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GLOBALIZATION AND GLOBAL INTERACTIONS BOOKLET

Helpful booklet for new IB diploma students learning Geography

Howdoesglobalizationaffectdiferent people?


WRITTEN BY SARAH PON TON, MIA COTHRAN AND CRAIG ADAMS

How does globalization affect different people?


Table of Contents Topic 1: What is Globalization and how is it measured? Topic 2: What other areas in the world are more globalized than others? Topic 3: How has telecommunications influenced globalization? Topic 4: What countries have immensely benefitted from globalization? Topic 5: How has globalization and culture worked hand in hand?


1 Topic

G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

What is Globalization and how is it measured? In this topic you will learn about what is globalization and how it is measured. It also includes key words that will help you understand the rest of the book.

G

is the international connection of people, language, arts and trade using technology to create a worldwide movement. Globalization has been happen for thousands of years. People have been trading goods to other countries across the seas. lobalization

Globalization has changed a lot

during the years. In the early years (i.e. medieval times) people had to use boats or carts to get there good where they needed it to be. This would take a long time to get the good to its destination. Now a day, because of technology we can sell goods online or ship them faster by boat or plane.

Neoliberalism Neoliberalism is a political philosophy that recommends support economic liberalizations, free trade and open markets to enhance the role of the private regions in modern society. Free trade is when small holder farmers in developing countries are paid fairly. Money goes directly to the farmers/ producers instead of ‘the middle men’. They also receive benefits like, money to help build schools and hospitals, develop heath care etc. This only happens when the countries agree to take off tariffs on their goods. A tariff is a tax on goods that countries put on. It raises the price of the good and is used to make the goods more expensive than their local products.

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G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

How is globalization measured? It is measured in the KOF index. The KOF index measures the three main aspects of globalization; Social, Economic and Political. Social globalization-This is shown as a bunch of ideas, information, images and people. It is estimated by personal contact (i.e. international telephone traffic), the flow of information (i.e. Internet users), and cultural proximity (i.e. the amount of McDonalds). Economic globalization- This is measured by the flows of trade, foreign direct investment and the restrictions that ate applied to these flows. Political globalization- This is represented by the level of political cooperation. It is measured by the number of embassies, membership of international organizations, participation in UN Security Council missions, and number of international treaties signed.

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2 Topic

G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

What areas in the world are more globalized than others? In this topic, you will learn about which areas are more globalized and what globalization looks like. The more developed countries are of course the more globalized countries, which consist of Northern America: USA and Canada, as well as Europe, more western European countries such as Germany, France, and UK as examples. Then more into eastern Asia, like China and Japan are quite Globalized as well as Australia and the farther south of South America: Argentina and Chile. In Africa some of the Countries are starting to be globalized but South Africa is already quite globalized on its own.

What does globalization look like? Globalization in countries can sometime deprive the country of its diversity. Countries that are highly globalized look the same. You can go to the same stores and people’s styles are more or less the same. For example you can have lunch at McDonalds and the shop at Forever 21, while wearing Nike shoes. This is not always true. On page 10 it is discussed how globalization and culture works hand in hand.

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3 Topic

G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

How has telecommunications influenced globalization? In this topic you will learn about telecommunications and how it has influenced globalization. Telecommunications is literally as it sounds the communication over a phone, which is only just the general idea, it could also consist of communication using Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter that allow you to communicate from short to long distances with people you know or don’t know and those you would like to meet. Some say the beginning of telecommunications was with Alexander Graham Bell who invented the working telephone, which we’ve adapted and upgraded to our new modern mobile smart phones, but I would say it was more benefitted through semaphore lines, which are the older version of telephone and electrical cables that run across country. An English scientist invented the semaphore line in 1684, Robert Hooke, but was first officially tested by Claude Chappe in France 1792. Chappe is acknowledged as the inventor of the semaphore line, he developed the system to convey messages from city to city within France using a series of relay stations similar to the way a telegraph was used later.

What is a Hyperglobalist A Hyperglobalist is a person who believes that the globalization of the world is an entirely positive benefit for the world entirely, they see it as a new epoch in human history, which in a certain respect it is, and this is probably the first known time we have been almost entirely globalized to date. The new epoch is shown by the declining relevance and authority of national states brought about largely through financial logic 4


G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

of our global market. Hyperglobalist scholars may agree that general factors behind globalization and the likely outcome of the process, they disagree whether it’s good or bad. The authors distinguish between the neo-liberal and neo-Marxist orientations, describing their different assessment of the customs of globalization.

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4 Topic

G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

What countries have immensely benefitted from globalization? In this topic you will learn about the benefits of globalization and which countries have benefitted the most from globalization. Globalization in the form of increased integration through trade and investment is an important reason why much progress has been made in reducing poverty and global inequality over recent decades. But it is not the only reason for this often unrecognized progress, good national polices, sound institutions and domestic political stability also matter. Despite this progress, poverty remains one of the most serious international challenges we face up to 1.2 billion of the developing world 4.8 billion people still live in extreme poverty. Understanding the current state of globalization is essential for the future. For all nations to reap the full benefits of globalization it is crucial to create a level playing field. President Bush's proposed (back when he was the former president) to eliminate all tariffs on all manufactured goods by 2015 will do it. According to this proposal, tariffs of 5% or less on all manufactured goods will be eliminated by 2005 and higher than 5% will be lowered to 8%. Starting 2010 the 8% tariffs will be lowered each year until they are eliminated by 2015. India's Export and Import in the year 2001-2002 was to the extent of 32,572 and 38,362 million roughly. Many Indian companies have started becoming respectable players in the International scene; in other words they have begun trading from a more shall we say international� scope. Agriculture exports account for about 13 to 18% of total annual of annual export of the country. In 2000-2001 Agricultural products valued at more than US $ 6million were exported from the country 23% of which was contributed by the marine products alone. Marine products in recent years have emerged to be the single largest contributor to the total agricultural export from the country accounting for over one fifth of the total agricultural exports.

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G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

Globalization and Trade 1) Transnational corporations TNCs or multinational corporations (MNCs) are companies that operate in more than one country; they often they often have factories in countries that are not as economically developed because labor is cheaper. Offices and headquarters tend to be located in the more developed world. Unilever, McDonalds and Apple are all examples of TNCs. However being a transnational corporation does have some advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages 

creation of jobs

stable income and more reliable than farming

improved education and skills

investment in infrastructure, egg new roads – helps locals as well as the TNC

help to exploit natural resources

a better developed economic base for the country

Disadvantages 

fewer workers employed, considering the scale of investment

poorer working conditions

damage to the environment by ignoring local laws

profits going to companies overseas rather than locals

little reinvestment in the local area

Factories are often footloose and jobs insecure. If labor costs increase, the company may move elsewhere

natural resources being over-exploited

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G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

Globalization and the Environment "7 million deaths annually linked to air pollution" 3.7 million Deaths attributable to ambient air pollution 4.3 million Deaths attributable to household air pollution 7 million deaths caused by air pollution in 2012, covering both household and ambient air pollution

Deforestation Globalization encourages deforestation. Deforestation is an indi- rect but very significant cause of the greenhouse effect. Clearing and logging reduce the volume of CO2 that plants convert into oxygen. This translates into an equivalent increase in the volume of CO2 in the atmosphere and thus adds to the greenhouse effect. And burning the cleared wood releases vast quantities of CO2. In total, estimated emissions from deforestation represent some 20% of the increased concentration of GHG in the atmosphere. Globalization and Cities Did you know that globalization has led to bigger cities? Interestingly enough we tend to associate globalization with having positive rewards on cities, but what little of us know is that globalization and cities have positive and negative aspects. Positive Aspects: Mobility and removing barriers: Globalization processes have opened up opportunities for young people looking for jobs. For Karolina , from Sweden (studying in South Africa), globalization – through the removal of economic barriers and the opening up of borders has let her to move from her home county to other countries (such as the United Kingdom and Norway) in search of work. Globalization enables us to go beyond our borders and see what else the world has to offer. Eva, 21, from Spain (who works for a hotel chain) said in an article that “the ability to speak a diversity of languages can be both an opportunity and a challenge (as a result of globalization) for young people.�

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G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

Negative Aspects: Muhammad, 20, from Indonesia perceives globalization as having the potential to increase competition for already scarce jobs. He argues that globalization means that young people, who in most cases have little or no work experience, are made to compete for jobs with people with vast work experience. In this regard, it is the youth “who suffer in the end” as a result of globalization (particularly if they are exploited due to inexperience). • In addition, Big, 24, from Zimbabwe believes that globalization is benefiting developed economies. He views this in light of “brain drain,” whereby improved transport and communication networks between countries have made it easier for developed economies to attract professionals from developing economies, thereby “leaving behind people who do not have the necessary innovative and entrepreneurial skills” to take developing countries forward. • According to Jack, globalization has contributed to unemployment because of what he referred to as “labor fragmentations.” In other words, globalization brings about the interconnectedness of economies, which has contributed to the current global economic crisis. Even the current crisis in the euro zone affects most other countries. In a sense, “globalization spreads instability.”

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5 Topic

G L O B A L I Z A T I O N

How has globalization and culture worked hand in hand? In this chapter you will learn about globalization and culture and if they have worked hand in hand with each other. Throughout time globalization has a direct effect on culture diversity, which is both positive and negative. The effects regarding globalization and culture have been a tough argument to debate. The advancement of technology withers away international boundaries and has opened up different cultures, allow globalization to take place. Because of this, globalization has interconnected the world, supporting economic growth, providing accessible information and assisting in developing the world.

Globalization and culture working hand in hand Globalization has been able to work hand in hand with culture and it has benefitted it. With the use of technology, globalization can allow for different cultures to self-represent and share information in a whole new way. Technology allows countries a way to get their names out in the world which can allow tourism to start and get people interested into coming to their country. Media allows cultures to have a voice to promote awareness and to give public knowledge about their stories and identities. It also allows countries to speak up about on issues that are important in preserving the culture and knowledge of their cultural ways, which allows them to keep their diversity. The countries are in charge of their own media companies and this allows them control signs and symbols that are considered as their cultural property. When cultures are in control of their public image, they are better prepared to manage and represent their images effectively.

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Mass media has helped restore culture in many nations. Technology can be used to conserve language, customs and culture. It has also provided the opportunity to review the countries identity as well identifying a place for different cultures. For example in the Middle East and North Africa, access of civil society networks was developed because of the availability of technology. Because of this they have been able to afford the possibility to get rid of the political and geographical boundaries. This has allowed international support from other countries for democracy, health, environment and development issues.

Globalization and culture working against each other Globalization has many beneficial effects on culture but on the hand globalization and culture has worked against each other. With the new access to different cultures to a wider audience, the public can hear and experience events that have never been accessible before. Countries and people are being misrepresented, stereotyped and are at risk of losing cultural rights because of unmonitored access to their information. Another effect on cultural diversity is the influence multinational corporations. They promote consumer culture and the exploitation of workers and markets. This increased availability of commercial media and products can get rid of local cultural influences. Globalization can create the loss of individualism and group identity because it encourages a 'Western ideal of individualism' or recently known as Americanism. This promotes an identical set of values and beliefs. Globalization allows countries to expand which can impact their cultural rights. Because of the world wide access to information, there has been a gateway to acquiring cultural information. Many people think that because their culture is out in the open that other people will take their culture, like cultural signs, and songs and dance, and take them for themselves. These aspects of culture are considered as an important part of their identity. It is difficult to monitor and control what is out on the Internet because of the huge amount of people able access to the information, making it hard to prevent culture from being stolen. For example, Nigerians read books written in foreign languages faster and more fluently than those written in their own local languages. In Nigeria, cultural globalization has impacted Movies produced by Nigeria’s Nollywood. Movies produced in English created more than movies produced in Igbo and other Nigerian languages. The internet has played key part in the growth of globalization because it has changed the way national government force national and international cultures on the local culture. 11


Bibliography 

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"Camelot International: Britain's Heritage and History." Camelot International: Britain's Heritage and History. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

"Measuring Globalization." Measuring Globalization. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014

"Globalization and Its Effect on Cultural Diversity." - ETEC 510. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

"Globalization of Cultural Heritage: Issues, Impacts,and Inevitable Challenges for Nigeria."Globalization of Cultural Heritage: Issues, Impacts, AndInevitable Challenges for Nigeria Mercy U. Nwegbu, Cyril C. Eze,Brendan E. Asogwa. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

"Neoliberalism." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Mar. 2014. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

Ponton, Sarah J. "Sign in - Google Accounts." Sign in - Google Accounts. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

"TED Conversations." What Does the Future of Globalization Look Like? N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2014.

"What Is Globalization | Globalization101." Globalization101. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.

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Globalization assesment booklet  

Booklet for student who want to learn more about Globalisation and Global interactions before starting IB Diploma course in either Economics...