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WHEN WE DESIGN SOMETHING THAT CAN BE USED BY THOSE WITH DISABILITIES, WE MAKE IT BETTER FOR EVERYONE.

_ PRO CESS RE_ LEARN D C D S L P C B S M C A A A A A A A A A A A D D B D D D P T T T T


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B A A D A2

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PROCESS RELEARN Published by The Academy of Art University Press 79 New Montgomery San Francisco, 94107

THANKS TO:

I dedicate this book to my mom, Mike, Daniel and Cat, for putting up with me during the gruelling process. And to those who were in it with me, Stephanie, Kristen, and Felicia. Thanks for helping keep some sanity.

No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner with out written permission from the in publisher in the context of reviews.

10 09 08 07 06 05 04 12345

Printed in San Francisco

c 2010 Sarah Rouse-Higgins ISBN 1-59878-259-8 All rights reserved.

COPYRIGHT

DEDICATION


01

Asperger’s Syndrome

ICD-10

F84.5

ICD-9

299.80

OMIM

608638

DiseasesDB

31268

MedlinePlus

001549

eMedicine

MeSH

PED/147

F03.550.325.100

02 ICD-10

ICD-9

OMIM

DiseasesDB

MedlinePlus

eMedicine

MeSH

Attention Deficit Disorder F90.

314.00, 314.01

143465

6158

001551

med/3103 ped/177

D001289


03

DiseasesDB

MeSH

ICD-10 R48.0

ICD-9

315.02

OMIM

127700

4016

D004410

Typography is an important element to consider when designing for people with dyslexia in mind. Since dyslexia effects how the brain interprets the symbols on a page, it is important to make symbols, in this case letters and words, as visually clear as possible. To do so, first choose a font that has clear letter shapes and is easy to read on screen. Good fonts to use include Helvetica, Arial and Verdana. Try to avoid a font with serifs for content text. If you are building a site that will have a lot of text, it can be helpful to have a way for the user to choose the font they prefer to read. Second, use a font size that is large enough to read at the default setting and allow users to easily scale the text, either through the browser’s built in scaling or through a scaling method built into the website itself, using javascript. Using percentage or ems to size fonts allows users to easily scale text size. Additionally, there should be enough “breathing room” between lines between lines to make it easier for the viewer to scan lines without getting the letters jumbled.

Dyslexia Typography is an important element to consider when designing for people with dyslexia in mind. Since dyslexia effects how the brain interprets the symbols on a page, it is important to make symbols, in this case letters and words, as visually clear as possible. To do so, first choose a font that has clear letter shapes and is easy to read on screen. Good fonts to use include Helvetica, Arial and Verdana. Try to avoid a font with serifs for content text. If you are building a site that will have a lot of text, it can be helpful to have a way for the user to choose the font they prefer to read. Second, use a font size that is large enough to read at the default setting and allow users to easily scale the text, either through the browser’s built in scaling or through a scaling method built into the website itself, using javascript. Using percentage or ems to size fonts allows users to easily scale text size. Additionally, there should be enough “breathing room” between lines between lines to make it easier for the viewer to scan lines without getting the letters jumbled.


D eve lop Deve l o p m e n t a l re a d i n g d i s o rd e r ( D R D ) i s not caused by vision problems, but rather by prob t ro u ble rhymi n g a n d s e p ara t i n g t h e s o u n d s i n s p o ken words. These abilities appear to be critical i re cognition, w h i c h i nvo l ve s b e i n g a b l e t o s e p a ra t e out the sounds in words and match them with let i n t o a cohere n t s e n t e n c e . B e c a u s e D R D c hildren have difficulty connecting the sounds of c h i l dren with D R D h ave n o r m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , a n d many have above-average inte a b i lity to thi n k o r t o u n d e rs t a n d c o m p l ex i d e a s . D RD may ap pear in combination wit i nvolve using sy m b o l s t o c o nvey i nfo r m a t i o n . T h e s e conditions may appear alone or in any combinat b efore a diag n o s i s of D R D c a n b e m a d e . C u l t u ra l a nd educational shortfalls, emotional problems, m Fo l low -up stu d i e s w i l l b e re q u i re d b efo re t h e re s u lts of this study on a small number of boys can le Va i d ya and As s o c i a t e P rofe s s o r J o h n G a b r i e l i of S tanford ’s Department of Psychology. Theirs is th di f ferent effe c t s o n t h e b ra i n s of p e o p l e w i t h a n d without ADD, and where those differences occur A c ade my of S c i e n c e s . T h e s t u d y i s a l s o t h e f i rs t t o use functional magnetic resonance imaging [FM i n s te ad of in ave ra g e s of d i f fe re n c e s of t wo g ro u ps. This is critical for diagnosis, which has to be n o t require in j e c t i o n o r i n h a l a t i o n of ra d i o a c t i ve substances. It relies instead on naturally occu p u rpos es for c h i l d re n . C o - a u t h o rs of t h e s t u d y a re medical doctors Glenn Austin and Hugh Ridle A l t o s , Calif. a n d G a r y G l ove r a n d J o h n D e s m o n d of the Stanford Medical Center’s Radiology Depa s o w idespread , s o c o n t rove rs i a l a n d c o nf u s i n g , and these are among the few clear findings in th At t e ntion def i c i t d i s o rd e r, w h i c h of t e n i n c l u d es hyperactivity, is currently diagnosed on the b re p lic ated, h e s a i d , i t m i g h t b e p o s s i b l e t o m a ke a biological diagnosis of the disorder by usin o n b rain func t i o n a re n o t k n ow n , p a re n t s a n d p e diatricians most likely would welcome a more def a s ked individ u a l l y t o p l ay a m e n t a l g a m e w h i l e lying in a magnetic resonance imaging device, w s t r iatal struc t u re s b e l ow i t . T h e b oys , 1 0 of w h o m had been diagnosed with ADD affected striata n o t . T he heal t hy b oys , i n c o n t ra s t , s h owe d t h e reverse - less activity in those areas when taking i n j ec ting rad i o a c t i ve m a te r i a l , a c o n s e n s u s d eve l oped that it is the frontal striatal circuitry of t h i s part of t h e b ra i n , a n d o u r s t u d y c o nf i r m e d t hat these structures are, indeed, important fo T h e opposite ef fe c t s of R i t a l i n o n b oys w i t h A D D and boys without the disorder suggest that ADD i t h a t the s t u d y wa s c o n d u c t e d w i t h a s m a l l g roup and needs to be replicated with girls as well a m a rke r for t h e d i s o rde r. T h ey a l s o re p o r t e d that they tried the experiment on three other bo t h ree siblings of A D D b oys s h owe d s o m e R i t a lin enhancement of the striatum, as did their affe g e ne tic influe n c e s o n d o p a m i n e m o d u l a t i o n ,” Vaidya said, but more studies would be necessary a l s o were caref u l t o p o i n t o u t o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s of their study. A fraction of people diagnose t h ey s aid. It a l s o d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o i nve s t i g a t e possible changes in brain activatio l evel when no t o n t h e d r u g , b u t a l l of t h e m h a d been taking Ritalin previously as part of thei i n t o b rain fu n c t i o n t h a t c o u l d i m p rove i n d i v i d u a l s’ performance. “This instead on naturally oc fo r children. C o - a u t h o rs of t h e s t u d y a re m e d i c al doctors Glenn Austin and Hugh Ridlehuber a n d Gary Glove r a n d J o h n D e s m o n d of t h e S t a nfo rd Medical Center’s Radiology Department. The s o controvers i a l a n d c o nf u s i n g , a n d t h e s e a re a m ong the few clear findings in that field,” said Ga di s o rder, whi c h of t e n i n c l u d e s hy p e ra c t i v i t y, i s c u rrently diagnosed on the basis of subjective obs p o ss ible to m a ke a b i o l og i c a l d i a g n o s i s of t h e d isorder by using FMRI. Since the common treatm p a rents and p e d i a t r i c i a n s m o s t l i ke l y wo u l d we l c o me a more definitive way to diagnose the a m ental gam e w h i l e l y i n g i n a m a g n e t i c re s o n a n c e imaging device, which was set to image i t. Th e b oys , 1 0 of w h o m h a d b e e n d i a g n o s ed with ADD and 6 of whom had n X o n a d i s p l ay s c ree n . B e c a u s e m o s t of t h e letters were not X, each child builup a predispos X . The task wa s ex p ec t e d t o b e , a n d i n fa c t p roved to be, more difficult for the boys with ADD l a t e r, rese a rc h e rs fo u n d a c l e a r d i f fe re n c e i n the activation of neuronal tissue in two structure di f ferences b e t we e n t h e b oys w i t h A D D a n d t h ose without were even more dramatic when the s m e dic ation u s e d t o t e m p o ra r i l y re l i eve sy m p t o ms of ADD, such as inattention, impulsivity and h h a d taken th e d r u g , ” Va i d ya s a i d . “ R i t a l i n i m p roved everyone’s performance, but how it actuall s t r u c tures (s p e c i f i c a l l y k n ow n a s t h e c a u d a t e a n d putamen) when taking the drug than when not. T dr u g t han wh e n n o t . “ Fro m p a s t wo r k w i t h a d u l t s and children, some of which required injecting t h a t i s what’s n o t r i g h t w i t h t h i s d i s o rd e r,” Va i d ya said. “That is why we imaged this part of p r i m ar ily, bu t n o t exc l u s ive l y, i nf l u e n c e s d o p a m i n e neurotransmission. The opposite effects of R m o d ulation in t h e s t r i a t um , s h e s a i d . T h e re s e a rc hers caution that the study was conducted with c e rtain they h ave fo u n d a u n i ve rs a l n e u ro b i o l o g i c al marker for the disorder. They also reported h a d siblin g s w i t h t h e d i a g n o s i s . Two of the three siblings of ADD boys showe s u p por t to th e i d e a t h a t A D D m ay i nvo l ve atypical genetic influences on dopamine m B e cause of th e w i d e s p re ad i n t e re s t i n A D D , the researchers also were careful t n o t respo n d e d t o R i t al i n t re a t m e n t , a n d t h i s s tudy did not include such chil dren t h a t might oc c u r w i t h t h e d r u g ove r t i m e . T he ADD boys did show a different brain ac p a rt of their o n g o i n g t re a t m e n t . D e s p i t e t h e s e limitations, the study points to new d o n e of the few s t u d i e s t o exa m i n e b ra i n function in children, and to further our know p owerf ul tool t o exa m i n e b ra i n a n d b e h av i o r i n the context of both normal and abnormal d h o me and sch o o l , a n d t h e l o n g -t e r m c o n s e q u e n ces include lower educational and vocational b e haviors. Deve l o p m e n t a l re a d i n g d i s o rd e r ( D RD) is not caused by vision problems, but r m ay have tro u b l e r hy m i n g a n d s e p a ra t i n g t h e s o u nds in spoken words. These abilities b a s e d on word re c o g n i t i o n , w h i c h i nvo l ve s b e i n g able to separate out the sounds in words and m of words in t o a c o h e re n t s e n t e n c e . B e c a u s e D R D children have difficulty connecting the sounds c h i l dren wi t h D R D h ave n o r m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , a nd many have above-average intelligence. The d t h i nk or to u n d e rs t a n d c o m p l ex i d e a s . D R D m ay a ppear in combination with developmental writi i nfor mation. T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s m ay a p p e a r a l one or in any combination. Other causes of lea c a n be made. C u l t u ra l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l shortfalls, emotional problems, mental retardati s t udie s will b e re q u i re d b efo re t h e re s u l t s of t his study on a small number of boys can lead to b Va i d ya and As s o c i a t e P rofe s s o r J o h n G a b r i e l i of Stanford ’s Department of Psychology. The A D D, has diffe re n t ef fe c ts o n t h e b ra i n s of people with and without ADD, and where those diff t h e National A c a d e my of S c i e n c e s . T h e s t u dy is also the first to use functional magnetic di f ferences i n i n d i v i d u a l p e o p l e , i n s t e a d of i n ave rages of differences of two groups. This is cr u s e d i n othe r s t u d i e s of A D D , F M R I d o e s n o t re quire injection or inhalation of radioactive subs a p propriate fo r re s e a rc h a n d c l i n i c a l p u r p o s e s for children. Co-authors of the study are medical C o mmunity/Ac a d e m i a C o al i t i o n i n L o s A l t o s , C a l i f. and Gary Glover and John Desmond of the Stanf n e u ros cientis t s b e c a u s e “A D D i s s o w i d e s p read, so controversial and confusing, and these ar w h ere the re s e a rc h wa s d o n e . At t e n t i o n deficit disorder, which often includes hyperactiv n ew f indings c a n b e rep l i c a t e d , h e s a i d , i t might be possible to make a biological diagnosi l o n g-term effe c t s o n b ra i n f u n c t i o n a re not known, parents and pediatricians most likely a g es of 8 and 13 we re a s ke d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o p l ay a mental game while lying in a magnetic resona c o rtex and th e s t r i a t a l s t r u c t u re s b e l ow i t . T h e b oys, 10 of whom had been diagnosed with ADD an exce pt the le t t e r X o n a d i s p l ay s c re e n . B e c a u s e most of the letters were not X, each child built u h e saw an X. T h e t a s k wa s ex p e c t e d t o b e , a n d i n fact proved to be, more difficult for the boys with l a t e r, researc h e rs fo u n d a c l e a r d i f fe re n c e i n t h e activation of neuronal tissue in two structur di f ferences b e t we e n t h e b oys w i t h A D D a n d t h o s e without were even more dramatic when the sub m e dic ation u s e d t o t e m p ora r i l y re l i eve sy m p t o m s of ADD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hype t a ke n the dru g ,” Va i d ya s a i d . “ R i t a l i n i m p rove d everyone’s performance, but how it actually did it d (s pe c ifically k n ow n a s t he c a u d a t e a n d p u t a m e n ) when taking the drug than when not. The healthy b n o t . “From pa s t wo r k w i t h a d u l t s a n d c h i l d re n , s o me of which required injecting radioactive mater n o t r ight with t h i s d i s o rd e r,” Va i d ya s a i d . “ T h a t i s why we imaged this part of the brain, and our s n o t exclusive l y, i nf l u e n c e s d o p a m i n e n e u ro t ra n s m ission. The opposite effects of Ritalin on boys w t h e striatum, s h e s a i d . T h e re s e a rc h e rs c a u t i o n t h at the study was conducted with a small group an fo u nd a unive rs a l n e u ro b i o l o g i c a l m a r ke r fo r t h e d isorder. They also reported that they tried the ex di a g nosis. Two of t h e t h re e s i b l i n g s of A D D b oys showed some Ritalin enhancement of the striatum a t y p ic al gene t i c i nf l u e n c e s o n d o p a m i n e m o d u l a t i o n,” Vaidya said, but more studies would be neces a l s o were caref u l t o p o i n t o u t o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s of their study. A fraction of people diagnosed with s a i d. It also d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o i nve s t i g a t e p o s s i ble changes in brain activation that might occur w dr u g, but all of t h e m h a d b e e n t a k i n g R i t a l i n p reviously as part of their ongoing treatment. Desp c o u l d improve i n d i v i d u a l s ’ p e rfo r m a n c e . “ T h i s i s one of the few studies to examine brain functio G a br ie li said. “ I t s u g g e s ts t h a t F M R I i s a p owe rf u l tool to examine brain and behavior in the conte 3 t o 7 percen t of yo u n g s t e rs i n h o m e a n d s c h o o l , and the long-term consequences include lower ed a b u se and oth e r r i s ky b e h av i o rs . D eve l o p m e n t a l reading disorder (DRD) is not caused by vision pro w i t h DRD may h ave t ro u b le r hy m i n g a n d s e p a ra t i n g the sounds in spoken words. These abilities ap wo rd recognit i o n , w h i c h i nvo l ve s b e i n g a b l e t o s e parate out the sounds in words and match them w


b l e ms with th e b ra i n ’s a b i l i t y t o re c o g n i ze a n d p rocess symbols. Children with DRD may have i n t he proces s of l e a r n i n g t o re a d . A c h i l d ’s i n i t i al reading skills are based on word t te rs and gro u p s of l e t t e rs . M o re d eve l o p e d re a d i n g skills require the linking of words l a n guage to t h e l e t t e rs of wo rd s , t h ey m ay h ave difficulty understanding sentences. Most l l i g e nce. The d i s o rd e r i s a s p e c i f i c i nfo r m a t i o n p rocessing problem that is not connected with the t h develo p m e n t a l w r i t i n g d i s o rd e r a n d d eve l o pmental arithmeti c disorder. All of these t i o n . Other c a u s e s of l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y a n d , i n particular, reading disability, must be ruled out e n t al retarda t i o n , a n d d i s e a s e s of t h e b ra i n ( fo r example AIDS) can all cause learning disabilities. a d t o brain-b a s e d m e t h o d s of d i a g n o s i s , c a u t i o n t he lead researchers, Research Associate Chandan e f i rs t study, h oweve r, t o s h ow t h a t R i t a l i n, the drug most commonly used to treat ADD, has i n the brain. T h e f i n d i n g s a re re p o r t e d i n t h e Nov. 24 issue of the Proceedings of the National M R I ] in the stu d y of A D D . T h i s i m a g i n g m e t h o d can show brain differences in individual people, e s tablished o n a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . U n l i ke methods used in other studies of ADD, FMRI does u r r i n g change s i n b ra i n f u n c t i o n , w h i c h m akes it appropriate for research and clinical h u be r and sc h o o l p syc h o l o g i s t G a r y K i r ko r i a n of the Community/Academia Coalition in Los r t me nt. The f i n d i n g s h ave d ra w n c o n s i d e ra b l e a t t ention from neuroscientists because “ADD is a t fie ld,” sai d G a b r i e l i , w h o h e a d s t h e b ra i n i m a g ing laboratory where the research was done. a s i s of subje c t i ve o b s e r va t i o n s of yo u n g s t e rs ’ b ehavior. If the new findings can be n g FMRI. Sinc e t h e c o m m on t re a t m e n t fo r A D D i s a prescription drug whose long-term effects i n i tive way to d i a g n o s e t h e d i s o rd e r. I n t h e s t u d y, 16 boys between the ages of 8 and 13 were w h i ch was se t t o i m a g e f ro n t p o r t i o n s of t h e b ra i n, including the frontal-lobe cortex and the l s tr uctures ( s p e c i f i c a l l y k n ow n a s t h e c a u d a t e a nd putamen) when taking the drug than when g t h e drug th a n w h e n n o t . “ Fro m p a s t wo r k w i t h a dults and children, some of which required t h e brain tha t i s w h a t’s n o t r i g h t w i t h t h i s d i s order,” Vaidya said. “That is why we imaged r A DD.” Rital i n p r i m a r i l y, b u t n o t exc l usively, influences dopamine neurotransmission. i nvolves atyp i c a l d o p a m i n e m o d u l a t i o n i n the striatum, she said. The researchers caution as w ith more b oys b efo re t h ey c a n b e c e r t a in they have found a universal neurobiological oys who had n o t b e e n d i a g n o s e d w i t h A D D b ut who had siblings with the diagnosis. Two of the e ct e d brothers . “ T h i s wo u l d l e n d s o m e s u pport to the idea that ADD may involve atypical y t o es tablish a g e n e t i c i nf l u e n c e . B e c a u s e of t h e widespread interest in ADD, the researchers d w ith ADD h ave n o t re s p o n d e d t o R i t a l i n t re a t m e n t, and this study did not include such children, n t h at might o c c u r w i t h t h e d r u g ove r t i m e . T h e ADD boys did show a different brain activation r o ngoing tre a t m e n t . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , the study points to new directions for research c u rr ing chang e s i n b ra i n f u n c t i o n , w h i c h m a ke s it appropriate for research and clinical purposes a n d sc hool p syc h o l o g i s t G a r y K i r ko r i a n of t h e Community/Academia Coalition in Los Altos, Calif. f i n d ings have d ra w n c o n s i d e ra b l e a t t e n t i o n f ro m neuroscientists because “ADD is so widespread, a br i e li, who h e a d s t h e b ra i n i m a g i n g l a b o ra t o r y w here the research was done. Attention deficit er vations of yo u n g s t e rs ’ b e h av i o r. I f t h e n ew findings can be replicated, he said, it might be m en t for ADD i s a p re s c r i p t i o n d r u g w h o s e l o n g-term effects on brain function are not known, e d i s order. In t h e s t u d y, 1 6 b oys b e t we e n t h e a ges of 8 and 13 were asked individually to play f ro nt portion s of t h e b ra i n , i n c l u d i n g t h e f ro n tal-lobe cortex and the striatal structures below o t , were instr u c t e d t o p re s s a b u t t o n w h e n t h ey s aw any letter of the alphabet except the letter s i t i on to pres s t h e b u t t o n a n d n e e d e d t o c o n t ro l h is impulse to press the button when he saw an , b ec ause po o r i m p u l s e c o n t ro l i s o n e of t h e d i s o rder’s symptoms. Comparing the brain images e s i n t he stri a t a l re g i o n , w h i c h i s k n ow n t o b e i nvolved in motor control. The brain activation u b j e c ts were a s ke d t o p e rfo r m t h e s a m e t a s k af t er taking the drug Ritalin. Ritalin is a stimulant yp e rac tivity. “ B o t h t h e n o r m a l k i d s a n d t h e A D D k ids got better in their impulse control when they l y did it diffe re d i n t h e b ra i n s .” T h e b oys w i t h A DD showed more activity in the affected striatal T h e he althy boys , i n c o n t ra s t , s h owe d t h e reve rse - less activity in those areas when taking the g ra d ioactive m a t e r i a l , a c o n s e n s u s d eve l o p e d t h at it is the frontal striatal circuitry of the brain t h e b rain, an d o u r s t u d y c o nf i r m e d t h a t t h e s e s t ructures are, indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin R i t alin on boys w i t h A D D an d b oys w i t h o u t t h e d i s o rder suggest that ADD involves atypical dopamine h a small gro u p a n d n e e d s t o b e re p l i c a t e d w i t h g i rls as well as with more boys before they can be t h at they tr i e d t h e ex p er i m e n t o n t h re e o t h e r b oys who had not been diagnosed with ADD but who d s o me Ritali n e n h a n c e m e n t of t h e s t r i a t u m , a s d id their affected brothers. “This would lend some m o dulation, ” Va i d ya s ai d , b u t m o re s t u d i e s wo u ld be necessary to establish a genetic influence. t o p oint o u t o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r s t u dy. A fraction of people diagnosed with ADD have n , t h ey said. I t a l s o d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o i nve stigate possible changes in brain activation c t i vation leve l w h e n n o t on t h e d r u g , b u t a l l of them had been taking Ritalin previously as i re ctions fo r re s e a rc h i n t o b ra i n f u n c t i o n t h a t could improve individuals’ performance. “This is w l e dge about n o r m a l a n d a b n o r m a l b ra i n d eve l o p ment,” Gabrieli said. “It suggests that FMRI is a d eve lopment.” C u r re n t l y, A D D i m p a i rs t h e f u n c t i o n of an estimated 3 to 7 percent of youngsters in a cc omplishm e n t s fo r t h e m a s a d u l t s a s we l l a s a n increased risk for drug abuse and other risky ra t he r by pro b l e m s w i t h th e b ra i n ’s a b i l i t y t o re c ognize and process symbols. Children with DRD appear t o b e c r i t i c a l i n t h e p ro c e s s of l e a rning to read. A child ’s initial reading skills are m a t c h them w i t h l e t t e rs a n d g ro u p s of l e t t e rs . More developed reading skills require the linking of languag e t o t h e l e t t e rs of wo rd s , t h ey m ay have difficulty understanding sentences. Most d i s order is a s p e c i f i c i nfo r m a t i o n p ro c e s s i n g problem that is not connected with the ability to i n g d isorder a n d d eve l o pm e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c d i s o rd er. All of these involve using symbols to convey a r n i ng disabil i t y a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r, re a d i n g d i s a b i lity, must be ruled out before a diagnosis of DRD o n , and d i s e a s e s of th e b ra i n ( fo r exa m p l e A I DS) can all cause learning disabilities. Follow -up ra i n-based m e t h o d s of d i a g n o s i s , c a u t i o n t h e lead researchers, Research Associate Chandan i rs i s the firs t s t u d y, h oweve r, t o s h ow t h a t R i t a l in, the drug most commonly used to treat fe renc es occu r i n t h e b rai n . T h e f i n d i n g s a re re p o rted in the Nov. 24 issue of the Proceedings of c re s onance i m ag i n g [ F M R I ] i n t h e s t u d y of ADD. This imaging method can show brain i ti c al for dia g n o s i s , w h i c h h a s t o b e e s t a blished on an individual basis. Unlike methods s t a n c e s. It re l i e s i n s t e a d o n n a t u ra l l y o c c u rring changes in brain function, which makes it l d oc tors Gle n n A u s t i n a n d H u g h R i d l e h u b e r a n d school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the ford Medical C e n t e r ’s R a d i o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t . T h e findings have drawn considerable attention from re a m ong the few c l e a r f i n d i n g s i n t h a t f i e l d ,” s a i d Gabrieli, who heads the brain imaging laboratory i t y, is curren t l y d i a g n o s e d o n t h e b a s i s of s u b j e c tive observations of youngsters’ behavior. If the i s of the diso rd e r by u s i ng F M R I . S i n c e t h e c o m m o n treatment for ADD is a prescription drug whose y would welco m e a m o re def i n i t i ve way t o d i a g n o s e the disorder. In the study, 16 boys between the a n c e i maging d ev i c e , w h i ch wa s s e t t o i m a g e f ro n t portions of the brain, including the frontal-lobe n d 6 of whom h a d n o t , we re i n s t r u c t e d t o p re s s a button when they saw any letter of the alphabet p a p redispos i t i o n t o p res s t h e b u t t o n a n d n e e d e d to control his impulse to press the button when A D D, becaus e p o o r i m p u l s e c o n t ro l i s o n e of t h e disorder’s symptoms. Comparing the brain images re s i n the st r i a t a l re g i o n , w h i c h i s k n ow n t o b e involved in motor control. The brain activation bj e c ts were a s ke d t o p e rfo r m t h e s a m e t a s k af t e r taking the drug Ritalin. Ritalin is a stimulant ra c tiv ity. “B o t h t h e n o r m a l k i d s a n d t h e A D D k i d s got better in their impulse control when they had di f fered in th e b ra i n s .” Th e b oys w i t h A D D s h owe d more activity in the affected striatal structures b oys, i n contra s t , s h owe d t h e reve rs e - l e s s a c t i v i ty in those areas when taking the drug than when i al , a consen s u s d eve l o p e d t h a t i t i s t h e f ro ntal striatal circuitry of the brain that is what’s s tu dy confirm e d t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u re s a re , indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin primarily, but w i t h ADD and b oys w i t h o u t t h e d i s o rd e r s u g g e s t t h at ADD involves atypical dopamine modulation in n d n e e ds to b e re p l i c a t e d w i t h g i r l s a s we l l a s w i t h more boys before they can be certain they have x p e r iment on t h re e o t h e r b oys w h o h a d n o t b e e n d i agnosed with ADD but who had siblings with the , a s d id their af fe c t e d b ro t h e rs . “ T h i s wo u l d l e n d some support to the idea that ADD may involve s a r y to estab l i s h a g e n e t i c i nf l u e n c e . B e c a u s e of t he widespread interest in ADD, the researchers A D D have no t re s p o n d e d t o R i t a l i n t re a t m e n t , a n d this study did not include such children, they wit h the drug ove r t i m e . T h e A D D b oys d i d s h ow a different brain activation level when not on the p i t e these lim i t a t i o n s , t h e s t u d y p o i n t s t o n ew d i rections for research into brain function that n i n c hildren , a n d t o f u r t h e r o u r k n ow l e d g e a b o u t normal and abnormal brain development,” x t of both no r m a l a n d a b n o r m a l d eve l o p m e n t .” C u rrently, ADD impairs the function of an estimated u c ational and vo c a t i o n a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s fo r t h em as adults as well as an increased risk for drug o b l ems , but ra t h e r by p rob l e m s w i t h t h e b ra i n ’s a b ility to recognize and process symbols. Children p e ar t o be cr i t i c a l i n t h e p ro c e s s of l e a r n i n g t o read. A child ’s initial reading skills are based on i th le tters an d g ro u p s of l e t t e rs . M o re d eve l o p e d reading skills require the linking of words into a


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143465 6158 001551

med/3103 ped/177 D001289

F90 314.00 314.01

DISEASE ASPERGER SYNDROME is an autism spectrum disorder that is characterized by significant significant difficulties in social interaction, along with restricted and repetitive behavior and interests. It differs from autism spectrum disorders because of its relative preservation of linguistic and cognitive development. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and an atypical use of language are frequently reported. Asperger syndrome is named after the Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger who described children in his practice who lacked non-verbal communication skills, demonstrated limited empathy with their peers, and were physically physically clumsy. Fifty years later, it was standardized as a diagnosis, but many questions remain about aspects of the disorder. For example, there is doubt about whether it is distinct from high-functioning autism (HFA); partly because of this, its prevalence is not firmly established. It has been proposed that the diagnosis of Asperger’s be eliminated, to be replaced by a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder on a severity scale.


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Ty p o g r a p h y i s a n important element to consider when designing for people with dyslexia in mind. Since dyslexia effects how the brain interprets the symbols on a page, it is important to make symbols, in this case letters and words, as visually clear as possible. To do so, first choose a font that has clear letter shapes and is easy to read on screen. Good fonts to use include Helvetica, Arial a n d V e r d a n a . Tr y t o a v o i d a f o n t w i t h s e r i f s for content text. If you are building a site that will have a lot of text, it can be helpful to have a way for the user to choose the font they prefer to read. Second, use a font size that is large enough to read at the default setting and allow users to easily scale the text, either through the browser’s built in scaling or through a scaling method built into the w e b s i t e i t s e l f, u s i n g javascript. Using percentage or ems to size fonts allows users to easily scale text size. A d d i t i o n a l l y, there should be enoUgh “breathing room” between lines between lines to make it easier for the viewer to scan lines without getting the letters jumbled.

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Those born with the co not to understand faci sions, body language & verbal communications. :mT qcA

A SEZIS

Typography is an important element to consider when designing for people with dyslexia in mind. Since dyslexia effects how the brain interprets the symbols on a page, it is important to make symbols, in this case letters and words, as visually clear as possible. To do so, first choose a font that has clear letter shapes and is easy to read on screen. Good fonts to use include Helvetica, Arial and Verdana. Try to avoid a font with serifs for content text. If you are building a site that will have a lot of text, it can be helpful to have a way for the user to choose the font they prefer to read. Second, use a font size that is large enough to read at the default setting and allow users to easily scale the text, either through the browser’s built in scaling or through a scaling method built into the website itself, using javascript. Using percentage or ems to size fonts allows users to easily scale text size. Additionally, there should be enough “breathing room” between lines between lines to make it easier for the viewer to scan lines without getting the letters jumbled.

B1 CA uoR TCO 1102

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ondition tend ial expres& other non.

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THEORY OF MIND Theory of mind is a theory insofar as the mind is not directly observable. The presumption that others have a mind is termed a theory of mind because each human can only prove the existence of his or her own mind through introspection, and no one has direct access to the mind of another. It is typically assumed that others have minds by analogy with one’s own, and based on the reciprocal nature of social interaction, as observed in joint attention, the functional use of language, and understanding of others’ emotions and actions. Having a theory of mind allows one to attribute thoughts, desires, and intentions to others, to predict or explain their actions, and to posit their intentions. As originally defined, it enables one to understand that mental states can be the cause of—and thus be used to explain and predict—others’ behavior. Being able to attribute mental states to others and understanding them as causes of behavior implies, in part, that one must be able to conceive of the mind as a “generator of representations”. If a person does not have a complete theory of mind it may be a sign of cognitive or developmental impairment. Theory of mind appears to be an innate potential ability in humans, but one requiring social and other experience over many years to bring to fruition. Different people may develop more, or less, effective theories of mind. Empathy is a related concept, meaning experientially recognizing and understanding the states of mind, including beliefs, desires and particularly emotions of others, often characterized as the ability to “put oneself into another’s shoes.” Theorizing in the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development maintains that theory of mind is a byproduct of a broader hypercognitive ability of the human mind to register, monitor, and represent its own functioning. Research on theory of mind in a number of different populations (human and animal, adults and children, normally- and atypically-developing) has grown rapidly in the almost 30 years since Premack and Woodruff’s paper, “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?”, as have the theories of theory of mind. The emerging field of social neuroscience has also begun to address this debate, by imaging humans while performing tasks demanding the understanding of an intention, belief or other mental state. An alternative account of ToM is given within operant psychology and provides significant empirical evidence for a functional account of both perspective taking and empathy. The most developed operant approach is founded on research on derived relational responding and is subsumed within what is called, “Relational Frame Theory.” According to this view empathy and perspective taking comprise a complex set of derived relational abilities based on learning to discriminate and verbally respond to ever more complex relations between self, others, place, and time, and the transformation of function through established relations.


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HEAD-NOD HEAD-SHAKE HEAD-TILT HEAD-FWD HEAD-BACK LIP-PULL LIP-PUCKER BROW FURROW

P(Facial/Head display) FRAME 3001.305 02.09.2010 ALLISON CRAWFORD


CON- TACT

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DISAGREEING THINKING CONFUSED

IN OUR EVERYDAY COMMUNICATION, we are constantly monitoring other people’s facial and body cues to discern whether we are enrapturing them, boring them, or confusing them—such that we can maintain or change our social tactics accordingly. But people are born with different degrees of this ability, and some need a little help. People with autism spectrum disorders like asperger’s a socsocial disorder that some scientists believe has afflicted the world’s greatest geniuses, including einstein—often have trouble deciphering what other people are thinking or feeling. As a result, they frequently make poor social judgments. BUT WITH THE HELP of a new tool developed by t h e MIT media lab, this problem may someday be a thing of the past. Researchers h ave developed “mind-re ading” software con consisting of a tiny camera that clips onto a person’s clothing and analyzes the facial expressions of others, reporting the results back to the wearer via a tiny earpiece. While the device isn’t foolproof like the best of us, it sometimes misjudges expressions researchers hope that with further tweaking, it might one day serve as a learning device or prosthesis for people with social disorders.


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GOOD

HAPPY SENTIMENT LOVE

EMOTION BAD

ANGRY

FRUSTRATE SAD

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Machines have no confusing moods or emotional subtleties to sort out.


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ASPERGER’S SYNDROME CAUSES a complex array of neurologically related symptoms and associated behaviors, some more noticeable than others. For relatives and friends who have social interactions with some children with Asperger’s on a daily basis, as well for their classmates and strangers who may be less forgiving, few behaviors are as confusing and annoying as the lack of awareness of nonverbal communication that many children with Asperger’s exhibit. According to anthropologist Edward T. Hall, “In any encounter, particularly intercultural or interethnic, the correct reading of the other person’s verbal and nonverbal behavior is basic to transactions at all levels.” Children with Asperger’s, like people experiencing a foreign culture, may also have difficulty synchronizing their body movements with those of others, something that most of us do unconsciously. Failure to understand nonverbal behavior correctly and failure to give appropriate nonverbal signs in communication can cause serious social problems for people living in cultures different from their own, in ways similar to the social problems experienced by a child with the disorder. These social problems can range from exclusion, to lost friendship opportunities, and even to unintentionally provoking aggressive assaults and verbal abuse. NON-VERBAL SIGNALS ACCOUNT for up to seventy percent of human communication, according to renowned linguist Erv Goffman. In addition, different patterns of nonverbal communication, though rarely spelled out for us verbally, distinguish different cultures. Edward T. Hall discusses these differences in his books, The Hidden Dimension and The Silent Language. He shows that people from Middle Eastern and Arab backgrounds stand closer to each other when talking, finding it acceptable and even desirable to breathe on each other when talking, whereas most Americans of European descent are taught not to breathe on people while talking to them, and to stand approximately eighteen inches to two and a half feet apart from friends and associates while carrying on a conversation. In more formal conversations, such as in a business meeting with unfamiliar people, they stand even further apart. Eye contact patterns during conversation have extreme importance, setting the tone of friendliness, indifference, or hostility. Lack of eye contact can make many Americans suspect dishonesty, while eye contact that is too intense can imply hostility. Hall worked with a Middle Eastern man who said he was in constant hot water with Americans because of the way he looked at them without the slightest intention of offending; he had on several occasions barely avoided fights with American men. Hall says, “Arabs look at each other with an intensity that makes most Americans highly uncomfortable.” Describing Latin American nonverbal communication, Hall writes, In Latin America the interaction distance is much less than it is in the United States. The result is that when they move close, we withdraw and back away. As a consequence, they think we are distant or cold, withdrawn and unfriendly.

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THEORY OF MIND IS A THEORY that states that the mind is not directly observable. The presumption that others have a mind is termed a theory of mind because each human can only prove the existence of his or her own mind through introspection, and no one has direct access to the another’s mind. It is typically assumed that others have minds by analogy with one’s own, and based on the reciprocal nature of social interaction, as observed in joint attention, the functional use of language, and understanding of others’ emotions and actions. Having a theory of mind allows one to attribute thoughts, desires, and intentions to others, to predict or explain their actions, and to posit their intentions. As originally defined, it enables one to understand that mental states can be the cause of—and thus be used to explain and predict— others’ behavior. Being able to attribute mental states to others and understanding them as causes of behavior implies, in part, that one must be able to conceive of the mind as a “generator of representations”.If a person does not have a complete theory of mind it may be a sign of cognitive or developmental impairment. Theory of mind appears to be an innate potential ability in humans, but one requiring social and other experience over many years to bring to fruition. Empathy is a related concept, meaning experientially recognizing and understanding the states of mind, including beliefs, desires and emotions of others, often characterized as the ability to “put oneself into another’s shoes.” RESEARCH ON THEORY OF MIND in a number of different populations (human and animal, adults and children, normally- and atypicallydeveloping) has grown rapidly in the almost 30 years since Premack and Woodruff’s paper, “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?”, as have the theories of theory of mind. The emerging field of social neuroscience has also begun to address this debate, by imaging humans while performing tasks demanding the understanding of an intention, belief or other mental state. AN ALTERNATIVE ACCOUNT of theory of mind is given within operant psychology and provides significant empirical evidence for a functional account of both perspective taking and empathy. The most developed operant approach is founded on research on derived relational responding and is subsumed within what is called “Relational Frame Theory.” According to this view empathy and perspective taking comprise a complex set of derived relational abilities based on learning to discriminate and verbally respond to ever more complex relations between self, others, place, and time, and the transformation of function through established relations.

EXTROSPECTION

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9+27D+1C FACIAL LEGIBILITY Theory of mind is a theory in so far as the mind is not directly observable. The presumption that others have a mind is termed a theory of mind because each human can only prove the existence of his or her own mind through introspection, and no one has direct access to the mind of another. It is typically assumed that others have minds by analogy with one’s own, and based on the reciprocal nature of social interaction, as observed in joint attention, the functional use of language, and understanding of others’ emotions and actions. Having a theory of mind allows one to attribute thoughts, desires, and intentions to others, to predict or explain their actions, and to posit their intentions. As originally defined, it enables one to understand that mental states can be the cause of—and thus be used to explain and predict—others’ behavior. Being able to attribute mental states to others and understanding them as causes of behavior implies, in part, that one must be able to conceive of the mind as a “generator of representations”. If a person does not have a complete theory of mind it may be a sign of cognitive or developmental impairment. Theory of mind appears to be an innate potential ability in humans, but one requiring social and other experience over many years to bring to fruition. Empathy is a related concept, meaning experientially recognizing and understanding the states of mind, including beliefs, desires and particularly emotions of others, often characterized as the ability to “put oneself into another’s shoes.” Research on theory of mind in a number of different populations (human and animal, adults and children, normally- and atypically-developing) has grown rapidly in the almost 30 years since premack and woodruff’s paper, “does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?”, As have the theories of theory of mind. The emerging field of social neuroscience has also begun to address this debate, by imaging humans while performing tasks demanding the understanding of an intention, belief or other mental state. An alternative account of tom is given within operant psychology and provides significant empirical evidence for a functional account of both perspective taking and empathy. The most developed operant approach is founded on research on derived relational responding and is subsumed within what is called, “relational frame theory.” According to this view empathy and perspective taking comprise a complex set of derived relational abilities based on learning to discriminate and verbally respond to ever more complex relations between self, others, place, and time, and the transformation of function through established relations.


Developmental reading disorder (DRD) is not caused by vision problems, but rather by problems with the brain’s dna gability nimyhrtoelrecognize buort evahand yam process DRD htsymbols. iw nerdlihC separating the sounds in spoken words. These abilities appear to be critical in the process of learning toetread. arapeAschild’s ot elbainitial gniebreading sevlovnskills i hcihare w ,nbased oitingoon cewor rd out the sounds in words and match them with letters and groups of letters. More developed reading skills gnitrequire cennoc the ytlulinking cfifid evofahwords nerdlinto ihc DaRcoherent D esuacesenten B .ec the sounds of language to the letters of words, they may have difficulty understanding sentences. Most a schildren i redrosiwith d ehTDRD .ecnhave egillenormal tni egaintelligence, reva-evoba eand vah ma yn specific information processing problem that is not connected with the ability to think or to understand lcomplex atnempoideas.DRD leved dna rmay edroappear sid gnitin irwcombination latnempolevwith ed arithmetic disorder. All of these involve using symbols to convey information. These conditions may appear ,ytilalone ibasidor gninidany aer combination. ,ralucitrap ni ,d Other na yticauses libasid gofnilea nr must be ruled out before a diagnosis of DRD can be made. Cultural and educational shortfalls, emotional problems, gninraemental l esuacretardation, lla nac )SDIA and elpdiseases maxe rof(ofnithe ar disabilities. Follow-up studies will be required before the results of this study on a small number of boys can lead etaito cobrain-based ssA hcraeseR methods ,srehcraof esdiagnosis, er dael ehtcaut noi Chandan Vaidya and Associate Professor John Gabrieli of Stanford’s Department of Psychology. Theirstn isethe reffifirst d sastudy, h ,DDAhowever, taert ot dto esshow u ylnothat mmo Ritalin, c tsomthe gurd effects on the brains of people with and without ADD, and where those differences occur in the brain. The findings .secneicare S foreported ymedacA inlthe anoiNov. taN e24 ht issue fo sgnof idthe eeco Pr The study is also the first to use functional magnetic resonance imaging [FMRI] in the study of ADD. This fo seimaging cnereffimethod d fo segacan reva show ni fobrain daetsdifferences ni ,elpoep lain udind iv two groups. This is critical for diagnosis, which has to be established on an individual basis. Unlike methods .secnaused tsbusineother vitcaostudies idar fo nof oitADD, alahnFMRI i ro ndoes oitcejnot ni erreq iu It relies instead on naturally occurring changes in brain function, which makes it appropriate for research hguand H dclinical na nitsupurposes A nnelG sfor rotcchildren. od lacideCo-authors m era ydutsofe th Ridlehuber and school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the Community/Academia Coalition in Los Altos, Calif. ehand T .tnGary emtrGlover apeD yand goloJohn idaR Desmond s’retneC laof cid the eMStanf dro findings have drawn considerable attention from neuroscientists because “ADD is so widespread, so controversial ohw ,ileirb and aG confusing, dias ”,dlefi tand aht these ni sgnare idnfiamong raelc wthe ef heads the brain imaging laboratory where the research was done. Attention deficit disorder, which often includes ’sretsgnhyperactivity, uoy fo snoitavisrecurrently sbo evitcdiagnosed ejbus fo sison abth behavior. If the new findings can be replicated, he said, it might be possible to make a biological diagnosis ofethe sohdisorder w gurd nby oitpusing ircserFMRI. p a si Since DDA ro the f tncommon emtaert long-term effects on brain function are not known, parents and pediatricians most likely would welcomeearemore w 31 d definitive na 8 fo se way ga eto htdiagnose neewteb the syodisorder. b 61 ,ydutIn s eth asked individually to play a mental game while lying in a magnetic resonance imaging device, which was wolset eb sto erimage utcurtsfront lataiportions rts eht dn ofa the xetrbrain, oc ebo including l-latnorf e th it. The boys, 10 of whom had been diagnosed with ADD and 6 of whom had not, were instructed to pressts aobutton m esuawhen ceB .n they eercsaw s yaany lpsidletter a no of X rthe ettealphabet l eht tpecex of the letters were not X, each child built up a predisposition to press the button and needed to control his ,ebimpulse ot devorto p press tcaf nithe dnabutton ,eb ot d when etcephe xesaw sawan ksX. at Th e more difficult for the boys with ADD, because poor impulse control is one of the disorder’s symptoms. Comparing eussit lanorthe uenbrain fo noimages itavitcalater, eht nresearchers i ecnereffid ra found elc a in two structures in the striatal region, which is known to be involved in motor control. The brain activation stcejdifferences bus eht nehbetween w citamathe rd eboys rom nwith eve e ADD rew and tuohthose tiw were asked to perform the same task after taking the drug Ritalin. Ritalin is a stimulant medication used toeh temporarily t htoB“ .ytivrelieve itcarepsymptoms yh dna ytiviof sluADD, pmi ,such noitnas ettin a normal kids and the ADD kids got better in their impulse control when they had taken the drug,” Vaidya said. syob“Ritalin ehT ”.simproved niarb eht neveryone’s i dereffid tiperformance, did yllautca tibut wo h with ADD showed more activity in the affected striatal structures (specifically known as the caudate and ssputamen) el - esrevewhen r eht dtaking ewohsthe ,tsadrug rtnocthan ni ,swhen yob yhnot. tlaeThe h activity in those areas when taking the drug than when not. “From past work with adults and children, some lataof irtswhich latnorequired rf eht si tinjecting i taht depradioactive oleved susnmaterial, esnoc a circuitry of the brain that is what’s not right with this disorder,” Vaidya said. “That is why we imaged this part nilatof iRthe ”.DD brain, A rof and tnatour ropm study i ,deeconfirmed dni ,era sethat rutcuthese rts primarily, but not exclusively, influences dopamine neurotransmission. The opposite effects of Ritalinnon i nboys oitaluwith domADD enimand apoboys d laciwithout pyta sevthe lovndisorder i DDA tah sugge t ts the striatum, she said. The researchers caution that the study was conducted with a small group and needs a dto nube of replicated evah yeht n with iatre girls c ebas nawell c yeas ht e with rofemore b syob universal neurobiological marker for the disorder. They also reported that they tried the experiment on ehthree t fo ow other T .sisboys ongawho id ehhad t htinot w sgbeen nilbisdiagnosed dah ohw tu with b DA three siblings of ADD boys showed some Ritalin enhancement of the striatum, as did their affected brothers. no“This secnwould euflni lend citensome eg lacsupport ipyta evlto ovn the i yaidea m DD that A dopamine modulation,” Vaidya said, but more studies would be necessary to establish a genetic influence. Because rehto tuof o tthe niop widespread ot luferac einterest rew oslainsADD, rehcra the es r limitations of their study. A fraction of people diagnosed with ADD have not responded to Ritalin treatment, elbisand sopthis etagstudy itsevndid i otnot tpminclude etta ton such did ochildren, sla tI .diathe s changes in brain activation that might occur with the drug over time. The ADD boys did show a different brain fo traactivation p sa ylsuolevel iverpwhen nilatiR not gnon ikathe t nedrug, eb dabut h mall ehtof their ongoing treatment. Despite these limitations, the study points to new directions for research into niabrain rb enfunction imaxe otthat seidcould uts weimprove f eht fo eindividuals’ no si sihT“ .perform ecna function in children, and to further our knowledge about normal and abnormal brain development,” Gabrielihsaid. tob fo“Ittxsuggests etnoc ehtthat ni roFMRI ivaheis b danpowerful a niarb en tool imato x normal and abnormal development.” Currently, ADD impairs the function of an estimated 3 to 7 percent of youngsters dna lanoitin achome ude reand wol school, edulcni and secnthe euqlong-term esnoc vocational accomplishments for them as adults as well as an increased risk for drug abuse and other risky ybehaviors. b rehtar tuDevelopmental b ,smelborp noireading siv yb dedisorder suac ton(DRD si ) problems with the brain’s ability to recognize and process symbols. Children with DRD may have troubless rhyming ecorp eh and t niseparating lacitirc eb othe t rasounds eppa sein itilspoken iba esehword T .s of learning to read. A child’s initial reading skills are based on word recognition, which involves being able depto oleseparate ved eroMout .srethe ttelsounds fo spuoin rgwords dna srand ettematch l htiw mth reading skills require the linking of words into a coherent sentence. Because DRD children have difficulty connecting gnidnatsre the dnu sounds ytlucfifof idlanguage evah yamto yethe ht ,sletters drow fo sentences. Most children with DRD have normal intelligence, and many have above-average intelligence. kniThe ht odisorder t ytiliba eis htahspecific tiw detceinformation nnoc ton si processing taht melborp or to understand complex ideas.DRD may appear in combination with developmental writing disorder and e developmental sehT .noitamroarithmetic fni yevnocdisorder. ot slobmAll ys g ofnithese su evlinv o conditions may appear alone or in any combination. Other causes of learning disability and, in particular, reading lanoitacdisability, ude dna lamust rutluC be.eruled dam eout b nbefore ac DRDafo diagn sis shortfalls, emotional problems, mental retardation, and diseases of the brain (for example AIDS) can all cause llams alearning no ydutdisabilities. s siht fo stluFollow-up ser eht ero studies feb derwill iuqebe r number of boys can lead to brain-based methods of diagnosis, caution the lead researchers, Research .ygAssociate olohcysP fChandan o tnemtraVaidya peD s’dand rofnAssociate atS fo ileirProfessor baG nhoJ Theirs is the first study, however, to show that Ritalin, the drug most commonly used to treat ADD, has different eht ni rueffects cco secon nethe reffbrains id esohof t epeople rehw dwith na ,Dand DA twith uo brain. The findings are reported in the Nov. 24 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. .DDA fo yThe dutsstudy eht nis i ]Ialso RMFthe [ gnfirst igamto i euse cnafunctional noser citenma g This imaging method can show brain differences in individual people, instead of in averages of differences ekilof nUtwo .sisgroups. ab laudiThis vidniisna critical no deh for silb diagnosis, atse eb otwhich sah methods used in other studies of ADD, FMRI does not require injection or inhalation of radioactive substances. rof etaiIt rprelies orppainstead ti sekam onhc naturally ihw ,noitoccurring cnuf niarbchang ni se research and clinical purposes for children. Co-authors of the study are medical doctors Glenn Austin and soLHugh ni noitRidlehuber ilaoC aimedand acAschool /ytinum psychologist moC eht fo nGary airokK r Altos, Calif. and Gary Glover and John Desmond of the Stanford Medical Center’s Radiology Department. os ,dThe aerfindings psediw ohave s si Ddrawn DA“ esconsiderable uaceb stsitneattention icsoruen m fro controversial and confusing, and these are among the few clear findings in that field,” said Gabrieli, whonheads etfo hcthe ihwbrain ,redroimaging sid ticfielaboratory d noitnettAwhere .enodthe saw resea hcr includes hyperactivity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations of youngsters’ behavior. fo sisong Ifathe id lanew cigofindings loib a eka can m obe t ereplicated, lbissop eb the hgsaid, im ti the disorder by using FMRI. Since the common treatment for ADD is a prescription drug whose long-termereffects om a em onoc brain lew dfunction luow ylekare il tsnot omknown, snaicirtparents aidep dna definitive way to diagnose the disorder. In the study, 16 boys between the ages of 8 and 13 were asked individually ot tes saw tohplay cihwa,emental cived ggame nigamwhile i ecnalying nosein r caitmag en image front portions of the brain, including the frontal-lobe cortex and the striatal structures below it. The a boys, sser10 p oof t dwhom etcurthad sni ebeen rew ,tdiagnosed on dah moh with w foADD 6 dna button when they saw any letter of the alphabet except the letter X on a display screen. Because most sof ihthe lortletters noc ot d were edeenot n dX, naeach nottuchild b ehtbuilt sserup p oat predisp noitiso impulse to press the button when he saw an X. The task was expected to be, and in fact proved to be, more difficult .smotpm forysthe s’rboys edroswith id ehADD, t fo ebecause no si lortnpoor oc eimp slu Comparing the brain images later, researchers found a clear difference in the activation of neuronal tissue inntwo iarbstructures ehT .lortnoin c rthe otostriatal m ni devregion, lovni ewhich b ot nwisok activation differences between the boys with ADD and those without were even more dramatic when the subjects tnaluwere mitsasked a si nilto atiperform R .nilatiRthe gursame d eht task gnikaafte tr medication used to temporarily relieve symptoms of ADD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. eht n“Both ekat dthe ah ynormal eht nehkids w loand rtnothe c esADD lupmkids i riehgot t nibet re drug,” Vaidya said. “Ritalin improved everyone’s performance, but how it actually did it differed in the brains.” eht sa nThe wonboys k yllacwith fiiceADD ps( sshowed erutcurtmore s lataactivity irts detcinefthe fa caudate and putamen) when taking the drug than when not. The healthy boys, in contrast, showed the dreverse na stlud-aless htiwactivity krow tsinapthose morFareas “ .ton when nehw taking naht guthe rd children, some of which required injecting radioactive material, a consensus developed that it is the frontal ewstriatal yhw si circuitry tahT“ .diaof s the aydibrain aV ”,rethat drosisidwhat’s siht htnot iw th rig imaged this part of the brain, and our study confirmed that these structures are, indeed, important forfoADD.” stcefRitalin fe etisoprimarily, ppo ehT .but noisnot simexclusively, snartoruen influences enimapod Ritalin on boys with ADD and boys without the disorder suggest that ADD involves atypical dopamine modulation llams a hintiw the destriatum, tcudnoc sshe aw said. ydutsThe ehtresearchers taht noitua group and needs to be replicated with girls as well as with more boys before they can be certain they have found eht adeuniversal irt yeht taneurobiological ht detroper oslamarker yehT .rfor edrthe osi d experiment on three other boys who had not been diagnosed with ADD but who had siblings with the diagnosis. did sa ,mTwo utaiof rtsthe ehtthree fo tne siblings mecnahofneADD nilaboys tiR em showe os d their affected brothers. “This would lend some support to the idea that ADD may involve atypical geneticainfluences hsilbatse o on t ydopamine rassecen emodulation,” b dluow seidVaidya uts erosaid, m tu b genetic influence. Because of the widespread interest in ADD, the researchers also were careful to point nilatout iR oother t dednlimitations opser ton eofvatheir h DDstudy. A htiwAde fraction songaidofepeo lp


Children .slobmy with s ssDRD ecorp may dnahave ezintrouble gocer otrhyming ytiliba sand ’niarb eht htiw smelborp yb rehtar tub ,smelborp noisiv yb desuac ton si )DRD( redrosid gnidaer latnempoleve rd owrecognition, no desab erwhich a slliks involves gnidaerbeing laitiniable s’dlito hcseparate A .daer ot gninrael fo ssecorp eht ni lacitirc eb ot raeppa seitiliba esehT .sdrow nekops ni sdnuos eht gnitarape nce. etneBecause s tnerehoDRD c a ochildren tni sdrowhave fo gdifficulty niknil eht connecting eriuqer slliks gnidaer depoleved eroM .srettel fo spuorg dna srettel htiw meht hctam dna sdrow ni sdnuos eht tu any m have dna ,eabove-average cnegilletni lamrintelligence. on evah DRDThe htiw disorder nerdlihc istasoM .secnetnes gnidnatsrednu ytlucfifid evah yam yeht ,sdrow fo srettel eht ot egaugnal fo sdnuos eh h developmental tiw noitanibmocwriting ni raepdisorder pa yam D and RD.developmental saedi xelpmoc dnatsrednu ot ro kniht ot ytiliba eht htiw detcennoc ton si taht melborp gnissecorp noitamrofni cfiicep arning el fo sdisability esuac reand, htO .n inoparticular, itanibmoc reading yna ni rodisability, enola raeppa yam snoitidnoc esehT .noitamrofni yevnoc ot slobmys gnisu evlovni eseht fo llA .redrosid citemhtir brain eht fo(for sesexample aesid dna AIDS) ,noitacan draall tercause latnem learning ,smelborp lanoitome ,sllaftrohs lanoitacude dna larutluC .edam eb nac DRD fo sisongaid a erofeb tuo delur eb tsu tion uacthe ,sislead ongaresearchers, id fo sdohtem Research desab-niAssociate arb ot dael nac syob fo rebmun llams a no yduts siht fo stluser eht erofeb deriuqer eb lliw seiduts pu-wolloF .seitilibasi drug ehtmost ,nilatcommonly iR taht wohused s ot ,rto evtreat ewohADD, ,yduthas s tsrdifferent fi eht si sriehT .ygolohcysP fo tnemtrapeD s’drofnatS fo ileirbaG nhoJ rosseforP etaicossA dna aydiaV nadnah roceedings P eht fo eusof si the 42 .National voN eht nAcademy i detroperoferSciences. a sgnidnfi ehT .niarb eht ni rucco secnereffid esoht erehw dna ,DDA tuohtiw dna htiw elpoep fo sniarb eht no stceff dividual dni ni speople, ecnereffinstead id niarbof woinhs averages nac dohtof em differences gnigami siof hT .DDA fo yduts eht ni ]IRMF[ gnigami ecnanoser citengam lanoitcnuf esu ot tsrfi eht osla si yduts eh quire er toinjection n seod IRor Minhalation F ,DDA fo sof eid radioactive uts rehto nsubstances. i desu sdohtem ekilnU .sisab laudividni na no dehsilbatse eb ot sah hcihw ,sisongaid rof lacitirc si sihT .spuorg ow he t fostudy srohtare ua-o medical C .nerdldoctors ihc rof sGlenn esopruAustin p lacinand ilc dHugh na hcraeser rof etairporppa ti sekam hcihw ,noitcnuf niarb ni segnahc gnirrucco yllarutan no daetsni seiler t ford natSMedical eht fo dCenter’s nomseD Radiology nhoJ dna rDepartment. evolG yraG dnThe a .filaC ,sotlA soL ni noitilaoC aimedacA/ytinummoC eht fo nairokriK yraG tsigolohcysp loohcs dna rebuheldi eefew ht gclear nomafindings era eseh int that dna ,field,” gnisufsaid noc Gabrieli, dna laisrwho evortnoc os ,daerpsediw os si DDA“ esuaceb stsitneicsoruen morf noitnetta elbaredisnoc nward evah sgnidn he htbasis no deof sosubjective ngaid yltneobservations rruc si ,ytivitcof areyoungsters’ pyh sedulcni netfo hcihw ,redrosid ticfied noitnettA .enod saw hcraeser eht erehw yrotarobal gnigami niarb eht sdae n treatment ommoc ehfor t eADD cniS is .IRaMprescription F gnisu yb redrug droswhose id eht fo sisongaid lacigoloib a ekam ot elbissop eb thgim ti ,dias eh ,detacilper eb nac sgnidnfi wen eht fI .roivahe he t nstudy, I .redro 16 siboys d eht between esongaidthe ot yages aw evofiti8nfi and ed e13 rowere m a emoclew dluow ylekil tsom snaicirtaidep dna stnerap ,nwonk ton era noitcnuf niarb no stceffe mret-gno het g frontal-lobe nidulcni ,niacortex rb eht and fo snthe oitrstriatal op tnorstructures f egami ot tbelow es saw hcihw ,ecived gnigami ecnanoser citengam a ni gniyl elihw emag latnem a yalp ot yllaudividni deks xcept e tebathe hpla letter eht fX o on reta tedisplay l yna wascreen. s yeht nBecause ehw nottmost ub a sserp ot detcurtsni erew ,ton dah mohw fo 6 dna DDA htiw desongaid neeb dah mohw fo 01 ,syob ehT .t heT task .X nawas wasexpected eh nehw n tootbe, tuband ehtin ssfact erp proved ot eslupto mbe, i sih lortnoc ot dedeen dna nottub eht sserp ot noitisopsiderp a pu tliub dlihc hcae ,X ton erew srettel eht f d anclear uof sdifference rehcraeserin,re the talactivation segami niaof rbneuronal eht gniratissue pmoC .smotpmys s’redrosid eht fo eno si lortnoc eslupmi roop esuaceb ,DDA htiw syob eht rof tlucfifid ero eswithout oht dna were DDA h even tiw smore yob edramatic ht neewtewhen b secthe neresubjects ffid noitavitca niarb ehT .lortnoc rotom ni devlovni eb ot nwonk si hcihw ,noiger latairts eht ni serutcurts owt n nattention, i sa hcus ,impulsivity DDA fo smoand tpmhyperactivity. ys eveiler ylira“Both ropme the t ot desu noitacidem tnalumits a si nilatiR .nilatiR gurd eht gnikat retfa ksat emas eht mrofrep ot deksa ere how tubit,eactually cnamrofdid repitsdiffered ’enoyrevin e dthe evobrains.” rpmi nilThe atiR“boys .dias aydiaV ”,gurd eht nekat dah yeht nehw lortnoc eslupmi rieht ni retteb tog sdik DDA eht dna sdik lamro ehhealthy T .ton neboys, hw na inhcontrast, t gurd ehtshowed gnikat nthe ehwreverse )nemat-uless p dna etaduac eht sa nwonk yllacfiiceps( serutcurts latairts detceffa eht ni ytivitca erom dewohs DDA hti , ,alaconsensus iretam evitcdeveloped aoidar gnitthat cejnit i dis erthe iuqefrontal r hcihwstriatal fo emos ,nerdlihc dna stluda htiw krow tsap morF“ .ton nehw naht gurd eht gnikat nehw saera esoht ni ytivitc esstructures eht taht deare, mrfin indeed, oc yduimportant ts ruo dna for ,niaADD.” rb ehtRitalin fo trap siht degami ew yhw si tahT“ .dias aydiaV ”,redrosid siht htiw thgir ton s’tahw si taht niarb eht fo yrtiucri est gguthat s red ADD rosiinvolves d eht tuoatypical htiw syodopamine b dna DDAmodulation htiw syob nin o nilatiR fo stceffe etisoppo ehT .noissimsnartoruen enimapod secneuflni ,ylevisulcxe ton tub ,yliramir boys erom before htiw sthey a llecan w sabe slrcertain ig htiw d they etachave ilper found eb ot sadeen dna puorg llams a htiw detcudnoc saw yduts eht taht noituac srehcraeser ehT .dias ehs ,mutairts eh ADD A htbut iw dwho esonhad gaidsiblings neeb towith n dathe h ohdiagnosis. w syob rehTwo to ee ofrhthe t no tnemirepxe eht deirt yeht taht detroper osla yehT .redrosid eht rof rekram lacigoloiboruen lasrevin taADD ht aemay di ehinvolve t ot troatypical ppus emgenetic os dnel influences dluow sihT“on .srehtorb detceffa rieht did sa ,mutairts eht fo tnemecnahne nilatiR emos dewohs syob DDA fo sgnilbis eerh researchers r eht ,DDA nalso i tserwere etni dcareful aerpseto diw point eht fout o esother uaceB .ecneuflni citeneg a hsilbatse ot yrassecen eb dluow seiduts erom tub ,dias aydiaV ”,noitaludom enimapo eyeh said. t ,neIt rdalso lihc hdid cus not edattempt ulcni tonto diinvestigate d yduts sihtpossible dna ,tnemtaert nilatiR ot dednopser ton evah DDA htiw desongaid elpoep fo noitcarf A .yduts rieht fo snoitatimi fothem lla tuhad b ,gubeen rd ehtaking t no ton Ritalin nehwpreviously level noitaas vitcpart a niaof rb tnereffid a wohs did syob DDA ehT .emit revo gurd eht htiw rucco thgim taht noitavitca niarb ni segnah mance. rofrep ’“This slaudis ivione dni eof vothe rpmfew i dlustudies oc tahtto noexamine itcnuf niabrain rb otni hcraeser rof snoitcerid wen ot stniop yduts eht ,snoitatimil eseht etipseD .tnemtaert gniogno rieh examine ot loot lubrain frewoand p a sbehavior i IRMF tain htthe stse context ggus tIof “ .dboth ias ileirbaG ”,tnempoleved niarb lamronba dna lamron tuoba egdelwonk ruo rehtruf ot dna ,nerdlihc ni noitcnu mreconsequences t-gnol eht dna include ,loohcs lower dna em educational oh ni sretsg and nuoy fo tnecrep 7 ot 3 detamitse na fo noitcnuf eht sriapmi DDA ,yltnerruC ”.tnempoleved lamronba dna lamro D)Ris D(not redcaused rosid gnby idavision er latn problems, empolevebut D .srather roivaheby b yksir rehto dna esuba gurd rof ksir desaercni na sa llew sa stluda sa meht rof stnemhsilpmocca lanoitaco ds.roThese w nekoabilities ps ni sdappear nuos ehto t gbe nitcritical arapesin dnthe a gn process imyhr elbuort evah yam DRD htiw nerdlihC .slobmys ssecorp dna ezingocer ot ytiliba s’niarb eht htiw smelbor hem ht hwith ctamletters dna sdand rowgroups ni sdnuof osletters. eht tuoMore etaradeveloped pes ot elba gnieb sevlovni hcihw ,noitingocer drow no desab era slliks gnidaer laitini s’dlihc A .daer ot gninrael f ofswords, rettel ethey ht otmay egauhave gnaldifficulty fo sdnuounderstanding s eht gnitcennoc ytlucfifid evah nerdlihc DRD esuaceB .ecnetnes tnerehoc a otni sdrow fo gniknil eht eriuqer slliks gnidae problem gnissecthat orp is nonot itam connected rofni cfiicewith ps athe si reability drosidtoethink hT .ecnegilletni egareva-evoba evah ynam dna ,ecnegilletni lamron evah DRD htiw nerdlihc tsoM .secnetne volve ni eseusing ht fo lsymbols lA .redrosto idconvey citemhtinformation. ira latnempoThese leved dna redrosid gnitirw latnempoleved htiw noitanibmoc ni raeppa yam DRD.saedi xelpmoc dnatsrednu ot r nosis ngaid ofaDRD erofe can b tube o dmade. elur eb Cultural tsum ,yand tilibaeducational sid gnidaer ,ralucitrap ni ,dna ytilibasid gninrael fo sesuac rehtO .noitanibmoc yna ni ro enola raeppa yam snoitidno eerequired b lliw seid before uts puthe -woresults lloF .seiof tilithis basistudy d gninon raeal esmall suac lla nac )SDIA elpmaxe rof( niarb eht fo sesaesid dna ,noitadrater latnem ,smelborp lanoitome ,sllaftroh rJohn osseGabrieli forP etaiof coStanford’s ssA dna ayDepartment diaV nadnahof C ePsychology. taicossA hcraeseR ,srehcraeser dael eht noituac ,sisongaid fo sdohtem desab-niarb ot dael nac syob fo rebmu hout tiw dADD, na htand iw elwhere poep fthose o sniardifferences b eht no stcoccur effe tninerthe effid sah ,DDA taert ot desu ylnommoc tsom gurd eht ,nilatiR taht wohs ot ,revewoh ,yduts tsrfi eht si srieh agnetic m lanoresonance itcnuf esu oimaging t tsrfi eh[FMRI] t osla sin i ythe dutsstudy ehT .sofecADD. neicS fo ymedacA lanoitaN eht fo sgnideecorP eht fo eussi 42 .voN eht ni detroper era sgnidnfi ehT .niar h has cihwto,sbe isoestablished ngaid rof lacon itirc ansiindividual sihT .spuobasis. rg owtUnlike fo secnereffid fo segareva ni fo daetsni ,elpoep laudividni ni secnereffid niarb wohs nac dohtem gnigami sih ges nah incbrain gnirrufunction, cco yllaru which tan no makes daetsitniappropriate seiler tI .secfor natsbus evitcaoidar fo noitalahni ro noitcejni eriuqer ton seod IRMF ,DDA fo seiduts rehto ni desu sdohte Kirkorian K yraG tof sigthe olohCommunity/Academia cysp loohcs dna rebuhCoalition eldiR hguin HLos dna nitsuA nnelG srotcod lacidem era yduts eht fo srohtua-oC .nerdlihc rof sesoprup lacinilc dna hcraese om rf n neuroscientists oitnetta elbaredbecause isnoc nw“ADD ard eis vaso h swidespread, gnidnfi ehT .tso nemtrapeD ygoloidaR s’retneC lacideM drofnatS eht fo dnomseD nhoJ dna revolG yraG dna .filaC ,sotl arch esewas r ehtdone. erehwAttention yrotarobdeficit al gnigdisorder, ami niarbwhich eht sdoften aeh ohw ,ileirbaG dias ”,dlefi taht ni sgnidnfi raelc wef eht gnoma era eseht dna ,gnisufnoc dna laisrevortno , ,it dimight as eh ,be detpossible acilper eto b nmake ac sga nibiological dnfi wen ediagnosis ht fI .roivahofeb ’sretsgnuoy fo snoitavresbo evitcejbus fo sisab eht no desongaid yltnerruc si ,ytivitcarepyh sedulcn and stpediatricians nerap ,nwonkmost ton erlikely a noitwould cnuf nwelcome iarb no stace more ffe mret-gnol esohw gurd noitpircserp a si DDA rof tnemtaert nommoc eht ecniS .IRMF gnisu yb redrosid eh gnetic am a nresonance i gniyl elihwimaging emag ladevice, tnem awhich yalp owas t yllaset udivtoidni deksa erew 31 dna 8 fo sega eht neewteb syob 61 ,yduts eht nI .redrosid eht esongaid ot yaw evitinfie and DD 6Aofhtwhom iw deshad onga not, id nwere eeb dinstructed ah mohw fto o 0press 1 ,syob a ehT .ti woleb serutcurts latairts eht dna xetroc ebol-latnorf eht gnidulcni ,niarb eht fo snoitrop tnorf egam position siderp to a ppress u tliubthe dlihbutton c hcaeand ,X toneeded n erew s torecontrol ttel ehthis fo tsom esuaceB .neercs yalpsid a no X rettel eht tpecxe tebahpla eht fo rettel yna was yeht nehw nottu pulse mi rocontrol op esuis acone eb ,DofDthe A htdisorder’s iw syob ehsymptoms. t rof tlucfifid erom ,eb ot devorp tcaf ni dna ,eb ot detcepxe saw ksat ehT .X na was eh nehw nottub eht sserp ot eslupm known k si hcto ihw be,ninvolved oiger lata inirmotor ts eht n control. i serutcThe urtsbrain owt ni eussit lanoruen fo noitavitca eht ni ecnereffid raelc a dnuof srehcraeser ,retal segami niarb eht gnirapmo ertftaking a ksat the emadrug s ehtRitalin. mrofreRitalin p ot deis ksaastimulant erew stcejbus eht nehw citamard erom neve erew tuohtiw esoht dna DDA htiw syob eht neewteb secnereffid noitavitc tter tebin totheir g sdiimpulse k DDA ehcontrol t dna sdwhen ik lamthey ron e had ht htaken toB“ .ythe tivitcarepyh dna ytivislupmi ,noitnettani sa hcus ,DDA fo smotpmys eveiler yliraropmet ot desu noitacide eeaffected ht ni ytivistriatal tca erom structures dewohs D(specifically DA htiw syob known ehT ”.as snithe arb eht ni dereffid ti did yllautca ti woh tub ,ecnamrofrep s’enoyreve devorpmi nilatiR“ .dias aydiaV ”,gur e edrug ht gnthan ikat when nehw not. saer“From a esohpast t ni ytwork ivitcawith sseadults l - esreand ver eht dewohs ,tsartnoc ni ,syob yhtlaeh ehT .ton nehw naht gurd eht gnikat nehw )nematup dna etadua ght ir to with n s’tthis ahwdisorder,” si taht niaVaidya rb eht said. fo yrt“That iucric is latwhy airtswe latnorf eht si ti taht depoleved susnesnoc a ,lairetam evitcaoidar gnitcejni deriuqer hcihw fo emos ,nerdlih s sdopamine ecneuflni neurotransmission. ,ylevisulcxe ton tub ,y The liram opposite irp nilateffects iR ”.DDAofrof tnatropmi ,deedni ,era serutcurts eseht taht demrfinoc yduts ruo dna ,niarb eht fo trap siht degam caution srehcrathat eserthe ehTstudy .dias was ehs ,conducted mutairts ehwith t ni naosmall italudom enimapod lacipyta sevlovni DDA taht tseggus redrosid eht tuohtiw syob dna DDA htiw syob no nilati disorder. eht rof rThey ekramalso lacireported goloiboruthat en lathey srevtried inu a the dnuof evah yeht niatrec eb nac yeht erofeb syob erom htiw sa llew sa slrig htiw detacilper eb ot sdeen dna puor edwsome ohs syRitalin ob DDAenhancement fo sgnilbis eeof rhtthe ehtstriatum, fo owT .sas isodid ngaid eht htiw sgnilbis dah ohw tub DDA htiw desongaid neeb ton dah ohw syob rehto eerht no tnemirepx but ,diamore s aydstudies iaV ”,noiwould taludobe m enecessary nimapod nto o sestablish ecneuflna i citeneg lacipyta evlovni yam DDA taht aedi eht ot troppus emos dnel dluow sihT“ .srehtorb detceffa rieh ople ep fodiagnosed noitcarf Awith .ydutADD s riehave ht fo snot noiresponded tatimil rehto totu Ritalin o tniop ot luferac erew osla srehcraeser eht ,DDA ni tseretni daerpsediw eht fo esuaceB .ecneuflni citene


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A1

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The outer stroke details, entry and exit strokes differ for each letterform to give differentiation between confusable letters.


LEGIBILITY BRITAIN HAS TWO MILLION severely dyslexic individuals, including some 375,000 school children. Ten percent of people using romance languages are coping with a reading difficulty. Dyslexia is a combination of abilities and difficulties that affect the learning process, displaying a wide range of difficulties. Dyslexia can occur despite normal intellectual ability and teaching, and it is independent of socioeconomic or language background. THERE HAS BEEN GROWING innovation to combat dyslexia, especially for children, in the form of computer software. However, relatively relatively little design research has been done in the area of typography and type design that might support dyslexics. Read Regular is a typeface designed specifically to help people with dyslexia read and write more effectively. READ REGULAR AIMS at preventing a neglect of dyslexia, creating a more confident feeling regarding the problems that occur with dyslexia. Read Regular is designed with an individual approach for each of the individual characters, creating difference in the actual characters of b&d itself (not mirroring the b to make the d), to create a large character differentiation. The character shapes are simple and clear, creating consistency. The characters have been stripped down from all unnecessary details, such as a two storey a and a two eyed g. The individual approach creates striking outlines that make sure that each character stands on its own and works together with its previous or next character. Used in the content of words, sentences and text, the following or the previous character does not try to interfere in its readability process. Ascenders (bdfhkl) and descenders (gjpqy) are long to ensure their legibility. Inner shapes for example within the the o,e,a,u and openings in e and g are kept open to prevent from visually closing in. This makes Read Regular a friendly character and a pleasant balance between black and white. Many of the difficulties that occur with dyslexia result in a barrier. Even though the symptoms can vary over an enormously wide range per individual. The difficulties do result in similar patterns of problems. Read Regular is aiming at these similar patterns.

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FIXATION DURING A SINGLE FIXATION, there is a limit to the amount of information that can be recognized. The fovea, which is the clear center point of our vision, can only see three to four letters to the left and right of fixation at normal reading distances. Visual acuity decreases quickly in the parafovea, which extends out as far as 15 to 20 letters to the left and right of the fixation point. Eye movement studies that I will discuss shortly indicate that there are three zones of visual identification. Readers collect information from all three zones during the span of a fixation. Closest to the fixation point is where word recognition takes place. This zone is usually large enough to capture the word being fixated, and often includes smaller function words directly to the right of the fixated word. The next zone extends a few letters past the word recognition zone, and readers gather preliminary information about the next letters in this zone. The final zone extends out to 15 letters past the fixation point. Information gathered out this far is used to identify the length of upcoming words and to identify the best location for the next fixation point. For example, in Figure 5, the first fixation point is on the s in Roadside. The reader is able to recognize the word Roadside, beginning letter information from the first few letters in joggers, as well as complete word length information about the word joggers. A more interesting fixation in Figure 5 is the word sweat. In this fixation both the words sweat and pain are short enough to be fully recognized, while beginning letter information is gathered for. Because and is a high frequency function word, this is enough information to skip this word as well. Word length information is gathered all the way out to angry, which becomes the location of the next fixation. There are two experimental methodologies that have been critical for understanding the fixation span: the moving window paradigm and the boundary study paradigm. These methodologies make it possible to study readers while they are engaged in ordinary reading. Both rely on fast eye trackers and computers to perform clever text manipulations while a reader is making a saccade. While making a saccade, the reader is functionally blind. The reader will not perceive that text has changed if the change is completed before the saccade has finished.

ZONE 1 Word recognition takes place


T

P

O₂

α θ₂

M

α O₁ θ₁

Q

q₂ m₂ p₂

β

q₁ m₁ p₁

S

ZONE 3 Extends out 15 letters past fixation point

ZONE 2 Extends a few letters past word recognition point

.513 20


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S I M I L A R L E T T E R F O R M S A R E D I F F ERENTIATED.

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THE WEIGHT O F E A C H C H A R A C T E R I S C A R EFULLY BALA N C E D .

For a typeface to be dyslexia friendly, there needs to be a clear distinction between confusing letterforms, such as b, q,d, and p.


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A2 CHARACTER SPACING I S I N C R E A S E D

B2

DYSLEXIA FRIENDLY The user research outputs confirmed that ascenders (the upward strokes in letters such as ‘d’) and descenders (downwards strokes in letters such as ‘p’) should ideally be long to ensure their legibility. This, together with other factors, led Frensch to optimise respective character weighting as one of the key drivers of the project, with the weight of each character being carefully balanced to decrease the competition for the reader’s attention between the letterforms and the background. It was found that many of the issues relating to characters also applied to numerals, which were incorporated using similar criteria. Character spacing was increased slightly to support the reader during their attempt to build up the necessary word images, and verified by means of further user testing. It was found that the standard answer to problems experienced by dyslexics of simply enlarging type sizes did not adequately address the issue, in fact it tended to emphasise the problem with dyslexics. Needing to be able to recognise individual letter images rather than the shape of the completed word form, particularly when the spelling is not phonetic (eg. ‘Peugeot’), can and often does lead to guesswork. Alternatives to the ‘Read regular’ family, ie Read regular, Read Smallcaps and Read Space are acceptable providing they adhere to similar design guidelines. Copying or mirroring shapes should be avoided to avoid the ‘swirl-effect’ . Avoid the over-stylised. Italics and underlining are less recognisable. The use of capitals for large amounts of text is not recommended. The user research outputs confirmed that ascenders (the upward strokes in letters such as ‘d’) and descenders (downwards strokes in letters such as ‘p’) should ideally be long to ensure their legibility. This, together with other factors, led Frensch to optimise respective character weighting as one of the key drivers of the project, with the weight of each character being carefully balanced to decrease the competition for the reader’s attention between the letterforms and the background. It was found that many of the issues relating to characters also applied to numerals, which were incorporated using similar criteria.


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3.00 2.70 2.40 2.10 1.90 1.50 1.30 1.00 0.10 0.50 0.90 -1.00 -1.30 -1.70 -1.90 -2.10 -2.30 -2.70 -2.90 -3.10 -3.30 -3.70 -3.90 -4.10 -4.30 -4.40 -4.70 -4.80 -4.90 -5.00

pupil constriction

WORD ORWD MAVE AMVE


WORD SHAPE 2010 Dec 15 M 102 Acc Acq Tm: 16:03:36

DATA PROCESSING THE STRONGEST EVIDENCE for the word shape model is perhaps the word superiority effect which showed that letters can be more accurately recognized in the context of a word than in isolation, for example subjects are more accurate at recognizing D in the context of WORD than in the context of ORWD. This supports word shape because subjects are able to quickly recognize the familiar word shape, and deduce the presence of letter information after the stimulus presentation has finished while the nonword can only be read letter by letter. McClelland & Johnson demonstrated that the reason for the word superiority effect wasn’t the recognition of word shapes, but rather the existence of regular letter combinations. Pseudowords are not words in the English language, but have the phonetic regularity that make them easily pronounceable. Mave and rint are two examples of pseudowords. Because pseudowords do not have semantic content and have not been seen previously by the subjects, they should not have a familiar word shape. McClelland & Johnson found that letters are recognized faster in the context of pseudowords (mave) than in the context of nonwords (amve). This demonstrates that the word superiority effect is caused by regular letter combinations and not word shape. THE WEAKEST EVIDENCE in support of word shape is that lowercase text is read faster than uppercase text. This is entirely a practice effect. Most readers spend the bulk of their time reading lowercase text and are therefore more proficient at it. When readers are forced to read large quantities of uppercase text, their reading speed will eventually increase to the rate of lowercase text. Even text oriented as if you were seeing it in a mirror will quickly increase in reading speed with practice.

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Current studies concerning the co-occurrence, of attention deficit disorder and one or more learning disabilities are examined. Information is reported from four major aspects of the research: statistical accounts of the prevalence of attention deficit disorder and the simultaneous occurrence of the two disorders; subtypes of attention deficit disorder as they relate to learning disabilities; findings and suggestions as to causes for the co-occurrence; and educational implications based on current research. Research acknowledges that learning disability and attention deficit disorder (ADD) frequently co-occur. In addition to significant inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, primary characteristics manifested in children diagnosed as ADD include “learning disorder” and “academic underachiever”. Estimates of co-morbidity of ADD and learning disability range from approximately 20% to approximately 50%. Estimates of reports vary, depending on the way learning disability is defined or ADD is assessed. While this rate of co-occurrence has led some to theorize that the two disorders share overlapping deficits, other research concludes that ADD and learning disability are separate and distinct entities that often co-occur. The purpose of this paper is to review the contemporary literature related to the cooccurrence of attention-deficit disorder (ADD), with and without hyperactivity, and specific learning disabilities. Factors common to children with either learning disability or attention deficit disorder as compared to common features of children diagnosed as having both ADD and learning disability are presented. Curabitur ultrices tempus magna molestie auctor. Nunc accumsan sapien eu sapien auctor tristique. Current studies concerning the co-occurrence, of attention deficit disorder and one or more learning disabilities are examined. Information is reported from four major aspects of the research: statistical accounts of the prevalence of attention deficit disorder and the simultaneous occurrence of the two disorders subtypes of attention deficit disorder as they relate to learning disabilities; findings and suggestions as to causes for the co-occurrence; and educational implications based on current research. Research acknowledges that learning disability and attention deficit disorder (ADD) frequently co-occur. In addition to significant inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, primary characteristics manifested in children diagnosed as ADD include “learning disorder” and “academic underachiever.” Estimates of co-morbidity of ADD and learning disability range from approximately 20% to approximately 50%. Estimates of reports vary, depending on the way learning disability is defined or ADD is assessed. While this rate of co-occurrence has led some to theorize that the two disorders share overlapping deficits, other research concludes that ADD and learning disability are separate and distinct entities that often co-occur. The purpose of this paper is to review the contemporary literature related to the cooccurrence of attention-deficit disorder (ADD), with and without hyperactivity, and specific learning disabilities. Factors common to children with either learning disability or attention deficit disorder as compared to common features of children diagnosed as having both ADD and learning disability are presented.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++ +++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


DYSLEXIA RouseHig SAR 2011 OCT 15 M 102 Acc Acq Tm: 16:03:36 SIZES ARE APPROX

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C B D


Develop Developmental reading disorder (DRD) is not caused by vision problems, but rather by problems with the brain’s ability to recognize and process sy

learning to read. A child’s initial reading skills are based on word recognition, which involves being able to separate out the sounds in words and match them

difficulty connecting the sounds of language to the letters of words, they may have difficulty understanding sentences. Most children with DRD have norma

to think or to understand complex ideas.DRD may appear in combination with developmental writing disorder and developmental arithmetic disorder. All of t

particular, reading disability, must be ruled out before a diagnosis of DRD can be made. Cultural and educational shortfalls, emotional problems, mental reta

on a small number of boys can lead to brain-based methods of diagnosis, caution the lead researchers, Research Associate Chandan Vaidya and Associate treat ADD, has different effects on the brains of people with and without ADD, and where those differences occur in the brain. The findings are reported in th in the study of ADD. This imaging method can show brain differences in individual people, instead of in averages of differences of two groups. This is critical inhalation of radioactive substances. It relies instead on naturally occurring changes in brain function, which makes it appropriate for research and clinical p Community/Academia Coalition in Los Altos, Calif. and Gary Glover and John Desmond of the Stanford Medical Center’s Radiology Department. The findings clear findings in that field,” said Gabrieli, who heads the brain imaging laboratory where the research was done. Attention deficit disorder, which often includ might be possible to make a biological diagnosis of the disorder by using FMRI. Since the common treatment for ADD is a prescription drug whose long-term 16 boys between the ages of 8 and 13 were asked individually to play a mental game while lying in a magnetic resonance imaging device, which was set to im affected striatal structures (specifically known as the caudate and putamen) when taking the drug than when not. The healthy boys, in contrast, showed the radioactive material, a consensus developed that it is the frontal striatal circuitry of the brain that is what’s not right with this disorder,” Vaidya said. “That is influences dopamine neurotransmission. The opposite effects of Ritalin on boys with ADD and boys without the disorder suggest that ADD involves atypical girls as well as with more boys before they can be certain they have found a universal neurobiological marker for the disorder. They also reported that they t boys showed some Ritalin enhancement of the striatum, as did their affected brothers. “This would lend some support to the idea that ADD may involve atyp widespread interest in ADD, the researchers also were careful to point out other limitations of their study. A fraction of people diagnosed with ADD have not activation that might occur with the drug over time. The ADD boys did show a different brain activation level when not on the drug, but all of them had been t that could improve individuals’ performance. “This instead on naturally occurring changes in brain function, which makes it appropriate for research and clin Community/Academia Coalition in Los Altos, Calif. and Gary Glover and John Desmond of the Stanford Medical Center’s Radiology Department. The findings clear findings in that field,” said Gabrieli, who heads the brain imaging laboratory where the research was done. Attention deficit disorder, which often includ might be possible to make a biological diagnosis of the disorder by using FMRI. Since the common treatment for ADD is a prescription drug whose long-term 16 boys between the ages of 8 and 13 were asked individually to play a mental game while lying in a magnetic resonance imaging device, which was set to im and 6 of whom had not, were instructed to press a button when they saw any letter of the alphabet except the letter X on a display screen. Because most of The task was expected to be, and in fact proved to be, more difficult for the boys with ADD, because poor impulse control is one of the disorder’s symptoms. known to be involved in motor control. The brain activation differences between the boys with ADD and those without were even more dramatic when the su such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. “Both the normal kids and the ADD kids got better in their impulse control when they had taken the drug,” affected striatal structures (specifically known as the caudate and putamen) when taking the drug than when not. The healthy boys, in contrast, showed the radioactive material, a consensus developed that it is the frontal striatal circuitry of the brain that is what’s not right with this disorder,” Vaidya said. “That is influences dopamine neurotransmission. The opposite effects of Ritalin on boys with ADD and boys without the disorder suggest that ADD involves atypical girls as well as with more boys before they can be certain they have found a universal neurobiological marker for the disorder. They also reported that they t boys showed some Ritalin enhancement of the striatum, as did their affected brothers. “This would lend some support to the idea that ADD may involve atyp widespread interest in ADD, the researchers also were careful to point out other limitations of their study. A fraction of people diagnosed with ADD have not activation that might occur with the drug over time. The ADD boys did show a different brain activation level when not on the drug, but all of them had been t that could improve individuals’ performance. “This is one of the few studies to examine brain function in children, and to further our knowledge about norma abnormal development.” Currently, ADD impairs the function of an estimated 3 to 7 percent of youngsters in home and school, and the long-term conseque Developmental reading disorder (DRD) is not caused by vision problems, but rather by problems with the brain’s ability to recognize and process symbols. C read. A child’s initial reading skills are based on word recognition, which involves being able to separate out the sounds in words and match them with letter connecting the sounds of language to the letters of words, they may have difficulty understanding sentences. Most children with DRD have normal intellige to understand complex ideas.DRD may appear in combination with developmental writing disorder and developmental arithmetic disorder. All of these invol reading disability, must be ruled out before a diagnosis of DRD can be made. Cultural and educational shortfalls, emotional problems, mental retardation, an number of boys can lead to brain-based methods of diagnosis, caution the lead researchers, Research Associate Chandan Vaidya and Associate Professor has different effects on the brains of people with and without ADD, and where those differences occur in the brain. The findings are reported in the Nov. 24 i study of ADD. This imaging method can show brain differences in individual people, instead of in averages of differences of two groups. This is critical for dia radioactive substances. It relies instead on naturally occurring changes in brain function, which makes it appropriate for research and clinical purposes for Academia Coalition in Los Altos, Calif. and Gary Glover and John Desmond of the Stanford Medical Center’s Radiology Department. The findings have drawn in that field,” said Gabrieli, who heads the brain imaging laboratory where the research was done. Attention deficit disorder, which often includes hyperactivi possible to make a biological diagnosis of the disorder by using FMRI. Since the common treatment for ADD is a prescription drug whose long-term effects between the ages of 8 and 13 were asked individually to play a mental game while lying in a magnetic resonance imaging device, which was set to image fro whom had not, were instructed to press a button when they saw any letter of the alphabet except the letter X on a display screen. Because most of the lette was expected to be, and in fact proved to be, more difficult for the boys with ADD, because poor impulse control is one of the disorder’s symptoms. Compari be involved in motor control. The brain activation differences between the boys with ADD and those without were even more dramatic when the subjects we inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. “Both the normal kids and the ADD kids got better in their impulse control when they had taken the drug,” Vaidya s striatal structures (specifically known as the caudate and putamen) when taking the drug than when not. The healthy boys, in contrast, showed the reverse material, a consensus developed that it is the frontal striatal circuitry of the brain that is what’s not right with this disorder,” Vaidya said. “That is why we ima dopamine neurotransmission. The opposite effects of Ritalin on boys with ADD and boys without the disorder suggest that ADD involves atypical dopamine well as with more boys before they can be certain they have found a universal neurobiological marker for the disorder. They also reported that they tried the showed some Ritalin enhancement of the striatum, as did their affected brothers. “This would lend some support to the idea that ADD may involve atypical g widespread interest in ADD, the researchers also were careful to point out other limitations of their study. A fraction of people diagnosed with ADD have not activation that might occur with the drug over time. The ADD boys did show a different brain activation level when not on the drug, but all of them had been t that could improve individuals’ performance. “This is one of the few studies to examine brain function in children, and to further our knowledge about norma abnormal development.” Currently, ADD impairs the function of an estimated 3 to 7 percent of youngsters in home and school, and the long-term conseque Developmental reading disorder (DRD) is not caused by vision problems, but rather by problems with the brain’s ability to recognize and process symbols. C read. A child’s initial reading skills are based on word recognition, which involves being able to separate out the sounds in words and match them with letter connecting the sounds of language to the letters of words, they may have difficulty understanding sentences. Most children with DRD have normal intellige to understand complex ideas.DRD may appear in combination with developmental writing disorder and developmental arithmetic disorder. All of these invol reading disability, must be ruled out before a diagnosis of DRD can be made. Cultural and educational shortfalls, emotional problems, mental retardation, an number of boys can lead to brain-based methods of diagnosis, caution the lead researchers, Research Associate Chandan Vaidya and Associate Professor has different effects on the brains of people with and without ADD, and where those differences occur in the brain. The findings are reported in the Nov. 24 i study of ADD. This imaging method can show brain differences in individual people, instead of in averages of differences of two groups. This is critical for dia radioactive substances. It relies instead on naturally occurring changes in brain function, which makes it appropriate for research and clinical purposes for Academia Coalition in Los Altos, Calif. and Gary Glover and John Desmond of the Stanford Medical Center’s Radiology Department. The findings have drawn in that field,” said Gabrieli, who heads the brain imaging laboratory where the research was done. Attention deficit disorder, which often includes hyperactivi possible to make aof biological of individually the disordertoby using FMRI. Since common for ADD is a prescription drug whose long-term effects between the ages 8 and 13diagnosis were asked play a mental gameofthe while lying in treatment aexcept magnetic imaging device, which was set toofimage fro whom had not, were instructed to press abe, button when they saw any letter the alphabet the resonance letter X onis a display screen. Because most the lette was expected to be, and in fact proved to more difficult for the boys with ADD, because poor impulse control one of the disorder’s symptoms. Compari be involved in motor control. The brain activation differences between the boys with ADD and those without were even more dramatic when the subjects we inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. “Both the normal kids and the ADD kids the got drug better in their impulse control when they had takenshowed the drug,” Vaidya s striatal structures (specifically known caudate and putamen) when taking than when not.with The healthy boys, in contrast, reverse material, aneurotransmission. consensus developed that itasisthe the frontalofstriatal circuitry of the brain that is what’s not right this disorder,” Vaidya said. “That is the why we ima dopamine The opposite effects Ritalin on boys with ADD and boys without the disorder suggest that ADD involves atypical dopamine well as with more boys before they can be certain they have found a universal neurobiological marker for the disorder. 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This imaging method can show brain ind methods used in other studies of ADD, FMRI does not require injection or inhalation of radioactive substances. It relies instead on naturally occurring chang and Hugh Ridlehuber and school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the Community/Academia Coalition in Los Altos, Calif. and Gary Glover and John Desmond o widespread, sobehavior. controversial and confusing, andbe these are among thestudy, clear findings into that field,” said who asked heads the brain imaging laboratory of youngsters’ Ifit.the new findings can replicated, he itfew might be possible make anot, biological diagnosis ofpress theindividually disorder byto using Sinc would welcome a more definitive way to diagnose the disorder. 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The brain activation differences betw Ritalin is a stimulant used to temporarily relieve symptoms of ADD, as inattention, impulsivity and “Both the normal kids and did differed in brains.” The boys with ADD showed more activity in the affected striatal known as the caudate and putamen) wh “From past work with adults and children, some ofand which required injecting radioactive material, awith consensus developed that it isbe thecertain frontal striatal circuitry structures are, indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin primarily, not exclusively, influences dopamine neurotransmission. The opposite effects of Ritalin on b that the study was conducted athe small group needs to be replicated girls as well as some more boys before they can they have found with but who had siblings with diagnosis. Two ofchanges thebut three siblings ofwith ADD boys Ritalin enhancement of the striatum, aspoint did their affe studies would be necessary towith establish a genetic influence. Because of the widespread interest in ADD, the researchers also were careful to out othe they ADD said. Itthe also did not attempt tofor investigate possible in brain activation thatshowed might occur with theboys drugADD overimpairs time. The ADD boys did show a differ limitations, study points to new directions research into brain function that could improve individuals’ performance. “This is one of activity the few studies to powerful tool to examine brain and behavior in for the context of both normal and abnormal development.” Currently, the function of an estimated adults as well as an increased risk drug abuse and other risky behaviors. did it differed in the brains.” The with ADD showed more in the affe reverse -experiment less activity in those areas when taking the drug than when not. “From past work with adults and children, some of which required injecting radioac we imaged this part of the brain, and our study confirmed that these structures are, indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin primarily, but not exclusively, influenc dopamine modulation in the striatum, she said. The researchers caution that the study was conducted with a small group and needs to be replicated with g tried the on three other boys who had not been diagnosed with ADD but who had siblings with the diagnosis. Two of the three siblings of ADD bo atypical genetic influences on dopamine modulation,” Vaidya said, but more studies would be necessary establish a genetic influence. Because of the wid responded to previously Ritalin treatment, and thisongoing study not include such children, they said. It also did not brain attempt to investigate possible changes infunction brain activa taking Ritalin as part of their treatment. Despite these the study points to to new directions research into brain tha and abnormal brain development,” Gabrieli said.did “It suggests that FMRI is alimitations, powerful tool to examine and behavior infor the context of both normal and ab


ymbols. Children with DRD may have trouble rhyming and separating the sounds in spoken words. These abilities appear to be critical in the process of

m with letters and groups of letters. More developed reading skills require the linking of words into a coherent sentence. Because DRD children have

al intelligence, and many have above-average intelligence. The disorder is a specific information processing problem that is not connected with the ability

these involve using symbols to convey information. These conditions may appear alone or in any combination. Other causes of learning disability and, in

ardation, and diseases of the brain (for example AIDS) can all cause learning disabilities. Follow-up studies will be required before the results of this study

e Professor John Gabrieli of Stanford’s Department of Psychology. Theirs is the first study, however, to show that Ritalin, the drug most commonly used to he Nov. 24 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study is also the first to use functional magnetic resonance imaging [FMRI] l for diagnosis, which has to be established on an individual basis. Unlike methods used in other studies of ADD, FMRI does not require injection or purposes for children. Co-authors of the study are medical doctors Glenn Austin and Hugh Ridlehuber and school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the s have drawn considerable attention from neuroscientists because “ADD is so widespread, so controversial and confusing, and these are among the few des hyperactivity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations of youngsters’ behavior. If the new findings can be replicated, he said, it m effects on brain function are not known, parents and pediatricians most likely would welcome a more definitive way to diagnose the disorder. In the study, mage front portions of the brain, including the frontal-lobe cortex and the striatal structures below it. The boys, 10 of whom had been diagnosed with ADD e reverse - less activity in those areas when taking the drug than when not. “From past work with adults and children, some of which required injecting s why we imaged this part of the brain, and our study confirmed that these structures are, indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin primarily, but not exclusively, l dopamine modulation in the striatum, she said. The researchers caution that the study was conducted with a small group and needs to be replicated with tried the experiment on three other boys who had not been diagnosed with ADD but who had siblings with the diagnosis. Two of the three siblings of ADD pical genetic influences on dopamine modulation,” Vaidya said, but more studies would be necessary to establish a genetic influence. Because of the t responded to Ritalin treatment, and this study did not include such children, they said. It also did not attempt to investigate possible changes in brain taking Ritalin previously as part of their ongoing treatment. Despite these limitations, the study points to new directions for research into brain function nical purposes for children. Co-authors of the study are medical doctors Glenn Austin and Hugh Ridlehuber and school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the s have drawn considerable attention from neuroscientists because “ADD is so widespread, so controversial and confusing, and these are among the few des hyperactivity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations of youngsters’ behavior. If the new findings can be replicated, he said, it m effects on brain function are not known, parents and pediatricians most likely would welcome a more definitive way to diagnose the disorder. In the study, mage front portions of the brain, including the frontal-lobe cortex and the striatal structures below it. The boys, 10 of whom had been diagnosed with ADD f the letters were not X, each child built up a predisposition to press the button and needed to control his impulse to press the button when he saw an X. . Comparing the brain images later, researchers found a clear difference in the activation of neuronal tissue in two structures in the striatal region, which is ubjects were asked to perform the same task after taking the drug Ritalin. Ritalin is a stimulant medication used to temporarily relieve symptoms of ADD, Vaidya said. “Ritalin improved everyone’s performance, but how it actually did it differed in the brains.” The boys with ADD showed more activity in the e reverse - less activity in those areas when taking the drug than when not. “From past work with adults and children, some of which required injecting s why we imaged this part of the brain, and our study confirmed that these structures are, indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin primarily, but not exclusively, l dopamine modulation in the striatum, she said. The researchers caution that the study was conducted with a small group and needs to be replicated with tried the experiment on three other boys who had not been diagnosed with ADD but who had siblings with the diagnosis. Two of the three siblings of ADD pical genetic influences on dopamine modulation,” Vaidya said, but more studies would be necessary to establish a genetic influence. Because of the t responded to Ritalin treatment, and this study did not include such children, they said. It also did not attempt to investigate possible changes in brain taking Ritalin previously as part of their ongoing treatment. Despite these limitations, the study points to new directions for research into brain function al and abnormal brain development,” Gabrieli said. “It suggests that FMRI is a powerful tool to examine brain and behavior in the context of both normal and ences include lower educational and vocational accomplishments for them as adults as well as an increased risk for drug abuse and other risky behaviors. Children with DRD may have trouble rhyming and separating the sounds in spoken words. These abilities appear to be critical in the process of learning to rs and groups of letters. More developed reading skills require the linking of words into a coherent sentence. Because DRD children have difficulty ence, and many have above-average intelligence. The disorder is a specific information processing problem that is not connected with the ability to think or lve using symbols to convey information. These conditions may appear alone or in any combination. Other causes of learning disability and, in particular, nd diseases of the brain (for example AIDS) can all cause learning disabilities. Follow-up studies will be required before the results of this study on a small r John Gabrieli of Stanford’s Department of Psychology. Theirs is the first study, however, to show that Ritalin, the drug most commonly used to treat ADD, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study is also the first to use functional magnetic resonance imaging [FMRI] in the agnosis, which has to be established on an individual basis. Unlike methods used in other studies of ADD, FMRI does not require injection or inhalation of children. Co-authors of the study are medical doctors Glenn Austin and Hugh Ridlehuber and school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the Community/ n considerable attention from neuroscientists because “ADD is so widespread, so controversial and confusing, and these are among the few clear findings ity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations of youngsters’ behavior. If the new findings can be replicated, he said, it might be on brain function are not known, parents and pediatricians most likely would welcome a more definitive way to diagnose the disorder. In the study, 16 boys ont portions of the brain, including the frontal-lobe cortex and the striatal structures below it. The boys, 10 of whom had been diagnosed with ADD and 6 of ers were not X, each child built up a predisposition to press the button and needed to control his impulse to press the button when he saw an X. The task ing the brain images later, researchers found a clear difference in the activation of neuronal tissue in two structures in the striatal region, which is known to ere asked to perform the same task after taking the drug Ritalin. Ritalin is a stimulant medication used to temporarily relieve symptoms of ADD, such as said. “Ritalin improved everyone’s performance, but how it actually did it differed in the brains.” The boys with ADD showed more activity in the affected e - less activity in those areas when taking the drug than when not. “From past work with adults and children, some of which required injecting radioactive aged this part of the brain, and our study confirmed that these structures are, indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin primarily, but not exclusively, influences modulation in the striatum, she said. The researchers caution that the study was conducted with a small group and needs to be replicated with girls as e experiment on three other boys who had not been diagnosed with ADD but who had siblings with the diagnosis. Two of the three siblings of ADD boys genetic influences on dopamine modulation,” Vaidya said, but more studies would be necessary to establish a genetic influence. Because of the t responded to Ritalin treatment, and this study did not include such children, they said. It also did not attempt to investigate possible changes in brain taking Ritalin previously as part of their ongoing treatment. Despite these limitations, the study points to new directions for research into brain function al and abnormal brain development,” Gabrieli said. “It suggests that FMRI is a powerful tool to examine brain and behavior in the context of both normal and ences include lower educational and vocational accomplishments for them as adults as well as an increased risk for drug abuse and other risky behaviors. Children with DRD may have trouble rhyming and separating the sounds in spoken words. These abilities appear to be critical in the process of learning to rs and groups of letters. More developed reading skills require the linking of words into a coherent sentence. Because DRD children have difficulty ence, and many have above-average intelligence. The disorder is a specific information processing problem that is not connected with the ability to think or lve using symbols to convey information. These conditions may appear alone or in any combination. Other causes of learning disability and, in particular, nd diseases of the brain (for example AIDS) can all cause learning disabilities. Follow-up studies will be required before the results of this study on a small r John Gabrieli of Stanford’s Department of Psychology. Theirs is the first study, however, to show that Ritalin, the drug most commonly used to treat ADD, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study is also the first to use functional magnetic resonance imaging [FMRI] in the agnosis, which has to be established on an individual basis. Unlike methods used in other studies of ADD, FMRI does not require injection or inhalation of children. Co-authors of the study are medical doctors Glenn Austin and Hugh Ridlehuber and school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the Community/ n considerable attention from neuroscientists because “ADD is so widespread, so controversial and confusing, and these are among the few clear findings ity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations of youngsters’ behavior. If the new findings can be replicated, he said, it might be onportions brain function are notincluding known, parents and pediatricians most likely would welcome a more definitive way to diagnose the diagnosed disorder. Inwith the study, 16 boys ont the brain, frontal-lobe cortex and striatal below it. his The boys, 10 ofpress whom had been and 6 of ers were notof X, each child built up athe predisposition to press thethe button andstructures needed to control impulse to the button when he saw which an ADD X. The task ing the brain images later, researchers found a clear difference in the activation of neuronal tissue in two structures in the striatal region, is known to ere asked to perform the same task after taking the drug Ritalin. Ritalin is a stimulant medication used to temporarily relieve symptoms of ADD, such as “Ritalin improved everyone’s performance, butthan how when it actually did it differed in the brains.” boys with some ADD showed activity in the radioactive affected esaid. - less activity inthe those areas when takingconfirmed the drug not. “From past work with adultsThe and children, of whichmore required injecting aged this part of brain, and our study that these structures are, indeed, important for ADD.” Ritalin primarily, but not exclusively, influences modulation in striatum, she said. caution with that ADD the study washad conducted with the a small group and be replicated with girls egenetic experiment onthe three other boys who The had researchers not Vaidya been diagnosed but would who with diagnosis. Twoneeds ofinfluence. the to three siblings of boysas onabove-average dopamine modulation,” but more studies be siblings necessary toproblem establish a genetic Because ofADD the to ence, andinfluences many have intelligence. The said, disorder isappear a specific information processing that is of notlearning connected with the ability think or lve using symbols to convey information. These conditions may alone or in any combination. Other causes disability and, in particular, nd diseases of thebetter brain (fortheir example AIDS) can all cause learning disabilities. Follow-up studies will be required before theperformance, results of this study on a small the ADD kids impulse control when had taken the the drug,” Vaidya said. “Ritalin everyone’s but how it actually hen taking thegot drug than in when not. The healthy boys, inthey contrast, showed reverse -have less activity inimproved thoseintelligence. areas when The taking the drug than when not. nderstanding sentences. Most children with DRD have normal intelligence, and many above-average disorder is a specific pmental writing disorder andshortfalls, developmental arithmetic disorder. All retardation, of these involve symbols convey These may appear de. Cultural and educational emotional problems, mental and using diseases of theto brain (forinformation. example AIDS) canconditions allPsychology. cause learning tion lead researchers, Research Chandan Vaidya and Associate Professor of Stanford’s of Theirs is D, andthe where those differences occurAssociate inofthe brain. Theoffindings are reported in the Nov. 24John issueGabrieli of the Proceedings ofDepartment the National Academy of Sciences. dividual people, instead of in averages differences two groups. This is critical for diagnosis, which has to be established on an individual basis. Unlike ges in Stanford brain function, which makes it appropriate for research and clinical purposes for children.attention Co-authors ofneuroscientists the study are medical doctors Glenn of the Medical Center’s Radiology Department. The findings have drawn considerable from because “ADD is so Austin where the research was done. Attention deficit disorder, which often includes hyperactivity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations ce thewhile common treatment for ADD is a prescription drug whose long-term effects on brain function arebrain, not known, parents and pediatricians most likely game lying in a magnetic resonance imaging device, which was set to image front portions of the including the frontal-lobe cortex and the ny letter of ADD, the alphabet except the letter X on aisdisplay screen. Because most of the letters were not X,images each child built up a predisposition to press the boys with because poor impulse control one of the disorder’s symptoms. Comparing the brain later, researchers found a clear difference ween the boys with ADD and those without were even more dramatic when the subjects were“Ritalin asked to performeveryone’s the same task after taking the drug Ritalin.in the ADD kids got better in their impulse control whenin they had taken the the drug,” Vaidya said. performance, how it actually hen thethat drug than when The healthy boys, contrast, showed reverse - less activity inimproved those areas and when taking the drug but than when not. y of taking the brain isboys what’s notnot. right with thissuggest disorder,” Vaidya said. “That is why we imaged this part of the brain, our study confirmed that these boys with ADD and without the disorder that ADD involves atypical dopamine modulation in the striatum, she said. The researchers caution a universal neurobiological marker forsupport the disorder. reported that they tried the experiment on three other boys who had notVaidya been diagnosed ected brothers. lend some todiagnosed theThey idea also that involve atypical genetic influences onand dopamine modulation,” said,children, but more er limitations of“This their would study. A fraction ofthe people withADD ADDmay have not responded to Ritalin treatment, this study did not include brain brain activation levelinwhen not on butour allknowledge of them had been taking Ritalin previously as part of their ongoing Despitesuch these orent children, and todrug, further about normal and abnormal brain development,” Gabrielitreatment. said. “It suggests that FMRI isas a 3examine to 7bypercent offunction youngsters in home and andand the process long-term consequences include lower educational and vocational for them ather problems with the brain’s ability toschool, recognize symbols. 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Attention deficit disorder, which often includes hyperactivity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations ce the common treatment for ADD isletter a prescription drugscreen. whose long-term effects on brain function are not known, parents and pediatricians most game while lying in a magnetic resonance imaging device, which was set to image front portions ofbrain the brain, including the frontal-lobe cortex and the ny letter of the alphabet except the X on a display Because most of the letters were not X, each child built up a predisposition to press the in boys with ADD, because poor impulse control is one of the disorder’s symptoms. 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Despite that these orent brain inwhen children, and toschool, further our knowledge about normal and abnormal brain development,” Gabrieli said. “It suggests FMRI isas a 3examine todopamine 7 percent of youngsters in home and and long-term consequences include lower educational and vocational accomplishments for them ected striatal structures (specifically known the caudate and putamen) when taking the drug than when The healthy boys, inalso contrast, showed the ctive material, afunction consensus developed that itasstriatum, is the frontal striatal circuitry of the brain that iswithout what’s not right with this disorder,” Vaidya said. “That isthey why ces neurotransmission. The opposite effects of Ritalin on boys ADD and boys the disorder suggest ADD involves atypical girls asthat wellmight as with more boys before they can be certain they have found awith universal neurobiological marker for the disorder. 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Additional and ongoing physical stimulation, such as is offered in interactive computer programs, could positively affect academic achievement by improving attention.


ADD RouseHig SAR 2011 OCT 15 M 102 Acc Acq Tm: 16:03:36 SIZES ARE APPROX

ATTENTION T H E A MERICAN PSYCHIATRIC Association reported inattention to be the primary symptom of attention deficit disorder. As a result of this latest pronouncement, two subtypes were specified, nonhyperactive and hyperactive. Although children in both subtypes were assessed to be more impaired in some academic and cognitive areas, significant differences were discovered between the two groups. For example, Accardo, explored the relationship between ADD and learning disability and noted a higher incidence of diagnosed learning disability in the nonhyperactive group (85.7%) versus the ADD group with hyperactivity (67.7%). Goodyear and Hynd support support the contention that attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity is a more attention/cognitive/anxious type of disorder in contrast to the the more attention/behavior/ impulsive aspects of attention deficit disorder deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Barkley et. al. appears to corroborate this finding as he reported that ADD students/with hyperactivity hyperactivity are more likely to be assigned to to behavior disorder classes while ADD students without hyperactivity were more often placed in learning disability classes. Rourke furthered this discussion when he found that attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity displays a type of inattention symptomatic of nonverbal learning disorder, including math disabilities. RESEARCH SUPPORTS the hypothesis that children with learning disablities share symptoms with children having attention deficit without hyperactivity. Indications are that children with learning disabilities are more similar to those diagnosed with attention deficit disorder and no hyperactivity with respect to lethargy, social withdrawal, poor organizational skills and learning difficulties as compared to the more disruptive and aggressive aspects of attention deficit disorder.


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The weight of each character being carefully balanced to decrease the competition for the reader’s attention between the letterforms and the background.

The weight of each character being carefully balanced to decrease the competition for the reader’s attention between the letterforms and the background.

CHARACTER SPACING WAS INCREASED S L I G H T LY TO SUPPORT THE READER DURING THEIR ATTEMPT TO BUILD UP THE NECESSARY WORD IMAGES, AND VERIFIED BY MEANS

Character spacing was increased slightly to support the reader during their attempt to build up the necessary word images, and verified by means of further user testing.

Copying C o p y in gor oro r Co py ing mirroring m ir r o r in shapes s hap mi rro rin ggsh a pes es should s h o u ld be b e sh ou ld be aavoided v o id d to avoid tto o aav av oideed v ooid id tthe h e ‘s‘swirl-effect.’ w ir ec eff lirle ‘sw f fe c t .’t.’ th e

Copying or mirroring shapes should be avoided to avoid the ‘swirl-effect.’


REGULATIONS 20Mb

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23 Mb

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COMMON DUPLICATION REGION

AUTISM CANDIDATE REGION

MATERNAL EXPRESSION DOMAIN

OCA2

GABRG3

GABRA5

GABRB3

ATP10C

UBE3A

IPW

NDN

SNRPN

PATERNAL EX P R E S S I O N D O M A I N

ZNF127

tel

IC

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5 cM

6 cM

9 cM

10 cM

12 cM

D15S219

D15S822

D15S511

15SCA-2

GABRB3

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D15S122

MICROSATELLITES D15S817

THE USER RESEARCH outputs confirmed that ascenders (the upward strokes in letters such as ‘d’) and descenders (downwards strokes in letters such as ‘p’) should ideally be long to ensure their legibility. This, together with other factors, led Frensch to optimise respective character weighting as one of the key drivers of the project, with the weight of each character decrease the competition for the reader’s attention between the letterforms and the background. It was found that many of the issues relating to characters also applied to numerals, which were incorporated using similar criteria. Character spacing was in increased slightly to support the reader during their attempt to build up the necessary word images, and verified by means of further user testing. It was found that the standard answer to problems experienced by dyslexics of simply enlarging type sizes did not adequately address the issue, in fact it tended to emphasise the problem with dyslexics. Needing to be able to recognise individual letter images rather than the shape of the completed word form, particularly when the spelling is not phonetic, can and often does lead to guesswork. Alternatives to the ‘Read regular’ family, ie. Read regular, Read Smallcaps and Read Space are acceptable providing they adhere to similar design guidelines. Copying or mirroring shapes should be avoided to avoid the ‘swirl-effect’. Avoid the over-stylised. Italics and underlining are less recognisable. The use of capitals for large amounts of text is not recommended. The user research outputs confirmed that ascenders (the upward strokes in letters such as ‘d’) and descenders (downwards strokes in letters such as ‘p’) should ideally be long to ensure their legibility.

15 cM


CHPTR0200-34 Series 1 Se: 0/1 Im: 0/1 Lin W: 2047 L: 3468

Protocol: BAEP-L CEREBRUM

vV/div (Aug)

THALAMUS

PINEAL GLAND

HYPOTHALAMUS

PONS

PITUITARY GLAND

0.25 vV/div (Sto)

CEREBELLUM

I I

V III

III

IV

CEREBRUM

V THALAMUS

II

PINEAL GLAND

IV

II

HYPOTHALAMUS

PONS

PITUITARY GLAND

G1-1

G1-2

CEREBELLUM

CEREBRUM

THALAMUS

PINEAL GLAND

HYPOTHALAMUS

PONS

PITUITARY GLAND

CEREBELLUM

1

11

1

11ms

CEREBRUM

THALAMUS

C1 Ch

I 1.73 1.68

II 2.83 2.91

III 3.76 3.74

IV

V

1-3

3-5

1-5

4.89 4.94

5.72 5.74

2.03 2.05

1.96 2.00

3.99 4.06

ALPHA BRAINWAV E S A R E S LOW E R , A N D H I G H E R I N A M P L I T U D E . T H E I R F R EQ U E N C Y R A N G E S FROM 9 TO 14 CYC L E S P E R S EC O N D . A P E R S ON W H O H A S C O M P L E T E D A TA S K A N D S I TS D OW N TO REST IS OFTEN I N A N A L P H A STAT E . A P E R S O N W H O TA K E S T I M E O U T TO R E F L EC T O R M E D I TATE IS USUALLY I N A N A L P H A STAT E . A P E R S O N W H O TA K E S A B R E A K F R O M A C O N F E R E N C E AND WALKS IN TH E GA R D E N I S O F T E N I N A N A L P H A STAT E .

PINEAL GLAND

HYPOTHALAMUS

PONS

PITUITARY GLAND

CEREBELLUM

I N DIVIDUALS WHO DO A LOT OF FREEWAY DRIVING OFTEN GET GOOD IDEAS DURING THOSE P E RIODS WHEN THEY ARE IN THETA. INDIVIDUALS WHO RUN OUTDOORS OFTEN ARE IN THE STATE OF MENTAL RELAXATION THAT IS SLOWER THAN ALPHA AND WHEN IN THETA, THEY ARE P R ONE TO A FLOW OF IDEAS. THIS CAN ALSO OCCUR IN THE SHOWER OR TUB OR EVEN WHILE S H AVING OR BRUSHING YOUR HAIR. IT IS A STATE WHERE TASKS BECOME SO AUTOMATIC THAT YO U CAN MENTALLY DISENGAGE FROM THEM. THE IDEATION THAT CAN TAKE PLACE DURING T H E THETA STATE IS OFTEN FREE FLOW AND OCCURS WITHOUT CENSORSHIP OR GUILT. IT IS T Y PICALLY A VERY POSITIVE MENTAL STATE.


ADD RouseHig SAR 2011 OCT 15 M 102 Acc Acq Tm: 16:03:36 SIZES ARE APPROX

CO-OCCURRENCE Current studies concerning the co-occurrence, of attention deficit disorder and one or more learning disabilities are examined. Information is reported from four major aspects of the research: (a) statistical accounts of the prevalence of attention deficit disorder and the simultaneous occurrence of the two disorders; (b) subtypes of attention deficit disorder as they relate to learning disabilities; (c) findings and suggestions as to causes for the co-occurrence; and (d) educational implications based on current research. Research acknowledges that learning disability and attention deficit disorder (ADD) frequently co-occur. In addition to significant inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, primary characteristics manifested in children diagnosed as ADD include “learning disorder” and “academic underachiever” (Marshall & Hynd, 1997; Stanford & Hynd, 1994). Estimates of comorbidity of ADD and learning disability range from approximately 20% (Javorsky, 1996) to approximately 50% (Riccio & Jemison, 1998). Estimates of reports vary, depending on the way learning disability is defined or ADD is assessed. While this rate of cooccurrence has led some to theorize that the two disorders share overlapping deficits (Marshall & Hynd, 1997), other research concludes that ADD and learning disability are separate and distinct entities that often co-occur (Riccio & Jemison, 1998). The purpose of this paper is to review the contemporary literature related to the cooccurrence of attention-deficit disorder (ADD), with and without hyperactivity, and specific learning disabilities. Factors common to children with either learning disability or attention deficit disorder as compared to common features of children diagnosed as having both ADD and learning disability are presented. Semrud-Clikeman (cited in Javorsky, 1996) postulated that it is the interaction of ADD and learning deficiencies inherent to learning disability and not a single factor of one of the disorders (e.g. attention) that produces deficits that result in lower academic achievement and specific disabilities. Webster, Hall, Brown, and Bolen (1996) agreed that while ADD subjects displayed information processing problems, the presence of learning disability increased the negative impact of the attention deficit. In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association reported inattention to be the primary symptom of attention deficit disorder, displacing hyperkinesis. As a result of this latest pronouncement, two subtypes were specified, nonhyperactive and hyperactive

ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER

LEARNING DISABILITIES

CO-OCCURANCE


CHPTR0200-36 Series 1 Se: 0/1 Im: 0/1 Lin W: 2047 L: 3468

A1

B1

B A A D

WORD RECOGNITION Evidence from the last 20 years of work in cognitive psychology indicate that we use the letters within a word to recognize a word. Many typographers and other text enthusiasts I’ve met insist that words are recognized by the outline made around the word shape. Some have used the term bouma as a synonym for word shape, though I was unfamiliar with the term. The term bouma appears in Paul Saenger’s 1997 book Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading. There I learned to my chagrin that we recognize words from their word shape and that “Modern psychologists call this image the ‘Bouma shape.’”This paper is written from the perspective of a reading psychologist. The data from dozens of experiments all come from peer reviewed journals where the experiments are well specified so that anyone could reproduce the experiment and expect to achieve the same result. This paper was originally presented as a talk at the ATypI conference in Vancouver in September, 2003. The goal of this paper is to review the history of why psychologists moved from a word shape model of word recognition to a letter recognition model, and to help others to come to the same conclusion. This paper will cover many topics in relatively few pages. Along the way I will present experiments and models that I couldn’t hope to cover completely without boring the reader. If you want more details on an experiment, all of the references are at the end of the paper as well as suggested readings for those interested in more information on some topics. Most papers are widely available at academic libraries. I will start by describing three major categories of word recognition models: the word shape model, and serial and parallel models of letter recognition. I will present representative data that was used as evidence to support each model. After all the evidence has been presented, I will evaluate the models in terms of their ability to support the data. And finally I will describe some recent developments in word recognition and a more detailed model that is currently popular among psychologists.

A2

B2

A

D

C

B


ADD RouseHig SAR 2011 OCT 15 M 102 Acc Acq Tm: 16:03:36

A D

SIZES ARE APPROX

CEREBRUM

THALAMUS

PINEAL GLAND

HYPOTHALAMUS

PONS

PITUITARY GLAND

D C D S L P C B S M C

A A A A A A A A A A A

D D B D D D P T T T T

CEREBELLUM


CHPTR0200-40 Series 1 Se: 0/1 Im: 0/1 Lin W: 2047 L: 3468

1

Normal 14 year old female low theta wave activity.

INCREASING ACTIVITY

3.00 2.70 2.40 2.10 1.90 1.50 1.30 1.00

2

0.10 0.50 0.90

ADD 14 year old female high theta wave activity

3

STANDARD DEVIATIONS

-1.00 -1.30 -1.70 -1.90 -2.10 -2.30 -2.70 -2.90 -3.10 -3.30 Normal 9 year old male low alpha wave activity.

-3.70 -3.90 -4.10

ADD 9 year old male high alpha wave activity.

ALPHA BRAINWAV E S A R E S LOW E R , A N D H I G H E R I N A M P L I T U D E . T H E I R F R EQ U E N C Y R A N G E S FROM 9 TO 14 CYC L E S P E R S EC O N D . A P E R S ON W H O H A S C O M P L E T E D A TA S K A N D S I TS D OW N TO REST IS OFTEN I N A N A L P H A STAT E . A P E R S O N W H O TA K E S T I M E O U T TO R E F L EC T O R M E D I TATE IS USUALLY I N A N A L P H A STAT E . A P E R S O N W H O TA K E S A B R E A K F R O M A C O N F E R E N C E AND WALKS IN TH E GA R D E N I S O F T E N I N A N A L P H A STAT E .

DECREASING ACTIVITY

4

-4.30 -4.40 -4.70 -4.80 -4.90 -5.00

T H ETA BRAINWAVES ARE TYPICALLY OF EVEN GREATER AMPLITUDE AND SLOWER FREQUENCY. T H IS FREQUENCY RANGE IS NORMALLY BETWEEN 5 AND 8 CYCLES A SECOND. A PERSON WHO H A S TAKEN TIME OFF FROM A TASK AND BEGINS TO DAYDREAM IS OFTEN IN A THETA BRAINWAVE STATE. A PERSON WHO IS DRIVING ON A FREEWAY, AND DISCOVERS THAT THEY CAN’T R ECALL THE LAST FIVE MILES, IS OFTEN IN A THETA STATE--INDUCED BY THE PROCESS OF F R EEWAY DRIVING. THE REPETITIOUS NATURE OF THAT FORM OF DRIVING COMPARED TO A C O UNTRY ROAD WOULD DIFFERENTIATE A THETA STATE AND A BETA STATE IN ORDER TO PER FO RM THE DRIVING TASK SAFELY. I N DIVIDUALS WHO DO A LOT OF FREEWAY DRIVING OFTEN GET GOOD IDEAS DURING THOSE P E RIODS WHEN THEY ARE IN THETA. INDIVIDUALS WHO RUN OUTDOORS OFTEN ARE IN THE STATE OF MENTAL RELAXATION THAT IS SLOWER THAN ALPHA AND WHEN IN THETA, THEY ARE P R ONE TO A FLOW OF IDEAS. THIS CAN ALSO OCCUR IN THE SHOWER OR TUB OR EVEN WHILE S H AVING OR BRUSHING YOUR HAIR. IT IS A STATE WHERE TASKS BECOME SO AUTOMATIC THAT YO U CAN MENTALLY DISENGAGE FROM THEM. THE IDEATION THAT CAN TAKE PLACE DURING T H E THETA STATE IS OFTEN FREE FLOW AND OCCURS WITHOUT CENSORSHIP OR GUILT. IT IS T Y PICALLY A VERY POSITIVE MENTAL STATE.


ADD RouseHig SAR 2011 OCT 15 M 102 Acc Acq Tm: 16:03:36

BRAIN ACTIVITY STANFORD NEUROSCIENTISTS have found a clear difference in brain functioning between boys who have attention deficit disorder [ADD] and those who do not, a step that could lead to better diagnosis of the most common developmental disorder of childhood. Followup studies will be required before the results of this study on a small number of boys can lead to brain-based methods of diagnosis, caution the lead researchers, Research Associate Chandan Vaidya and Professor John Gabrieli of Stanford’s Department of Psychology. Theirs is the first study, however, to show that Ritalin, the drug most commonly used to treat ADD, has different effects on the brains of people with and without ADD, and where those differences occur in the brain. The findings are reported in the Nov. 24 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. THE STUDY IS ALSO the first to use functional magnetic resonance imaging [FMRI] in the study of ADD. This imaging method can show brain differences in individual people, instead of in averages of differences of two groups. This is critical for diagnosis, which has to be established on an individual basis. Unlike methods used in other studies of ADD, FMRI does not require injection or inhalation of radioactive substances. It relies instead on naturally occurring changes in brain function, which makes it appropriate for research and clinical purposes for children and adults. CO-AUTHORS OF THE STUDY are medical doctors Glenn Austin and Hugh Ridlehuber and school psychologist Gary Kirkorian of the Community/Academia Coalition in Los Altos, California and Gary Glover and John Desmond of the Stanford Medical Center’s Radiology Department. The findings have drawn considerable attention from neuroscientists because “ADD is so widespread, so controversial and confusing, and these are among the few clear findings in that field,” said Gabrieli, who heads the brain imaging laboratory where the research was done. Attention deficit disorder, which often includes hyperactivity, is currently diagnosed on the basis of subjective observations of youngsters’ behavior. If the new findings can be replicated, he said, it might be possible to make a biological diagnosis of the disorder by using FMRI. Since the common treatment for ADD is a prescription drug whose long-term effects on brain function are not known, parents and pediatricians most likely would welcome a more definitive way to diagnose the disorder.

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CEREBRUM

THALAMUS

PINEAL GLAND

HYPOTHALAMUS

PONS

PITUITARY GLAND

CEREBELLUM


CREATIVE DIRECTOR: Ariel Grey

DESIGN: Sarah Rouse-Higgins

BINDING: Plotnet

PRINTING: Sfai Digital Imaging

SOFTWARE: Mac Book Pro, Indesign Cs4

PAPER: Moab Kayenta

TYPEFACES: Consolas And Vitesse Sans

TYPOGRAPHY CONFERENCE

COLOPHON:


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