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Broad and Narrow Socialization: How it Affects Both Religious and Cultural Beliefs Michael Gibson – RHET 201/08 Sarah Yousri 900113146

ABSTRACT I was asked as a student at the American University in Cairo to write an ISearch paper about anything that interested me, so I chose “Broad and Narrow Socialization: How it Affects Both Cultural and Religious Beliefs.” Everything I accomplished in order to complete this I-Search paper is included in this portfolio.


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Cover Letter Dear Dr. Gibson, I honestly never imagined myself taking any sort of summer or winter courses well at least not anytime soon. I consider myself a very smart person but at the same time very lazy and not motivated to work. I felt so down the first week of the summer course because all of my friends were on vacation and I was stuck studying and going to university everyday. I never liked going to school or university. The only thing that kept me going was my excitement to see my favorite professors and seeing my friends everyday. However, something clicked after the first class I took with out Dr. Gibson. You started joking and laughing and talking to us as if you've known us for years and I just felt like I wasn’t just learning, I was having fun while doing it and I was making a new friend. Thank you Dr. Gibson for making the classroom not only and educational experience but a fun second home. I will never consider you as just a professor but also a friend. There is no better feeling than knowing your professor understands you and can therefore motivate you to accelerate in your life. For my RHET 201 course you asked us to write an I-Search paper about whatever interested us and I decided to write about how broad and narrow socialization can affect both the cultural and religious beliefs of a country. I chose to write about this because it was a topic that intrigued me when I studied it last semester in Sociology.

Of course your favorite student, Sarah Yousri


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Table of Contents: Cover Letter

3

Presentation

4 – 11

Journal Entries

12 - 22

I-Search Papers

23 - 81


Presentation

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Journal Entries

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Sarah RHET 201 10th June 2012 Dr. Gibson Journal Entry #1 Exploring Possible I-Search Topics I am required to write an I-Search paper this summer session for RHET 201 which is basically a method that will allow me to write about a topic that I feel interests me the most or shares a personal connection with me. For that reason, I have considered writing about topics such as political science, psychology or sociology simply because I found them very interesting while studying them at university. I realized that things that have to do with human life, thinking and behavior interest me more than anything else. During my first semester at AUC, I intended to major in Journalism and Mass Communication, but after taking these subjects as electives, I changed my mind to double majoring political science and sociology. I am choosing to write about my intended majors for my I-Search paper because I would like to know more and write about what I have learned.


Sarah

 

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RHET 201 11th June 2012 Dr. Gibson

Journal Entry #2

H/W: In your research journal, list three possible topics for I-search and explain why you are interested in them, and then narrow your selection to one, explain what you already know about the final chosen topic, and what you want to learn about it. DUE: Mon 11 Jun. I mentioned in my first journal entry that I wanted to write about either political science, psychology or sociology because I felt like these topics interest me the most and share a personal connection with. Not only did I study all three subjects as electives during my first two semesters at AUC, but I also got A’s and B’s in all of them as final grades. Taking psychology taught me that there is much more to everything having to do with the human brain and behavior. I learnt and understood many things that I could easily relate to. With sociology on the other hand, it was a more informative subject than understanding. I’ve always loved listening to stories and reading about history but I was never good with learning any dates so taking sociology combined story telling and history in a fun way with no dates so it seemed perfect for me. I learned a lot about the cultures of different countries as well as their history, living conditions and problems they faced or facing. Finally political science focuses more on the political issues of every country as well as the economy and laws. Combining political science and sociology helped me a lot with the


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understanding of each subject individually. Having explored all three subjects I have decided to do my final research about sociology simply because it is the most interesting to me and there is a lot to talk about. I already know what sociology is and it’s methods of research but I would like to know more about how hard it is to carry out these methods, minimum and maximum time of studying a society and the problems faced whilst making those researches. I will focus on theses issues in my research paper but my main focus will be on broad and narrow socialization and how it influences culture and religion in different Arab countries especially in Turkey, Iran and Egypt.


Sarah

 

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RHET 201 13th June 2012 Dr. Gibson Journal Entry #3 Topic: Sociology Research Question: To what extent does broad and narrow socialization affect a country’s religious and cultural beliefs? Sources for Research Paper: 1. Broad and Narrow Socialization Citation: Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. "Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory." Journal of Marriage and Family 3rd ser. 57 (Aug 1995): 617-28. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Because my main focus is on broad and narrow socialization and how it influences religious beliefs and gender, I need this article because it is basically my root. It explains what broad and narrow socialization is as well as the different types very well. 2. Religious Movement and Revolution Citation: Bayat, Asef. "Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 1st ser. 40 (Jan 1998): 136-69. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. I will briefly discuss what is going on in this article and how it relates to broad and narrow socialization. Here in this article, the author talks about why in Iran and Islamic revolution occurred whereas only an Islamic movement occurred in Egypt. 3. Street Socialization


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Citation: Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution." Journal of Black Studies 6th ser. 36 (Jul 2006): 918-37. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. I will use this while explaining broad and narrow socialization as an example. I will use it very briefly though. This article talks about how some people prefer to live on the streets for many reasons and how the streets can be a method of socialization. Not everyone ends up on the streets for certain reasons like many of us believe but some actually choose to live on the streets. 4. School Socialization Citation: Rîşnoveanu, Adriana. "The Students' Socialization - A Real And Actual Challenge For The School Organization." Petroleum - Gas University Of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series 62.1B (2010): 72-80. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012. URL: http://web.ebscohost.com.library.aucegypt.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=12&sid =f6289a57-7233-40da-91422765823254ac%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db= a9h&AN=59574183 It talks about how school socialization may be in conflict with other socialization agents such as family and how school influences students’ ways of thinking. 5. Men in South Africa Citation: Walker, Liz. "Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994." Culture, Health & Sexuality 3rd ser. 7 (May 2005): 225-38. JSTOR. Web. 12 June 2012.


Yousri          18     This article talks about how men have changed after being exposed to a broader, and more liberal constitution. I will use it to explain the effects of broad and narrow socialization further. 6. Religion in Turkey, Iran and Egypt Citation: Dallmayr, Fred. "Radical Changes In The Muslim World: Turkey, Iran, Egypt." Globalizations 8.5 (2011): 639-646. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012. URL: http://web.ebscohost.com.library.aucegypt.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=12&sid =f6289a57-7233-40da-91422765823254ac%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db= a9h&AN=67327009 This article talks about how religion is different in three different Muslim countries. I will try as much as possible to explain why this is the case and how socialization affected this change. Additional Sources: 7. Women in Iran: Citation: Shahidian, Hammed. Women in Iran. Vol. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2002. Print. This book talks about women in Iran in the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods. I will use this book to explain my point further using examples and experiences listed. 8. Memoir of an author living in Iran Citation: Ebadi, Shirin. Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2006. Print.


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URL: http://lib.aucegypt.edu/record=b1389459 This memoir talks about the author’s struggles living in Iran as a woman. I will use examples from her real life experiences in order to explain my point further. 9. Women in Egypt URL: http://tr6rt9pf7u.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.882004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mt x:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Women+in+Egypt&rft.jtitle=Faces&rft.au= R+Anthony+Kugler&rft.date=2006-09-30&rft.issn=07491387&rft.volume=23&rft.issue=1&rft.spage=14&rft.externalDBID=FACE&rft.ex ternalDocID=1167472891 Citation: Kugler, R. Anthony. "Women In Egypt." Faces (07491387) 23.1 (2006): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 June 2012. This article focuses on women in Muslim countries especially in Egypt. It will explain how women are treated in Egypt as opposed to in other countries. Again I will use example from here to get my point across in the essay. 10. Women, religion and culture in Iran URL: http://lib.aucegypt.edu/record=b1260898 Citation: Martin, Vanessa, and Sarah Ansari. Women, Religion and Culture in Iran. 7th ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2002. Print. This book talks about women in Iran since the 19th century. It examines every aspect of an Iranian woman during this time period. Again I will use this to give examples and get to the point using facts.


Sarah

 

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RHET 201 22nd June 2012 Dr. Gibson Journal Entry #4 So we were asked to find secondary and primary sources for our I-search paper. Having narrowed down what I wanted to write about, it was time to construct a research question. I finally came up with; “To what extent does broad and narrow socialization affect a country’s religious and cultural beliefs?” After doing so, I identified the key words in my research question and started searching for sources accordingly. First, I logged onto the AUC library website and started searching for sources that talk about broad and narrow socialization. Later, I started researching similar countries that adopt different socialization methods in order to find the differences in how religion is applied and cultural beliefs differ in each. On the first day of my research, I managed to find ten sources and by the second day, I found sixteen. I later checked that all my sources can be used and are reliable. For my primary sources, I constructed an online survey consisting of 10 questions as well as an interview with similar questions. I am expected to get 100 responses for my survey and a few via interviews.


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Sarah RHET 201 9th July 2012 Dr. Gibson Journal Entry #5 Now that I retrieved as much information as I could from books and articles, I had to conduct a survey and interviews in order to retrieve primary information. I was aiming for personal opinions of the people who experienced more or less a similar background to what I am researching. Both the survey and interviews are made up of 10 questions each and they focus on personal opinions and observations. The survey roughly took about five to ten minutes to answer whereas the interviews lasted up to about fifteen to twenty minutes. Everyone who took part in these methods of research pretty much shared the same opinions and views. Everyone believed that Egypt is narrowly socialized. Of course I am still awaiting more results. Survey Results: 9 people answered the survey I distributed late last month, which really is not enough at all but I guess everyone is travelling and is diverting their attention away from work as much as they can. 77.8% attended international schools, 11.1% attended national and 11.1% attended both and only 2 of the 9 studied sociology. Looking at these results, I automatically assumed that since 88.9% of my survey takers attended international schools, they all must adopt a broad socialization themselves. This was proven to be true later on in the survey when I asked which type of socialization they personally adopt. I then asked which of the seven sources influenced their type of socialization; Family

66.7%

6


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Peers

77.8%

7

School

55.6%

5

Work

22.2%

2

Media

33.3%

3

Government

11.1%

1

Cultural Beliefs

22.2%

2

Religion

22.2%

2

66.7% agreed that Egypt adopts a narrow socialization, whereas 33.3% believe otherwise. In conclusion, yes, a country’s socialization most definitely affects how women are treated and how people think and act. The more the person is educated, the broader their minds are most likely to be but this also depends largely on the country’s cultural beliefs as a whole.


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I-Search Papers 1st Draft

24 - 35

2nd Draft

36 - 52

3rd Draft

53 - 81


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st

1 Draft Introduction

25 - 26

Lit Review

26 - 28

Methodology (including survey and interviews) Conclusion

28 - 29 No conclusion

Works Cited

30 - 31

Annotated Bibliography

32 - 35


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Sarah Yousri Michael Gibson RHET 201 June 25 2012 Draft 1 – I-Search Paper Broad and Narrow Socialization As an undergraduate student studying at the American University in Cairo, I was required for my RHET 201 class to write a research paper about any topic that interested me. Since I am majoring sociology and I find it very interesting, I decided to write about a specific topic that captivated me the most and that is how broad and narrow socialization can affect a country’s religious and cultural beliefs. How women are treated in every country, for me, falls under the category of a country’s cultural and religious beliefs. Socialization means the establishment of limits but it is also restricted by the boundaries that cultures impose on individuals because cultures determine what is acceptable and what is not. Arnett mentions in his article that there are two types of socialization, broad and narrow. Broad is intended to promote “independence, individualism and self-expression” whereas narrow demands “obedience and conformity,” and also requires living up to cultural expectations. According to the article, children begin to learn these rules from a very early age and the awareness remains with them throughout their lives. There are seven main sources of socialization; family, peers, school and work, community, the media, the legal system and the cultural belief system. They are all an attempt of integrating ideas from psychology, sociology and anthropology. Other sources discussed in the article include; variation within cultures like gender and sex differences. Arnett mentions


Yousri          26     that all the research and theorizing that has been revolving around this topic takes Western cultures as their primary focus and compare all other cultures to it, which has led to minimal focus on socialization as a cultural aspect. The author intends in his article to promote socialization as a cultural process and totally eliminate any comparisons with other cultures regarding their ways of socialization. Arnett begins by explaining his definition of socialization, which “is the process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of the social world—that is, the culture—in which they live.” He also mentions that there are three goals of socialization; impulse control, role preparation and finally the development of sources of meaning. Impulse control is taught at a very early age by parents, peers, siblings and other adults. Children learn that they cannot simply take whatever they want or else they will suffer socially or physically from the consequences. This process is continued throughout one’s lifespan. Preparation for roles, the second goal of socialization, is also important. For children, they learn family roles, gender related roles and school roles. Adolescents on the other hand experience intensive preparation for adult roles. And finally for adults, they prepare for roles in marriage and parenthood as well as divorce, being a grandparent and a retiree. Roles may be based on social class, caste membership or even racial and ethnic identity. The final goal of socialization, which is the development of sources of meaning, includes religious beliefs, which primarily explain the origin of human life, their suffering and what happens to us after we die. The first source of socialization, family, reflect and transmit the values of a culture as a whole. Parents do not create their own parenting practices; they follow role requirements of parents set by their culture and adopt practices their parents used. It’s not really a choice parents make. For example Saudi Arabian parents do not allow


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their daughters to leave the house without being veiled or with a boy unaccompanied because of the narrow socialization in their culture. Secondly peers, they are very important as a source of socialization from an early age. Children and adolescents spend too much time with their same age or group friends, which influence one another. Peer socialization in particular clash with other socialization practices because they may contradict each other. For example peers can influence one another to consume alcohol whereas family and school ban it. Adults are like children when choosing their friends; they choose people who are similar to them. In a broader socialization process, there is more freedom in choosing your friends whereas in narrow socialization, people are more restricted by their parents and culture. Socialization in school is influenced by other sources like the values of the families of the children who go to the school, by the community and by the cultural belief system. When comparing schools in the US with schools in Japan there is a huge difference. Schools and families in japan discipline their children strictly and are pressed hard towards obedience and conformity towards the teacher and high academic performance. This type of obedience reflects the narrow socialization present in this classroom. In the US on the other hand, they adopt a more broad socialization. Students are encouraged to carry out their own work and stand up to their rights. The teacher does minimal teaching. The community size and cohesion plays a huge role in the socialization of an individual. Initiations in their traditional forms are considered the best example for narrow socialization. Sambians for example when boys are about 7 to 8 years old, they are carried by a sponsor (usually an uncle) and are hit on their backs with reeds causing the child to bleed. In Westerners eyes, this would be considered brutal but in their culture it is simply preparation for adulthood, becoming strong and willing to fight and kill for their


Yousri          28     country and people. Media, another source of socialization, is considered one of the most important. It exposes the people to certain things that they will either adopt or imitate. It differs from one country to another what is portrayed depending on the culture. In western societies, the media is broad and offers a wide variety of things to watch, whereas in Saudi Arabia for example, it is very narrow. Individuals choose to watch what appeals to them the most. Even though Americans have a broad socialization, the government however denies certain offerings for children and there are certain messages in the media that explicitly promote conformity in particular areas, for example anti drug campaigns. Legal systems set limits on behavior. In Saudi Arabia for example have strict rules for theft and alcohol dealers, whereas in the US they are more liberal. Cultural belief systems form the basis for all other sources of socialization and may take the shape of religious institutions like a Catholic Church. Out of personal experience and observation, I can conclude that Egypt has a narrow socialization. I agree one hundred percent with what Arnett believes, that socialization is based mostly on the culture of the country. In Egypt, people are very closed-minded. Very few people are considered liberal and those are the ones who are educated in international schools and are exposed to a variety of cultures. At the end of the day, Egypt is an Islamic state and everything is to a certain extent restricted by the government, media and the materials being studied at schools. Most of my research depended on secondary research methods, however I also engaged in primary research in order to obtain results that I will never find in a book as well as personal opinions of the people who experienced more or less a similar background to what I am researching. I constructed both a survey and an interview. They are made up of 10 questions each and they strictly focus on personal opinions


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and observations. The survey roughly took about five to ten minutes to answer whereas the interviews lasted up to fifteen to twenty minutes. Everyone who took part in these methods of research pretty much shared the same opinions and views. Everyone believed that Egypt is narrowly socialized. Of course I am still awaiting more results.


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Works Cited

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. "Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory." Journal of Marriage and Family 3rd ser. 57 (Aug 1995): 617-28. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bayat, Asef. "Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 1st ser. 40 (Jan 1998): 136-69. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution." Journal of Black Studies 6th ser. 36 (Jul 2006): 918-37. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Rîşnoveanu, Adriana. "The Students' Socialization - A Real And Actual Challenge For The School Organization." Petroleum - Gas University Of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series 62.1B (2010): 72-80. Academic Search Complete. Walker, Liz. "Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994." Culture, Health & Sexuality 3rd ser. 7 (May 2005): 225-38. JSTOR. Web. 12 June 2012. Dallmayr, Fred. "Radical Changes In The Muslim World: Turkey, Iran, Egypt." Globalizations 8.5 (2011): 639-646. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012. Shahidian, Hammed. Women in Iran. Vol. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2002. Print. Ebadi, Shirin. Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope. 1st ed. New


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York: Random House, 2006. Print. Kugler, R. Anthony. "Women In Egypt." Faces (07491387) 23.1 (2006): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 June 2012. Martin, Vanessa, and Sarah Ansari. Women, Religion and Culture in Iran. 7th ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2002. Print.


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Annotated Bibliography

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. "Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory." Journal of Marriage and Family 3rd ser. 57 (Aug 1995): 617-28. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Arnett explains the theory of broad and narrow socialization but by emphasizing family socialization in its cultural context. Independence, individualism and selfexpression is encouraged in broad socialization whereas obedience and conformity are preferred in narrow socialization. He also describes the seven main sources of socialization including, family, peers, school and work, community, media, legal system and cultural belief system. Other considerations are also discussed, which include variation within cultures (such as gender differences) and the place of attachments. The three main goals of socialization in addition to two examples of applications of the theory are provided in the article.

Bayat, Asef. "Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 1st ser. 40 (Jan 1998): 136-69. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bayat tries to find out why Iran with a thriving economy and wealthy middle class go through an Islamic revolution, while Egypt with a poorer economy and “impoverished large middle classes” did not go beyond developing an Islamist movement. He talks about each country’s circumstances separately by focusing mainly on how religion is applied in each and their leadership styles.


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Dallmayr, Fred. "Radical Changes In The Muslim World: Turkey, Iran, Egypt."   Philosophy and Social Criticism 38.4-5 (2012): 497-506. SAGE. Web. 21 June 2012. Dallmayr discusses the radical changes that occurred in the Muslim world within the last decade. He emphasizes mainly on the “tension between secularism and religious authority and the prospect of political democracy.”

Ebadi, Shirin. Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2006. Print. Ebadi tells the story of the struggles of a woman named Zara Kazemi, who got raped, against the system. The book talks about her childhood, upbringing in an untraditional family, her marriage and her faith, as well as her life as a mother and a well- known lawyer battling an oppressive regime.

Kugler, R. Anthony. "Women In Egypt." Faces (07491387) 23.1 (2006): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 June 2012. Kugler focuses on women in Muslim countries especially in Egypt. It will explain how women are treated in Egypt as opposed to in other countries. Girls in Egypt receive poorer or no education when compared to boys. Women are restricted form voting. The existence of unequal treatment of boys and girls.

Martin, Vanessa, and Sarah Ansari. Women, Religion and Culture in Iran. 7th ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2002. Print. Martin talks about women in Iran since the 19th century. It examines every aspect of an Iranian woman during this time period.


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Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution." Journal of Black Studies 6th ser. 36 (Jul 2006): 918-37. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Oliver describes the social significance of “the streets” as an alternative socialization source to the family, church, and other community-based institutions of Black males. It is explained how “the streets” is a socialization institution that affects the psychological developments and life transitions of Black males greatly. Consequences related to the pursuit of manhood and social status in “the streets” are also included in this article.

Rîşnoveanu, Adriana. "The Students' Socialization - A Real And Actual Challenge For The School Organization." Petroleum - Gas University Of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series 62.1B (2010): 72-80. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012 Rîşnoveanu points out one of the roles that the school has accomplished as a socializing agent. The school acts together with or against other socializing agents like family, friends and the media.

Shahidian, Hammed. Women in Iran. Vol. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2002. Print. The author talks about women living in Iran during the revolutionary and postrevolutionary periods.

Walker, Liz. "Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994." Culture,


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Health & Sexuality 3rd ser. 7 (May 2005): 225-38. JSTOR. Web. 12 June 2012. Walker talks about the major changes that happened in South Africa after the president strengthened his relationship with western countries. Men became confused and uncertain about their duties as men and their identities. This confusion led to mistreatment towards women and more violence. “The transition to democracy has precipitated a crisis of masculinity. Some men are seeking to be part of a new social order while others are defensively clinging to more familiar routines. This paper explores new masculinities in contemporary South Africa. It examines how men negotiate their manhood in a period of social turbulence and transition.”


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nd

2 Draft Introduction

37 - 38

Lit Review

38 - 43

Methodology (including survey and interviews) Conclusion

43 - 45

Works Cited

46 – 47

Annotated Bibliography

48 – 52

45


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Sarah Yousri Michael Gibson RHET 201 June 25 2012 Draft 1 – I-Search Paper Broad and Narrow Socialization As an undergraduate student studying at the American University in Cairo, I was required for my RHET 201 class to write a research paper about any topic that interested me. Since I am majoring in Sociology and I find it very interesting, I decided to write about a specific topic that captivated me the most and that is how broad and narrow socialization can affect a country’s religious and cultural beliefs. How women are treated in every country, for me, falls under the category of a country’s cultural and religious beliefs. Socialization means the establishment of limits but it is also restricted by the boundaries that cultures impose on individuals because cultures determine what is acceptable and what is not. Arnett mentions in his article that there are two types of socialization, broad and narrow. Broad is intended to promote “independence, individualism and self-expression” whereas narrow demands “obedience and conformity,” and also requires living up to cultural expectations. According to the article, children begin to learn these rules from a very early age and the awareness remains with them throughout their lives. There are seven main sources of socialization: family, peers, school and work, community, the media, the legal system and the cultural belief system. They’re all an attempt of integrating ideas from psychology, sociology and anthropology. Other sources discussed in the article include; variation within cultures like gender and sex differences. Arnett mentions


Yousri          38     that all the research and theorizing that has been revolving around this topic takes Western cultures as their primary focus and compares all other cultures to it, which has led to minimal focus on socialization as a cultural aspect. The author intends in his article to promote socialization as a cultural process and totally eliminates any comparisons with other cultures regarding their ways of socialization. Arnett begins by explaining his definition of socialization, which “is the process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of the social world—that is, the culture—in which they live.” He also mentions that there are three goals of socialization; impulse control, role preparation and finally the development of sources of meaning. Impulse control is taught at a very early age by parents, peers, siblings and other adults. Children learn that they cannot simply take whatever they want or else they will suffer socially or physically from the consequences. This process is continued throughout one’s lifespan. Preparation for roles, the second goal of socialization, is also important. For children, they learn family roles, gender related roles and school roles. Adolescents on the other hand experience intensive preparation for adult roles. And finally for adults, they prepare for roles in marriage and parenthood as well as divorce, being grandparents and retirees. Roles may be based on social class, caste membership or even racial and ethnic identity. The final goal of socialization, which is the development of sources of meaning, includes religious beliefs, which primarily explain the origin of human life, suffering and what happens to us after we die. The Seven Sources of Socialization: Family: Family reflects and transmits the values of a culture as a whole. Parents do not create their own parenting practices; they follow role requirements of parents set by their


Yousri          39  

culture and adopt practices their parents used. It’s not really a choice parents make. Arnett used Saudi Arabia as an example, “when Saudi Arabian parents do not allow their adolescent daughter to go out of the home without her face being veiled, or to be in the company of an adolescent boy unchaperoned, this narrow socialization is not something the parents created, but something they learned as a consequence of their own narrow socialization in that culture.” In the family socialization process, it is strongly encouraged to include not only parents but the extended family as well, especially siblings and grandparents. Arnett supports this by mentioning two examples, one about India and the other about America. In India, extended family socialization is notably present. When a wife moves in with her new husband, she also moves in with her mother-in-law and her husband’s siblings, whereas Americans are less attached to their extended families. Peers: Peers are the most influential and play the biggest role in the socialization of a person. Children and adolescents see their friends as much as or maybe even more than they see their families on a daily basis. Friends influence one another regularly and study shows that they have more of an effect on one’s socialization than families. Peer socialization in particular clashes with other socialization practices because they may contradict each other. For example peers can influence one another to consume alcohol whereas family and school ban it. Adults are like children when choosing their friends; they choose people who are similar to them, age-wise or education-wise. In a broader socialization process, there is more freedom in choosing your friends whereas in narrow socialization, people are more restricted by their parents and culture.


School and Work:

 

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Socialization in school is influenced by other sources like the values of the families of the children enrolled in the school, by the community and by the cultural belief system. When Arnett compares schools in the US with schools in Japan, there is a huge difference. Schools and families in Japan discipline their children strictly and press them hard towards obedience and conformity towards their teachers and high academic performance. This type of obedience reflects the narrow socialization present in this classroom. In the US on the other hand, they adopt a more broad socialization. Students are encouraged to carry out their own work and stand up for their rights. Students teach themselves via books and the Internet. Teachers on the other hand do minimal teaching and this encourages students to become very independent. The workplace then replaces school as a socialization process during adulthood. According to the author, the workplace a narrow socialization, because people at work are expected to do certain tasks with a high level of performance and if they fail to meet certain requirements, there are punishments and if they succeed, they are rewarded. Because workplaces are “hierarchical,” each person is subject to authority of another person and therefore and obedience and conformity are enforced. Community: The community size and cohesion plays a huge role in the socialization of an individual. Initiations in their traditional forms are considered the best example for narrow socialization. Arnett used Sambians as an example to support this claim. In Sambia, when boys are about seven to eight years old, they are carried by a sponsor (usually an uncle) and are hit on their backs with reeds causing the child to bleed. In Westerners’ eyes, this would be considered brutal but in their culture it is simply


Yousri          41  

preparation for adulthood in order to become strong and willing to fight and kill for their country and people. Media: Media, another source of socialization, is considered one of the most important. It exposes the people to certain things that they will either adopt or imitate. What is portrayed in the media differs from one country to another depending on its culture. In western societies, the media is broad and offers a wide variety of things to watch, whereas in Saudi Arabia for example, it is very narrow. Individuals choose to watch what appeals to them the most. Even though Americans have a broad socialization, the government however denies certain offerings for children and there are certain messages in the media that explicitly promote conformity in particular areas, for example anti drug campaigns. Legal System: Legal systems sets limits on behavior either stringently or leniently. Legal systems in Islamic countries like Saudi Arabia provide an example of narrow socialization. It has a legal system that is based strictly on Islamic law where theft is punishable by amputating a thief's hand and if the use or sale of alcohol is discovered, severe punishments take place. Cultural Belief System: Cultural belief systems form the basis for all other sources of socialization and may take the shape of religious institutions like a Catholic Church. So how can all of this answer my research question, which is “To what  extent   does  broad  and  narrow  socialization  affect  a  country’s  religious  and  cultural   beliefs?”  Religious  and  cultural  beliefs  have  changed  drastically  over  the  past  


Yousri          42     decade  or  more.  The  more  people  were  exposed  to  either  broad  or  narrow   socialization,  the  more  they  changed.     How  has  this  affected  both  women  and  men?  Walker  talked  about  South   Africa  for  example,  the  transition  to  democracy  had  led  to  a  crisis  in  masculinity.   When  the  President  strengthened  his  relationship  with  the  West,  which  is   broadly  socialized,  a  new  constitution  was  written  that  provided  women  with   more  rights  than  ever  and  exposed  South  Africans  to  things  that  were  very   foreign  to  them  like  gay  marriage.  Because  South  Africa  was  narrowly  socialized,   the  sudden  transition  created  many  problems  amongst  both  men  and  women.   Women  were  granted  the  right  to  work  and  the  men  of  course  did  not  accept  this   since  they  believed  that  they  were  the  only  ones  who  are  supposed  to  work  and   provide  for  the  family.  Many  problems  emerged  from  the  fact  that  women  shared   the  workplace  with  men  like  being  bullied,  sexually  harassed  or  treated  as   under-­‐achievers.  Also,  when  people  were  exposed  to  the  concept  of  being  ‘gay,’   this  confused  men  greatly  and  made  them  very  uncertain  about  their  identity.   This  was  the  perfect  example  to  explain  how  broad  and  narrow  can  influence   one’s  cultural  beliefs.      Here  I  will  talk  about  Egypt  and  how  religious  and  cultural  beliefs   changed  out  of  personal  observation  and  experience.  I  believe  that  Egypt  is   narrowly  socialized  as  a  whole,  however  a  minority  including  myself  are  broadly   socialized,  how  so?  We,  the  minority,  are  the  very  few  who  were  able  to  afford  to   go  to  private  schools,  internet  connections  and  access  to  foreign  TV  channels,   therefore  we  have  been  exposed  to  a  bigger  world  and  thus  had  a  broader   perspective  about  everything.  Because  more  than  90%  Egyptians  are  poor,  there   is  difficulty  for  everyone  to  behave  in  their  nature.  The  broad  minority  cannot  for  


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example leave  their  homes  wearing  something  revealing  because  the  90%   narrow  minded  Egyptians  will  *****************   Out of personal experience and observation, I can conclude that Egypt has a narrow socialization. I agree one hundred percent with what Arnett believes, that socialization is based mostly on the culture of the country. In Egypt, people are very closed-minded. Very few people are considered liberal and those are the ones who are educated in international schools and are exposed to a variety of cultures. At the end of the day, Egypt is an Islamic state and everything is to a certain extent restricted by the government, media and the materials being studied at schools. Most of my research depended on secondary research methods, however I also engaged in primary research in order to obtain results that I will never find in a book as well as personal opinions of the people who experienced more or less a similar background to what I am researching. I constructed both a survey and an interview. Both are made up of 10 questions each and they strictly focus on personal opinions and observations. The survey roughly took about five to ten minutes to answer whereas the interviews lasted up to fifteen to twenty minutes. Everyone who took part in these methods of research pretty much shared the same opinions and views. Survey Results: 9 people answered the survey I distributed late last month, 77.8% attended international schools, 11.1% attended national and 11.1% attended both and only 2 of the 9 studied sociology. Looking at these results, I automatically assumed that since 88.9% of my survey takers attended international schools, they all must adopt a broad socialization themselves. This was proven to be true later on in the survey when I asked which type


Yousri          44     of socialization they personally adopt. I then asked which of the seven sources influenced their type of socialization; Family

66.7%

6

Peers

77.8%

7

School

55.6%

5

Work

22.2%

2

Media

33.3%

3

Government

11.1%

1

Cultural Beliefs

22.2%

2

Religion

22.2%

2

Family Peers     School     Work     Media       Government     Cultural  Beliefs     Religion    


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66.7% agreed that Egypt adopts a narrow socialization, whereas 33.3% believe otherwise. In conclusion, yes, a country’s socialization most definitely affects how women are treated and how people think and act. The more the person is educated, the broader their minds are most likely to be but this also depends largely on the country’s cultural beliefs as a whole.


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Works Cited

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. "Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory." Journal of Marriage and Family 3rd ser. 57 (Aug 1995): 617-28. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bayat, Asef. "Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 1st ser. 40 (Jan 1998): 136-69. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bush, D. M., & Simmons, R. G. (1981). Socialization processes Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution." Journal of Black Studies 6th ser. 36 (Jul 2006): 918-37. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Rîşnoveanu, Adriana. "The Students' Socialization - A Real And Actual Challenge For The School Organization." Petroleum - Gas University Of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series 62.1B (2010): 72-80. Academic Search Complete. Walker, Liz. "Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994." Culture, Health & Sexuality 3rd ser. 7 (May 2005): 225-38. JSTOR. Web. 12 June 2012. Dallmayr, Fred. "Radical Changes In The Muslim World: Turkey, Iran, Egypt." Globalizations 8.5 (2011): 639-646. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012. Shahidian, Hammed. Women in Iran. Vol. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2002. Print.


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Ebadi, Shirin. Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2006. Print. Kugler, R. Anthony. "Women In Egypt." Faces (07491387) 23.1 (2006): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 June 2012. Martin, Vanessa, and Sarah Ansari. Women, Religion and Culture in Iran. 7th ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2002. Print.


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Annotated Bibliography

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. "Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory." Journal of Marriage and Family 3rd ser. 57 (Aug 1995): 617-28. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Arnett explains the theory of broad and narrow socialization but by emphasizing family socialization in its cultural context. Independence, individualism and selfexpression is encouraged in broad socialization whereas obedience and conformity are preferred in narrow socialization. He also describes the seven main sources of socialization including, family, peers, school and work, community, media, legal system and cultural belief system. Other considerations are also discussed, which include variation within cultures (such as gender differences) and the place of attachments. The three main goals of socialization in addition to two examples of applications of the theory are provided in the article.

I focus mainly on broad and narrow socialization and how it influences religious beliefs and gender therefore I need this article because it is the root of my information.

Bayat, Asef. "Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 1st ser. 40 (Jan 1998): 136-69. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bayat tries to find out why Iran with a thriving economy and wealthy middle class go through an Islamic revolution, while Egypt with a poorer economy and “impoverished


Yousri          49  

large middle classes” did not go beyond developing an Islamist movement. He talks about each country’s circumstances separately by focusing mainly on how religion is applied in each and their leadership styles.

I will briefly discuss what is going on in this article and how it relates to broad and narrow socialization.

Bush, D. M., & Simmons, R. G. (1981). Socialization processes

Dallmayr, Fred. "Radical Changes In The Muslim World: Turkey, Iran, Egypt." Philosophy and Social Criticism 38.4-5 (2012): 497-506. SAGE. Web. 21 June 2012. Dallmayr discusses the radical changes that occurred in the Muslim world within the last decade. He emphasizes mainly on the “tension between secularism and religious authority and the prospect of political democracy.”

I will try as much as possible to explain this case and how socialization affected this change.

Ebadi, Shirin. Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2006. Print. Ebadi tells the story of the struggles of a woman named Zara Kazemi, who got raped, against the system. The book talks about her childhood, upbringing in an untraditional


Yousri          50     family, her marriage and her faith, as well as her life as a mother and a well- known lawyer battling an oppressive regime.

I will use examples from her real life experiences in order to explain my point further.

Kugler, R. Anthony. "Women In Egypt." Faces (07491387) 23.1 (2006): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 June 2012. Kugler focuses on women in Muslim countries especially in Egypt and the existence of unequal treatment between males and females. It will explain how women are treated in Egypt as opposed to in other countries. Girls in Egypt receive poorer or no education when compared to boys and women are not allowed a voting experience like men.

I will use example from here to get my point across in the essay.

Martin, Vanessa, and Sarah Ansari. Women, Religion and Culture in Iran. 7th ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2002. Print. Martin talks about women in Iran since the 19th century. It examines every aspect of an Iranian woman during this time period.

Again I will use this to give examples and get to the point using facts.

Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution." Journal of Black Studies 6th ser. 36 (Jul 2006): 918-37. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012.


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Oliver describes the social significance of “the streets” as an alternative socialization source to the family, church, and other community-based institutions of Black males. It is explained how “the streets” is a socialization institution that affects the psychological developments and life transitions of Black males greatly. Consequences related to the pursuit of manhood and social status in “the streets” are also included in this article.

I will use this very briefly while explaining broad and narrow socialization as an example.

Rîşnoveanu, Adriana. "The Students' Socialization - A Real And Actual Challenge For The School Organization." Petroleum - Gas University Of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series 62.1B (2010): 72-80. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012 Rîşnoveanu points out one of the roles that the school has accomplished as a socializing agent. The school acts together with or against other socializing agents like family, friends and the media.

I will use this to explain how student socialization is important and how this socialization will affect their future decisions

Shahidian, Hammed. Women in Iran. Vol. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2002. Print. The author talks about women living in Iran during the revolutionary and postrevolutionary periods.


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I will use this book to explain my point further using examples and experiences listed.

Walker, Liz. "Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994." Culture, Health & Sexuality 3rd ser. 7 (May 2005): 225-38. JSTOR. Web. 12 June 2012. Walker talks about the major changes that happened in South Africa after the president strengthened his relationship with western countries. Men became confused and uncertain about their duties as men and their identities. This confusion led to mistreatment towards women and more violence. “The transition to democracy has precipitated a crisis of masculinity. Some men are seeking to be part of a new social order while others are defensively clinging to more familiar routines. This paper explores new masculinities in contemporary South Africa. It examines how men negotiate their manhood in a period of social turbulence and transition.”

I will use it to explain the effects of broad and narrow socialization further.


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rd

3 Draft Introduction

54 - 55

Lit Review

55 - 63

Methodology (including survey and interviews) Conclusion

63 - 72

Works Cited

73 - 74

Annotated Bibliography

75 - 81

72


Sarah Yousri

 

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Michael Gibson RHET 201 11 July 2012 Draft 3 – I-Search Paper Broad and Narrow Socialization As an undergraduate student studying at the American University in Cairo, I was required for my RHET 201 class to write a research paper about any topic that interested me. Since I am majoring in Sociology and I find it very interesting, I decided to write about a specific topic that captivated me the most and that is how broad and narrow socialization can affect a country’s religious and cultural beliefs. How women are treated in every country, for me, falls under the category of a country’s cultural and religious beliefs. Socialization means the establishment of limits but it is also restricted by the boundaries that cultures impose on individuals because cultures determine what is acceptable and what is not. Jeffrey Jensen Arnett mentions in his article “Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory,” that there are two types of socialization, broad and narrow. Broad is intended to promote “independence, individualism and self-expression” whereas narrow demands “obedience and conformity,” and also requires living up to cultural expectations. There are seven main sources of socialization: family, peers, school and work, community, the media, the legal system and the cultural belief system. They’re all an attempt of integrating ideas from psychology, sociology and anthropology. Other sources discussed in the article include; variation within cultures like gender and sex differences. Arnett mentions that all the research and theorizing that has been


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revolving around this topic takes Western cultures as their primary focus and compares all other cultures to it, which has led to minimal focus on socialization as a cultural aspect. The author intends in his article to promote socialization as a cultural process and totally eliminates any comparisons with other cultures regarding their ways of socialization. Arnett begins by explaining his definition of socialization, which “is the process by which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of the social world—that is, the culture—in which they live.” He also mentions that there are three goals of socialization: impulse control, role preparation and finally the development of sources of meaning. Impulse control is taught at a very early age by parents, peers, siblings and other adults that include grandparents. According to the article, children begin to learn these rules from a very early age and the awareness remains with them throughout their lives. Children learn that they cannot simply take whatever they want or else they will suffer socially or physically from the consequences. This process is continued throughout one’s lifespan. For adolescents, in school, when taking exams, they cannot simply get the grades they want they have to work for them and for adults this process takes place in the workplace. They cannot get the job position they want without working hard for it. Preparation for roles, the second goal of socialization, is also important. Roles may be based on social class, caste membership or even racial and ethnic identity. For children, they learn family roles, gender related roles and school roles. Adolescents on the other hand experience intensive preparation for adult roles like cooking, cleaning, babysitting, taking full responsibility for their actions and mistakes. And finally for adults, they prepare for roles in marriage and parenthood as well as divorce, being grandparents and retirees. The final goal of socialization, which is the development of sources of meaning, includes religious


Yousri          56     beliefs, which primarily explain the origin of human life, suffering and what happens to them after they die. The Seven Sources of Socialization: Family: Family reflects and transmits the values of a culture as a whole. Parents do not create their own parenting practices, however they follow role requirements of parents set by their culture and adopt practices their parents used previously. It’s not really a choice parents make. Arnett used Saudi Arabia as an example, “when Saudi Arabian parents do not allow their adolescent daughter to go out of the home without her face being veiled, or to be in the company of an adolescent boy unchaperoned, this narrow socialization is not something the parents created, but something they learned as a consequence of their own narrow socialization in that culture.” In the family socialization process, it is strongly encouraged to include not only parents but the extended family as well, meaning their siblings and grandparents. Arnett supports this by talking about two different countries, India and the United States. In India, extended family socialization is notably present. When a wife moves in with her new husband, she also moves in with her mother-in-law and her husband’s siblings, whereas Americans are less attached to their extended families and therefore do as they please. Peers: Peers are the most influential and play the biggest role in the socialization process of a person. Children and adolescents see their friends as much as or maybe even more than they see their families on a daily basis. Friends influence one another


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regularly and study proves that they have more of an effect on one’s socialization than families. Peer socialization in particular clashes with other socialization practices because they may contradict each other. For example peers can influence one another to consume alcohol whereas family and school strictly ban it. Adults are like children when choosing their friends; they choose people who are similar to them, age-wise or education-wise. When choosing your friends, there is more freedom in a broad socialization but more restriction by parents and culture in a narrow socialization. School and Work: Socialization in school is influenced by other sources like the values of the families of the children enrolled in the school, by the community or even the cultural belief system. When Arnett compares schools in the United States with schools in Japan, there is a huge difference. Children in Japan are disciplined strictly and pressed hard by their schools and families towards obedience and conformity when it comes to their teachers and academic performance. This type of obedience reflects the narrow socialization present in a Japanese classroom. In the United States on the other hand, they adopt a more broad socialization. Students are encouraged to carry out their own work and stand up for their rights in class. Because teachers do minimal teaching, it encourages students to become very independent and teach themselves via books and the Internet. The workplace then replaces school as a socialization process during adulthood and adolescence. According to the author, the workplace a narrow socialization, because people at work are expected to do certain tasks with a high level of performance and if they fail to meet certain requirements, there are punishments and if they succeed, they are rewarded. Because workplaces are


Yousri          58     “hierarchical,” each person is subject to authority of another person and therefore and obedience and conformity are enforced. Community: Community size and cohesion also play a huge role in the socialization of an individual. Initiations in their traditional forms are considered the best example for narrow socialization. Arnett used Sambians as an example to support this claim. In Sambia, when boys are about seven to eight years old, they are carried by a sponsor (usually an uncle) and are hit on their backs with reeds causing the child to bleed. In Westerners’ eyes, this would be considered brutal but in their culture it is simply preparation for adulthood in order to become strong and willing to fight and kill for their country and people. Media: Media, another source of socialization, is considered one of the most influential. It exposes the people to certain things that they will either adopt, imitate or ignore. What is portrayed in the media differs from one country to another depending on its culture. In western societies, the media is broad and offers a wide variety of things to watch. In Saudi Arabia however, it is very narrow. Individuals choose to watch what appeals to them the most. Even though Americans have a broad socialization, the government however denies certain offerings for children and there are certain messages in the media that explicitly promote conformity in particular areas, for example anti drug campaigns. Legal System: Legal systems sets limits on behavior either stringently or leniently. Legal systems in Islamic countries like Saudi Arabia provide an example of narrow socialization. It has a legal system that is based strictly on Islamic law where theft is


Yousri          59  

punishable by amputating a thief's hand and if the use or sale of alcohol is discovered, severe punishments take place. In the United States on the other hand, the constitution is more liberal and people have the right to defend themselves before getting punished. Cultural Belief System: Cultural belief systems form the basis for all other sources of socialization and may take the shape of religious institutions like a Catholic Church. So how can all of this answer my research question, which is “To what extent does broad and narrow socialization affect a country’s religious and cultural beliefs?” Religious and cultural beliefs have changed drastically over the past decade or more. The more people were exposed to either broad or narrow socialization, the more they changed. How has this affected both women and men? Liz Walker talked in her article “Men behaving differently: South African men since 1994,” about how crises in masculinity arose in South Africa after a new constitution that encouraged the transition to democracy was implemented. When the President strengthened his relationship with the West, which is broadly socialized, a new Constitution and Bill of Rights were written in 1996 that presented the manhood figure as liberal as the constitution itself. Although the new constitution clashes with the past, many men embraced the changes while other reacted violently. This constitution merely created a more disturbed and destabilized South Africa. This struggle between conventional and traditional practices and beliefs created many different forms of crises in masculinity. What does Liz mean by ‘crisis in masculinity’? Well it means being uncertain about “‘social role and identity, sexuality, work and personal relationships’” (Frosh et al. 2002: 1). Conventional men’s work crumpled, feminist awareness rose


Yousri          60     amongst women and men’s customary dominant role changed drastically. The reason men reacted angrily towards this change was because, “‘Men's responses to feminism internationally echo this where some men, reacting angrily have fought to maintain and increase their power and privilege (Faludi 1991, Dworkin 1997). And others have welcomed opportunities for change, which is reflected in the growing numbers of men's movements working for gender justice (Connell 1995).’” Constitutional Sexuality and its Consequences: Women protested in the early 1990’s with strong commitment to end women’s oppression and create gender equity. South Africa having the most progressive Constitution in the world ensured that the new democratic Constitution was set on four important values in the democratic constitution: non-racism, non-sexism, gender equality and finally more human rights. A shift in gender power occurred Post Constitution, “‘Women comprise thirty percent of members of parliament, marital rape is now a recognized offence; domestic violence is subject to new and tougher sentencing; people (mainly men) who defy child maintenance court orders are liable to prosecution; companies are obliged to appoint women in terms of labour legislation; women have to be paid the same as men for equivalent work; and in education, the interests of female children have been identified as needing special efforts (Morrell 2002: 5).’” Not only did female power increase, but also Reid and Dirsuweit (2002) argued that gay people became more open and visible in public, access to pornographic material increased rapidly and adult sex shops started appearing all across South Africa. However, this liberalization in sexuality increased gender violence, it was an


Yousri          61  

inevitable consequence. Xaba supported this fact in his article “Masculinity and its Malcontents: the Confrontation between ‘Struggle Masculinity’ and ‘Post Struggle Masculinity’,” '”The heroic struggle masculinity of the 1980s has been delegitimized and, without the prospects of jobs and having lost the political status they formerly had, these young men have gone on the rampage, robbing, killing and raping.” Walker included a statistical example in her paper that justifies all of the above, “‘In the last 7 years, domestic violence and rape have increased. As many as 50% of women in South Africa report experiencing domestic violence, be it physical, emotional, or financial. In 1998, South Africa had the highest per capita rate of reported rape in the world 115.6 cases per year for every 100,000 of the population. The controversial assumption often made is that only one out of every twenty rapes is reported. If this is the case, then approximately 1 million rapes occur in South Africa annually (Johnson and Budlender 2002: 9).’” When men were interviewed, they claimed that this violent behavior is a result of feeling threatened by women’s changing position and increasing power. An example of an interview: “‘We are seen as the enemy now. Women are advancing in education, economically. Men feel threatened. I see a lot of women who have gained a lot of confidence in who they are. I know women who provide for themselves now and that threat is actually what maybe evoking a lot of violence. It is that strength, it is that threat of knowing that I can no longer hold onto that same position I held, or my father or my bother held. I suppose you could say I feel


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weaker. I'm not saying the rape is a new thing but it's playing itself out in why men are being more violent. (Interview, 25 April 2002)’” South Africa was the best example to illustrate my point on how the type of socialization can affect cultural beliefs and hence women. The transition from a narrow to a broad socialization increased violence towards women and identity crises for men. As a result of personal experience and observation, I can conclude that Egypt is narrowly socialized. I agree one hundred percent with what Arnett believes, that socialization is based mostly on the culture of the country. In Egypt, people are very closed-minded. Very few people are considered liberal and those are the minorities. The minorities including myself are broadly socialized because they are mostly the ones who are educated in international schools and are exposed to a variety of cultures. How so? The minorities are the very few who were able to afford to go to private schools, have unlimited Internet connections and have access to foreign TV channels, hence we have been exposed to a foreign and much broader world and thus having a broader perspective. At the end of the day, Egypt is an Islamic state and everything is to a certain extent restricted by the government, media and the materials being studied at schools. More than 80% Egyptians are either poor or fall under the poverty line, consequently, the minority find it difficult to act confidently upon their broad minds. Yes the type of socialization influences religious and cultural beliefs but also religious and cultural beliefs limit socialization. I, as a broadly socialized individual, have to know my limits due to my culture and religion. So how do cultural and religious beliefs influence the type of socialization? Asef Bayat talks about Iran and Egypt in his article, “Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt.” In


Yousri          63  

Egypt, there is secularization of religious symbols, it is common to see taxi drivers switching between pop and religious music, many religious festivals, Islamic pop music is very popular and finally it is not divided along secular and religious lines. In Iran however, they hold religion and its symbols emphasizing the sacred nature of Islam, for example like where they place their Holy Book of Quran at home. Also, it is uncommon to see drivers, their festivals are regarded as sad and associated with death and mourning, it is unthinkable to find Islamic pop music and finally it is divided along secular and religious lines. For these reasons it is impossible to find Iran adopting a broad socialization because they deal with religion more strictly even though both are Islamic countries. Methodology: Most of my research depended on secondary research methods, however I also engaged in primary research in order to obtain results that I will never find in a book because I was never present when any research took place as well as personal opinions of the people who experienced more or less a similar background to what I am researching. I constructed both a survey and an interview. Both are made up of 10 questions each and they strictly focus on personal opinions and observations. The survey roughly took about five to ten minutes to answer whereas the interviews lasted up to fifteen to twenty minutes. Everyone who took part in these methods of research pretty much shared the same opinions and views. Survey: 1. What type of school did you go to? National International Both And did you ever study sociology? 2. Broad socialization encourages independence and self-expression whereas


narrow socialization encourages obedience and conformity. Which type of socialization does Egypt adopt in your opinion?

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Broad Narrow How? 3. Were you brought up by strict religious parents? Yes No Briefly explain the background of your upbringing. 4. Only answer this if your answer to the previous question was "yes:" On a scale of 1 to 10, How strict were your parents? 5. Which type of socialization do you adopt? Broad Narrow 6. What is the type of socialization you adopt influenced by? Family Friends Media Government School Work Cultural Beliefs Religion Other (please specify) 7. Are women discriminated against in Egypt? Yes No How? 8. How is religion implemented in Egypt? 9. Do you think people should continue to go to private international schools or should they maintain their culture by avoiding foreign education?


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10. Are you totally against western influence or half-half? 100% Against 50/50 Why? Survey Results: Nine people answered the survey I distributed late last month, 77.8% attended international schools, 11.1% attended national and 11.1% attended both and only 2 of the 9 studied sociology. Looking at these results, I automatically assumed that since 88.9% of my survey takers attended international schools, they all must adopt a broad socialization themselves. This was proven to be true later on in the survey when I asked which type of socialization they personally adopt. I then asked which of the seven sources influenced their type of socialization: Family

66.7%

6

Peers

77.8%

7

School

55.6%

5

Work

22.2%

2

Media

33.3%

3

Government

11.1%

1

Cultural Beliefs

22.2%

2

Religion

22.2%

2


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Family Peers     School     Work     Media       Government     Cultural  Beliefs     Religion    

Some Responses: “Limits the actions of both males and females, people aren't free to do what they like without being criticized and critiqued.” “I guess now its broad after the revolution, but before that it was very narrow.” “We follow traditions and what our parents tell us to do.” “Traditionally, ya3ni it seems to have been more narrow; but perhaps there's presently a shift taking place...” “everyone is expected to follow a social norm and anything different from that is bizarre or "gay"”


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Some Responses: “Religious basis, but nothing was forced on my strictly” “My family are religious however follow the rules of life where they seek freedom of expression in the house. they have never forced me or my brother to believe in anything we disagreed or had different viewpoints from them on. for example: during the presidential elections, almost every single on of us voted for a different person.” “They are religious but open minded at the same time.” “Church every week; strong morals/ethics taught based on Christian values and Biblical principles” “I don't know how i would classify my upbringing but for instance i was allowed to wear anything i want, but have limited physical interaction with boys. Obviously we had to pray all our prayers and fast and such.” “fathers religious.. mother's not so they sort of counter act sometime”


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Some Responses: “Sexual harassment, honor killings, FGM (female genital mutilation), sometimes deprived from working, patriarchy” “Every woman in Egypt is discriminated. In my recent case, its when i drive.” “Problems concerning clothing, work and people underestimate their intelligence” “College educated/career women are not give enough opportunities in buisness/public sector” “we are not free to do what we want, even when we obey we are still subject to discrimination.”


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Some Responses:

“By force now apparently, morsilicious so delicious” “If you're talking about the 0.1% that we live in, Religion is there however does not take place when making decisions and/or planning daily life. However, the other majority of the population have religion in their minds 24/7. Religion is what bases every single lifetime decision they make, even if it is based on something nonreligious.” “Up till now, everyone does what they like.” “moderately” “It's a large part of the culture and is encouraged on some levels by the government and other types of leadership” “most people only know the part of the holy book that talks about women's duty towards men. some men just pray and go to the friday prayer but after that all hell breaks loose especially against women.” “by force and immaturity” “its the basis of the upbringing of almost all egyptian families”


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Some Responses:

“A balance of both can be established if the society itself has a strong culture, the language of education shouldn't matter. However, this wouldn't be a necessity if public education was up to suitable standards. Since it is not, then people should continue to go private schools.” “I guess international schools have nothing to do with culture, but more of expanding their education and their knowledge which is always the best option. International schools also offer Thanaweya Amma arabic exams which is pretty cultural.” “If one can afford to go to an international school, they should. It provides a better education.” “It depends; I think both have their place but public eduction needs to be up to date and must ensure proper qualifications (curriculum, facilities, staff)” “no they can go to international schools as they are much more technologically advanced than us and conduct studies in alot of fields. just as long as we don't forget our religion and start dressing as nude as them and adopt their lifestyles and become too open to a point that we forget about our limits.”


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Some Responses: “There's a lot of advancements and ways forward people can learn from the west, there's a lot of positivity that can be taken from the ideas of the west, without absorbing the negativity” “Every country has its own culture and beliefs and by no means should the be eliminated. Even if i disagree with some of the cultural habitats i live in, i lean to adapt, not try to eliminate them. However, having a western culture definitely tones down the bad aspects of my cultural especially.” “teaches us” “I am not against but I didnt have that choice” “If the West abuses the influences they have, it's undesirable (as is any abuse); but the East can learn and gain from the West just as the West can learn and gain from the East” Some of the answers I received were not clear at all but I got what I needed and got a pretty good idea about the opinions of Egyptians. Interview: I would like to thank my former sociology professor Dr. Maysa Ayoub for freeing some time to meet me and answer my questions. She taught me last semester


Yousri          72     at the American University in Cairo and she is the one who introduced me to the topic about broad and narrow socialization. Again, Dr. Maysa shared pretty much the same opinions with all of my survey takers. She was brought up by liberal and slightly religious parents and adopts a broad socialization herself. She strongly believes that Egypt adopted and still adopts a narrow socialization however emphasized that at the time when her grandparents were alive, Egyptians adopted a very broad socialization and that life was so much easier before than it is now. She believes that yes women are discriminated against in Egypt but not greatly because women started standing up for their rights more and finally she is not against Western influence at all. On the contrary, she believes that we can learn a lot from them but at the same time we should be in touch with our cultural roots and traditional practices. In conclusion, yes, a country’s socialization most definitely affects how women are treated and how people think and act. The more the person is educated, the broader their minds are most likely to be but this also depends largely on the country’s cultural beliefs as a whole. Also, the type of socialization most definitely affects a country’s religious and cultural beliefs but also a country’s cultural and religious beliefs affect the type of socialization as well.


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Works Cited

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. "Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory." Journal of Marriage and Family 3rd ser. 57 (Aug 1995): 617-28. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bayat, Asef. "Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 1st ser. 40 (Jan 1998): 136-69. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bush, D. M., & Simmons, R. G. (1981). Socialization processes Connell, R. W. (1995) Masculinities (Cambridge: Polity). Dallmayr, Fred. "Radical Changes In The Muslim World: Turkey, Iran, Egypt." Globalizations 8.5 (2011): 639-646. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012. Ebadi, Shirin. Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2006. Print. Faludi, S. (1991) Backlash: The Undeclared War Against Women (London: Vintage). Frosh, S., Phoenix, A. and Pattman, R. (2002) Young Masculinities (Basingstoke: Palgrave). Johnson, L. and Budlender, D. (2002) HIV Risk Factors: A Review of the Demographic, Socioeconomic, Biomedical and Behavioral Determinants of HIV Prevalence in South Africa, Centre for Actuarial Research, University of Cape Town, Monograph No 8, 1-49. Kugler, R. Anthony. "Women In Egypt." Faces (07491387) 23.1 (2006): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 June 2012.


Yousri          74     Martin, Vanessa, and Sarah Ansari. Women, Religion and Culture in Iran. 7th ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2002. Print. Morrell, R. (2002) Men, movement and gender transformation in South Africa. Journal of Men's Studies, 10, 309-321. Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution." Journal of Black Studies 6th ser. 36 (Jul 2006): 918-37. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Reid, G. and Dirsuweit, T. (2002) Understanding systemic violence: homophobic attacks in Johannesburg and its surrounds. Urban Forum, 13, 99-126. Rîşnoveanu, Adriana. "The Students' Socialization - A Real And Actual Challenge For The School Organization." Petroleum - Gas University Of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series 62.1B (2010): 72-80. Academic Search Complete. Shahidian, Hammed. Women in Iran. Vol. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2002. Print. Walker, Liz. "Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994." Culture, Health & Sexuality 3rd ser. 7 (May 2005): 225-38. JSTOR. Web. 12 June 2012. Xaba, T. (2001) Masculinity and its Malcontents: the Confrontation between 'Struggle Masculinity' and 'Post- Struggle Masculinity' (1990-1997). In R. Morrell (ed.) Changing Men in Southern Africa (London: Zed Books), pp. 105-124.


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Annotated Bibliography

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. "Broad and Narrow Socialization: The Family in the Context of a Cultural Theory." Journal of Marriage and Family 3rd ser. 57 (Aug 1995): 617-28. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Arnett explains the theory of broad and narrow socialization but by emphasizing family socialization in its cultural context. Independence, individualism and selfexpression is encouraged in broad socialization whereas obedience and conformity are preferred in narrow socialization. He also describes the seven main sources of socialization including, family, peers, school and work, community, media, legal system and cultural belief system. Other considerations are also discussed, which include variation within cultures (such as gender differences) and the place of attachments. The three main goals of socialization in addition to two examples of applications of the theory are provided in the article.

I focus mainly on broad and narrow socialization and how it influences religious beliefs and gender therefore I need this article because it is the root of my information.

Bayat, Asef. "Revolution without Movement, Movement without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt." Comparative Studies in Society and History 1st ser. 40 (Jan 1998): 136-69. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Bayat tries to find out why Iran with a thriving economy and wealthy middle class go through an Islamic revolution, while Egypt with a poorer economy and “impoverished


Yousri          76     large middle classes” did not go beyond developing an Islamist movement. He talks about each country’s circumstances separately by focusing mainly on how religion is applied in each and their leadership styles.

I will briefly discuss what is going on in this article and how it relates to broad and narrow socialization.

Bush, D. M., & Simmons, R. G. (1981). Socialization processes

I found this article while reading another article by Liz Walker. Walker quoted some of it and I found it to be very relevant so I used parts of it in my essay to get my point across.

Connell, R. W. (1995) Masculinities (Cambridge: Polity). Also found this article through Liz Walker and it talks about men in South Africa. I used this article to elaborate further on the example I gave about men in South Africa in my essay.

Dallmayr, Fred. "Radical Changes In The Muslim World: Turkey, Iran, Egypt." Philosophy and Social Criticism 38.4-5 (2012): 497-506. SAGE. Web. 21 June 2012. Dallmayr discusses the radical changes that occurred in the Muslim world within the last decade. He emphasizes mainly on the “tension between secularism and religious authority and the prospect of political democracy.”


Yousri          77  

I will try as much as possible to explain this case and how socialization affected this change.

Ebadi, Shirin. Iran Awakening : A Memoir of Revolution and Hope. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2006. Print. Ebadi tells the story of the struggles of a woman named Zara Kazemi, who got raped, against the system. The book talks about her childhood, upbringing in an untraditional family, her marriage and her faith, as well as her life as a mother and a well- known lawyer battling an oppressive regime.

I will use examples from her real life experiences in order to explain my point further.

Faludi, S. (1991) Backlash: The Undeclared War Against Women (London: Vintage). I used some examples from this book to explain how women are oppressed.

Frosh, S., Phoenix, A. and Pattman, R. (2002) Young Masculinities (Basingstoke: Palgrave). I used some examples from this book to further elaborate my example about South Africans.

Johnson, L. and Budlender, D. (2002) HIV Risk Factors: A Review of the Demographic, Socioeconomic, Biomedical and Behavioral Determinants of HIV Prevalence in South Africa, Centre for Actuarial Research, University of Cape Town, Monograph No 8, 1-49.


Yousri          78  

Kugler, R. Anthony. "Women In Egypt." Faces (07491387) 23.1 (2006): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 June 2012. Kugler focuses on women in Muslim countries especially in Egypt and the existence of unequal treatment between males and females. It will explain how women are treated in Egypt as opposed to in other countries. Girls in Egypt receive poorer or no education when compared to boys and women are not allowed a voting experience like men.

I will use example from here to get my point across in the essay.

Martin, Vanessa, and Sarah Ansari. Women, Religion and Culture in Iran. 7th ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2002. Print. Martin talks about women in Iran since the 19th century. It examines every aspect of an Iranian woman during this time period.

Again I will use this to give examples and get to the point using facts.

Morrell, R. (2002) Men, movement and gender transformation in South Africa. Journal of Men's Studies, 10, 309-321. This article is very similar to Liz Walker’s “Men behaving differently in South Africa.” It talks about how men were affected during the changes that occurred after the new constitution was written. I used quotes from this article to support my examples. Oliver, William. ""The Streets": An Alternative Black Male Socialization Institution."


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Journal of Black Studies 6th ser. 36 (Jul 2006): 918-37. JSTOR. Web. 11 June 2012. Oliver describes the social significance of “the streets” as an alternative socialization source to the family, church, and other community-based institutions of Black males. It is explained how “the streets” is a socialization institution that affects the psychological developments and life transitions of Black males greatly. Consequences related to the pursuit of manhood and social status in “the streets” are also included in this article.

I will use this very briefly while explaining broad and narrow socialization as an example.

Reid, G. and Dirsuweit, T. (2002) Understanding systemic violence: homophobic attacks in Johannesburg and its surrounds. Urban Forum, 13, 99-126. Again I found this through Liz Walker and I used a quote from the book to support some claims in my essay.

Rîşnoveanu, Adriana. "The Students' Socialization - A Real And Actual Challenge For The School Organization." Petroleum - Gas University Of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series 62.1B (2010): 72-80. Academic Search Complete. Web. 11 June 2012 Rîşnoveanu points out one of the roles that the school has accomplished as a socializing agent. The school acts together with or against other socializing agents like family, friends and the media.


Yousri          80     I will use this to explain how student socialization is important and how this socialization will affect their future decisions

Shahidian, Hammed. Women in Iran. Vol. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood, 2002. Print. The author talks about women living in Iran during the revolutionary and postrevolutionary periods.

I will use this book to explain my point further using examples and experiences listed.

Walker, Liz. "Men Behaving Differently: South African Men since 1994." Culture, Health & Sexuality 3rd ser. 7 (May 2005): 225-38. JSTOR. Web. 12 June 2012. Walker talks about the major changes that happened in South Africa after the president strengthened his relationship with western countries. Men became confused and uncertain about their duties as men and their identities. This confusion led to mistreatment towards women and more violence. “The transition to democracy has precipitated a crisis of masculinity. Some men are seeking to be part of a new social order while others are defensively clinging to more familiar routines. This paper explores new masculinities in contemporary South Africa. It examines how men negotiate their manhood in a period of social turbulence and transition.”

I will use it to explain the effects of broad and narrow socialization further.

Xaba, T. (2001) Masculinity and its Malcontents: the Confrontation between 'Struggle


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Masculinity' and 'Post- Struggle Masculinity' (1990-1997). In R. Morrell (ed.) Changing Men in Southern Africa (London: Zed Books), pp. 105-124. It talks about the major changes that happened in South Africa after the president strengthened his relationship with western countries. Men became confused and uncertain about their duties as men and their identities. This confusion led to mistreatment towards women and more violence Again this article is very similar to that of Liz Walker’s. I used it o support my claims further.

Broad and Narrow Socialization: How it Affects Both Cultural and Religious Beliefs  

How the Type of Socialization Can Affect Both Cultural and Religious Beliefs

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