is a specific suggestion It is stated several times, and/or with obvious emotion The speaker directly requests that something be written It introduces a new idea, or gives new information, not previously stated It is about a past effort that was successful or unsuccessful, with reasons It's a decision made by the group It is something new & insightful a direct quotation that sums up the group’s view If in doubt, ask, "Should I write that down?" or, "How should I write that?”

The importance of listening Listen hard at all times, to make sure quiet comments don't go unheard & that points briefly made don’t go unnoticed. Remain neutral Refrain from interjecting your opinions. Instead pose alternatives or ask questions. Like the Facilitator, remain "sponge-like," soak up the opinions of those around you. Ask the group to repeat or slow down, as necessary Don't be shy. If the group is going too fast to write everything down, or you are unclear about what someone has said ask for it to be repeated. Restate what you think you heard and check with the participants to make sure you are recording what they say/think on the chart. Accept corrections graciously You may hear something wrong or make a spelling mistake that someone points out. Don’t take it personally. Simply thank the person and go on. Work with the Facilitator The Facilitator and the Recorder should work as a team.

How to Record Most effectively: Paraphrase! Don't try to write every word. Shorten, but avoid changing quotations. Leave out words like “the” and “a” Write large, legibly, and fast. Don’t worry about saving paper; comprehension should be most important. Label and number your sheets. Use color, symbols, and underlining to highlight your points. Separate thoughts and topics with symbols, such as stars. Save numbers for ranking and ordering.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Flipcharts are very useful in almost any setting. After completing activities on chart paper, post the results so participants can immediately see what they have produced or they can ask questions of a smaller group’s work. Remember, if your Stakeholders are non-literate, you may need to rely more on pictures than words.

Working with Flipcharts

Although they are simply over-sized tablets, there are several tricks to working well with flipcharts.

Keep charts hidden until you are ready to show them Use broad, felt-tipped markers, dark colors are best & switch colors to highlight Use the top area of your chart for greatest visibility Title your charts Leave some white space, one idea per sheet Write neatly and try to avoid spelling mistakes Do not write or draw too quickly, you want it to make sense without explanation Write large enough for participants to see (charts are useful for up to about 30 people) Use a sturdy stand and ensure your chart is secure Set up charts as close to the audience as possible Check visibility for audience ahead of time - will everyone be able to see your chart? Stand facing audience with the chart at your side Do not block audience’s view of the chart Do not turn your back and do not talk to the chart Read the chart aloud before elaborating on points Be consistent with what you are saying and what is on chart (do not do the "flipchart shuffle“) When tearing off charts, tear up and away, not down Remember to have tape if you will be posting chart sheets If a chart wrinkles when you turn it, take time to fix it, otherwise it can distract the audience If small groups will write on flipcharts, provide them with some of these tips Store your charts in a tube print side out so paper curls properly Record chart information promptly but save charts for reference

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Part 1 Session 3 30 min.

Activities 1. Now that everyone is more aware of their roles on the Facilitation Team, it is time to discuss the added responsibility the to encourage youth participation in the Stakeholder Workshop and Action Planning process. Since the focus of the training is on Youth Suicide Prevention, the participation of youth in all stages of the process is critical to the overall success of our action plans.

Supporting Youth Participation

Objectives • Self-assess views towards youth • Determine level of youth participation • Create a mitigation plan to overcome barriers to youth participation Outputs • Participant selfassessments • Youth Participation Goal Statement • Youth Participation Mitigation Plan Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

2. Ask the participants: How do youth typically contribute to projects? What are the roles and responsibilities of youth in the family and the community? Could youth be more involved? Why don’t youth get involved? Explain that this session aims to make adults more aware of their views towards partnering with youth and encourage behaviors that welcome meaningful levels of youth participation. Also remind the participants of the intentional make-up of the Facilitation Teams, with at least one youth member. This was done to encourage meaningful youth-adult partnerships and to have a better connection to youth Stakeholders. 3. Explain the directions and have participants complete the Inventory of Adult Behaviors Towards Youth found in the Facilitator’s Guidelines. Assure the participants that they cannot fail this “test”. It is only a tool to get them thinking about ways they can individually and collectively foster youth adult partnerships. After they have scored their assessments, discuss the results. Note the views the majority of the group has towards youth participation or trends in the group to make future comparisons. 3. Discuss the Ladder concept in the Facilitator’s Guidelines: Encouraging Youth Participation. Have the group determine what level of youth participation they would like to achieve at Stakeholder Workshops and in implementing action plans. Record this as a Goal Statement. Barriers to Youth Participation Keep in mind the following realities to build successful partnerships with youth (and their families): • Hours for meetings and activities • Transportation • Food • Equipment and Support • Skills and Training • Policies and Procedures (legality) • Cultural barriers related to age and gender • Childcare and family responsibilities • Interest and comfort in the process •Others?

4. How will the Facilitation Team overcome these barriers to youth participation? Brainstorm and decide on at least three strategies. Record this Youth Participation Mitigation Plan.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Inventory of Adult Behaviors Towards Youth

You may already work closely with youth—formally or informally. Assess your view of youth in relation to your work (projects, programs and services). This self-assessment may help you focus on areas to improve in order to increase youth participation levels and foster meaningful youth-adult partnerships. For each statement, select your level of personal agreement and write that number on the blank. Then add up your score to determine your current view of youth.

1 2 never

3 seldom

4

5 6 sometimes

7 often

8

9 always

___ 1. As an adult leader, I engage youth in program decisions when I think it will be a growth experience for them. ___ 2. It is most appropriate for adults to determine what the programs for youth will be. ___ 3. Youth have a point of view that is valuable for evaluating the successes and failures of specific programs. ___ 4. In our organization/agency, adults should make the decisions. ___ 5. I believe that allowing youth to participate in organizational roles can provide them with valuable learning opportunities. ___ 6. As an adult leader, I engage youth in making program decisions at the earliest point. ___ 7. Asking youth to review adult-determined program plans will communicate that adults respect them. ___ 8. Adults are in the best position to evaluate the successes and failures of specific programs. ___ 9. Youth participation can enhance and enrich the various management roles within our organization/ agency. ___ 10. Fewer mistakes are made in carrying out a program for youth if adults perform the leadership roles themselves. ___ 11. I believe that the experiences of youth give them a valuable perspective that can become useful in efforts to plan, implement and evaluate the way the organization functions. ___ 12. Asking youth for their opinions will help to sharpen their thinking and observation skills. ___ 13. Allowing youth to assume some leadership roles can help them develop skills for the future. ___ 14. In our organization/agency, adults and youth should make decisions together. ___ 15. I believe that allowing youth participation in organizational decision making would mislead them into thinking they can influence matters beyond their control.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Inventory Scoring Instructions: Transfer the numbers given to each statement to the view column that contains the circle. For example, if you put a 4 by the first statement, then put a 4 in the box under the View 2 column. For statement 2, the number would go in the box under View 1and so on.

Inventory of Adult Behaviors Towards Youth continued

Total the numbers at the bottom of each column. The column with the highest score is the view that best categorizes your view towards youth.

Statement

View 1

View 2

View 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Totals:

View 1: Youth Viewed as Objects You know what is best for young people and see youth as objects of your good intentions. This is the most common adult view towards youth. It is the responsibility of the young person to take advantage of the program or service designed by adults. View 2: Youth Viewed as Recipients You believe that youth are primarily on the receiving end of program and service benefits. You control the level of youth participation because you know what is best for them, but you are willing to open the door to increased participation on adult terms. This relationship is not a youth-adult partnership, but there is the possibility for increased youth ownership of programs and services. You are concerned with preparing young people to be responsible decision-makers in the future. View 3: Youth Viewed as Resources You respect the contributions young people can make to planning, implementing and evaluating programs or services, and you currently invite high levels of youth participation in your work. Leadership and decision-making can be shared by adults and youth given that both groups learn the necessary skills and attitudes, although this may require changes in policy and practice.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Encouraging Youth Participation

Youth can participate in all phases of the planning, implementation, and evaluation of youthcentered activities. Youth participation means providing opportunities for youth to take on greater responsibilities. Youth learn by doing and being actively involved in the process. Adults should serve as coaches or mentors, answering questions and helping to identify and develop needed skills in youth. Participation means asking young men and women for their opinions and listening to what they have to say. It means appreciation for the insights and experiences youth can share. Participation and partnership mean giving youth challenging, responsible roles, as well as the training and support they need to succeed in those roles. Generally, if youth are treated as respected partners, they will act as partners, rather than people in need of close supervision and direction.

Ladder of Youth Participation

Maximum Youth Involvement

Empowerment: Decision-making, management and resources transferred to youth

Collaboration: Adults and youth share decision-making and management roles

Consultation: Two-way communication, youth are asked and assigned roles

Information Sharing: One-way communication, youth are told and assigned tasks

Minimal Youth Involvement

Decoration: Youth are used as decorations for the program and to communicate adults’ messages

What level of youth participation will you aim to achieve? Youth Participation Goal Statement: ____________________________________________

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Part 1 Session 4 60 min.

The Training Approach

Objectives

• Demonstrate the

basic principles of the participatory, problem-solving process

Outputs • Problem-solving posters/ presentations Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

Activities: PART ONE 1. Present the following (write terms in bold on the chart). This workshop incorporates a variety of qualitative activities or tools that encourage critical thinking, challenging and devising alternatives to current thoughts and behaviors, in order to complement previous research and public health efforts done to explore and reduce levels of youth suicide in the FSM. The training approach takes a different look at youth suicide—as a family/communitybased problem. Through this lens, participatory (community-based) methods for defining and analyzing the problem will be used with the aim of creating an action plan to change factors related to the issue. The problem-solving process engages those most affected by the problem, the Stakeholders. Stakeholders are people, groups or institutions which are affected by the problem, stand the most to gain by our efforts and can affect the outcome (positively or negatively) of the action plan activities.

We will focus on youth, families and community-level stakeholders. Tools (or activities) help participants learn to identify and gain a deeper understanding of the risk and protective factors influencing youth suicide. Reducing risk factors and increasing protective factors will be the aim of Stakeholder Action Plans. A high level of youth participation is crucial to the process. Inter-generational dialogue allows for more relevant and effective plans of action. 2. Draw the following diagram on chart paper and discuss:

The Training Approach

WHAT: Participatory, Problem-Solving Process

WHY:

WHO:

Empower Stakeholders, Identify Risk & Protective Factors

Youth, Families & Community Stakeholders

HOW: Group Methods & Tools, Youth-Adult involvement

Stakeholders are at the heart of this approach. The Facilitation Team must treat them as experts on the problem and learn from their experiences.

22


Part 1 Session 4 60 min.

Activities: PART TWO 1. Tell the participants that they are already experts on the approach this training will take. They solve problems everyday. (Give a simple example like a burned out light bulb). They may be less familiar with the idea of encouraging youth and community members to contribute to the problem-solving process. 2. Ask the participants to close their eyes. What do you picture when you hear the words “community participation” or “youth participation” in projects? Who do you see? What is going on? What are they doing? Where are they? Ask participants to open their eyes and tell you what they pictured. Record these visualizations in words or pictures on the flipchart.

The Training Approach

3. Discuss the Principles of Participatory Development found in the Facilitator’s Guidelines and note examples of these principles that the group visualized. Discuss the pluses and minuses of focused and unfocused participatory approaches.

continued PART THREE 4. Next, ask the participants to brainstorm a list of problems they observe in their communities. Brainstorming will be used frequently throughout the workshop. Refer to the Facilitation Guidelines if you are unfamiliar with this technique.

6. Break the large group into several smaller groups and distribute paper and markers. Ask each group to choose a problem from the list to attempt to solve. Groups write their problem at the top of their paper. 7. Explain that there are three rules for solving their problem: PROCESS: They must list or show all steps they take to solve the problem. METHOD: The process must be “participatory” – especially involving youth. PRESENTATION: Groups must present their work in writing, through drawing, or by acting out the problem and how they solved it. 8. Give each group 15-20 minutes to discuss their problem and participatory approaches to solving it. Assist groups if they seem to be stuck or need clarification. 9. Groups present their problem and their solution on flipchart paper (writing or drawing) or by acting it out. Ask the audience to answer the following questions about each presentation: What was the problem? What steps did they follow to solve it? Who participated in solving the problem? What roles did these people play? How did they participate? 10. Complete the session by reviewing the Problem-Solving Process. Draw steps on chart paper. Note examples of each step from group presentations.

Identify the Problem

Agree to Try to Solve It

Analyze It who/what causes it & is effected

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Identify Possible Solutions strategies & tactics

Choose a Solution & Act on It

action planning & implementation


Facilitator’s Guidelines

Principles of Participatory Development

In its simplest terms, a participatory approach is one in which everyone who has a stake in the project has a voice, either in person or by representation. Everyone's participation should be welcomed and respected. The process should not be dominated by any individual or group, or by a single point of view. Each Stakeholder becomes an important contributor to the problem analysis and action planning process.

Principles of Participatory Development Respect for local knowledge and capabilities Rapid and progressive learning Flexibility and informality ”Handing over the stick”/ownership Offsetting biases and assumptions Seeking diversity Self-critical awareness Action oriented and cooperative

Focused v. Unfocused Participatory Involvement: This workshop takes a focused approach to youth/community involvement, limiting the discussion and activities to the exploration of a single problem—youth suicide. An unfocused approach would mean asking the Stakeholders to identify the problem(s) they would like to analyze and develop action plans around. There are pluses and minuses to both approaches. Donors or supporting agencies often like to see focused participatory involvement because it meets their goals, but communities may have different priority problems. Unfocused participatory involvement can yield the truest responses of need from Stakeholders however, there may be a lack of resources and support available to do much to change these problems. Donors and supporting agencies must decide in advance how they will react if communities do not see youth suicide as a problem they want to discuss or work to change. Will you continue to help the community identify other (possibly related problems) or will you only work with communities who are ready and willing to focus their involvement on youth suicide prevention? People are most successful in changing their lives only when they are truly ready to change.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Participatory Tool: Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a tool used to draw on the group's collective, creative energy. It permits uninhibited participation by each person and often results in surprising ideas and new solutions to old problems. Brainstorming can be done in large or small groups, in pairs or individually. A good brainstorming session should last until the group “exhausts” or has no more ideas coming to them—about 5-15 minutes plus time for discussion. A Recorder writes down ideas generated by the large group, or individuals, pairs or small groups can brainstorm and record ideas first and then share them with the large group. This allows for more comfort and usually leads to more ideas.

Process 1. Display the question or problem so that everyone can read it. Decide if you will work as individuals, pairs, small groups or the entire large group. 2. Instruct the Stakeholders to take the next 5-10 minutes to come up with as many ideas as possible to answer the question or to solve the problem. Present the Brainstorming Guidelines. Brainstorming Guidelines The emphasis is on quantity. Try to generate as many ideas as quickly as you can Any idea is allowed, there are no dumb or impossible ideas at this stage Try to piggy-back: if someone's idea reminds you of another say it, even if it sounds similar No criticism is allowed – ideas will be evaluated later 3. Designate one or two people to be the Recorders so that contributions can be written down as they appear. The visual display of ideas often sparks others. 4. Call time when the announced time is almost up, or when you feel the group has exhausted their ideas. 5. Tell the group to take 3-5 minutes to review their list of ideas and identify the three solutions/ideas they feel are most useful. Groups can decide if criteria for evaluation will be used (i.e. “We have limited time and funds so we cannot choose expensive activities that take a lot of our time.”), or if discussion, debate and voting will be used to narrow the list. 6. Reconvene and have small groups report their top ideas/solutions. Record the answers. Small groups should support their answers if questioned. 7. Finally, have the whole group (including yourself as facilitator) decide which ideas are most useful.

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Part 1 Session 5 30 min.

Activities PART ONE 1. Ask the participants: Have you ever wondered why some youth in our communities have better outcomes than others? Researchers and community health professionals believe that identifying what risks youth encounter and what forces protect them from those risks is the key to more resilient, healthier young people. The more we know about the type and number of risk and protective factors affecting youth suicide, the more successful our strategies will be. 2. Define the terms:

Risk & Protective Factors

Risk Factors are traits, beliefs & behaviors of individuals, families, & communities that make youth more vulnerable to suicide.

Objectives • Define risk/ protective factor • Categorize risk/ protective factors within the Ecological Framework Outputs • Ecological Framework of Risk/ Protective Factors Poster

The opposite of a Risk Factor is a Protective Factor or Asset.

They are circumstances & experiences that increase the likelihood of risky behaviors.

3.

Protective Factors are traits, beliefs & behaviors that "protect" from suicide by reducing the effects of risk factors. They are circumstances & experiences that promote healthy behaviors & positive development.

Present and discuss the following drawing and goals.

Materials • Risk/Protective Factor cards • flipchart & markers

RISK

RISK

GOALS:

RISK

We want to eliminate, lessen or buffer youth from risk factors.

RISK PROTECT

We want to create, increase or improve protective factors to make youth more resilient to life’s challenges.

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PROTECT PROTECT PROTECT


Part 1 Session 5 30 min.

PART TWO 1. Draw the Ecological Framework on chart paper and present the following: One way to look at the relationship between risk and protective factors is within their “Ecological Framework�: Each person lives within a complex network of individual, family, community and societal contexts that impact their capacity to avoid risk. The most effective prevention projects focus on risk and protective factors within these major life domains: individual, family, community (including peers, school and church) and sometimes on factors found in the society at large.

The ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

Risk & Protective Factors

SOCIETY COMMUNITY

contiued

PEERS

FAMILY

SCHOOL

INDIVIDUAL

4. Distribute risk and protective factor cards to each participant. Ask them to read their cards and first determine if the factor puts youth at risk for suicide or protects them from suicide. Then, they need to decide which life domain the factor stems from. It is an individual, family, community or a societal factor? Participants can work together if necessary. 5.

Give each person tape to attach their factor cards to the appropriate life domain on the Ecological Framework. Discuss the final poster and make corrections if needed.

Most of the risk and protective factors found on the following pages stem from international and regional research on youth suicide. Participants must decide if the factor is relevant to their cultural situation. Tools used in Part 2 Sessions 4 & 5 will enable Stakeholders to identify the key risk and protective factors affecting youth suicide.

27


Possible Risk & Protective Factors Cards Cut out and distribute for Part 2 Session 4 activity

Previous attempt(s) of suicide

Skills in problem solving, crisis resolution

Pessimistic outlook, lack of future plans

Optimistic outlook, plans for the future

Low self-esteem, low self-worth

High self-esteem, high self-worth

Impulsive or obsessive

Decision-making, problem solving skills

Lack of sense of personal control

Sense of personal control

Lack of sense of belonging to a group

Sense of belonging to a group

Poor mental health, depressed

Positive mental health

Semi-urban area/in cultural transition

Rural area/strong cultural practices

Small, nuclear family

Large extended family

Poor school performance, low interest in learning

Good school performance, high interest in learning

Aggressive behavior

Passive behavior

Older parents

Younger parents

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Youth socialized to be loners, left alone, lack of roles/tasks to fulfill

Socialized to be involved in family and community activities

Early and frequent use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco

Little to no use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco

Favorable attitudes towards alcohol and drug use

Unfavorable attitudes towards alcohol and drug use

Lack of school/church activities

Variety of school/church activities

Romanticizes suicide

Does not romanticize suicide

Low spiritual resiliency

High spiritual resiliency

Single: separated, divorced, widowed

Married

Has children

Does not have children

Unstable, unhealthy family relationships

Strong, healthy family relationships

Lack of access to services and resources

Access to services and resources

Inadequate supervision and monitoring of youth

Informal adult supervision of youth (extended kin/non-kin)

Negative attitudes towards seeking help, discussing problems

Positive attitudes towards seeking help, discussing problems

Cultural acceptance or support of suicide

Cultural beliefs against suicide and in support of self- preservation

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Religious acceptance or support of suicide

Religious beliefs against suicide and in support of selfpreservation

Family acceptance or support of suicide

Family beliefs against suicide and in support of selfpreservation

Peer acceptance or support of suicide

Peer beliefs against suicide and in support of self preservation

Media (TV, movies, music, print) acceptance or support of suicide

Media (TV, movies, music, print) against suicide and in support of self-preservation

Access to means of self-harm

Lack access to means of self-harm

Lack of family involvement and interaction, poor communication skills

Working, playing, eating and worshiping together, roles for youth to fulfill

Poverty, low education level

Affluence, high education level

More free time

After-school activities, employment, group involvement

Community instability and deterioration (crime, poor housing/ schools, no recreational areas, trash)

Strong sense of community, safe, clean, low crime

Lack of availability of alcohol and drugs

Availability of alcohol and drugs

Recent suicide death, death of someone close

Desensitization to suicide/death

General disempowerment of youth (youth views and experiences not valued)

High levels of youth participation in program development

Disruption in a family/romantic relationship

National, State, and local policies that support child and youth-oriented programs

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Part 1 Session 5 30 min.

Activities 1. Tell the participants that they should expect Stakeholders to feel uncomfortable discussing the problem of youth suicide. This is because a Culture of Silence around the issue has been growing for decades. As facilitators of a participatory process it is critical that they are able to get Stakeholders talking about the problem. They may also wish to educate the Stakeholders on the concept of a Culture of Silence if it will improve chances for open sharing. Here are three tools they can use to do that. 2. Tool 1: Show the participants the Silence vs. Dialogue pictures and ask them to describe what is happening in each. Discuss what is good about each picture and what in each picture keeps people silent.

Building Awareness:

3.

The Culture of Silence

What is a Culture of Silence? Many societies tend to be authoritarian. People are expected to accept without question the decisions of chiefs, elders, church authorities, politicians and males. They are to obey humbly and not challenge those decisions. This creates a culture of silence. Silence can also come from shame or embarrassment. We are afraid of what others will think about us. People become afraid to speak about issues and problems that affect them for fear that others may judge them as being wrong or bad.

Objective • Discuss the concept of a “culture of silence” around youth suicide • Learn ways to teach Stakeholders about this concept

A culture that promotes silence discourages people from solving their problems or from taking responsibility for their actions. Silence makes people passive, uncreative and less resilient. They feel hopeless and helpless. When people cannot freely express their needs, either because they lack a voice in their culture or because they are ashamed of their problems, they are not encouraged to change their situation.

Outputs • responses to three tools Materials • silence vs. dialogue pictures • “A Frog in Hot Water” illustrative story • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

Debrief the pictures with the following information:

To end the silence around the problem of youth suicide we will try to give ordinary people the chance to express their feelings and ideas and create opportunities to change the current trend. We must agree that silence will not make the problem go away and we must be confident that we can start to solve the problem if we discuss it and plan to change it.

4.

Tool 2: Ask the participants the following questions. Record answers chart paper: Why do you or others stay silent about youth suicide? Who benefits by maintaining a culture of silence/by staying silent? Have groups or individuals always been silent about the problem of youth suicide? If they have spoken about the problem in the past, what was the reaction? Why do you think this was the reaction?

5. Tool 3: End the session by sharing the story of “A Frog in Water” found on the following page.

See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil…change no evil?

31


32


33


Draw the following pictures to illustrate the story:

A Culture of Silence is like a Frog in Hot Water 1) If you put a frog in a pot of cold water it will stay there, content. 2) If you put that pot on the stove and heat the water gradually until it boils, the frog gets used to the gradual rise in temperature. 3) But, by the time the water is boiling the frog is dead. 4) However, if you have a pot of boiling water and then put a frog in, it will immediately jump out because it knows the water is too hot. 5) What does this story have to do with youth suicide? Who does the frog represent? What does the boiling pot stand for? People who live in a culture of silence are like the frog in the water that is slowly heated. Their condition in life is gradually getting worse, but because it is a slow process they may be unaware of the change or they accept their fate and stay silent. Ultimately, they will reach a critical moment to act. People who do not live in a culture of silence react to the hot water right away because they recognize it is not positive or natural. They take advantage of opportunities to make changes and they watch for warming temperatures again and react before it is too late. 34


Part 2

The Stakeholder Workshop

35


Workshop Overview Part 2: The Stakeholder Workshop

Title 1) Icebreaker: Doing Laundry

Objectives • Agree on ground rules for

session participation • Express training expectations in a non-threatening, anonymous way • Become more comfortable discussing youth suicide

2) Defining the Problem

• Share knowledge &

3) Creating a Shared Vision

• Draft a Vision Statement to

4) Tools for Finding Root Causes

• Learn to conduct a Force Field

experiences of youth suicide • Define the problem and express it in a single statement

Analysis & use the “But, why? Technique to reveal the root causes of the problem factors related to root causes • Learn to facilitate Playback

Theater role plays and a “Reasons to Live” discussion to explore alternatives to youth suicide • Determine risk/ protective

factors revealed through tools 6) Mapping and Prioritizing Risk and Protective Factors

• Use the Ecological Framework

7)

• Identify Targets of Change &

Identifying Targets & Agents of Change

• Ground Rules poster • List of hopes/expectations

and fears/assumptions

Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • Ground Rules poster • small pieces of

Time 30 min.

white and colored paper • 1 old, dirty basket • 1 new, clean basket • flipchart and markers • Problem definition posters • Problem Statement

• flipchart and markers

90 min.

• Vision Statement

• flipchart and markers

30 min.

• Results of tool activities

• Facilitator & Recorder

60 min.

complement the Problem Statement

• Determine risk/ protective

5) Tools for Exploring Alternatives

Outputs

to map risk/protective factors • Prioritize risk/protective factors

in terms of importance & changeability

Agents of Change of Action Plans

• Lists of root causes &

related risk/protective factors

Reporting Sheets • flipchart & markers

• Facilitator & Recorder

Reporting Sheets • Feedback from Playback

Theater performances & “Reasons to Live” discussion • List of related risk/

protective factors

• case studies for

90 min.

performance • Facilitator & Recorder

Reporting Sheets • flipchart and markers

• Facilitator & Recorder

Reporting Sheets • Ecological Framework with

mapped factors • Risk/protective factor goal

• charts & notes from

60 min.

previous tools • flipchart & markers

statements

• List of Targets/Agents of

• charts & notes from Change for each previous tools Risk/Protective Factor Goal • flipchart & markers Statement

36

30 min.


Workshop Overview Part 2: The Stakeholder Workshop (continued)

Title 8) Mapping Community Assets

Objectives • Analyze Stakeholder use of

time & community assets for optimal action planning • Learn to facilitate Community

Mapping & Community Clock tools

Outputs • Focus group community

maps & clocks

Materials • Facilitator & Recorder

Time 90 min.

Reporting Sheets

• List of community assets of • flipchart & markers

identified Targets/Agents of Change • Facilitator & Recorder

Reporting Sheets 9) Drafting the Community Action Plan

• Devise risk reducing &

• Community Action Plan

protection enhancing strategies to complete the Community Action Plan

• charts & notes from

previous tools • flipchart & markers

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2 hrs.


Part 2 Session 1 20 min.

Icebreaker: Doing Laundry

Objectives • Agree on Ground Rules for participation • Express training expectations in a non-threatening, anonymous way • Feel more comfortable discussing youth suicide Outputs • List of hopes/ expectations & fears/assumptions Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • small pieces of white & colored paper • 1 old, dirty basket & 1new, clean basket • flipchart & markers

Activities 1. Present the group with a list of suggested ground rules. (Choose some rules from those suggested in the Facilitator’s Guidelines. Do not have too many rules!) Ask the group to agree on these rules for the duration of the workshop and if they would like to suggest other or additional rules. Post the rules where they can be seen throughout the training sessions. 2. Distribute two small pieces of paper, one white and one colored, to each participant. Ask each person to write one worry, fear or negative thought they have related to discussing and attending this training on youth suicide prevention on the colored paper. Ask each person to write one hope or positive expectation they have related to this training on youth suicide prevention on the white paper. 3. Participants should crumble up each piece of paper and throw (or put) them in the labeled baskets. Label an old, dirty basket “Dirty Laundry” or draw a . Colored papers should be put in this basket. Label a new, clean basket “Clean Laundry” or draw a ☺. White papers are be put in this basket. (In order to keep the activity as anonymous as possible consider having an “outsider” read the papers aloud as an “insider” records each on the flipchart.) Duplicate responses should only be written once but checkmarks can denote frequent responses. 4. After the papers are recorded on the flipchart for the group to see, ask if there are additional fears and hopes they wish to add. 5. Discuss whether the fears people have expressed are based on assumptions. Define the term. Assumptions: Ideas, attitudes or “facts” we take for granted that underlie our thinking. They are often based on what we have been taught or have experienced. 6.

Circle fears (or hopes) on the chart that the group agrees stem from assumptions.

7.

Review the training objectives and discuss how you, the facilitator, will use the workshop’s approach and tools to fulfill as many hopeful expectations and ease as many fears as possible.

Encourage participants to be aware of the assumptions each brings to the training and to try to move beyond these thoughts to learn the most they can.

fear

38

hope


Facilitator’s Guidelines

Suggested Ground Rules

Clearly explain the ground rules for participation at the start of the Workshop. Ask participants to brainstorm a list of “ground rules” to be followed by each participant OR choose some of the following suggested rules. Post ground rules if your workshop will take place over more than one day. Remind participants of the rules as needed and model desired behaviors.

Suggested Ground Rules (choose rather than use all) Respect differences and allow everyone a voice Speak one at a time Be clear and brief, no speeches (keep comments to 1 minute) Actively participate, silence == agreement Use “I” statements Contribute ideas related to the subject/activity Support ideas with observations and examples Ask questions for clarification Discuss rather than argue Maintain confidentiality Turn off cell phones Start on time, return from breaks on time Record and check group work for accuracy Have fun, learn from others and learn the experience

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Part 2 Session 2 90 min.

Activities: PART ONE 1. Ask participants their definition of a “problem”. Record responses on the flipchart. Offer the following definition of a problem: “A problem is the difference between what is and what might or should be.” 2. Explain that the purpose of this session is to clearly define the problem of youth suicide and sum it up in a single statement to focus our efforts. To define the problem we will rely on what we know: our experiences, observations and what we have been taught or have read. Have the participants take 3-5 minutes to write down one or more of the following:

Defining the Problem

I know this much is true... A fact or trend that has been discovered thru research on the topic. A personal observation or experience related to the topic. Guide participants to think about the who, what, where, when, why and how of youth suicide.

Objectives • Share knowledge & experiences about youth suicide • Define the problem & express it in a single statement Outputs • Problem definition posters • Problem Statement Materials • flipchart & markers

4. Ask individuals to form pairs or small groups to share and discuss what they have written. Pairs or small groups then share what they know with the large group. Record responses on chart paper. 5. Further define the problem and summarize it in terms of the following. Record answers on chart paper. Frequency – how often does the problem happen? Duration – how long has the problem been occurring? Scope and Range – who is affected and how many? Severity – how intensely does the problem disrupt personal, family and community life? Legality – does it deprive people of their legal and moral rights? Perception – do youth and the community see it as a problem?

Who What Where When Why How

Frequency Duration Scope/Range Severity Legality Perception

40

Problem Statement


Part 2 Session 2 90 min.

PART TWO 1. Now, look at your two problem definition posters. Take a short break and congratulate yourselves for accomplishing so much it such a short amount of time! By defining the problem this way we have already started to analyze it as well! With all the information in front of us, we are ready to write a Problem statement. Keep in mind these two rules: Rule 1: Define the problem in terms of needs and not solutions. Rule 2: Define the problem as one everyone shares; avoid assigning blame.

Defining the Problem continued

2.

Individuals write their own problem statements and then share them in their pair or small group for refinement and consensus. Try to sum up the problem in one, simple sentence. The large group gathers to hear the possible statements and decide on one that everyone can live with and that does not break a rule. Record the final Problem Statement. The problem statement will be the basis for all other activities during the workshop, however it may change some as we go along.

The Problem Statement is the target of your action plan!

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”I had a dream. I kept it to myself and it remained only a dream. I had a dream. I shared it with others and it became a reality.”

Part 2 Session 3 30 min.

Activities: PART ONE 1. It is easy to start talking about the problem of youth suicide and begin to feel uncomfortable, overwhelmed, and at a loss as to how to make things better. Remember our definition of a problem: “A problem is the difference between what is and what might or should be.”

Creating a Shared Vision

Objectives • Draft a Vision Statement to complement the Problem Statement

We have defined the problem—what we know about youth suicide. Now it is time to think about what might or should be, to create our shared vision. 2.

Explain that the group will be developing a vision statement. The problem statement explained where we are now. The vision statement will capture the group’s dreams for the future based on our successful efforts. How will our lives be different if youth suicide was no longer a problem in our country? By developing a vision statement you are expressing hope in our actions and communicating what you value most. Because a vision is something one ought to be able to “see” happening, we will start by visualizing our future in our own minds. Ask the participants to make themselves comfortable. Read the following story slowly, with frequent pauses to allow them to visualize what is being depicted.

Outputs • Vision Statement Materials • flipchart & markers

Imagine yourself five years from now in the future. You have been away from the FSM all of this time and are now just returning. On your flight, you remember the last thing you did before you left Micronesia. You were beginning to work with youth, their families and their communities to plan ways to reduce youth suicide rates and create a healthier environment for young people. You received a letter from a former colleague recently who was excited that you would be coming home soon. She was anxious to show you all of the changes that have impacted youth, their families and their communities because of the action plans they implemented after you left. After your plane lands, your friend picks you up and drives you around the island to see for yourself some of the big and small changes. What do you see? Feel? What has changed for the better? How are youth, families and communities different than they were 5 years ago? How have these changes brought youth suicide rates down?

42


Part 2 Session 3 30 min.

PART TWO 1. Form small groups and ask each group to draw their vision on chart paper. Groups may include some words if necessary on their poster. 2. Small groups present their visions and the large group discusses each noting similarities. 3. Now, sum up whole group’s vision for the future in a single phrase or sentence. Use the list of similarities found in small group visions. Decide on a single vision statement that expresses why the group/community has come together and what general, ambitious changes they hope to accomplish through their action plans.

Creating a Shared Vision continued

Vision statements should be: Understood and shared by the community Broad to allow diverse perspectives Inspiring and uplifting Easy to communicate – able fit on a t-shirt

43


Part 2 Session 4 60 min.

Tools for Finding Root Causes

Sessions 4 & 5 demonstrate the use of several tools (participatory activities) to determine the: root causes of the problem and alternatives to the problem. The aim of each of these tools is to reveal youth suicide risk and protective factors and to determine where these factors fall within the Ecological Framework. Activities PART ONE 1. Now that the group has defined the problem it's time to thoroughly analyze it. One place to start is at the root of the problem. We will learn to use two tools to look at the root causes of youth suicide: The Force Field Analysis tool to and the “But, why?” Technique.

Force Field Analysis • Looks more broadly at the issue

and the forces surrounding it • Considers the wider picture Objectives • Learn to conduct a Force Field Analysis & use the “But, why?” Technique to reveal the root causes of the problem • Determine risk/ protective factors related to root causes • Participants practice facilitating & recording tool activities Outputs • Results of Force Field Analysis & “But, why?” Technique • Lists of root causes & related risk/ protective factors • Facilitator & Recorder Reporting sheets

“But, why?” Technique • Looks deep into the problem • Calls for more critical thinking • Gets at specific root causes

• A good discussion starter before

getting deeper into the root causes of the problem

2. First we will conduct a Force Field Analysis. This tool is a logical continuation to activities that define the problem and create a shared vision. The tool allows Stakeholders to discuss how to move from the problem situation to the envisioned future by identifying helping and hindering forces. Helping Force: resources or actions that exist or are needed for positive progress Hindering Force: constraining factors and sources of resistance

3. Decide whether the tool will be used with the whole group or in focus groups. Distribute chart paper and markers to each group.

Materials • flipchart & markers

Along with Brainstorming, small groups are often used in participatory activities. Sometimes it is more beneficial to form Focus Groups rather than mixed groups. See the Facilitator’s Guidelines for Focus Group Tips.

44


Part 2 Session 4 60 min.

3. Draw the Force Field diagram on chart paper with the Problem Statement in the lefthand box and the Vision Statement in the right-hand box.

Helping Forces NOW Problem Statement

FUTURE Shared Vision

Tools for Finding Root Causes

Hindering Forces

continued Explain the diagram as follows: the left box shows the current situation “Where We are Now” the right box shows the improved situation in the future “Where We Want to Be” the arrow in the middle is the path to the future the arrows pointing up represent forces that will help us get from “now” to the “future” the arrows pointing down represent the obstacles preventing us from reaching our goals 4. Next, identify the positive, helping forces (resources and actions that exist or that will be needed) to get us to our shared vision. Identify the negative, hindering forces (constraining factors and sources of resistance) that may challenge us. Think of all of the forces that help and hinder at the individual, family, community and societal levels. What are cultural, religious, economic, and social forces that impact the problem and our efforts to solve it? 5. When you group cannot think of any more forces to add to the diagram, reflect on the completed poster. If small focus groups have done this activity, have each group share their posters to compile a large group Force Field Analysis. Ask the participants: What are the dominant helping/hindering forces? Did new forces emerge that you had not thought of? How easy will it be to improve the current situation? How long is it likely to take before real improvements are seen? 6. Close the session by summarizing the identified forces in terms of risks factors and protective factors.

RISK RISK

Hindering Forces - may be resistant to change - may cause our efforts to fail - are risk factors Helping Forces + may enable change + may help our efforts succeed + are protective factors/assets

45

RISK PROTECT


Part 2 Session 4 60 min.

PART TWO 1. To look deeper at the problem consider using the “But, Why?" Technique. This tool examines a problem by asking the question “Why?” to arrive at the root causes. This simple tool often uncovers multiple causes for the problem. Here is an example beginning with a problem statement.

Tools for Finding Root Causes continued

The little girl has an infected cut on her foot. But, why ? Because she stepped on a thorn But, why? Because she has no shoes But, why? Because her family cannot afford to buy any But, why? Because her parents are unemployed. But, why? Because her father lost his job and her mother is uneducated But, why? But why? Because the business he worked for closed...

Because she got married and pregnant young...

Notice the question path began to break into two directions. Follow both paths by continuing to ask “Why?” until the Stakeholders’ knowledge, experiences and ideas are exhausted. 2. Decide whether the tool will be used with the large group or break into smaller groups (mixed or focus). Begin with the problem statement. Then ask “Why?” Record the answers. Continue this until the group’s knowledge and experiences are exhausted to arrive at the root causes of the problem. Give each group time to arrive at root causes and to record their process on chart paper. Be aware that almost every problem has more than one root cause so note all possible root causes as you continue through the process of asking “But, why?” 9. Small groups present their charts to the large group and discuss what they see as the root causes of youth suicide. If different groups and individuals arrive at different root causes, have them to support their answers with life experiences, observations and stories. Compile a list of all possible root causes of the problem. 10. Conclude by asking the participants to summarize the root causes in terms of risk and protective factors. (As in the example above, adult unemployment, under-education and society’s poor economy were risk factors for young children having health problems. Adult employment, education and a prosperous economy would be possible protective factors for child health.)

Root causes are the basic reasons behind the problem.

46


Facilitator’s Guidelines

Participatory Tool: Focus Groups

Focus Groups are made up of people with similar characteristics or concerns. Participatory Focus Groups are often divided along age or gender lines to create a setting in which participants are more comfortable and therefore more likely to contribute to the discussion or activity. Therefore, the decision to use focus groups should be based on cultural, topical and possibly group size factors. In general, focus groups yield more participation from Stakeholders than conducting activities as a large group only. Just because focus group members share common traits does not mean that only one opinion or point of view will come forth or that everyone in the group will agree on everything. It is the similarity of the participant’s orientation towards the problem that will allow for information to be shared freely and deeper insights will be gained.

Group size and the skill of the Facilitator can determine the success or failure of a focus group activity. Ideally a Focus Group should have about 7-10 people. Each Focus Group should have a Facilitator who is responsible for keeping the group on task, for asking questions if the members seem stuck and to restate the group’s results for their approval at the close of the activity. Each Focus Group should also have a Recorder to take notes on the discussion or to draw. The Recorder should pay special attention to accurately transcribing key quotes from members so they can be shared with the large group. The Focus Group’s Facilitator or Recorder can present to the large group or another member of the group can come forward. After Focus Groups complete the activity, the large group will meet and each group presents their results. Then comparisons are made between the groups to arrive at key similarities and differences.

Focus Group Tips Have a clear purpose for the group discussion and/or clearly explain the directions for the focus group activity Identify Focus Group members based on common characteristics, but allow individuals to make the final decision as to which group they will join. Ensure that Focus Groups have a comfortable place to meet with enough space to do the activity. Allow for some privacy if groups would feel more comfortable. Encourage the group members to briefly introduce themselves if necessary. Facilitate the discussion/activity with enough authority to keep the group on track, but with enough sensitivity to include as many people as possible. Summarize the group’s views and concerns by presenting key statements or quotations and/or written lists or drawings. Be prepared to answer questions from the large group.

47


Part 2 Session 5 90 min.

Activities: 1. In this session we will be learning to use two tools that allow Stakeholders to explore alternatives to the problem of youth suicide: Playback Theater role plays and a “Reasons to Live” discussion. Playback Theater is a tool is based on the work of Brazilian Paulo Freire, author of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and his friend August Boal who created Theater of the Oppressed. Boal encouraged people to act out issues in their own lives. When the story was played in front of an audience it could be stopped at a point where someone would suggest things be done differently to have a more positive outcome. The audience is not just recipients of the story but they become actors and directors who can suggest alternatives and initiate change.

Tools for Exploring Alternatives

The “Reasons for Living” discussion tool has been adapted from the work of Marsha Linehan, a prominent researcher in suicidology. Linehan believed that we should assess both suicidal feelings and reasons for living. She developed the Reasons for Living Inventory, consisting of reasons people give for not committing suicide divided into six categories: Survival & Coping Beliefs, Responsibility to Family, Child-Related Concerns, Fear of Suicide, Fear of Social Disapproval, and Moral Objections*.

Playback Theater Role Plays Objectives • Learn to facilitate Playback Theater role plays and “Reasons to Live” discussion to explore alternatives to youth suicide • Determine risk/ protective factors revealed through activities • Participants practice facilitating & recording tool activities Outputs • Feedback from Playback Theater performances & “Reasons to Live” discussion • List of related risk/ protective factors • Facilitator & Recorder Reporting Sheets Materials • case studies for performance • flipchart & markers

• Inter-active performance

“Reasons for Living” Discussion • Brainstorming and categorizing reasons to

• Focuses on changing thoughts,

behaviors and situations (risk factors) that impact youth suicide • Requires more preparation but very

live when considering suicide • Identifies protective factors • Best when done in focus groups first to

encourage discussion

memorable

PART ONE 2. We will start with Playback Theater. Role plays provide opportunities to rehearse new behaviors in a relatively safe environment. They “edu-tain”—educate while entertain. Playback Theater starts with an actual story, a participant’s experience with youth suicide or a short case study based on an actual youth suicide. In order to get the audience familiar with the technique, start by acting out a case study. The Facilitation Team can be the actors or recruit actors before hand and one person should lead the activity. 3. Choose a scene to act out. The cases on the next page come from Micronesian Seminar research on suicide. They tell only a small part of the story—the immediate events leading up to the suicide. Plan out your scene: Where does it happen? Who are the characters? What is the action/what happens? How will you give the audience the impression that the character commits suicide? 4. Act out the scene only with the information you have. Make sure the audience can see and hear you and tell them to watch the play closely. 5. After you are finished, ask the audience to tell you what they saw. Then ask the audience about the information that is missing: What do you think was happening before the scene started—1 day, 1 week, 1 month earlier—that may have led to the young person taking their life? Ask them to explain their answers.

48


Part 2 Session 5 90 min.

Tools for Exploring Alternatives continued

6. Re-act the scene with the additional information given by the audience. But this time the audience is allowed to stop the action at any time they want to change what is happening. They do this simply by yelling, “Stop,” or by raising their hand. The actors must then freeze and the audience member(s) must tell them what to do differently so as to have a more positive outcome. When the audience member(s) say, “Go,” the play resumes. The play can be stopped as many times as the audience feels changes need to be made. 7. To debrief the performance, ask the audience what changes were made to the first act. What impact did those changes have? Did the changes have positive or negative results? Were the changes realistic? Do people act that way? What caused the youth to commit suicide in the first play? Did they change their behavior in the second play? Why? Ask the actors if there was anything difficult about playing their roles? 6. Close the play by reviewing with the audience the new thinking, behaviors and/or circumstances they helped create in the second play that led to a more positive ending. Record the risk and protective factors that were revealed in the plays. For example, in the first play (Risks) the boy and his parents were arguing, the boy did not know how to express his anger, the boy and his friends got drunk. In the second play (Protection) the boy talked to his older cousins about his anger, they played basketball instead of drinking and his parents explained to their son why they were angry and reassured him that he was loved.

Short Case Studies for Performance & Discussion These cases were written so as to not reveal the identities of the victims and their families but to still represent typical incidences of youth suicide in the FSM. Although a recent suicide may be in the minds of the audience, refrain from acting it out unless the family agrees to let you depict their story. Be prepared for emotional reactions to this activity given the subject matter and encourage audience members to participate in re-writing the story as a means of rehearsing these new thoughts and behaviors for real life.

∗ A 17-year old boy who had often complained that his family did not love him injured his younger brother in a fight and was severely scolded by his parents for this behavior. Not long after this he got drunk and hanged himself outside his house. ∗ A young man was ordered by his father to work in the family garden although he stated he had other plans that day. After the family had left to attend a community celebration, he dug up the garden and then hanged himself. ∗ An 18-year old committed suicide shortly before his graduation when his parents denied his request for money. ∗ One young man in his early 20s took his life when his family refused to allow his marriage to a girl with whom he had been living for almost two years and with whom he had a child. ∗ A nine-year old boy who had been watching television at a neighbor's house hanged himself for fear that he would be beaten for returning home so late. ∗ A 15 year old girl asked to use her sister’s video camera but the sister refused. The girl killed herself with an overdose of medicine. ∗ A 24-year old male took his own life after he was refused credit in the family store.

49


Part 2 Session 5 90 min.

PART TWO 1. Whereas Playback Theater performances aim to identify and change risk factors impacting youth suicide, The “Reasons for Living” discussion activity focuses on the factors that prevent people from going through with suicide if they are contemplating it. This activity is best done first in focus groups—youth and adults separated—and then results can be shared in a large group to promote intergenerational dialogue and understanding and to discuss similarities and differences in responses.

Tools for Exploring Alternatives continued

2. Begin by forming focus groups. Tell the participants: Imagine you are thinking of committing suicide. Have each individual in the group take a few minutes to think of as many reasons as they can why they should not commit suicide and go on living. Individuals share their answers with the small group which records a list of Reasons to Live. 3. Small groups come together into the large group and share their lists of Reasons to Live. The Recorder works with the participants to put the responses into categories* such as religious/spiritual beliefs or commitment/love of family. * The following is a simplified version of the Reasons to Live Survey. Five categories of reasons to live have consistently emerged over years of surveying groups in the United States. However, these same categories may or may not surface with groups in the FSM.

*The Reasons for Living Inventory developed by Dr. Marsha Linehan The following measures the importance of each item for living if suicide were considered. If you thought about committing suicide, how would you rate the following statements: 1 = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 3 = indifferent 4 = agree 5 = strongly agree

Fear of Social Disapproval _____ I am concerned about what others would think of me. _____ Other people would think I am weak and selfish. _____ I would not want people to think I did not have control over my life. Moral Objections _____ I believe only God has the right to end a life. _____ My religious beliefs forbid it. _____ I consider it morally wrong. Survival and Coping Beliefs _____ I believe I can find other solutions to my problems. _____ I believe everything has a way of working out for the best. _____ I have the courage to face life. Responsibility to Family/Child-related Concerns _____ My family depends upon me and needs me. _____ I love and enjoy my family too much and could not leave them. _____ It would hurt my family too much and I would not want them to suffer. Fear of Suicide _____ I am afraid of the pain I may feel. _____ I am afraid of death. _____ I am afraid of the unknown.

50


Part 2 Session 6 60 min.

Activities: PART ONE 1. After using tools for finding root causes (Force Field Analysis, “But, Why?” Technique) and/or tools for exploring alternatives (Playback Theater, “Reasons for Living” discussion) you will have generated a list of risk and protective factors affecting youth suicide. Now it is time to map the origins of these factors by returning to the Ecological Framework. 2. Review the list of risk and protective factors generated from all of the tool exercises you have done thus far. These lists should have been recorded on chart paper. Determine the life domain that each factor is rooted in.

Mapping & Prioritizing Risk and Protective Factors

Redraw the Ecological Framework or use the drawing from Part 1 Session 4. Record each factor in their appropriate life domain, mark risk factors with (-) signs and protective factors with (+) signs. If a factor can be found in more than one domain try to decide where the factor has its roots. Also, avoid assigning all risk and protective factors to the individual domain as this may not be accurate. Do individual youth have control over each of these factors or does the control lie in a different domain?

The ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

k ris

pr ot

-

or ct a f

+ ec

Objectives • Map risk & protective factors from tool activities on the Ecological Framework • Prioritize risk & protective factors in terms of importance & changeability • Write risk/protective factor goal statements for Action Plan

Is the factor found at the individual, family, community or society/culture level?

e tiv fa

Outputs • Ecological Framework with mapped factors • Risk & Protective Factor Goal Statements

ct or

- risk factor

Materials • charts & notes from previous tool activities • Action Plan template • flipchart & markers

+ protective factor

3. After all key risk and protective factors have been mapped on the Ecological Framework note if any patterns emerge. Discuss the following: Where are most of the risk factors found? protective factors found? Which factors are found in more than one domain? Are there one or two domains that seem to house the majority of the factors? Which domain(s) can we focus our attention?

51


Part 2 Session 6 60 min.

PART TWO 1. Not all risk and protective factors are equal. We want to identify the most influential or powerful ones. For example, having access to rope to hang oneself and having family and friends who have committed suicide may both be seen as risk factors. Which factor is more influential to a youth contemplating suicide? We may not be able to affect every factor we have identified, so we must decide which factors we will try to change (reduce the risks and support the protection). But, we also must not focus on too few factors. Usually a single risk factor does not lead a youth to self harm but multiple factors (i.e. several risk factors and the absence of protective factors).

Mapping & Prioritizing Risk and Protective Factors continued

2. To prioritize the factors with the strongest connection to the problem and that are easiest to change use the table below. Duplicate the table on chart paper. Refer to the Ecological Framework and decide which domain to focus on and/or which risk and protective factors seem to be the most influential. Ask yourselves: Must this factor be changed to begin the solve the problem? List these factors under column 1. (Or, if time permits, list all of the factors from the Ecological Model in column 1.) 3. Rate the importance of each factor to the outcome of a youth committing suicide. More than one factor may have the same # rating. Record the rating under Degree of Importance. 4. In the column labeled Degree of Changeability, decide how much or how directly your group can change the factor. 5. Add across each row and write the sum in the last column. The factors with the highest values are the ones you should aim to influence (reduce the risk or enhance the protective factor). Decide on no more than 2 risk factors and no more than 2 protective factors to be the focus of action plan strategies.

Risk/Protective Factors for Youth Suicide

Degree of Importance 1= slightly important 2= moderately important 3= very important

EXAMPLES (-) Male between ages of 18-25

(-) Alcohol/drug use

(+) Experience in overcoming obstacles

(+) Involved in sports/ youth groups

52

+

Degree of Changeability 1= unable to change/directly affect 2 = partially changeable/able to affect 3 = completely changeable/can directly affect

= Final Value


Part 2 Session 6 60 min.

6. When you have arrived at the final list of priority factors rewrite each factor in terms of a Goal Statement. Goal Statements for risk factors should begin with action words such as target, reduce, buffer or prevent. Goal Statements for protective factors should begin with the action words encourage, increase, support or create. For example,

Factor

Goal Statement

(-) Male, ages 18-24

Mapping & Prioritizing Risk and Protective Factors

Target males ages 18-24

(+) Experience in overcoming Create opportunities to gain skills in obstacles overcoming obstacles 7. Write the Risk and Priority Goal Statements under column 1 on the Action Plan (detailed template found on the next page). Duplicate the template on several pieces of chart paper taped together for the entire group to see as it is filled in.

continued

Goal Statements

Target Groups

(-)

(-)

(+)

(+)

53

Community Assets


54

(+)

(+)

(-)

(-)

Agents of Change (AoC)

Targets of Change (ToC)

people, places, things, programs, institutions, partners and activities to assist How will AoC support or create protective factors for ToC?

How will AoC decrease or buffer ToC from risk factors?

Strategies & Tactics

Community Assets

Risk/Protective Factors Goal Statements

Target Groups

Vision Statement

Problem Statement

Action Plan Template

human & material

Resources Needed

Plan Start Stop Evaluate

When

Quantitative & Qualitative

Indicators of Success


Part 2 Session 7 30 min.

Activities: 1. Now that we have decided which risk and protective factors we will focus on we need to decide who we will need to work with: the Targets of Change and the Agents of Change. Targets of Change: People who directly experience the problem or are at risk. Also, people who contribute to the problem through their actions or lack of actions. Agents of Change: People who control or can influence risk and protective factors affecting the problem. People with time, resources, desire and the respect of the Target groups.

Identifying Targets and Agents of Change

Sometimes, the people at risk are not the same people you will target for change. Consider targeting indirect players such as parents, teachers, peers, service providers, leaders and business people if their actions or lack of actions are contributing to the problem. 2. For each prioritized risk and protective factor, determine the Targets of Change (ToC) and Agents of Change (AoC) by asking yourself the following questions:

Objectives • Define Targets of Change & Agents of Change •Decide which groups activities will target & which groups will carry out Action Plan Activities Outputs • List of Targets of Change & Agents of Change for each Prioritized Risk/ Protective Factor for Action Plan Materials • charts & notes from previous tool activities • Action Plan template • flipchart & markers

Targets of Change Who directly experiences and/or is most affected by this factor? Who indirectly experiences this factor and has the potential to become more involved?

Agents of Change Who directly creates or contributes to this protective factor? Who influences the people and conditions that contribute to this factor?

Who causes this risk factor? Who’s actions or lack of actions support this risk factor? Who has experienced this risk factor and is still suffering from it?

Who has experienced this risk factor and overcome it? Who has the power, resources, time and desire to change this factor? Who is working positively with the target group already?

The AoC will carry out Action Plan Strategies with the support of the Facilitation Team, therefore they must be willing and able to do so. Ideally, the ToC and AoC should be represented at the Stakeholder Workshop so as to gain their support.

55


Part 2 Session 7 30 min.

2. Record your answers on the Action Plan Template. Narrow your focus to no more than 2 ToC and no more than 2 AoC for each factor so strategies can be simpler and easier to implement.

Goal Statement

Target Groups Targets of Change Agents of Change

Identifying Targets and Agents of Change

(-) Target males ages 18-24

males, 18-24 male family members, music/sports groups

continued (+) Create opportunities to gain skills in overcoming obstacles

youth and families groups (school, church, sports), peer leaders, attempted survivors

Goal Statements

Target Groups

(-)

(-)

(+)

(+)

56

Community Assets


Part 2 Session 8 90 min.

Activities: 1. Sessions 5 and 6 covered several tools to analyze the problem of youth suicide. This session will focus on understanding the Stakeholders, those groups most affected by the problem. We will learn to use two tools to explore the Stakeholders’ perceptions of their resources, their use of space, their activities and their use of time: Community Maps and Community Clocks. Both of these tools take an “assets” approach to the problem, focusing on Stakeholder resources and strengths rather than on needs or deficits.

Mapping Community Assets

A community asset is anyone or anything that can be used to improve the quality of life in the community: people, groups, buildings or places, institutions, businesses, programs, activities, resources etc.

Community Maps Objectives • Use tools to reveal assets of Targets of Change & Agents of Change for Action Plan • Learn to facilitate Community Mapping and Clock tools • Participants practice facilitating & recording tools Outputs • Community Maps & Clocks • List community assets • Facilitator & Recorder Reporting Sheets Materials • Action Plan template • flipchart & markers

• depict the resources & spaces

used by a particular group

Community Clocks • depict the use of time & the

activities of a particular group

• show community assets

• are useful for finding the best times

• are useful in finding partners &

locations for future projects • reveals where risk/protective

factors can be found

for future projects & piggy-backing on activities • reveals when risk/protective

factors can be found

PART ONE 2. Community Maps are drawings that show the “world” of Stakeholder groups, in particular Targets and Agents of Change. It is most beneficial to do this activity with separate focus groups (adults, youth, genders) so that each group can map the area and locations they feel are most important. Form focus groups, distribute paper and markers and make sure the groups have an open space to work. 3. Decide on a central landmark for each group to base their maps on. Then ask the participants to draw a map of their community including the most important people, places and things to them. Maps are not meant to include everything, rather they should represent the assets the group values most. If the groups get stuck, ask them to think about a typical day or week and all the people they interact with and the places they go during that time. What roads/paths do you travel? What places do you go to?

(school, church, stores, work, health clinics, markets, homes, community places, cultural/sacred places, family lands)

Which people do you interact with most? What activities do you do and where do you do them?

57


Part 2 Session 8 90 min.

4. When the groups have completed their maps ask them to describe what they have drawn to the large group. Ask questions about anything that is unclear. Discuss the resources and locations each group values. Note areas and resources that are important to more than one group. Also note locations or resources that tend to be the domain of a particular group (i.e. men work on the family land, women and girls gather at the church, boys hang out on the causeway). 5. Debrief by discussing the maps in terms of “relationships” and assets:

Mapping Community Assets continued

What “adult” places can/do youth contribute to? What “youth” places can/do adults contribute to? What are the most valuable locations to the community as a whole? What activities take place at these locations? What labeled populations can be found at these locations? ( local artists/craftspeople, college students, musicians, traditional/religious/youth leaders, etc.) Where can risk factors be found? (i.e. alcohol drinking on the causeway) Where can protective factors be found? (i.e. youth group meets at church)

Consider coding the locations of risk and protective factors in a way similar to this example.

58


Part 2 Session 8 90 min.

PART TWO 1. The second community assets tool we will use looks at how particular groups use their time and what activities they are engaged in. Like Community Mapping, it is most beneficial to do Community Clocks in separate focus groups (adults, youth, genders) so that each group can present their unique activities and time use. Ideally, a focus group representing identified ToC and AoC should be formed. Form focus groups, distribute paper and markers and make sure the groups have an open space to work. 2. Instruct the groups to draw either a column of boxes representing the hours of the day or a timeline (see examples below), from the time they get up to the time they go to sleep. Explain that you would like to learn what the group members do on a typical day (decide if it will be a weekday or a weekend). The group first decides what time they usually wake up. Answers may vary but the group should come to a consensus of what time to begin the clock. Non-literate groups can use pictures to show time and activities.

Mapping Community Assets

3. Groups should show all the activities they do on a typical day and how long each activity takes to complete. If activities are done at the same time (cooking and childcare), they should be shown in the same box.

continued

4. Finished clocks are described to the large group. Ask questions about anything that is unclear. Compare the clocks of adults and youth and between genders. How is time used differently? Who has the heaviest work load and who has more time for leisure and rest? How much time is spent in activities with peers, family, community members? What free time and activities do/can ToC and AoC share? 5. Ask the groups if their clocks would be different if it was a weekend or during a different time of the year. Make additions to clocks as necessary. Also try to gain more information on what each group does during their free time. 6. Debrief by discussing the clocks in terms of “relationships” and assets: What “adult” activities can/do youth contribute to? What “youth” activities can/do adults contribute to? What are the most common activities of the groups? Where do these activities take place? Do activities utilize community assets? Time

Activity

6:30

Wake up, shower, get dressed

7:00

Wake siblings, help them get dressed

7:30

Eat breakfast

7:45

Walk to school

8:30 - 12:00

classes

12:00 - 12:30

Lunch

12:30 - 2:30

classes

2:30 - 4:30

Youth group/sports

4:30 - 5:15

Walk home

5:15 - 6:30

Hang out with friends

6:30 - 7:00

Eat

7:00 - 9:30

Homework, hang out with friends, watch videos

59


Part 2 Session 8 90 min.

PART THREE 1. Community Maps and the Community Clocks contain valuable information necessary to developing a strong Action Plan. After completing these activities, record the community assets that each ToC and AoC group values and what activities these two groups do or can share. For example, Risk/Protective Factor Goal Statements

Target Groups

(-) Target males ages 18-24

Mapping Community Assets continued

Community Assets

males, 18-24

College, sports facilities, work on family land

peers, family (+) Create opportunities to gain skills in overcoming obstacles

youth, family peer leaders, attempted survivors groups (church, youth, sports)

Church, community meeting place, youth groups, peer support group

2. Record the community assets your ToC and AoC value and use. Also Record the activities these groups are involved in that your strategies could “piggy-back� on. Listing community assets will help in developing strategies. Suicide prevention tactics can be inserted into places and activities your ToC and AoC already value.

Goal Statements

Target Groups

(-)

(-)

(+)

(+)

60

Community Assets


Part 2 Session 9 2 hrs.

Activities: PART ONE 1. In this last session of the Stakeholder Workshop, participants will be able to put all their analysis to use by devising a Community Action Plan (CAP). The CAP is a summary of the activities carried out during the workshop that revealed the risk and protective factors affecting youth suicide. Its purpose is to map out the actions Stakeholders will take, and the logic behind them, to solve the problem. The CAP is implemented by the Stakeholders and led by the Community Action Plan Implementation Team (CAPIT). The CAP contains: The prioritized risk and protective factor goal statements

Drafting the Community Action Plan: Strategies

Identified Targets of Change (ToC) and Agents of Change (AoC) Community Assets related to each ToC and AoC Strategies for each goal statement to reach the shared vision Resources (human and material) needed to implement the strategies Indicators (quantitative and qualitative) of success for each strategy Time frame for implementing each strategy

Objectives • Complete the Community Action Plan by devising risk reducing & protection enhancing strategies • Form the Community Action Plan Implementation Team Outputs • Community Action Plan Materials • charts & notes from previous tools • Action Plan template • flipchart & markers

Goal Statements

(-) Target males ages 18-24

Target Groups

Community Assets

males 18-24

College, sports facilities, work on family land

Strategy Tactics

Church, community meeting place, youth groups, peer support group

Strategy Tactics

male family members, sports teams

(+) Create opportunities to gain skills in overcoming obstacles

youth, families groups (school, church, sports), peer leaders

Strategies

Resources Needed

When Complete

Indicators of Success

2. This session enables participants to develop strategies and tactics to reach each risk and protective goal. Discuss the difference between a strategy and a tactic.

Strategy: What you will do to reach the goal. Tactic: The steps you will take to reach the goal. Goal: Joe would like to get married. Strategy: Joe wants Joyce to fall in love with him. Tactics: buy her flowers, write her a song, take her for a romantic night cruise, etc.

61


Part 2 Session 9 2 hrs.

3. Divide the large group into small groups. Each group will develop strategies and tactics for 1-2 goal statements. Assign goal statements to each group. 4. Each group will complete the Action Plan template for their assigned goal statements. Charts can be provided as a handout or written on chart paper. Columns 1-3 have already been completed in previous sessions, but groups will need to refer to this information to finish the remaining columns. 5. For each goal statement, the group must first decide on a strategy—what will you do to try to reach this goal? Types of Strategies: provide information or support growth

Drafting the Community Action Plan: Strategies

teach new skills or provide training create a new service or program enhance an existing service or program or modify access and barriers monitor and give feedback

continued

First brainstorm possible strategies by asking yourselves: What can the identified AoC do with the ToC to reach this goal? What Community Assets do the AoC and ToC have in common? How can the identified Community Assets be utilized to reach this goal? What has been done in the past to try to reach this goal? Was the effort successful? Why or why not? What needs to be done to reach the goal (information, skills, service, program)? Keep strategies simple and practical by following this formula: Targets of Change Agents of Change

+

Community Asset

+

Type of Strategy________________

6. Small groups record possible strategies. Evaluate each by discussing the following Is the strategy appropriate and appealing for the target group? Does the strategy make the best possible use of available resources and community assets? Is it practical and simple? Are there any negative effects from employing this strategy? Can one strategy meet more than one goal area? 7. Decide on one strategy per goal statement.

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Strategies

Part 2 Session 9 2 hrs.

Drafting the Community Action Plan: Strategies continued

Resources Needed

Strategy__________________ Tactics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Strategy__________________ Tactics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Material

When Complete

Indicators of Success

Plan Start

Human Complete Evaluate Material

Plan Start

Human Complete Evaluate

6. Next, break the strategy down into steps or tactics. For example, If your strategy is to get more males ages 18-24 involved in sports and to gain skills in overcoming obstacles by pairing up with adult mentors what do you need to do first, next, after that, finally‌ Discuss the steps as a group or distribute post-its/small pieces of paper to each person. Ask each person to write down the critical steps, the things that must happen to carry out the strategy and reach the goal. Place the cards or pieces of paper on a wall. Organize or cluster the cards in the order that makes sense for doing each step. Check that no critical steps are missing. If any are, add cards. Record the strategy’s steps. 7. Bring small groups back together and have each present their strategies and tactics to the large group. Discuss and make any necessary changes before agreeing to go forward with these proposed strategies. Remember, the group/community should focus on a fewer goals/strategies to begin with rather try to influence all aspects of the problem. If the group feels overwhelmed encourage them to focus on a single risk goal statement and one protective goal statement to devise independent strategies or a joint strategy for.

8. Now the group must decide what resources are needed. List answers to the following question on the Action Plan. What material and human resources are needed to carry out the strategy?

9. When must steps happen? Working out when each strategy step needs to happen requires that you: Establish realistic start and end dates for implementing the strategy. Calculate how much time each step needs. Decide what needs to happen before the activity can start and how much time that is likely to take. Decide what needs to happen after the activity is carried out and how much time that is likely to take.

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Strategies

Part 2 Session 9 2 hrs.

Drafting the Community Action Plan: Strategies continued

Resources Needed

Strategy__________________ Tactics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Strategy__________________ Tactics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Material

When Complete Plan

Indicators of Success Quantitative

Start Human

Qualitative Complete Evaluate

Material

Plan

Quantitative

Start Human

Qualitative Complete Evaluate

10. Finally, the last step in the Action Plan process is to determine how you will know your strategy and tactics achieved your goal. There are two types of Indicators of Success: indicators that can be measured (quantitative) and indicators that can be observed or experienced (qualitative).

Quantitative Indicators

Qualitative Indicators

Specific

Based on observations, interviews

Measurable

Record how behaviors, thoughts and feelings have changed

Achievable

Capture people’s judgments/perceptions of the strategy

Relevant (to the goal) Timeframed

Relevant (to the goal)

Example: By June 2007, at least 20 males ages 18-24 will have joined the basketball league and completed peer leader training with their adult mentors.

Example: We want to build the confidence of participants and we went their families and communities to be proud of them.

For each goal statement, write one measurable, quantitative indicator and one observable, qualitative indicator. 11. Congratulations! You have completed the problem analysis and the Action Plan! Take one more look at the plan to verify that it is in line with your shared vision and that all information has been provided in each column.

At the end of the workshop, the Stakeholders need to choose or elect a Community Action Plan Implementation team (CAPIT) to be in charge of implementing and monitoring the CAP. It is up to the community to decide how this team will be selected. Members may volunteer or be elected. The Facilitation Team will be a part of the CAPIT along with key participants from the workshop representing the ToC and AoC.

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Part 3

Planning the Stakeholder Workshops

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Workshop Overview Part 3: Planning for Stakeholder Workshops

Title

Objectives

Outputs

• Identify Stakeholders & 1) Identifying Possible Community Link Stakeholders & Community Links persons based on their level of importance & influence

• Stakeholder Identification

2) Stakeholder Workshops: Roles & Tasks

• Review Facilitation Team

• Stakeholder Workshop

3) Drafting a National Action Plan

• Draft a National Action Plan for

roles & tasks in planning, conducting and following-up on Stakeholder Workshops

Worksheet • Stakeholder Importance/ Influence Worksheets

Planning Worksheet

Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • Parable of the Reef • laptop & projector

Time 90 min.

or flipchart & markers

• Facilitator’s Guidelines • laptop & projector

60 min.

or flipchart & markers

• National Action Plan

States/Communities to follow

• Facilitator’s Guidelines • laptop & projector or

flipchart and markers

66

90 min.


Part 3 Session 1 90 min.

Activities PART ONE 1. Begin by asking participants to define the terms stakeholder and community. Offer the following definitions for discussion. Community: A group of people living in the same area and/or with common interests. Stakeholder: any individual, community, group or organization with an interest in the outcome of a project. Stakeholders are influenced positively or negatively by a project and/or they can influence activities in a positive or negative way.

Identifying Stakeholders & Community Links

2. One of the first steps in planning a Stakeholder Workshop is to decide who you will invite. There are two ways to do this. Discuss the pluses and minuses of each. Decide on a particular group or community you would like to work with based on their interest in addressing the problem of youth suicide. Identify all stakeholders within a given “community” and encourage their participation in the workshop process.

Objectives

• Identify Stake-

holders & Possible Community Link persons based on their level of importance & influence

Outputs • Stakeholder Identification Worksheet • Stakeholder Importance/ Influence Worksheets

3. Identifying and analyzing problems always involves certain personal standpoints. Where we stand determines what we see (our age, gender, status, education, profession, culture, socialization). Who we listen to determines what we hear (exclude youth, women, certain groups we get an incomplete picture of the problem). To reflect on where different stakeholder groups stand with regards to the problem of youth suicide, present the “Parable of the Reef”. Draw the picture and discuss the point of view of each character. 4. Ask pairs or small groups to complete the Stakeholder Identification Worksheet. 5. Pairs share their answers with the large group to create a master list of possible stakeholders.

Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • Parable of the Reef • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

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Part 3 Session 1 90 min.

PART TWO 1. Not all Stakeholders have the same level of influence over a project or importance to its success. To understand which Stakeholders are the most important to involve in the Workshop and Action Plan process and which have the most influence over the process complete the Stakeholder Analysis Tables 1 and 2. Tables can be provided as handouts and/or duplicated on chart paper for the entire group to see. Table 1: Fill in all of the identified Stakeholders in column 1.

Identifying Stakeholders & Community Links continued

Determine each group’s interest or “stake” in youth and the problem of youth suicide in column 2—what do they have to gain or lose by being involved in the Stakeholder Workshop and Action Plan activities? Rate each groups’ importance to the process. If a group was not involved how much difference would it make? Rate each groups’ level of influence (power) over the process. Who can make the process successful or a failure by their involvement or lack of involvement? Table 2: Insert key stakeholders in the appropriate box matching their level of importance and influence. 2. Stakeholders with high levels of importance and influence make good Community Links. Brainstorm specific individuals who can fulfill these roles.

Facilitation Team

Community Links

Stakeholders

Community Links are representatives from key Stakeholder groups and they are part of the Facilitation Team. Community Links often take the lead on implementing Action Plans after Stakeholder Workshops. They communicate the concerns and needs of Stakeholders to the Facilitation Team and they can lead Stakeholders to successfully act on their plans.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Parable of the Reef 4

3

1

5 2 ?

It is a nice, sunny day, but not everyone is having a good time. There is a person out to sea (1) caught in the waves crashing over the reef. Although the waves represent the immediate problem, it is the coal reef under them that is the hidden cause of the trouble. The person in the boat is aware of the danger they are in, concerned about the risks they face and are directly involved in the problem. This person could possibly escape the problem on their own but he/she would be more successful with some help. The person swimming (2) is aware of the possibility they too may experience the problem but we do not know if they are concerned. Perhaps this person feels they are a safe distance from the problem and are therefore not motivated to become involved. S/he are the closest to helping the person in the boat so their inaction may be harmful. The person on the shore (3) is aware of the problem and concerned for the people in the water. S/he are trying to be involved but they do not know how to swim and they do not own a boat. S/he are stuck on land, unsure as to how to help. The person on the hill (4) has the best view of the entire scene. They are aware of the problem, but they have placed themselves away and above it. Are they concerned about the wave or do they see them as someone else’s problem? This person has the ability to “oversee” and direct the actions of others but they are currently not involved in helping those at risk. And, the last person (5) relaxing behind the hill cannot see the problem affecting those in the water so s/he is not concerned and sees no reason or opportunity to be involved. This person has typically not been asked to help solve problems in the past so we do not know what assets they have that could help.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Stakeholder Identification Worksheet

Which people/groups are represented by the five characters in The Parable of the Reef?

?

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Stakeholder Analysis Table 1 Stakeholder Groups

Interest or “Stake” in

Youth/Problem

Stakeholder Analysis Worksheets

Importance of Stakeholder

For success of workshop/projects U=unknown 1=little/no importance 2=some importance 3=moderate importance 4= very important 5=critical player

Degree of Influence of Stakeholder

For success of workshop/projects U=unknown 1=little/no influence 2=some influence 3=moderate influence 4= very influential 5=critical player

Stakeholder Analysis Table 2 Stakeholder Importance Influence

U unknown

1 Little/no importance

2 Some importance

U unknown

1

Little/no influence

2

Some influence

3

Moderate influence

4

Very influential Critical player

5

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3 Moderate importance

4 Very important

5 Critical player


Part 3 Session 2 60 min.

Activities: 1. Now that we have completed the sessions you will duplicate and you have identified your Stakeholders, it is time to plan for the Stakeholder Workshops. Discuss the Facilitator’s Guidelines: 7 Steps to Hosting a Stakeholder Workshop and Stakeholder Workshop Follow-up. 2. Divide the group into Facilitation Teams and ask each team to complete the Stakeholder Workshop Planning Worksheet. 3. Finish this session by reviewing the Stakeholder Workshop Facilitation Checklist.

Stakeholder Workshops Roles & Tasks

Objectives

• Review Facilitation

Team roles & tasks in planning, conducting & following-up on Stakeholder Workshops

Community Action Plan

Outputs • Stakeholder Workshop Planning Worksheet Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

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Facilitator’s Guidelines 1

7 Steps to Hosting a Stakeholder Workshop

Decide who will fulfill which roles on the Facilitation Team: Leader, Facilitator and Recorder. Remember that Facilitator and Recorder tasks can alternate at the Workshop but the Team Leader should be a permanent appointment.

2

Identify your Stakeholders. Call a meeting of the Facilitation Team to decide if you will work with a particular group or go through the Parable of the Reef exercise to identify all possible Stakeholders.

3

The Facilitation Team Leader should contact the stakeholders and designate at least 2 Community Link people. Together, decide on a place and a time that is convenient to hold the Stakeholder Workshop. Remember your mitigation plan to encourage youth involvement (and other groups such as women, families with small children or the elderly.) The place should accommodate the number of participants you are expecting, be comfortable and have a space for refreshments. Try to find a neutral location.

4

The Facilitation Team and the Community Links should then decide on the content of the Workshop. The Team and Community Links decide how many components to include in the meeting and if more than one meeting will be held to complete the process of developing an Action Plan. Stakeholder Workshops usually contain the following: Introduction to the Process and Ice-Breaker Activity Problem Definition and Future Vision Activities Problem Analysis Tools (at least 3): Force Field Analysis Community Mapping “Reasons to Live” discussion Target Groups Identification

“But, why?” Technique Playback Theater/role play Risk/Protective Factor Identification Community Clocks

Action Planning 5

Advertise the workshop and develop a plan for encouraging Stakeholder attendance.

6

Gather materials and host the Workshop(s). Report the findings and outcomes to the Stakeholders and to the State and National Youth Suicide Prevention Coalition members.

7

Implement the Community Action Plan (CAP) and support the Community Action Plan Implementation Team (CAPIT).

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Stakeholder Workshop Follow-up

Phase IV: Evaluation of Community Action Plans and National Action Plan Achievements

The Facilitation Team (FT) and Community Action Plan Implementation Team (CAPIT) should work together to complete the following steps in Phases III and IV of the pilot plan.

Phase I: Training of Trainers (TOT) & National Action Plan development

Pilot Cycle: Kosrae

Phase III: Implementation & Monitoring of Community Action Plan activities

Phase II: Stakeholder Workshops & Community Action Plan development

1. Write a brief Stakeholder Workshop report summarizing the attendance, activities, their results including the Community Action Plan (CAP) and CAP Implementation Team (CAPIT) members. The report will be distributed to the supporting agency (SA) and to the community stakeholders (after being translated into the local language if necessary). The SA and the CAPIT will use this workshop report as a point of reference for implementation and monitoring of activities. 2. Before leaving the community, the FT team will devise a plan and timeline to follow-up with the CAPIT to support the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the CAP. Contact information of CAPIT members and the proposed timeline of the CAP will be distributed to the SA and community Stakeholders. 3. The CAPIT may feel challenged to keep the community motivated after the excitement surrounding the workshop wears off. This decreased motivation may be due to communities lacking connections to necessary resources to implement the activities outlines in their CAP. The FT and SA will assist the CAPIT in contacting or developing links with agencies and community assets identified during the workshop. Communities should be encouraged to carry out the most effective and impactful activities that are also not highly dependent on outside resources and funding. 4. Monitoring is an ongoing process of data collection that allows the FT, CAPIT and the community to track the progress of the CAP. It is done on a regular basis throughout the life of a project and helps ensure that the plan stays on track. Monitoring information should be gathered at the end of the planning stage, half way through the implementation stage and at the end of the proposed cycle when evaluation is done. Monitoring reports are summaries of Workshop and Action Plan activities that can be completed on Facilitator and Recorder Reporting Sheets. 5. Evaluation measures whether the plan has met its objectives. Action Plans activities will be evaluated according to their determined timeframe and collectively at the end of the pilot cycle. Each goal statement and strategy will be evaluated in terms its quantitative and qualitative indicators found in the Action Plan. State-level evaluations will inform the National Action Plan evaluation to determine if its goals were met or not and why. A formal evaluation report should be written including recommendations for expanding the program to all States in the FSM.

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Stakeholder Workshop Planning Sheet

1) Facilitation Team Members: Team Leader _______________________________________________________________________________ Facilitator(s) _______________________________________________________________________________ Recorder(s) _________________________________________________________________________________ 2) How will you identify your Stakeholders? What group(s) would be interested in this process? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

3) Brainstorm possible Community Link people. Who has access to or already works with youth, their families and communities? Who are respected, influential, organized and responsible leaders interested in working with you? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4) What might be good locations to hold the Workshop? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5) When is a good time (month, time of the day) to hold the Workshop? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6) How will you advertise the workshop and encourage attendance? Who will do this? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7) What activities would you like to do with Stakeholders? _____ Force Field analysis _____ “But, why?” technique _____ Community Mapping _____ Playback Theater/role play _____ “Reasons to Live” discussion _____ Risk/Protective Factor Identification _____ Target Groups Identification _____ Community Clocks _____ Action Planning 8) What problems or obstacles do you think you will encounter when planning and hosting the Stakeholder Workshop? How will you overcome them? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Facilitator’s Guidelines

Stakeholder Workshop Facilitation Checklist

Planning and facilitating a participatory problem-solving workshop for youth and community stakeholders gets easier with practice. Ask yourself the following questions before and during the workshop, and reflect on these questions after the event to make future improvements.

Ask Yourself… Preparation: What is the process I will guide the participants through? What activities will I lead during each step of the process? What are the aims of the workshop and of each session? What examples, stories, pictures, drawings, and tools will I use to guide understanding and encourage participation? How will I explain the process and give directions clearly and simply? Do adaptations need to be made to the workshop schedule, content or sequence to match the interest and needs of the participants? Am I prepared with all the necessary materials and is the meeting location and time convenient and comfortable? Have I met with my Team members to clarify roles and responsibilities for the duration of the workshop? Have I met with the Community Links to discuss the aims and schedule of the workshop? Presentation: (Ask your participants and co-facilitators) Have I set the tone for the discussion: emphasized that there are no dumb questions or comments; stress that there are many ways of looking at the problem; put participants at ease Am I being understood? Am I inviting and receiving the participation of the people? Are some individuals or groups being ignored? Am I asking open-ended questions, and receiving examples and observations? Am I recording the participant’s knowledge and ideas accurately and completely? Am I paraphrasing and restating participant feedback to ensure I understand them? Am I enabling the participants to feel comfortable and have fun? Am I noting participant’s body language (nodding head, leaning forward or backward, eye contact, movement, etc.) Am I summarizing periodically to review the points that have been made and stating the conclusions in a way that everyone will realize the important facts brought out in that discussion? Am I keeping track of the time and not allowing sessions to become boring? Small Group Work: Have I divided people into small groups (maximum 6-8 in a group)? Have I created focus groups (same age, gender, other common characteristic) or mixed groups to optimize participation? Do the groups understand the directions, the product they are expected to produce and the amount of time they have to work? Does the group have the necessary materials to do the activity? Reporting: Have the Facilitator and the Recorder completed reporting sheets for each activity/session? Have all activities completed on chart paper been summarized and preserved?

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Part 3 Session 3 90 min.

Activities: 1. The final activity in this workshop is to draft a National Action Plan (NAP) that all State-level Stakeholder Workshops and activities will fall under. The NAP summarizes the accomplishments of the TOT Workshop and sets the course for the pilot plan.

The focus for the NAP is optimal Stakeholder involvement and clear and consistent reporting on all activities of this pilot phase.

Drafting a National Action Plan

The NAP will contain: The Problem Statement The Vision Statement The Youth Participation Goal Statement The Youth Participation Mitigation strategies Goal Statements for all State-level activities

Objectives • Draft a National Action Plan for States/Communities to follow Outputs • National Action Plan Materials • Facilitator’s Guidelines • laptop & projector or flipchart & markers

Basic Strategies for State-level activities Who will carry out State-level activities What resources will be needed for State-level activities The time frame for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation/reporting on all State-level activities Indicators of success for each goal 2. Complete the NAP as a large group seeking consensus at each step. The Problem Statement and Vision Statement can be transferred for previous activities but confirm that the group is still in agreement with these statements. Make changes if necessary. Goal statements are what the Facilitation Teams should aim to accomplish at the Statelevel. One goal statement should concern Stakeholder involvement and another on reporting activities. The group must decide how many goal statements they would like in the NAP. Basic strategies are the activities the Facilitation Teams will do to meet the goals. Hosting Stakeholder Workshops is one basic strategy. The group must decide who will be responsible for the State-level activities. This will probably include the Facilitation Teams and possibly others. List names in this section and the main duties of each person. List the anticipated resources for carrying out the strategies—human and material. Decide when State-level activities will start. Assign months to the planning, Implementation, monitoring and evaluation/reporting stages of the process. Begin by setting a deadline and then working backwards. Write one quantitative and one qualitative indicator of success for each goal/strategy. 3. Ask each participant to sign the completed NAP signifying their approval and commitment to implementing it.

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Signatures

Basic Strategies

Who human & material

Resources Needed

Plan, Start, Stop, Evaluate

When

Youth Participation Mitigation Strategies

Youth Participation Goal Statement

Goal Statements

Vision Statement

Problem Statement

National Action Plan Template

Quantitative & Qualitative

Indicators of Success


Selected Resources

Barr, Kevin J. “Guidelines for Social Analysis.” Ecumenical Center for Research, Education and Advocacy, Fiji. 2005. “Building Effective Youth-Adult Partnerships.” www.advocatesforyouth.org Community Tool Box. http://ctb.ku.edu “Developing Participatory Methods.” www.nri.org/work/li-capparticipatory.htm “Facilitation Tips.” www.facilitate.com/Facilitation10Tips.html “The Intergenerational Approach to Development: Bridging the Generation Gap.” International Center for Research on Women. www.icrw.org. “Introduction to Youth Risk and Protective Factors” http://helping americasyouth.gov “Participatory Methods.” The World Bank. www.worldbank.org “Participatory Methods Toolkit: A Practitioner's Manual.” ELDIS. www.eldis.org/static/DOC17237.htm “Risk and Protective Factors for Youth Violence Fact Sheet” www.safeyouth.org/scripts/facts/docs/risk.pdf Silberman, M. “101 Ways to Make Training Active” Pfeiffer & Company, San Diego. 1995 “Tips for Facilitators.” www.thiagi.com/tips.html “Training Trainers for Development: Conducting a Workshop on Participatory Training Techniques.” CEDPA, 1995. ”Using Participatory Methods: Advantages, Challenges And Ways Forward.” EDIAIS Toolbox. www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/ informationresources/toolbox/particmethods

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Profile for Sara Krosch Consulting

A New Path: Community-based Action Planning for Youth Suicide Prevention, Sara Krosch  

A New Path: Community-based Action Planning for Youth Suicide Prevention, Sara Krosch, March 2006

A New Path: Community-based Action Planning for Youth Suicide Prevention, Sara Krosch  

A New Path: Community-based Action Planning for Youth Suicide Prevention, Sara Krosch, March 2006

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